ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
RK Kanodia
Ashish Murolia
www.nodia.co.in
Information contained in this book has been obtained by author, from sources believes to be reliable. However,
neither NODIA & COMPANY nor its author guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information herein,
and NODIA & COMPANY nor its author shall be responsible for any error, omissions, or damages arising out of
use of this information. This book is published with the understanding that NODIA & COMPANY and its author
are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services.
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GENERAL ABILITY
Verbal Ability : English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups,
instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and
improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series.
Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss
and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s
and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and
variable separable method.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula,
Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and
standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson,Normal
and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, single and multistep methods
for differential equations.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Electric Circuits and Fields: Network graph, KCL, KVL, node and mesh analysis, transient
response of dc and ac networks; sinusoidal steadystate analysis, resonance, basic filter concepts;
ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s, Norton’s and Superposition and Maximum
Power Transfer theorems, twoport networks, three phase circuits; Gauss Theorem, electric
field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions; Ampere’s and
BiotSavart’s laws; inductance; dielectrics; capacitance.
Signals and Systems: Representation of continuous and discretetime signals; shifting and
scaling operations; linear, timeinvariant and causal systems; Fourier series representation of
continuous periodic signals; sampling theorem; Fourier, Laplace and Z transforms.
Electrical Machines: Single phase transformer – equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, tests,
regulation and efficiency; three phase transformers – connections, parallel operation; auto
transformer; energy conversion principles; DC machines – types, windings, generator
characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors;
three phase induction motors – principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and
speed control; single phase induction motors; synchronous machines – performance, regulation
and parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and applications; servo and
stepper motors.
Power Systems: Basic power generation concepts; transmission line models and performance;
cable performance, insulation; corona and radio interference; distribution systems; perunit
quantities; bus impedance and admittance matrices; load flow; voltage control; power factor
correction; economic operation; symmetrical components; fault analysis; principles of over
current, differential and distance protection; solid state relays and digital protection; circuit
breakers; system stability concepts, swing curves and equal area criterion; HVDC transmission
and FACTS concepts.
Control Systems: Principles of feedback; transfer function; block diagrams; steadystate errors;
Routh and Niquist techniques; Bode plots; root loci; lag, lead and leadlag compensation; state
space model; state transition matrix, controllability and observability.
Electrical and Electronic Measurements: Bridges and potentiometers; PMMC, moving iron,
dynamometer and induction type instruments; measurement of voltage, current, power, energy
and power factor; instrument transformers; digital voltmeters and multimeters; phase, time
and frequency measurement; Qmeters; oscilloscopes; potentiometric recorders; error analysis.
Analog and Digital Electronics: Characteristics of diodes, BJT, FET; amplifiers – biasing,
equivalent circuit and frequency response; oscillators and feedback amplifiers; operational
amplifiers – characteristics and applications; simple active filters; VCOs and timers;
combinational and sequential logic circuits; multiplexer; Schmitt trigger; multivibrators;
sample and hold circuits; A/D and D/A converters; 8bit microprocessor basics, architecture,
programming and interfacing.
Power Electronics and Drives: Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs,
GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs – static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering
circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters – fully controlled and half controlled;
principles of choppers and inverters; basis concepts of adjustable speed dc and ac drives.
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PREFACE
This book doesn’t make promise but provides complete satisfaction to the readers. The
market scenario is confusing and readers don’t find the optimum quality books. This book
provides complete set of problems appeared in competition exams as well as fresh set of
problems.
The book is categorized into units which are then subdivided into chapters and the
concepts of the problems are addressed in the relevant chapters. The aim of the book is
to avoid the unnecessary elaboration and highlights only those concepts and techniques
which are absolutely necessary. Again time is a critical factor both from the point of view
of preparation duration and time taken for solving each problem in the examination. So
the problems solving methods is the books are those which take the least distance to the
solution.
But however to make a comment that this book is absolute for GATE preparation will be
an inappropriate one. The theory for the preparation of the examination should be followed
from the standard books. But for a wide collection of problems, for a variety of problems
and the efficient way of solving them, what one needs to go needs to go through is there
in there in the book. Each unit (e.g. Networks) is subdivided into average seven number of
chapters on an average each of which contains 40 problems which are selected so as to avoid
unnecessary redundancy and highly needed completeness.
I shall appreciate and greatly acknowledge the comments and suggestion from the users of
this book.
R. K. Kanodia
Ashish Murolia
CONTENTS
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Chapter 1 Electric Circuits and Fields Page 1
CHAPTER 1
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS AND FIELDS
EE SP 1.1 The three circuit elements shown in the figure are part of an electric circuit. The
total power absorbed by the three circuit elements in watts is _____.
EE SP 1.2
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C 0 is the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with air as dielectric (as
in figure (a)). If, half of the entire gap as shown in figure (b) is filled with a
dielectric of permittivity e r , the expression for the modified capacitance is
(A) C 0 ^1 + e r h (B) ^C 0 + e r h
2
(C) C 0 e r (D) C 0 ^1 + e r h
2
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EE SP 1.4 The undesirable property of an electrical insulating material is
(A) high dielectric strength
(B) high relative permittivity
(C) high thermal conductivity
(D) high insulation resistivity
EE SP 1.5 In the figure, the value of resistor R is ^25 + I/2h ohms , where I is the current
in amperes. The current I is _____.
EE SP 1.6 The following four vector fields are given in Cartesian coordinate system. The
vector field which does not satisfy the property of magnetic flux density is
(A) y2 ax + z2 ay + x2 az
(B) z2 ax + x2 ay + y2 az
(C) x2 ax + y2 ay + z2 az
(D) y2 z2 ax + x2 z2 ay + x2 y2 az
EE SP 1.7 Two identical coupled inductors are connected in series. The measured inductances
for the two possible series connections are 380 mH and 240 mH . Their mutual
inductance in mH is _____.
EE SP 1.8 The switch SW shown in the circuit is kept at position ‘1’ for a long duration.
At t = 0+ , the switch is moved to position ‘2’. Assuming Vo2 > Vo1 , the voltage
vc ^ t h across the capacitor is
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(D) vc ^ t h = ^Vo2  Vo1h^1  et/2RC h + Vo1
EE SP 1.9 A parallel plate capacitor consisting two dielectric materials is shown in the
figure. The middle dielectric slab is placed symmetrically with respect to the
plates.
If the potential difference between one of the plates and the nearest surface of
dielectric interface is 2 Volts, then the ratio e 1 : e 2 is
(A) 1 : 4 (B) 2 : 3
(C) 3 : 2 (D) 4 : 1
EE SP 1.10 The voltage across the capacitor, as shown in the figure, is expressed as
vc ^ t h = A1 sin ^w 1 t  q 1h + A2 sin ^w 2 t  q 2h
EE SP 1.11 The magnitude of magnetic flux density ^B h at a point having normal distance
d meters from an infinitely extended wire carrying current of I A is 2mpdI (in
0
SI units). An infinitely extended wire is laid along the x axis and is carrying
current of 4 A in the + ve x direction. Another infinitely extended wire is
laid along the y axis and is carrying 2 A current in the + ve y direction. m 0 is
permeability of free space. Assume i , j , k to be unit vectors along x , y and z
axes respectively.
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Assuming right handed coordinate system, magnetic field intensity, H at
coordinate ^2, 1, 0h will be
(A) 3 k weber/m2 (B) 4 i A/m
2p 3p
(C) 3 k A/m (D) 0 A/m
2p
EE SP 1.13 The line A to neutral voltage is 10 15c V for a balanced three phase star
connected load with phase sequence ABC . The voltage of line B with respect to
line C is given by
(A) 10 3 105c V (B) 10 105c V
(C) 10 3  75c V (D)  10 3 90c V
EE SP 1.14 The driving point impedance Z ^s h for the circuit shown below is
4 2 4 2
(A) s +3 3s + 1 (B) s +22s + 4
s + 2s s +2
2 3
(C) 4 s +2 1 (D) 4 s +2 1
s +s +1 s +s +1
EE SP 1.16 The power delivered by the current source, in the figure, is ____.
EE SP 1.17
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A perfectly conducting metal plate is placed in x y plane in a right handed
coordinate system. A charge of + 32pe 0 2 coulombs is placed at coordinate
^0, 0, 2h. e 0 is the permittivity of free space. Assume i , j , k to be unit vectors
along x , y and z axes respectively. At the coordinate ^ 2 , 2 , 0h, the electric
field vector E (Newtons/Coulomb) will be
(A) 2 2 k (B)  2k
(C) 2k (D)  2 2 k
EE SP 1.19 The Norton’s equivalent source in amperes as seen into terminals X and Y is
____.
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YEAR 2013 ONE MARK
EE SP 1.20 Consider a delta connection of resistors and its equivalent star connection as shown
below. If all elements of the delta connection are scaled by a factor k , k > 0 , the
elements of the corresponding star equivalent will be scaled by a factor of
(A) k2 (B) k
(C) 1/k (D) k
EE SP 1.21 The flux density at a point in space is given by Bv = 4xavx + 2kyavy + 8avz Wb/m2 .
The value of constant k must be equal to
(A)  2 (B)  0.5
(C) + 0.5 (D) + 2
V2 ^s h
EE SP 1.24 The transfer function of the circuit shown below is
V1 ^s h
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YEAR 2013 TWO MARKS
EE SP 1.25 A dielectric slab with 500 mm # 500 mm crosssection is 0.4 m long. The slab
is subjected to a uniform electric field of Ev = 6avx + 8avy kV/mm . The relative
permittivity of the dielectric material is equal to 2. The value of constant e0 is
8.85 # 1012 F/m . The energy stored in the dielectric in Joules is
(A) 8.85 # 1011 (B) 8.85 # 105
(C) 88.5 (D) 885
EE SP 1.27 In the circuit shown below, if the source voltage VS = 100+53.13c V then the
Thevenin’s equivalent voltage in Volts as seen by the load resistance RL is
EE SP 1.28 The impedance looking into nodes 1 and 2 in the given circuit is
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(A) 50 W (B) 100 W
(C) 5 kW (D) 10.1 kW
EE SP 1.29 In the circuit shown below, the current through the inductor is
(A) 2 A (B)  1 A
1+j 1+j
(C) 1 A (D) 0 A
1+j
(s2 + 9) (s + 2)
EE SP 1.30 A system with transfer function G (s) =
(s + 1) (s + 3) (s + 4)
is excited by sin (wt). The steadystate output of the system is zero at
(A) w = 1 rad/s
(B) w = 2 rad/s
(C) w = 3 rad/s
(D) w = 4 rad/s
EE SP 1.32 In the following figure, C1 and C2 are ideal capacitors. C1 has been charged to 12
V before the ideal switch S is closed at t = 0. The current i (t) for all t is
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EE SP 1.33 If VA  VB = 6 V then VC  VD is
(A)  5 V (B) 2 V
(C) 3 V (D) 6 V
EE SP 1.34 Assuming both the voltage sources are in phase, the value of R for which
maximum power is transferred from circuit A to circuit B is
EE SP 1.36 For the same network, with 6 V dc connected at port A, 1 W connected at port
B draws 7/3 A. If 8 V dc is connected to port A, the open circuit voltage at port
B is
(A) 6 V (B) 7 V
(C) 8 V (D) 9 V
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In the circuit shown, the three voltmeter readings are V1 = 220 V, V2 = 122 V,
V3 = 136 V .
EE SP 1.39 The r.m.s value of the current i (t) in the circuit shown below is
(A) 1 A (B) 1 A
2 2
(C) 1 A (D) 2 A
EE SP 1.40 The voltage applied to a circuit is 100 2 cos (100pt) volts and the circuit draws
a current of 10 2 sin (100pt + p/4) amperes. Taking the voltage as the reference
phasor, the phasor representation of the current in amperes is
(A) 10 2  p/4 (B) 10  p/4
(C) 10 + p/4 (D) 10 2 + p/4
EE SP 1.41 In the circuit given below, the value of R required for the transfer of maximum
power to the load having a resistance of 3 W is
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(A) zero (B) 3 W
(C) 6 W (D) infinity
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(B) 1 W
(C) 2W
(D) 2 W
(C) + j 1
2
A (D) + j2A
EE SP 1.48 The switch in the circuit has been closed for a long time. It is opened at t = 0.
At t = 0+ , the current through the 1 mF capacitor is
(A) 0 A (B) 1 A
(C) 1.25 A (D) 5 A
EE SP 1.49 As shown in the figure, a 1 W resistance is connected across a source that has a
load line v + i = 100 . The current through the resistance is
(A) 25 A (B) 50 A
(C) 100 A (C) 200 A
EE SP 1.50 If the 12 W resistor draws a current of 1 A as shown in the figure, the value of
resistance R is
(A) 4 W (B) 6 W
(C) 8 W (D) 18 W
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EE SP 1.51 The twoport network P shown in the figure has ports 1 and 2, denoted by
terminals (a,b) and (c,d) respectively. It has an impedance matrix Z with
parameters denoted by Zij . A 1 W resistor is connected in series with the network
at port 1 as shown in the figure. The impedance matrix of the modified twoport
network (shown as a dashed box ) is
(A) 0 mA (B) 1 mA
(C) 2 mA (D) 6 mA
EE SP 1.53 How many 200 W/220 V incandescent lamps connected in series would consume
the same total power as a single 100 W/220 V incandescent lamp ?
(A) not possible (B) 4
(C) 3 (D) 2
EE SP 1.54 In the figure shown, all elements used are ideal. For time t < 0, S1 remained closed
and S2 open. At t = 0, S1 is opened and S2 is closed. If the voltage Vc2 across the
capacitor C2 at t = 0 is zero, the voltage across the capacitor combination at
t = 0+ will be
(A) 1 V (B) 2 V
(C) 1.5 V (D) 3 V
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EE SP 1.55 The equivalent capacitance of the input loop of the circuit shown is
EE SP 1.56 For the circuit shown, find out the current flowing through the 2 W resistance.
Also identify the changes to be made to double the current through the 2 W
resistance.
EE SP 1.57 For the circuit given above, the Thevenin’s resistance across the terminals A and B is
(A) 0.5 kW (B) 0.2 kW
(C) 1 kW (D) 0.11 kW
EE SP 1.58 For the circuit given above, the Thevenin’s voltage across the terminals A and B is
(A) 1.25 V (B) 0.25 V
(C) 1 V (D) 0.5 V
EE SP 1.59 The number of chords in the graph of the given circuit will be
EE SP 1.60
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(A) 3
(C) 5
(B) 4
(D) 6
EE SP 1.63 Assuming ideal elements in the circuit shown below, the voltage Vab will be
(A)  3 V (B) 0 V
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(C) 3 V (D) 5 V
EE SP 1.65 The capacitor charged upto 5 ms, as per the current profile given in the figure,
is connected across an inductor of 0.6 mH. Then the value of voltage across the
capacitor after 1 ms will approximately be
(A) 18.8 V
(B) 23.5 V
(C)  23.5 V
(D)  30.6 V
EE SP 1.66 In the circuit shown in the figure, the value of the current i will be given by
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z = 20 will be
(A) 7.5 mC
(B) 13.5 mC
(C) 15.0 mC
(D) 22.5 mC
EE SP 1.68 A capacitor consists of two metal plates each 500 # 500 mm2 and spaced 6 mm
apart. The space between the metal plates is filled with a glass plate of 4 mm
thickness and a layer of paper of 2 mm thickness. The relative primitivities of
the glass and paper are 8 and 2 respectively. Neglecting the fringing effect, the
capacitance will be (Given that e0 = 8.85 # 10  12 F/m )
(A) 983.3 pF
(B) 1475 pF
(C) 637.7 pF
(D) 9956.25 pF
EE SP 1.69 A coil of 300 turns is wound on a nonmagnetic core having a mean circumference
of 300 mm and a crosssectional area of 300 mm2. The inductance of the coil
corresponding to a magnetizing current of 3 A will be
(Given that m0 = 4p # 10  7 H/m)
(A) 37.68 mH
(B) 113.04 mH
(C) 3.768 mH
(D) 1.1304 mH
EE SP 1.71 The state equation for the current I1 in the network shown below in terms of the
voltage VX and the independent source V , is given by
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(C) dI1 = 1.4VX + 3.75I1 + 5 V
dt 4
(D) dI1 = 1.4VX + 3.75I1  5 V
dt 4
EE SP 1.72 The RLC series circuit shown in figure is supplied from a variable frequency
voltage source. The admittance  locus of the RLC network at terminals AB for
increasing frequency w is
EE SP 1.73 In the circuit shown in figure. Switch SW1 is initially closed and SW2 is open.
The inductor L carries a current of 10 A and the capacitor charged to 10 V with
polarities as indicated. SW2 is closed at t = 0 and SW1 is opened at t = 0 . The
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Chapter 1 Electric Circuits and Fields Page 19
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2
resistance characterized by the relation VNL = INL . The power dissipated in the
non linear resistance is
(A) 1.0 W (B) 1.5 W
(C) 2.5 W (D) 3.0 W
EE SP 1.75 In the figure given below all phasors are with reference to the potential at point
''O'' . The locus of voltage phasor VYX as R is varied from zero to infinity is shown
by
EE SP 1.76 The matrix A given below in the node incidence matrix of a network. The columns
correspond to branches of the network while the rows correspond to nodes.
Let V = [V1V2 .....V6]T denote the vector of branch voltages while I = [i1 i2 .....i6]T
that of branch currents. The vector E = [e1 e2 e3 e4]T denotes the vector of node
voltages relative to a common ground.
R1 1 1 0 0 0 V
S W
S 0 1 0 1 1 0 W
S 1 0 0 0  1  1W
S W
S 0 0 1 1 0 1 W
T X
Which of the following statement is true ?
(A) The equations V1  V2 + V3 = 0,V3 + V4  V5 = 0 are KVL equations for the
network for some loops
(B) The equations V1  V3  V6 = 0,V4 + V5  V6 = 0 are KVL equations for the
network for some loops
(C) E = AV
(D) AV = 0 are KVI equations for the network
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EE SP 1.77 A solid sphere made of insulating material has a radius R and has a total charge
Q distributed uniformly in its volume. What is the magnitude of the electric field
intensity, E , at a distance r (0 < r < R) inside the sphere ?
(A) 1 Qr (B) 3 Qr
4pe0 R3 4pe0 R3
Q QR
(C) 1 2 (D) 1
4pe0 r 4pe0 r3
EE SP 1.79 The average force on the core to reduce the air gap will be
(A) 832.29 N (B) 1666.22 N
(C) 3332.47 N (D) 6664.84 N
EE SP 1.80 In the figure the current source is 1+0 A, R = 1 W , the impedances are ZC = j W
and ZL = 2j W . The Thevenin equivalent looking into the circuit across XY is
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(A) 1 V, 3, 10 W (B) 1 V, 0, 10 W
(C) 1 V, 0, 3 (D) 10 V, 3, 10 W
EE SP 1.82 In the circuit shown in the figure, the current source I = 1 A , the voltage source
V = 5 V, R1 = R2 = R3 = 1 W, L1 = L2 = L3 = 1 H, C1 = C2 = 1 F
The currents (in A) through R3 and through the voltage source V respectively
will be
(A) 1, 4 (B) 5, 1
(C) 5, 2 (D) 5, 4
EE SP 1.83 The parameter type and the matrix representation of the relevant two port
parameters that describe the circuit shown are
0 0 1 0
(A) z parameters, = G (B) h parameters, = G
0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
(C) h parameters, = G (D) z parameters, = G
0 0 0 1
EE SP 1.84 The circuit shown in the figure is energized by a sinusoidal voltage source V1 at
a frequency which causes resonance with a current of I .
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EE SP 1.85 An ideal capacitor is charged to a voltage V0 and connected at t = 0 across an
ideal inductor L. (The circuit now consists of a capacitor and inductor alone). If
we let w0 = LC1
, the voltage across the capacitor at time t > 0 is given by
(A) V0 (B) V0 cos (w0 t)
(C) V0 sin (w0 t) (D) V0 e  w t cos (w0 t)
0
EE SP 1.87 Which of the following statement holds for the divergence of electric and magnetic
flux densities ?
(A) Both are zero
(B) These are zero for static densities but non zero for time varying densities.
(C) It is zero for the electric flux density
(D) It is zero for the magnetic flux density
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Chapter 1 Electric Circuits and Fields Page 23
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EE SP 1.89 The RMS value of the voltage u (t)= 3 + 4 cos (3t) is
(A) 17 V
(B) 5 V
(C) 7 V
(D) (3 + 2 2 ) V
EE SP 1.90 For the two port network shown in the figure the Z matrix is given by
Z1 Z1 + Z2 Z1 Z1
(A) =
Z2 G
(B) =
Z1 + Z2 Z1 + Z2 Z2 G
Z1 Z2 Z1 Z1
(C) =
Z2 Z1 + Z2 G
(D) =
Z1 Z1 + Z2 G
EE SP 1.91 In the figure given, for the initial capacitor voltage is zero. The switch is closed
at t = 0 . The final steadystate voltage across the capacitor is
(A) 20 V (B) 10 V
(C) 5 V (D) 0 V
EE SP 1.93 If, at t = 0+ , the voltage across the coil is 120 V, the value of resistance R is
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(A) 0 W (B) 20 W
(C) 40 W (D) 60 W
EE SP 1.94 For the value as obtained in (a), the time taken for 95% of the stored energy to
be dissipated is close to
(A) 0.10 sec (B) 0.15 sec
(C) 0.50 sec (D) 1.0 sec
EE SP 1.95 The RL circuit of the figure is fed from a constant magnitude, variable frequency
sinusoidal voltage source Vin . At 100 Hz, the Rand L elements each have a
voltage drop mRMS .If the frequency of the source is changed to 50 Hz, then new
voltage drop across R is
5 2
(A) 8 uRMS (B) 3 uRMS
8 3
(C) 5 uRMS (D) 2 uRMS
EE SP 1.96 For the threephase circuit shown in the figure the ratio of the currents IR: IY : IB
is given by
(A) 1 : 1 : 3 (B) 1 : 1 : 2
(C) 1 : 1 : 0 (D) 1 : 1 : 3/2
EE SP 1.97 The circuit shown in the figure is in steady state, when the switch is closed at
t = 0 .Assuming that the inductance is ideal, the current through the inductor at
t = 0+ equals
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(A) 0 A
(B) 0.5 A
(C) 1 A
(D) 2 A
EE SP 1.99 In the given figure, the Thevenin’s equivalent pair (voltage, impedance), as seen
at the terminals PQ, is given by
(A) (2 V, 5 W)
(B) (2 V, 7.5 W)
(C) (4 V, 5 W)
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(D) (4 V, 7.5 W)
EE SP 1.100 The value of Z in figure which is most appropriate to cause parallel resonance
at 500 Hz is
EE SP 1.101 A parallel plate capacitor is shown in figure. It is made two square metal plates
of 400 mm side. The 14 mm space between the plates is filled with two layers of
dielectrics of er = 4 , 6 mm thick and er = 2 , 8 mm thick. Neglecting fringing of
fields at the edge the capacitance is
EE SP 1.102 The inductance of a long solenoid of length 1000 mm wound uniformly with 3000
turns on a cylindrical paper tube of 60 mm diameter is
(A) 3.2 mH (B) 3.2 mH
(C) 32.0 mH (D) 3.2 H
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Chapter 1 Electric Circuits and Fields Page 27
(A) 12 V (B) 24 V
(C) 30 V (D) 44 V
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, R2 and R 3 in W of an equivalent starconnection are
(A) 10 (B) 20
(C) 30 (D) 40
EE SP 1.107 In figure, the capacitor initially has a charge of 10 Coulomb. The current in the
circuit one second after the switch S is closed will be
EE SP 1.108 The rms value of the current in a wire which carries a d.c. current of 10 A and a
sinusoidal alternating current of peak value 20 A is
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(A) 10 A (B) 14.14 A
(C) 15 A (D) 17.32 A
0.9 0.2
The Zmatrix of a 2port network as given by =
0.2 0.6G
EE SP 1.109
The element Y22 of the corresponding Ymatrix of the same network is given by
(A) 1.2 (B) 0.4
(C)  0.4 (D) 1.8
EE SP 1.110 Figure Shows the waveform of the current passing through an inductor of
resistance 1 W and inductance 2 H. The energy absorbed by the inductor in the
first four seconds is
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(C) 70+30% (D) 34.4+65%
EE SP 1.113 Two conductors are carrying forward and return current of +I and  I as shown
in figure. The magnetic field intensity H at point P is
(A) I Y (B) I X
pd pd
(C) I Y (D) I X
2pd 2pd
EE SP 1.114 Two infinite strips of width w m in x direction as shown in figure, are carrying
forward and return currents of +I and  I in the z  direction. The strips are
separated by distance of x m. The inductance per unit length of the configuration
is measured to be L H/m. If the distance of separation between the strips in
snow reduced to x/2 m, the inductance per unit length of the configuration is
EE SP 1.115 In the circuit of figure, the magnitudes of VL and VC are twice that of VR . Given
that f = 50 Hz , the inductance of the coil is
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EE SP 1.116 In figure, the potential difference between points P and Q is
(A) 12 V
(B) 10 V
(C)  6 V
(D) 8 V
EE SP 1.117 Two ac sources feed a common variable resistive load as shown in figure. Under
the maximum power transfer condition, the power absorbed by the load resistance
RL is
(A) 2200 W
(B) 1250 W
(C) 1000 W
(D) 625 W
(A) 10 W
(B) 18 W
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(C) 24 W
(D) 12 W
EE SP 1.119 In the circuit shown in figure, the switch S is closed at time (t = 0). The voltage
across the inductance at t = 0+ , is
(A) 2 V
(B) 4 V
(C)  6 V
(D) 8 V
(A) 0.125
(B) 0.167
(C) 0.625
(D) 0.25
EE SP 1.122 A parallel plate capacitor has an electrode area of 100 mm2, with spacing of
0.1 mm between the electrodes. The dielectric between the plates is air with
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a permittivity of 8.85 # 10  12 F/m. The charge on the capacitor is 100 V. The
stored energy in the capacitor is
(A) 8.85 pJ (B) 440 pJ
(C) 22.1 nJ (D) 44.3 nJ
EE SP 1.123 A composite parallel plate capacitor is made up of two different dielectric material
with different thickness (t1 and t2 ) as shown in figure. The two different dielectric
materials are separated by a conducting foil F. The voltage of the conducting
foil is
(A) 52 V (B) 60 V
(C) 67 V (D) 33 V
***********
SOLUTION
SOL 1.1 Correct answer is 330 W.
We redraw the given electric circuit as
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From the given circuit, we have the following observations for the connected
batteries:
100 V battery: As the current flows through the battery from positive to negative
terminal, so it absorbs power.
80 V battery: As the current flows through the battery from negative to positive
terminal, so it delivers power.
15 V battery: As the current flows through the battery negative to positive
terminal, so it delivers power.
Thus, the net power absorbed by circuit elements is obtained as
Pnet = Power absorbed by 100 V battery
– [Power emitted by 80 V battery + Power emitted by 15 V battery]
= 100 # 10  6^80 # 8h + ^15 # 2h@
= 1000  640  30
= 330 W
(a) (b)
A
eo
C1 = 2
d
eo e r
A
and C2 = 2
d
Therefore, we get the net capacitance as
C net = C1 + C2
Ae o /2 Ae o e r /2 Ae o Ae o e r
= + = + = Ae o ^1 + e r h ...(2)
d d 2d 2d 2d
Thus, from equations (1) and (2), we get
C net = Co ^1 + e r h
2
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SOL 1.3 Correct answer is (C)
We have the given circuit as
In the given circuit, the switches operates as shown by the respective arrows. So,
at t = 0 ,
Switch 1 (switch across Vs ) changes it state from short circuit to open circuit.
Switch 2 changes it state from open circuit to short circuit.
Therefore, we have the equivalent circuit at t = 0 as (given Vc ^0 h = 2 V )
^ s h I ^s h Vc ^0+h
V = +
Sc S
So, we draw the equivalent circuit for given initial voltage across capacitor as
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3
or  2 + 20 # 10 1 + 100 20 # 103 V
s s # # s s
s # 1006
Thus, we obtain
3
Vs = 2 + 20 #2 10 + 2
s s s
= 22 # 10 4
s
So, Vs ^ t h = 2 # 10 4 t
i.e. the plot of source voltage is a straight line passing through origin, as shown
below.
2
300 = 25I + I
2
I 2 + 50I  600 = 0
I 2 + 60I  10I  600 = 0
I ^I + 60h  10 ^I + 60h = 0
^I  10h^I + 60h = 0
So, I = 10 A ,  60 A
Now, for the two obtained values of current, we get
R = b 25 + 10 l = 30
2
R = b 25  60 l = 5 (Resistance can not be
2
negative)
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Thus, the current through the circuit is
I = 10 A
So, D : B = 2 y2 z2 + 2 x2 z2 + 2 x2 y2 = 0
2x 2y 2z
Thus, the vector given in option (C) does not satisfy the property of magnetic
flux density.
Equivalent inductance
Leq = L1 + L2 + 2M
380 = L + L + 2M
or L + M = 190 ...(1)
(2) Series opposing connection
Equivalent inductance
Leq = L1 + L2  2M
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240 = L + L  2M
or L  M = 120 ...(2)
Substituting eq (2) from eq (1), we get
2L = 70
or L = 35 mH
vC ^3h = Vo2
Time constant t = RTh C
RTh is the Thevenin resistance across the capacitor terminal after t = 0 . So
t = 2RC
Now, at any time t > 0 , capacitor voltage is given by
vC ^ t h = vC ^3h + 6vC ^0 h  vC ^3h@et/t
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As shown in Figure above this arrangement is equivalent to series combination
of three capacitors C1 , C2 and C 3 . We have
C1 = Ae 1 = 4Ae 1
d/4 d
C2 = Ae 2 = 2Ae 2
d/2 d
C 3 = Ae 1 = 4Ae 1
d/4 d
Now given that voltage across first capacitor is C1 is 2 V, so we write
1 /jwC 1
VC1 = V =2
1 + 1 + 1 # s
j w C 1 j wC 2 j w C 3
^Vs = 10 Vh
C2 C3 10 = 2
C 2 C 3 + C1 C 3 + C1 C 2 #
Substituting values of C1 , C2 and C 3 , we get
8e 1 e 2
# 10 = 2
8e 1 e 2 + 16e 12 + 8e 1 e 2
8e 1 e 2 =1
16e 1 e 2 + 16e 12 5
e2 =1
2e 2 + 2e 1 5
2 e 2 + 2 e 1 = 5e 2
2e 1 = 3e 2
e1 = 3
e2 2
e1 : e 2 = 3 : 2
superposition to obtain vC ^ t h.
First consider source v ^ t h = 20 sin 10t . Open circuit current source and redrawing
circuit in domain with w 1 = 10 rad/ sec .
1
j10
VC1 = # 20 (Using voltage division)
1+ 1
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j10
= 1 20
1 + j10 #
VC1 = 20  tan1 10
101
A1 = VC1 = 20 = 1.99 A
101
Now, consider current source i ^ t h = 10 sin 5t . Short circuit voltage source and
redrawing circuit in frequency domain with w 2 = 5 rad/ sec .
IC2 = 1 10 0c = j5 10 0c
1+ 1 1 + j5 #
j5
VC2 = IC2 # 1
j5
10 0c
VC2 =
1 + j5
VC2 = 10  tan5
26
A2 = VC2 = 10 = 1.96 A
26
SOL 1.11 Correct option is (C).
H By wire on x axis = I k
2pd
=4# 1 k
1 2p
H by wire on y axis = I ^ k h
2pd
= 2 # 1 ^ k h
2 2p
H on (2, 1, 0) = 4 k  1 k
2p 2p
H = 3 k A/m
2p
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Given the relation
d : ^ f v h = x2 y + y2 z + z2 x ...(1)
where f , v are scalar and vector field respectively. From the properties of vector
field, we have
d : ^ f v h = v : ^df h  f ^d : v h
or v : ^df h = d : ^ f v h + f ^d : v h ...(2)
Again, we have
v = yi + zj + xk
2y 2z 2x
So, d:v = + +
2x 2y 2z
=0
Therefore, we get
f ^d : v h = 0
Substituting it in equation (2), we get
v : ^df h = d : ^ f v h
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The capacitor and inductor can be replaced with its equivalent reactance (in
frequency domain) as shown below.
Solving the above circuit, we get the equivalent driving point impedance as
Z ^s h = s + 1  bs + 1 l
s s
2
= s + 1  b s + 1 l
s s
1 s2 + 1
# s
= s+ s
1 + s2 + 1
s s
2
= s+ 3 s + 1
s + 2s
4 2
or Z ^s h = s +3 3s + 1
s + 2s
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To obtain the Norton equivalent along X Y terminal, we redraw the given circuit
as
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Applying KCL at node Vx , we have
or
or
Vx  1 + Vx = 2
1 1
2Vx  1 = 2
Vx = 3
2
Therefore, the power delivered by current source is obtained as
= Voltage across current source # current through
current source
= 3#2 = 3W
2
Due to presence of conducting plane, we can assume an image charge for the
system as shown below
So, we can observe from the figure that electric field vector along x y plane
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is cancelled, i.e. zero. Therefore, the electric field vector acts along negative z
direction and given as
E = d E1 + E2 n^ kth
"
...(1)
2 2
where E1 and E2 are the field intensity due to the charge Q and  Q at point
( 2 , 2 , 0). So, we obtain
Q 32pe 0 2
E1 = 1 2 = 1
4pe 0 r 4pe 0 ( ( 2 ) 2 + ( 2 ) 2 + (2) 2) 2
= 2
Similarly, we get, E2 = 2
Substituting these values in equation (1), we obtain
o^ h
"
E =e 2 + 2  kt
2 2
= 2kt
dP = 0
dRL
[^Rs + RL h2 + X s2 ] 1  2RL ^Rs + RL h
or =0
^^Rs + RL h2 + X s2h
2
or R s2 + R L2 + 2Rs RL + X s2  2Rs RL  2R L2 = 0
or R s2 + X s2 = R L2
or RL = R s2 + X s2
i.e. to maximise the power transferred to pure resistive load (RL ), its value must
be equal to the magnitude of Zs of internal circuit.
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Given the current and voltage at different frequencies as
At w 1 = 1 krad /s, V1 = 100 0 I1 = 0.03 31c
At w 2 = 2 krad /s, V2 = 100 0 I 2 = 2 0c
From the given data, it is clear that voltage and current are in phase at w 2 = 2 .
So, it satisfies the resonance condition. Therefore, we have
R = V = 100 = 50 W
I 2
Also, for the resonance circuit, we have
wL = 1
wC
or 103 # 2 # L = 1
2 # C # 103
or 4 # 106 L = 1 ...(1)
C
Again, at w = 1 krad/s, we have
cos 31c = R
Z
or cos 31c = R
R + b wL  1 l
2
2
wC
RC = Rb Ra ; RB = Ra Rc and RA = Rb Rc
Ra + Rb + Rc Ra + Rb + Rc Ra + Rb + Rc
So, if the delta connection components Ra , Rb and Rc are scaled by a factor k
then
^k Rb h^k Rc h 2
Rb Rc
RAl = =k = k RA
kRa + kRb + kRc k Ra + Rb + Rc
Hence, it is also scaled by a factor k
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We obtain the power delivered by load as
Pdelivered = I L* VL = ^10 + 150ch^10 60ch = 100 210c
= 1000 cos 210c + j1000 sin 210c = 866.025  j500
As both the reactive and average power (real power) are negative so, power is
absorbed by load. i.e., load absorbs real as well as reactive power.
wE = 1 e E 2 J/m2
2
The electric field inside the dielectric will be same to given field in free space
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Consider that the voltage across the three capacitors C1 , C 2 and C 3 are V1 , V2 and
V3 respectively. So, we can write
V2 = C 3
V3 C2
Since, Voltage is inversely proportional to capacitance
Now, given that
C1 = 10 mF ; ^V1hmax = 10V
....(1)
C2 = 5 mF ; ^V2hmax = 5 V
C 3 = 2 mF ; ^V3hmax = 2V
So, from Eq (1) we have
V2 = 2
V3 5
for ^V3hmax = 2
We obtain, V2 = 2 # 2 = 0.8 volt < 5
5
i.e., V2 < ^V2hmax
Hence, this is the voltage at C2 . Therefore,
V3 = 2 volt
V2 = 0.8 volt
and V1 = V2 + V3 = 2.8 volt
Now, equivalent capacitance across the terminal is
Ceq = C 2 C 3 + C1
C2 + C3
= 5 # 2 + 10 = 80 mF
5+2 7
Equivalent voltage is (max. value)
Vmax = V1 = 2.8
So, charge stored in the effective capacitance is
Q = Ceq Vmax = b 80 l # ^2.8h = 32 mC
7
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or, j40I2 = 0
i.e., the dependent source in loop 1 is short circuited. Therefore,
^ j4h Vs
VL1 =
j4 + 3
j40
VTh = 10 VL1 = 100 53.13c
j4 + 3
40 90c
= 100 53.13c
5 53.13c
= 800 90c
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Applying KCL at top right node
Vtest + Vtest  99I = I
9 k + 1k 100 b
ZTh = Vtest
test
Itest
Alternate Method:
Z = (4  j3) W
I = 5 cos (100pt + 100) A
Pavg = 1 Re $ I Z .
2
2
= 1 # Re "(5) 2 # (4  j3),
2
= 1 # 100 = 50 W
2
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vc (0) /s
1 + 1
C1 s C 2 s
= c
v (0)
1 + 1
C1 C 2
= b C1 C2 l (12 V) vC (0) = 12 V
C1 + C 2
= 12Ceq
Taking inverse Laplace transform for the current in time domain,
i (t) = 12Ceq d (t) (Impulse)
For a one port network current entering one terminal, equals the current leaving
the second terminal. Thus the outgoing current from A to B will be equal to the
incoming current from D to C as shown
i.e. IDC = IAB = 3 A
Shop GATE Electrical in 4 Volumes by RK Kanodia at maximum discount at
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Chapter 1 Electric Circuits and Fields Page 51
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SOL 1.35 Correct option is (A).
We obtain Thevenin equivalent of circuit B .
Thevenin Impedance :
ZTh = R
Thevenin Voltage :
VTh = 3 0c V
Now, circuit becomes as
2+R 2+R (2 + R) (2 + R)
49R + 21 (2 + R)
= 2 = 42 + 70R2
(2 + R) (2 + R)
2
dP = (2 + R) 70  (42 + 70R) 2 (2 + R) = 0
dR (2 + R) 4
(2 + R) [(2 + R) 70  (42 + 70R) 2] = 0
140 + 70R  84  140R = 0
56 = 70R
R = 0.8 W
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When 10 V is connected at port A the network is
Now, we obtain Thevenin equivalent for the circuit seen at load terminal, let
Thevenin voltage is VTh, 10 V with 10 V applied at port A and Thevenin resistance
is RTh .
VTh,10 V
IL =
RTh + RL
For RL = 1 W , IL = 3 A
VTh,10 V
3= ...(i)
RTh + 1
For RL = 2.5 W , IL = 2 A
VTh,10 V
2= ...(ii)
RTh + 2.5
Dividing above two
3 = RTh + 2.5
2 RTh + 1
3RTh + 3 = 2RTh + 5
RTh = 2 W
Substituting RTh into equation (i)
VTh,10 V = 3 (2 + 1) = 9 V
Note that it is a non reciprocal two port network. Thevenin voltage seen at port
B depends on the voltage connected at port A. Therefore we took subscript
VTh,10 V . This is Thevenin voltage only when 10 V source is connected at input
port A. If the voltage connected to port A is different, then Thevenin voltage
will be different. However, Thevenin’s resistance remains same.
Now, the circuit is
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VTh,10 V
For RL = 7 W , IL = = 9 = 1A
2 + RL 2 + 7
VTh, 6 V = RTh # 7 + 1 # 7 = 2 # 7 + 7 = 7 V
3 3 3 3
This is a linear network, so VTh at port B can be written as
VTh = V1 a + b
where V1 is the input applied at port A.
We have V1 = 10 V , VTh,10 V = 9 V
9 = 10a + b ...(i)
When V1 = 6 V , VTh, 6 V = 9 V
7 = 6a + b ...(ii)
Solving (i) and (ii)
a = 0.5 , b = 4
Thus, with any voltage V1 applied at port A, Thevenin voltage or open circuit
voltage at port B will be
So, VTh, V = 0.5V1 + 4
1
For V1 = 8 V
VTh,8 V = 0.5 # 8 + 4 = 8 = Voc (open circuit voltage)
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Voltage across load resistance
VRL = V3 cos q = 136 # 0.45 = 61.2 V
2
(61.2) 2
Power absorbed in RL PL = V RL =  750 W
RL 5
Since the capacitor and inductive reactances are equal in magnitude, the net
impedance of that branch will become zero.
Equivalent circuit
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Power transferred to the load
Rth = 6R = 0
6+R
R =0
10
P = I 2 RL = b
Rth + RL l
2
RL
For maximum power transfer Rth , should be minimum.
2
(5 103) 2
Power loss = V rated = # = 20 W
Rp 1.25 # 106
For an parallel combination of resistance and capacitor
tan d = 1 = 1
wC p R p 2p # 50 # 1.25 # 0.102
= 1 = 0.025
40
V = 50 103 kV/cm
d #
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Input power factor
I1 (rms)
pf = cos f1
Irms
I1 (rms) is rms values of fundamental component of current and Irms is the rms value
of converter current.
pf = 10 cos p/3 = 0.44
10 + 52 + 22
2
For capacitor at t = 0+
vc (0+) = vc (0) = 4 V
v (0+)
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current in 4 W resistor at t = 0+ , i1 = c =1A
4
so current in capacitor at t = 0+ , ic (0+) = i1 = 1 A
i = 100 = 50 A
1+1
Current in R W resistor is
i = 21 = 1 A
Voltage across 12 W resistor is
VA = 1 # 12 = 12 V
So, i = VA  6 = 12  6 = 6 W
R 1
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So, Zl11 = Z11 + 1
Zl12 = Z12
Similarly for output port
V l2 = Zl21 I l1 + Zl22 I l2 = Zl21 I1 + Zl22 I2
So, Zl21 = Z21 , Zl22 = Z22
Z11 + 1 Z12
Z =>
Z21 Z22H
Zmatrix is
In the bridge
R1 R 4 = R 2 R 3 = 1
So it is a balanced bridge
I = 0 mA
(2 + 1) # 3 = 1 # 3 + 2 # VC (0+) 2
9 = 3 + 2VC (0+) 2
VC (0+) = 3 Volt
2
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Applying KVL in the input loop
v1  i1 (1 + 1) # 103  1 (i1 + 49i1) = 0
jwC
v1 = 2 # 103 i1 + 1 50i1
jw C
Input impedance, Z1 = v1 = 2 # 103 + 1
i1 jw (C/50)
Ceq = C =
100 nF
Equivalent capacitance, = 2 nF
50 50
VP  5 + VP + VS = I
S
2 2 1
VP  5 + VP + 2VS = 2IS
2VP + 2VS = 2Is + 5
VP + VS = IS + 2.5 ...(1)
VP  VS = 3VS
& VP = 4VS
So, 4VS + VS = IS + 2.5
5VS = IS + 2.5
VS = 0.2IS + 0.5 ...(2)
For Thevenin equivalent circuit
SOL 1.59
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By comparing (2) and (3),
Thevenin resistance Rth = 0.2 kW
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Ceq = 2 F
3
Equivalent Resistance
Req = 3 + 3 = 6 W
Time constant t = Req Ceq = 6 # 2 = 4 sec
3
SOL 1.66
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Correct option is (D).
Q =Area OABCDO
Q
V0 = o = 13 nC = 43.33 Volt
C 0.3 nF
When capacitor is connected across an inductor it will give sinusoidal esponse as
vc (t) = Vo cos wo t
where wo = 1 = 1
LC 0.3 # 10 # 0.6 # 10 3
9
Vb = 1.25 V
Current i = Vb = 1.25 A
1
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= 442.5 # 10 11 F
 12
C1 = e0 er1 A = 8.85 # 10 # 8 # 500
 12
4 # 10 3
 11
Ceq = 442.5 # 10  11 # 221.25 # 10 11
442.5 # 10 + 221.25 # 10
3
# 500 # 10
# 500 # 10
6
6
= 147.6 # 10 11
 1476 pF
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0.8 dI1 = 1.12Vx  3I1 + V
dt
dI1 = 1.4V  3.75I + 5 V
x 1
dt 4
R j ^wL  w1C h
= 2 
R + ^wL  w1C h2 R2 + ^wL  w1C h2
= Re (Y) + Im (Y)
Varying frequency for Re (Y) and Im (Y) we can obtain the admittancelocus.
Applying KCL
vL (0+) vL (0+)  vc (0+)
+ = iL (0+) = 10
10 10
2vL (0+)  10 = 100
Voltage across inductor at t = 0+
vL (0+) = 100 + 10 = 55 V
2
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So, current in capacitor at t = 0+
+ vL (0+)  vc (0+)
iC (0 ) =
10
= 55  10 = 4.5 A
10
Applying KVL
2
3  2 # I NL = VNL
2 2
3  2I NL = I NL
2
3I NL = 3 & INL = 1 A
VNL = (1) 2 = 1 V
VX = V+0c
Vy  2V+0c
+ (Vy) jwC = 0
R
Vy (1 + jwCR) = 2V+0c
Vy = 2V+0c
1 + jwCR
VYX = VX  VY = V  2V
1 + jwCR
R " 0, VYX = V  2V = V
R " 3, VYX = V  0 = V
So power dissipated in the nonlinear resistance
P = VNL INL = 1 # 1 = 1 W
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In node incidence matrix
b1 b 2 b 3 b 4 b 5 b 6
R V
n1 S 1 1 1 0 0 0 W
n2S 0  1 0  1 1 0 W
n 3SS 1 0 0 0  1  1WW
n 4S 0 0  1 1 0 1 W
T X
In option (C)
E = AV
R V
S1 1 1 0 0 0W
S 0 1 0 1 1 0 W
8e1 e2 e 3 e 4B = S 1 0 0 0  1  1W8V1 V2  V6B
T T
S W
S 0 0 1 1 0 1 W
R V RT V X
Se1W S V1 + V2 + V3 W
Se2W S V2  V4 + V5W
Se W = S V  V  V W which is true.
S 3W S 1 5 6W
Se 4W S V3 + V4 + V6W
T X T X
SOL 1.78 Correct option is (A).
Assume a Gaussian surface inside the sphere (x < R)
Qr3
So, # D : ds =
R3
Qr3 Q r
or D # 4pr2 = 3 = a D = e0 E
R 4pe0 R3
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` XL = 2pfL
2pfL
= 230 = 2.28 A
2 # 3.14 # 50 # 321.6 # 10 3
Vth = I (R + ZL + ZC )
= 1+0c [1 + 2j  j]
= 1 (1 + j) = 2 +45% V
Thevenin impedance:
Zth = R + ZL + ZC = 1 + 2j  j = (1 + j) W
Output voltage
vo = Avi = 106 # 1 mV = 1 V
Input impedance
Zi = vi = vi = 3
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ii 0
Output impedance
Zo = vo = Avi = Ro = 10 W
io io
Voltage across R 3 is
5 = I1 R 3
5 = I1 (1)
I1 = 5 A (current through R 3 )
By applying KCL, current through voltage source
1 + I 2 = I1
I2 = 5  1 = 4 A
Current IR = V1 +0c
R1 + R 2
Voltage V2 = IR R2 + j (VL  VC )
V2 = V1 +0c R2
R1 + R 2
Voltage across capacitor
VC = 1 I
jw C # R
= 1 # VR +0c
jwC R1 + R 2
= VR +  90c
wC (R1 + R2)
So phasor diagram is
SOL 1.86
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Correct option is (B).
This is a second order LC circuit shown below
V (s) = Vo 2 s 2 , a w20 = 1
s + w0 LC
Taking inverse Laplace transformation
v (t) = Vo cos wo t , t>0
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SOL 1.88 Correct option is (D).
From maxwell’s first equation
4: D = rv
r
4: E = v (Divergence of electric field intensity is nonZero)
e
Maxwell’s fourth equation
4: B = 0 (Divergence of magnetic field intensity is zero)
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= 10 V
iL (0) = 120 = 2 A
20 + 40
At t = 0 , when switch is moved to position 1,inductor current does not change
simultaneously so
iL (0+) = iL (0)=2 A
Voltage across inductor at t = 0+
vL (0+) = 120 V
By applying KVL in loop
120 = 2 (40 + R + 20)
120 = 120 + R
R = 0W
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SOL 1.96 Correct option is (C).
At f1 = 100 Hz, voltage drop across R and L is mRMS
mRMS = Vin .R
R + jw1 L
V (jw L)
= in 1
R + jw1 L
So, R = w1 L
At f2 = 50 Hz, voltage drop across R
mlRMS = Vin .R
R + jw2 L
mRMS R + jw2 L R2 + w22 L2
= =
mlRMS R + jw1 L R2 + w12 L2
= w12 L2 + w22 L2 , R = w1 L
w12 L2 + w12 L2
w12 + w22 = f 12 + f 22
=
2w12 2f 12
(100) 2 + (50) 2
= = 5
2 (100) 2 8
mlRMS = 8m
5 RMS
iL (0) = 10 = 1 A
10
Inductor current does not change simultaneously so at t = 0 when switch is
closed current remains same
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iL (0+) = iL (0)=1 A
Nodal analysis at P
Vth  4 + Vth = 0
10 10
2Vth  4 = 0
Vth = 2 V
Thevenin resistance:
Rth = 10 W  10 W = 5 W
1 + j wC = 0
j wL
1  w2 LC = 0
w= 1 (resonant frequency)
LC
1
C = 2 = 1 = 0.05 m F
wL 4 # p # (500) 2 # 2
2
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 12
= 8.85 # 10 # 4 # 16 # 10 2 = 94.4 10 11 F
3 #
6 # 10
Similarly
8.85 # 10 12 # 2 # (400 # 10 3) 2
C2 = e0 er2 A =
d2 8 # 10 3
 12
= 8.85 # 10 # 2 # 16 # 10 12
3
8 # 10
 11
= 35.4 # 10 F
 11  11
Ceq = 94.4 # 10 # 35.4 #10 11 = 25.74 # 10 11  257 pF
(94.4 + 35.4) # 10
Voltage VA = (2 + 1) # 6 = 18 Volt
So, 2 = E  VA
6
2 = E  18
6
E = 12 + 18 = 30 V
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SOL 1.106 Correct option is (D).
For parallel circuit
I = E = EYeq
Zeq
Yeq " Equivalent admittance of the circuit
Yeq = YR + YL + YC
= (0.5 + j0) + (0  j1.5) + (0 + j0.3)
= 0.5  j1.2
So, current I = 10 (0.5  j1.2) = (5  j12) A
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Current in the circuit
i (t) = C dvc = C d [100  80e t]
dt dt
= C # 80e t
= 0.5 # 80e t
= 40e t
At t = 1 sec,
i (t) = 40e 1 = 14.71 A
Where power P = VI = I bL dI l
dt
t
So, EL = # LIb dI
dt l
dt
0
For0 # t # 4 sec
4
EL = 2 # Ib dI
dt l
dt
0
a dI = 3, 0 # t # 2
2 4
=2 # #
I (3) dt + 2 * dt
I (0) dt ,
0
2
2 = 0, 2 < t < 4
= 6 # I.dt =6(area under the curve i (t)  t )
0
= 6 # 1 # 2 # 6 = 36 J
2
Energy absorbed by 1 W resistor is
t 2 4
I = 3t, 0 # t # 2
ER = # I2 Rdt = # (3t) 2 # 1dt + # (6) 2 dt )
0 0 2 = 6A 2 # t # 4
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3 2
= 9 # :t D + 36[t]2 = 24 + 72 =96 J
4
3 0
Total energy absorbed in 4 sec
E = EL + ER = 36 + 96 = 132 J
iL = iC + 1 + 2
iL = iC + 3
iC = C dvc = 1 d [4 sin 2t]
dt dt
= 8 cos 2t
so iL = 8 cos 2t + 3 (current through inductor)
Voltage across inductor
vL = L diL = 2 # d [3  8 cos 2t] = 32 sin 2t
dt dt
5 (1  3j) 5 (1 + 3 j)
So, Zth = 10 (3 + 4j) +
5 (1  3 j) + 5 (1 + 3 j)
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25 (1 + 3)
= 10 (3 + 4j) +
10
= 30 + 40j + 10 = 40 + 40j
Zth = 40 2 +45c W
R 5
so, VL = wL = 2VR
wL = 2 # 5 VR = 5 V, at resonance
2 # p # 50 # L = 10
L = 10 = 31.8 mH
314
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5VQ  54 = 0
VQ = 54 V
5
Potential difference between PQ
VPQ = VP  VQ
= 24  54 = 6 V
5 5
Thevenin voltage
Vth  110+0c + Vth  90+0c 0
6 + 8j 6 + 8j =
2Vth  200+0c = 0
Vth = 100+0c V
Thevenin impedance
Power in load
2
P = ieff RL
P = 100 2
5
3 + 4j + 5 #
(100) 2
= 5
80 #
= 625 Watt
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SOL 1.119 Correct option is (D).
Applying mesh analysis in the circuit
I1 = 10 A, I2 = 5 A
Current in 2 W resistor
I2W = I1  ( I2)
= 10  ( 5) = 15 A
So, voltage VA = 15 # 2 = 30 Volt
Now we can easily find out current in all branches as following
Current in resistor R is 5 A
5 = 100  40
R
R = 60 = 12 W
5
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Simplified circuit
At node A
E A  E1 + E A  E 2 + E A = 0
2 2 4
5EA = 2E1 + 2E2 ...(1)
Similarly
E1  E A + E1 = 0
2 2
2E1 = EA ...(2)
From (1) and (2)
5 (2E1) = 2E1 + 2E2 4
8E1 = 2E2
h12 = E1 = 1
E2 4
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KQ KQ
= 
OP OQ
9
= 9 # 10 # 1 # 10 9  9 # 109 # 1 # 10 9
3
40 # 10 20 # 10 3
= 9 # 103 : 1  1 D = 225 Volt
40 20
= 8.85 # 10 12 F
E = 1 # 8.85 # 10 12 # (100) 2
2
= 44.3 nJ
C1 = e0 er1 A , C2 = e0 er2 A
t1 t2
Since C1 and C2 are in series charge on both capacitor is same.
Q1 = Q 2
C1 (100  V) = C2 V (Let V is the voltage of foil)
************
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CHAPTER 2
SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS
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(C) 5 (D) 21
EE SP 2.2 For a periodic square wave, which one of the following statements is TRUE ?
(A) The Fourier series coefficients do not exist.
(B) The Fourier series coefficients exist but the reconstruction converges at no
point.
(C) The Fourier series coefficients exist and the reconstruction converges at
most points.
(D) The Fourier series coefficients exist and the reconstruction converges at
every point.
EE SP 2.3 Let f ^ t h be a continuous time signal and let F ^wh be its Fourier Transform
defined by
F ^w h = # f ^ t h ejwt dt
3
3
3
What is the relationship between f ^ t h and g ^ t h ?
(A) g ^ t h would always be proportional to f ^ t h
(B) g ^ t h would be proportional to f ^ t h if f ^ t h is an even function
(C) g ^ t h would be proportional to f ^ t h only if f ^ t h is a sinusoidal function
(D) g ^ t h would never be proportional to f ^ t h
^t  T h ^t  2T h
(A) u ^ t h  u ^t  T h + u ^t  T h  u ^t  2T h
T T
(B) u ^ t h + t u ^t  T h  t u ^t  2T h
T T
^t  T h ^t  2T h
(C) u ^ t h  u ^t  T h + u^t h  u^t h
T T
^t  T h ^t  2T h
(D) u ^ t h + u ^t  T h  2 u ^t  2T h
T T
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s ^s + 4h
If the input to the system is cos ^3t h and the steady state output is A sin ^3t + ah
, then the value of A is
(A) 1/30 (B) 1/15
(C) 3/4 (D) 4/3
EE SP 2.6 Consider an LTI system with impulse response h ^ t h = e5t u ^ t h. If the output of
the system is y ^ t h = e3t u ^ t h  e5t u ^ t h then the input, x ^ t h, is given by
(A) e3t u ^ t h
(B) 2e3t u ^ t h
(C) e5t u ^ t h
(D) 2e5t u ^ t h
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(B) real and odd function of w
(C) imaginary and odd function of w
(D) imaginary and even function of w
EE SP 2.11 For the signal f ^ t h = 3 sin 8pt + 6 sin 12pt + sin 14pt , the minimum sampling
frequency (in Hz) satisfying the Nyquist criterion is _____.
EE SP 2.12 A continuoustime LTI system with system function H ^wh has the following pole
zero plot. For this system, which of the alternatives is TRUE ?
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(D) X ^wh is imaginary and Y ^wh is real
EE SP 2.16 For a periodic signal v ^ t h = 30 sin 100t + 10 cos 300t + 6 sin ^500t + p/4h, the
fundamental frequency in rad/s
(A) 100 (B) 300
(C) 500 (D) 1500
EE SP 2.17 Two systems with impulse responses h1 ^ t h and h2 ^ t h are connected in cascade.
Then the overall impulse response of the cascaded system is given by
(A) product of h1 ^ t h and h2 ^ t h
(B) sum of h1 ^ t h and h2 ^ t h
(C) convolution of h1 ^ t h and h2 ^ t h
(D) subtraction of h2 ^ t h from h1 ^ t h
EE SP 2.18 Which one of the following statements is NOT TRUE for a continuous time
causal and stable LTI system?
(A) All the poles of the system must lie on the left side of the jw axis
(B) Zeros of the system can lie anywhere in the splane
(C) All the poles must lie within s = 1
(D) All the roots of the characteristic equation must be located on the left side
of the jw axis.
output is
2 t ^t  1h
(A) t u ^ t h (B) u ^t  1h
2 2
^t  1h2 2
(C) u ^t  1h (D) t  1 u ^t  1h
2 2
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YEAR 2012 ONE MARK
EE SP 2.21 If x [n] = (1/3) n  (1/2) n u [n], then the region of convergence (ROC) of its z
transform in the z plane will be
(A) 1 < z < 3 (B) 1 < z < 1
3 3 2
(C) 1 < z < 3 (D) 1 < z
2 3
EE SP 2.23 Let y [n] denote the convolution of h [n] and g [n], where h [n] = (1/2) n u [n] and
g [n] is a causal sequence. If y [0] = 1 and y [1] = 1/2, then g [1] equals
(A) 0
(B) 1/2
(C) 1
(D) 3/2
EE SP 2.24 The Fourier transform of a signal h (t) is H (jw) = (2 cos w) (sin 2w) /w . The value
of h (0) is
(A) 1/4
(B) 1/2
(C) 1
(D) 2
t
EE SP 2.25 The input x (t) and output y (t) of a system are related as y (t) = # x (t) cos (3t) dt
3
. The system is
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Chapter 2 Signals and Systems Page 89
3
EE SP 2.26 The Fourier series expansion f (t) = a 0 + / an cos nwt + bn sin nwt of
n=1
the periodic signal shown below will contain the following nonzero terms
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(A) a 0 and bn, n = 1, 3, 5, ...3
(B) a 0 and an, n = 1, 2, 3, ...3
(C) a 0 an and bn, n = 1, 2, 3, ...3
(D) a 0 and an n = 1, 3, 5, ...3
EE SP 2.27 Given two continuous time signals x (t) = et and y (t) = e2t which exist for
t > 0 , the convolution z (t) = x (t) * y (t) is
(A) et  e2t
(B) e3t
(C) e+t
(D) et + e2t
EE SP 2.28 Let the Laplace transform of a function f (t) which exists for t > 0 be F1 (s)
and the Laplace transform of its delayed version f (t  t) be F2 (s). Let F1 * (s)
be the complex conjugate of F1 (s) with the Laplace variable set s = s + jw . If
F (s) F1 * (s)
G (s) = 2 , then the inverse Laplace transform of G (s) is an ideal
F1 (s) 2
(A) impulse d (t)
(B) delayed impulse d (t  t)
(C) step function u (t)
(D) delayed step function u (t  t)
EE SP 2.29 The response h (t) of a linear time invariant system to an impulse d (t), under
initially relaxed condition is h (t) = et + e2t . The response of this system for a
EE SP 2.30 For the system 2/ (s + 1), the approximate time taken for a step response to
reach 98% of the final value is
(A) 1 s
(B) 2 s
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(C) 4 s
(D) 8 s
5t
EE SP 2.32 The system represented by the inputoutput relationship y (t) = # x (t) dt, t > 0 is
3
(A) Linear and causal
(B) Linear but not causal
(C) Causal but not linear
(D) Neither liner nor causal
EE SP 2.33 The second harmonic component of the periodic waveform given in the figure
has an amplitude of
(A) 0
(B) 1
(C) 2/p
(D) 5
(A) 2 (B) 2p
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(C) 4 (D) 4p
EE SP 2.35 Given the finite length input x [n] and the corresponding finite length output y [n]
of an LTI system as shown below, the impulse response h [n] of the system is
EE SP 2.38 A Linear Time Invariant system with an impulse response h (t) produces output
y (t) when input x (t) is applied. When the input x (t  t) is applied to a system
with impulse response h (t  t), the output will be
(A) y (t)
(B) y (2 (t  t))
(C) y (t  t)
(D) y (t  2t)
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EE SP 2.39 A cascade of three Linear Time Invariant systems is causal and unstable. From
this, we conclude that
(A) each system in the cascade is individually causal and unstable
(B) at least on system is unstable and at least one system is causal
(C) at least one system is causal and all systems are unstable
(D) the majority are unstable and the majority are causal
EE SP 2.42 The impulse response of a causal linear timeinvariant system is given as h (t).
Now consider the following two statements :
Statement (I): Principle of superposition holds
Statement (II): h (t) = 0 for t < 0
Which one of the following statements is correct ?
(A) Statements (I) is correct and statement (II) is wrong
(B) Statements (II) is correct and statement (I) is wrong
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Chapter 2 Signals and Systems Page 93
EE SP 2.43 A signal e  at sin (wt) is the input to a real Linear Time Invariant system. Given K
and f are constants, the output of the system will be of the form Ke  bt sin (vt + f)
where
(A) b need not be equal to a but v equal to w
(B) v need not be equal to w but b equal to a
(C) b equal to a and v equal to w
(D) b need not be equal to a and v need not be equal to w
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YEAR 2008 TWO MARKS
EE SP 2.45 A system with x (t) and output y (t) is defined by the inputoutput relation :
 2t
y (t) = # 3x (t) dt
The system will be
(A) Casual, timeinvariant and unstable
(B) Casual, timeinvariant and stable
(C) noncasual, timeinvariant and unstable
(D) noncasual, timevariant and unstable
A signal x (t) = sinc (at) where a is a real constant ^sinc (x) = px h is the input
sin (px)
EE SP 2.46
to a Linear Time Invariant system whose impulse response h (t) = sinc (bt), where
b is a real constant. If min (a, b) denotes the minimum of a and b and similarly,
max (a, b) denotes the maximum of a and b, and K is a constant, which one of
the following statements is true about the output of the system ?
(A) It will be of the form Ksinc (gt) where g = min (a, b)
(B) It will be of the form Ksinc (gt) where g = max (a, b)
(C) It will be of the form Ksinc (at)
(D) It can not be a sinc type of signal
EE SP 2.47 Let x (t) be a periodic signal with time period T , Let y (t) = x (t  t0) + x (t + t0)
for some t0 . The Fourier Series coefficients of y (t) are denoted by bk . If bk = 0 for
all odd k , then t0 can be equal to
(A) T/8 (B) T/4
(C) T/2 (D) 2T
EE SP 2.48 H (z) is a transfer function of a real system. When a signal x [n] = (1 + j) n is the
input to such a system, the output is zero. Further, the Region of convergence
(ROC) of ^1  12 z  1h H(z) is the entire Zplane (except z = 0 ). It can then be
inferred that H (z) can have a minimum of
(A) one pole and one zero
(B) one pole and two zeros
(C) two poles and one zero
D) two poles and two zeros
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(C) 2 sinc` w j cos ` w j (D) sinc` w j sin ` w j
2p 2 2p 2
EE SP 2.50 Given a sequence x [n], to generate the sequence y [n] = x [3  4n], which one of
the following procedures would be correct ?
(A) First delay x (n) by 3 samples to generate z1 [n], then pick every 4th sample
of z1 [n] to generate z2 [n], and than finally time reverse z2 [n] to obtain y [n].
(B) First advance x [n] by 3 samples to generate z1 [n], then pick every 4th
sample of z1 [n] to generate z2 [n], and then finally time reverse z2 [n] to
obtain y [n]
(C) First pick every fourth sample of x [n] to generate v1 [n], timereverse v1 [n]
to obtain v2 [n], and finally advance v2 [n] by 3 samples to obtain y [n]
(D) First pick every fourth sample of x [n] to generate v1 [n], timereverse v1 [n]
to obtain v2 [n], and finally delay v2 [n] by 3 samples to obtain y [n]
EE SP 2.51 Let a signal a1 sin (w1 t + f) be applied to a stable linear time variant system. Let
the corresponding steady state output be represented as a2 F (w2 t + f2). Then
which of the following statement is true?
(A) F is not necessarily a “Sine” or “Cosine” function but must be periodic
with w1 = w2 .
(B) F must be a “Sine” or “Cosine” function with a1 = a2
(C) F must be a “Sine” function with w1 = w2 and f1 = f2
(D) F must be a “Sine” or “Cosine” function with w1 = w2
EE SP 2.52 The frequency spectrum of a signal is shown in the figure. If this is ideally
sampled at intervals of 1 ms, then the frequency spectrum of the sampled signal
will be
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YEAR 2007 TWO MARKS
EE SP 2.54 Consider the discretetime system shown in the figure where the impulse response
of G (z) is g (0) = 0, g (1) = g (2) = 1, g (3) = g (4) = g = 0
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EE SP 2.55 For a distortion free output signal wave form, G (s) must
(A) provides zero phase shift for all frequency
(B) provides constant phase shift for all frequency
(C) provides linear phase shift that is proportional to frequency
(D) provides a phase shift that is inversely proportional to frequency
EE SP 2.56 G (z) = az  1 + bz  3 is a low pass digital filter with a phase characteristics same as
that of the above question if
(A) a = b (B) a = b
(C) a = b(1/3) (D) a = b( 1/3)
EE SP 2.57 If u (t), r (t) denote the unit step and unit ramp functions respectively and
u (t) * r (t) their convolution, then the function u (t + 1) * r (t  2) is given by
(A) 12 (t  1) u (t  1) (B) 12 (t  1) u (t  2)
(C) 1
2 (t  1) 2 u (t  1) (D) None of the above
EE SP 2.60 x (t) is a real valued function of a real variable with period T . Its trigonometric
Fourier Series expansion contains no terms of frequency w = 2p (2k) /T; k = 1, 2g
Also, no sine terms are present. Then x (t) satisfies the equation
(A) x (t) = x (t  T)
(B) x (t) = x (T  t) = x ( t)
(C) x (t) = x (T  t) = x (t  T/2)
(D) x (t) = x (t  T) = x (t  T/2)
EE SP 2.61 A discrete real all pass system has a pole at z = 2+30% : it, therefore
(A) also has a pole at 12 +30%
(B) has a constant phase response over the z plane: arg H (z) = constant
constant
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(C) is stable only if it is anticausal
(D) has a constant phase response over the unit circle: arg H (eiW) = constant
n
EE SP 2.63 The discretetime signal x [n] X (z) = n3= 0 3 z2n , where
/ denotes a
2+n
transformpair relationship, is orthogonal to the signal
n
(A) y1 [n] ) Y1 (z) = n3= 0 ` 2 j z  n
/ 3
(B) y2 [n] ) Y2 (z) = / n3= 0 (5n  n) z  (2n + 1)
EE SP 2.64 A continuoustime system is described by y (t) = e  x (t) , where y (t) is the output
and x (t) is the input. y (t) is bounded
(A) only when x (t) is bounded
(B) only when x (t) is nonnegative
(C) only for t # 0 if x (t) is bounded for t $ 0
(D) even when x (t) is not bounded
t
EE SP 2.65 The running integration, given by y (t) = # 3 x (t') dt'
(A) has no finite singularities in its double sided Laplace Transform Y (s)
(B) produces a bounded output for every causal bounded input
EE SP 2.66 For the triangular wave from shown in the figure, the RMS value of the voltage
is equal to
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(A) 1 (B) 1
6 3
(C) 1 (D) 2
3 3
2
EE SP 2.67 The Laplace transform of a function f (t) is F (s) = 5s 2+ 23s + 6 as t " 3, f (t)
approaches s (s + 2s + 2)
(A) 3 (B) 5
(C) 17 (D) 3
2
EE SP 2.69 If u (t) is the unit step and d (t) is the unit impulse function, the inverse z
transform of F (z) = z +1 1 for k > 0 is
(A) ( 1) k d (k) (B) d (k)  ( 1) k
(C) ( 1) k u (k) (D) u (k)  ( 1) k
EE SP 2.70 The rms value of the resultant current in a wire which carries a dc current of 10
A and a sinusoidal alternating current of peak value 20 is
(A) 14.1 A (B) 17.3 A
(C) 22.4 A (D) 30.0 A
(A) 2 6 A (B) 6 2 A
(C) 4/3 A (D) 1.5 A
***********
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SOLUTION
SOL 2.1 Correct option is (B).
Given the Laplace transform,
X ^s h = 3s + 5
s2 + 10s + 21
From final value theorem, we know
x ^ t h = lim sX ^s h
s"3
So, we obtain
x ^0+h = lim sX ^0+h
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s"3
= lim s d 3s + 5 n
s"3 s2 + 10s + 21
s _3 + s5 i
= lim s
s"3 s 2 `1 + 10s + 21s j
2
3+ 5
= 3 =3
1 + 10 + 21
3 3
For the square wave, we observe that the Fourier series coefficients exist and the
reconstruction converges at most point.
F ^w h = # f ^t he jwt
dt
and the function g ^ t h is defined as
3
f ^t h = # F ^w h e jwt
dw
3
Replacing t by  t and w by u in above expression, we get
3
f ^ t h = # F^u he jut
du ...(2)
3
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Chapter 2 Signals and Systems Page 101
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The function represented in the waveform can be resolved in the following four
waveforms; where u (t) is the unit step function.
y ^ t h = A sin ^3t + ah
We can see that output differs only in phase. In Laplace domain
Y ^s h = X ^s h H ^s h
Y ^s h = X ^s h H ^s h
Y ^ jwh = X ^ jwh H ^ jwh
A = 1# 1
w w2 + 16
For w = 3 , A = 1# 1
3 9 + 16
= 1
15
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Impulse response h ^ t h = e5t u ^ t h
Laplace transform, H ^s h = 1
s+5
Output, y ^ t h = e3t u ^ t h  e5t u ^ t h
Laplace transform, Y (s) = 1 + 1
s+3 s+5
= 2
^s + 3h^s + 5h
We know that, Y (s) = X ^s h H ^s h
Y ^s h
So, X ^s h =
H ^s h
Substituting Y ^s h and H ^s h, we get
X ^s h = 2
s+3
Taking inverse Laplace, transform
x ^ t h = 2e3t u ^ t h
z z a a1
So, zI  A = > H> H
0 0 a+1 a
z  a a + 1
=> H
a  1 z  a
z1 0
For a = 1, zI  A = > H
2 z  1
Characteristic equation
zI  A = 0
^z  1h2 = 0
z = 1 ! j0
The roots of characteristic equation gives the system poles.
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1 0 # n # N1
or h ^n h =* N
0 otherwise
fs
N= = 400 =8 f = 100p = 50 Hz
f 50 2p
1 0#n#7
So h ^n h = *8
0 otherwise
y ^n h = x ^n h * h ^n h
1, t < 1
x (t ) = *
0, t > 1
The waveform for the given signal is drawn as
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So, comparing the two waveforms, we get
x (t ) = rect a t k
2
Now, the Fourier transform pair for rectangular function is
rect c t m * t sin C c wt m
t 2p
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SOL 2.12 Correct option is (D).
To obtain the system function, we redraw the given polezero plot as
it is clear that only lower component (fs  fx ) passes through the filter, i.e.
fS  fx < 25
and fS  fx = 20
50  fx = 20
fx = 50  20 = 30 Hz
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Then Y (w) = jwX (w) ...(1)
where X (w) and Y (w) are the Fourier transform of x (t ) and y (t ) respectively.
Now, we have the function x (t ), which is differentiable, nonconstant, even
function. So, its frequency response will be real, i.e. X (w) is real
Hence, equation (1) gives the result that Y (w) is imaginary.
or, T0 = 2p
100
Thus, the fundamental frequency in rad/sec is
w0 = 2p = 100 rad/s
10
SOL 2.18
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Correct option is (C).
For a system to be casual, the R.O.C of system transfer function H ^s h which is
rational should be in the right half plane and to the right of the right most pole.
For the stability of LTI system. All poles of the system should lie in the
left half of S plane and no repeated pole should be on imaginary axis. Hence,
options (A), (B), (D) satisfies both stability and causality an LTI system.
But, Option (C) is not true for the stable system as, S = 1 have one pole
in right hand plane also.
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3 2
= b 1 l u [n] + b 1 l u [ n  1]  b 1 l u (n)
n n n
3 3 2
Taking z transform
X 6z @ =
3 3
1 n n 1 n n
/ b 3 l z u [n ] + / b 3 l z u [ n  1]
n = 3 n = 3
3 3 1 3
1 n n 1 n n 1 n n 1 n n
 / b 2 l z u [n ] = /
b3l z + b3l z  / b2l z /
n = 3 n=0 n = 3 n=0
3 3 3
/ b 31z l + / b 13 z l / b 21z l
n m n
=  Taking m = n
n=0 m=1 n=0
14
42I
4
43 1 44 2
II
44 3 14
42III
4
43
= 2 2s + 1 2
(s + s + 1)
2 2 2 2 2
1 = g [1] + g [0]
g [1] = 1  g [0]
y [0] 1
From equation (i), g [0] = = =1
h [0] 1
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So, g [1] = 1  1 = 0
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2 3 2 3
As t " 3, y (t) " 3 (unbounded)
System is not stable.
3
f (t) = a 0 + / (an cos wt + bn sin nwt)
n=1
• The given function f (t) is an even function, therefore bn = 0
• f (t) is a non zero average value function, so it will have a nonzero value of a 0
a 0 = 1 # f (t) dt (average value of f (t))
T/2
^T/2h 0
• an is zero for all even values of n and non zero for odd n
an = 2 # f (t) cos (nwt) d (wt)
T
T 0
So, Fourier expansion of f (t) will have a 0 and an , n = 1, 3, 5f3
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= "a F1 (s) F 1 (s) = F1 (s)
) 2
F1 (s) 2
= est
Taking inverse Laplace transform
g (t) = L  1 [est] = d (t  t)
=2 2
s (s + 1)
Taking inverse Laplace transform
y (t) = (2  2e t) u (t)
Final value of y (t),
yss (t) = lim y (t) = 2
t"3
Let time taken for step response to reach 98% of its final value is ts .
So,
2  2e ts = 2 # 0.98
0.02 = e ts
ts = ln 50
= 3.91 sec.
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SOL 2.31 Correct option is (D).
Period of x (t),
T = 2p = 2 p
w 0.8 p
= 2.5 sec
Causality :
y (t) depends on x (5t), t > 0 system is noncausal.
For example t = 2
y (2) depends on x (10) (future value of input)
Linearity :
Output is integration of input which is a linear function, so system is linear.
4 , n odd
bn = * np
0 , n even
So only odd harmonic will be present in x (t)
For second harmonic component (n = 2) amplitude is zero.
2p  3
# 3
3
X (w) 2 dw = 2p # 2 = 4p
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SOL 2.35 Correct option is (C).
Given sequences x [n] = {1,  1}, 0 # n # 1

y [n] = {1, 0, 0, 0,  1}, 0 # n # 4

If impulse response is h [n] then
y [ n ] = h [ n ] * x [ n]
Length of convolution (y [n]) is 0 to 4, x [n] is of length 0 to 1 so length of h [n]
will be 0 to 3.
Let h [n] = {a, b, c, d}

Convolution
y [n] = {a,  a + b,  b + c,  c + d,  d}

Comparing we have
a =1
a + b = 0 & b = a = 1
b + c = 0 & c = b = 1
c + d = 0 & d = c = 1
So, h [n] = {1, 1, 1, 1}

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g (t) = f` t  3 j
2 2
H2 (z) = z3 + z2 + 1 (noncausal)
Overall response of the system
H (z) = H1 (z) H2 (z) H3 (z)
H (z) = (z2 + z1 + 1) (z3 + z2 + 1) H3 (z)
To make H (z) causal we have to take H3 (z) also causal.
Let H3 (z) = z  6 + z  4 + 1
= (z2 + z1 + 1) (z3 + z2 + 1) (z  6 + z  4 + 1)
H (z) " causal
Similarly to make H (z) unstable atleast one of the system should be unstable.
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3
x (t) = / ak e j2pkt/T
k = 3
Let w0 is the fundamental frequency of signal x (t)
a 2p = w0
3
x (t) = / ak e jkw t 0
T
k = 3
x (t) = a  2 e  j2w t + a  1 e  jw t + a0 + a1 e jw t + a2 e j2w t
0 0 0 0
Since the given system is LTI, So principal of Superposition holds due to linearity.
For causal system h (t) = 0 , t < 0
Both statement are correct.
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SOL 2.44 Correct option is (D).
Given that X (z) = z , z >a
(z  a) 2
Residue of X (z) zn  1 at z = a is
= d (z  a) 2 X (z) zn  1 z = a
dz
= d (z  a) 2 z zn  1
dz (z  a) 2 z=a
= d z n
dz z = a
= nzn  1 z = a
= nan  1
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So, Y (jw) = K rect ` w j
2g
Where g = min (a, b)
And y (t) = K sinc (gt)
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= 2 cos w sinc` w j
2 2p
fs = 1 = 1 = 1 kHz
Ts 1 m sec
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SOL 2.53 Correct option is (C).
Given signal has the following waveform
G (z)
H (z) =
1  KG (z)
g [n] = d [n  1] + d [n  2]
G (z) = z  1 + z  2
(z  1 + z  2)
So H (z) = 1 2
= 2 z+1
1  K (z + z ) z  Kz  K
For system to be stable poles should lie inside unit circle.
z #1
2
z = K ! K + 4K # 1 K ! K2 + 4K # 2
2
K 2 + 4K # 2  K
K2 + 4K # 4  4K + K2
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8K # 4
K # 1/2
H (s) = e  s c 13 m
s
Taking inverse Laplace transform
h (t) = 1 (t  1) 2 u (t  1)
2
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H (z) = z  1 (1  3z  1) (1 + 2z  2)
Output of the system for input u [n] = d [n  1] is ,
y (z) = H (z) U (z) U (z) = z  1
Z
U [n ]
So
Y (z) = z  1 (1  3z  1) (1 + 2z  2) z  1
= z  2 (1  3z  1 + 2z  2  6z  3)
= z  2  3z  3 + 2z  4  6z  5
Taking inverse ztransform on both sides we have output.
y [n] = d [n  2]  3d [n  3] + 2d [n  4]  6d [n  5]
Where t = T  t & dt = dt
T0 /2 T
= 2; #T x (T  t) sin nw0 (T  t) ( dt)+ #T /2 x (t) sin nw0 t dt E
T0 0 0
TO T
= 2;
T0
#T /2 x (T  t) sin n` 2Tp T  t j dt ++ #T /2 x (t) sin nw0 t dt E
O 0
T0 T0
= 2; #T /2 x (T  t) sin (2np  nw0) dt+ #T /2 x (t) sin nw0 t dt E
T0 0 0
T0 T0
= 2 ; #T /2 x (T  t) sin (nw0 t) dt + + #T /2 x (t) sin nw0 t dt E
T0 0 0
bn = 0 if x (t) = x (T  t)
1  z0 z
It has a pole at z 0 and a zero at 1/z)
0.
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system is stable if z < 1 and for this it is anticausal.
y [n] = { a, 2a  b, 2b  c, 2c}

y [n] = { 1, 3,  1,  2}
So, a = 1 
2a  b = 3 & b = 1
2a  c = 1 & c = 1
Impulse response h [n] = "1,  1,  1,

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SOL 2.65 Correct option is (B).
t
Given y (t) = # x (t') dt'
3
Laplace transform of y (t)
X (s)
Y (s) = , has a singularity at s = 0
s
t
For a causal bounded input, y (t)= # x (t') dt' is always bounded.
3
(5s2 + 23s + 6)
= lim s = 6 =3
s"0 2
s (s + 2s + 2) 2
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Ztransform F (z) = 1 = 1 z = 1 1
z+1 z+1 1 + z 1
so, f (k) = d (k)  ( 1) k
Thus ( 1) k
Z 1
1 + z 1
= 1 [6T + 18T] = 24
T
Irms = 24 = 2 6 A
***********
CHAPTER 3
ELECTRIC MACHINES
EE SP 3.2 For a specified input voltage and frequency, if the equivalent radius of the core of
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a transformer is reduced by half, the factor by which the number of turns in the
primary should change to maintain the same no load current is
(A) 1/4 (B) 1/2
(C) 2 (D) 4
EE SP 3.3 A star connected 400 V, 50 Hz, 4 pole synchronous machine gave the following
open circuit and short circuit test results :
Open circuit test : Voc = 400 V (rms, linetoline) at field current, I f = 2.3 A
Short circuit test : Isc = 10 A (rms, phase) at field current, I f = 1.5 A
The value of per phase synchronous impedance in W at rated voltage is_____.
EE SP 3.4 The core loss of a single phase, 230/115 V , 50 Hz power transformer is measured
from 230 V side by feeding the primary (230 V side) from a variable voltage
variable frequency source while keeping the secondary open circuited. The core
loss is measured to be 1050 W for 230 V, 50 Hz input. The core loss is again
measured to be 500 W for 138 V, 30 Hz input. The hysteresis and eddy current
losses of the transformer for 230 V, 50 Hz input are respectively,
(A) 508 W and 542 W (B) 468 W and 582 W
(C) 498 W and 552 W (D) 488 W and 562 W
EE SP 3.5 A 15 kW, 230 V dc shunt motor has armature circuit resistance of 0.4 W and
field circuit resistance of 230 W . At no load and rated voltage, the motor runs at
1400 rpm and the line current drawn by the motor is 5 A. At full load, the motor
draws a line current of 70 A. Neglect armature reaction. The full load speed of
the motor in rpm is_____.
EE SP 3.6 A 3 phase, 50 Hz, six pole induction motor has a rotor resistance of 0.1 W and
reactance of 0.92 W . Neglect the voltage drop in stator and assume that the rotor
resistance is constant. Given that the full load slip is 3%, the ratio of maximum
torque to full load torque is
(A) 1.567 (B) 1.712
(C) 1.948 (D) 2.134
EE SP 3.7 Assuming an ideal transformer, the Thevenin’s equivalent voltage and impedance
as seen from the terminals x and y for the circuit in figure are
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(C) 1 sin ^wt h, 2 W (D) 2 sin ^wt h, 0.5 W
EE SP 3.8 A single phase, 50 kVA, 1000 V/100 V two winding transformer is connected as
an autotransformer as shown in the figure.
EE SP 3.9 A threephase, 4pole, self excited induction generator is feeding power to a load
at a frequency f 1 . If the load is partially removed, the frequency becomes f 2 . If
the speed of the generator is maintained at 1500 rpm in both the cases, then
(A) f 1 , f 2 > 50 Hz and f 1 > f 2 (B) f 1 < 50 Hz and f 2 > 50 Hz
(C) f 1 , f 2 < 50 Hz and f 2 > f 1 (D) f 1 > 50 Hz and f 2 < 50 Hz
EE SP 3.10 A single phase induction motor draws 12 MW power at 0.6 lagging power. A
capacitor is connected in parallel to the motor to improve the power factor of the
combination of motor and capacitor to 0.8 lagging. Assuming that the real and
reactive power drawn by the motor remains same as before, the reactive power
delivered by the capacitor in MVAR is ______.
EE SP 3.11 In a constant V/f control of induction motor, the ratio V/f is maintained
constant from 0 to base frequency, where V is the voltage applied to the motor
at fundamental frequency f . Which of the following statements relating to low
frequency operation of the motor is TRUE ?
(A) At low frequency, the stator flux increases from its rated value.
(B) At low frequency, the stator flux decreases from its rated value.
(C) At low frequency, the motor saturates.
(D) At low frequency, the stator flux remains unchanged at its rated value.
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Chapter 3 Electric Machines Page 127
EE SP 3.12 A 250 V dc shunt machine has armature circuit resistance of 0.6 W and field
circuit resistance of 125 W . The machine is connected to 250 V supply mains. The
motor is operated as a generator and then as a motor separately. The line current
of the machine in both the cases is 50 A. The ratio of the speed as a generator
to the speed as a motor is _____.
EE SP 3.13 A three phase slipring induction motor, provided with a commutator winding,
is shown in the figure. The motor rotates in clockwise direction when the rotor
windings are closed.
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If the rotor winding is open circuited and the system is made to run at rotational
speed f r with the help of primemover in anticlockwise direction, then the
frequency of voltage across slip rings is f 1 and frequency of voltage across
commutator brushes is f 2 . The values of f 1 and f 2 respectively are
(A) f + f r and f
(C) f  f r and f + f r
(B) f  f r and f
(D) f + f r and f  f r
EE SP 3.14 A 20pole alternators is having 180 identical stator slots with 6 conductors in
each slot. All the coils of a phase are in series. If the coils are connected to realize
singlephase winding, the generated voltage is V1 . If the coils are reconnected to
realize three phase star connected winding, the generated phase voltage is V2 .
Assuming full pitch, singlelayer winding, the ratio V1 /V2 is
(A) 1 (B) 1
3 2
(C) 3 (D) 2
EE SP 3.15 For a single phase, two winding transformer, the supply frequency and voltage
are both increased by 10%. The percentage changes in the hysteresis loss and
eddy current loss, respectively, are
(A) 10 and 21 (B)  10 and 21
(C) 21 and 10 (D)  21 and 10
EE SP 3.17 A single phase induction motor is provided with capacitor and centrifugal switch
in series with auxiliary winding. The switch is expected to operate at a speed of
0.7 Ns, but due to malfunctioning the switch fails to operate. The torquespeed
characteristic of the motor is represented by
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EE SP 3.18 The noload speed of a 230 V separately excited dc motor is 1400 rpm. The
armature resistance drop and the brush drop are neglected. The field current is
kept constant at rated value. The torque of the motor in Nm for an armature
current of 8 A is ________.
EE SP 3.19 The torque speed characteristics of motor ^TM h and load ^TL h for two cases are
shown in the figures (a) and (b). The load torque is equal to motor torque at
points P , Q , R and S .
EE SP 3.21
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The hysteresis and eddy current losses of the transformer at 25 Hz respectively
are
(A) 250 W and 2.5 W
(C) 312.5 W and 62.5 W
(B) 250 W and 62.5 W
(D) 312.5 W and 250 W
EE SP 3.22 A separately excited 300 V DC shunt motor under no load runs at 900 rpm
drawing an armature current of 2 A. The armature resistance is 0.5 W and
leakage inductance is 0.01 H. When loaded, the armature current is 15 A. Then,
the speed in rpm is _____.
EE SP 3.23 The load shown in the figure absorbs 4 kW at a power factor of 0.89 lagging.
EE SP 3.24 The parameters measured for a 220 V/110 V, 50 Hz , single phase transformer
are :
Self inductance of primary winding = 45 mH
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(A) flux that leaks through the machine
(B) flux that links both stator and rotor windings
(C) flux that links none of the windings
(D) flux that links the stator winding or the rotor winding but not both
VYZ2 = 100 V is applied across YZ to get an open circuit voltage VWX2 across WX.
Then, VYZ1 /VWX1 , VWX2 /VYZ2 are respectively,
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YEAR 2012 ONE MARK
EE SP 3.31 A 220 V, 15 kW, 100 rpm shunt motor with armature resistance of 0.25 W, has
a rated line current of 68 A and a rated field current of 2.2 A. The change in
field flux required to obtain a speed of 1600 rpm while drawing a line current of
52.8 A and a field current of 1.8 A is
(A) 18.18% increase
(B) 18.18% decrease
(C) 36.36% increase
(D) 36.36% decrease
EE SP 3.32 The locked rotor current in a 3phase, star connected 15 kW, 4 pole, 230 V, 50 Hz
induction motor at rated conditions is 50 A. Neglecting losses and magnetizing
current, the approximate locked rotor line current drawn when the motor is
connected to a 236 V, 57 Hz supply is
(A) 58.5 A (B) 45.0 A
(C) 42.7 A (D) 55.6 A
EE SP 3.35 A three phase, salient pole synchronous motor is connected to an infinite bus. It
is operated at no load a normal excitation. The field excitation of the motor is
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first reduced to zero and then increased in reverse direction gradually. Then the
armature current.
(A) Increases continuously
(B) First increases and then decreases steeply
(C) First decreases and then increases steeply
(D) Remains constant
EE SP 3.36 A single phase air core transformer, fed from a rated sinusoidal supply, is operating
at no load. The steady state magnetizing current drawn by the transformer from
the supply will have the waveform
EE SP 3.37 A 220 V, DC shunt motor is operating at a speed of 1440 rpm. The armature
resistance is 1.0 W and armature current is 10 A. of the excitation of the machine
is reduced by 10%, the extra resistance to be put in the armature circuit to
EE SP 3.38 A threephase 440 V, 6 pole, 50 Hz, squirrel cage induction motor is running at
a slip of 5%. The speed of stator magnetic field to rotor magnetic field and speed
of rotor with respect of stator magnetic field are
(A) zero,  5 rpm
(B) zero, 955 rpm
(C) 1000 rpm,  5 rpm
(D) 1000 rpm, 955 rpm
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YEAR 2010 ONE MARK
EE SP 3.39 A Singlephase transformer has a turns ratio 1:2, and is connected to a purely
resistive load as shown in the figure. The magnetizing current drawn is 1 A, and
the secondary current is 1 A. If core losses and leakage reactances are neglected,
the primary current is
(C) Vs (D) Vs
2 2
(rs + rr ) + (Xm + Xr ) rs + (Xm + Xr ) 2
2
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EE SP 3.42 A balanced starconnected and purely resistive load is connected at the secondary
of a stardelta transformer as shown in figure. The lineto line voltage rating of
the transformer is 110 V/200 V.
Neglecting the nonidealities of the transformer, the impedance Z of the equivalent
starconnected load, referred to the primary side of the transformer, is
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EE SP 3.44 For the motor to deliver a torque of 2.5 Nm at 1400 rpm, the armature voltage
to be applied is
(A) 125.5 V (B) 193.3 V
(C) 200 V (D) 241.7 V
EE SP 3.46 The single phase, 50 Hz iron core transformer in the circuit has both the vertical
arms of cross sectional area 20 cm2 and both the horizontal arms of cross
sectional area 10 cm2 . If the two windings shown were wound instead on opposite
horizontal arms, the mutual inductance will
EE SP 3.47 A 3phase squirrel cage induction motor supplied from a balanced 3phase source drives
a mechanical load. The torquespeed characteristics of the motor(solid curve) and of the
load(dotted curve) are shown. Of the two equilibrium points A and B, which of
the following options correctly describes the stability of A and B ?
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EE SP 3.48 A 200 V, 50 Hz, singlephase induction motor has the following connection
diagram and winding orientations as shown. MM’ is the axis of the main stator
winding(M1 M2) and AA’ is that of the auxiliary winding(A1 A2). Directions of
the winding axis indicate direction of flux when currents in the windings are in
the directions shown. Parameters of each winding are indicated. When switch S
is closed the motor
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EE SP 3.49 The peak voltage across A and B, with S open is
(A) 400 V (B) 800 V
p
(C) 4000 V (D) 800 V
p p
EE SP 3.50 If the wave form of i (t) is changed to i (t) = 10 sin (100pt) A, the peak voltage
across A and B with S closed is
(A) 400 V
(B) 240 V
(C) 320 V
(D) 160 V
The stardelta transformer shown above is excited on the star side with balanced,
4wire, 3phase, sinusoidal voltage supply of rated magnitude. The transformer is
under no load condition
EE SP 3.51 With both S1 and S2 open, the core flux waveform will be
(A) a sinusoid at fundamental frequency
(B) flattopped with third harmonic
(C) peaky with thirdharmonic
(D) none of these
EE SP 3.52 With S2 closed and S1 open, the current waveform in the delta winding will be
(A) a sinusoid at fundamental frequency
(B) flattopped with third harmonic
(C) only thirdharmonic
(D) none of these
EE SP 3.53 Figure shows the extended view of a 2pole dc machine with 10 armature
conductors. Normal brush positions are shown by A and B, placed at the
interpolar axis. If the brushes are now shifted, in the direction of rotation, to A’
and B’ as shown, the voltage waveform VA'B' will resemble
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The figure above shows coils1 and 2, with dot markings as shown, having 4000
and 6000 turns respectively. Both the coils have a rated current of 25 A. Coil1
is excited with single phase, 400 V, 50 Hz supply.
400
EE SP 3.54 The coils are to be connected to obtain a singlephase, 1000 V,
autotransformer to drive a load of 10 kVA. Which of the options given should
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Chapter 3 Electric Machines Page 139
EE SP 3.55 In the autotransformer obtained in Question 16, the current in each coil is
(A) Coil1 is 25 A and Coil2 is 10 A
(B) Coil1 is 10 A and Coil2 is 25 A
(C) Coil1 is 10 A and Coil2 is 15 A
(D) Coil1 is 15 A and Coil2 is 10 A
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YEAR 2008 ONE MARK
EE SP 3.56 Distributed winding and short chording employed in AC machines will result in
(A) increase in emf and reduction in harmonics
(B) reduction in emf and increase in harmonics
(C) increase in both emf and harmonics
(D) reduction in both emf and harmonics
The Wattmeters used in open circuit test and short circuit test of the transformer
will respectively be
(A) W1 and W2 (B) W2 and W4
EE SP 3.60 A 230 V, 50 Hz, 4pole, singlephase induction motor is rotating in the clockwise
(forward) direction at a speed of 1425 rpm. If the rotor resistance at standstill is
7.8 W, then the effective rotor resistance in the backward branch of the equivalent
circuit will be
(A) 2 W (B) 4 W
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(C) 78 W (D) 156 W
The induced emf (ers) in the secondary winding as a function of time will be of
the form
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The motor is coupled to a 220 V, separately excited d.c generator feeding power
to fixed resistance of 10 W. Twowattmeter method is used to measure the
input power to induction motor. The variable resistance is adjusted such the
motor runs at 1410 rpm and the following readings were recorded W1 = 1800 W,
W2 = 200 W.
EE SP 3.63 The speed of rotation of stator magnetic field with respect to rotor structure will
be
(A) 90 rpm in the direction of rotation
(B) 90 rpm in the opposite direction of rotation
(C) 1500 rpm in the direction of rotation
(D) 1500 rpm in the opposite direction of rotation
EE SP 3.64 Neglecting all losses of both the machines, the dc generator power output and
the current through resistance (Rex) will respectively be
(A) 96 W, 3.10 A (B) 120 W, 3.46 A
(C) 1504 W, 12.26 A (D) 1880 W, 13.71 A
EE SP 3.65 A 400 V, 50 Hz, 4pole, 1400 rpm, star connected squirrel cage induction motor
has the following parameters referred to the stator:
R'r = 1.0 W, Xs = X'r = 1.5 W
Neglect stator resistance and core and rotational losses of the motor. The motor
is controlled from a 3phase voltage source inverter with constant V/f control.
The stator linetoline voltage(rms) and frequency to obtain the maximum torque
at starting will be :
(A) 20.6 V, 2.7 Hz (B) 133.3 V, 16.7 Hz
(C) 266.6 V, 33.3 Hz (D) 323.3 V, 40.3 Hz
80 W.
EE SP 3.66 The net voltage across the armature resistance at the time of plugging will be
(A) 6 V (B) 234 V
(C) 240 V (D) 474 V
EE SP 3.67 The external resistance to be added in the armature circuit to limit the armature
current to 125% of its rated value is
(A) 31.1 W (B) 31.9 W
(C) 15.1 W (D) 15.9 W
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A synchronous motor is connected to an infinite bus at 1.0 pu voltage and
draws 0.6 pu current at unity power factor. Its synchronous reactance is 1.0 pu
resistance is negligible.
EE SP 3.68 The excitation voltage (E ) and load angle (d) will respectively be
(A) 0.8 pu and 36.86c lag (B) 0.8 pu and 36.86c lead
(C) 1.17 pu and 30.96c lead (D) 1.17 pu and 30.96c lag
EE SP 3.69 Keeping the excitation voltage same, the load on the motor is increased such
that the motor current increases by 20%. The operating power factor will become
(A) 0.995 lagging (B) 0.995 leading
(C) 0.791 lagging (D) 0.848 leading
EE SP 3.71 The dc motor, which can provide zero speed regulation at full load without any
controller is
(A) series (B) shunt
(C) cumulative compound (D) differential compound
EE SP 3.72 The electromagnetic torque Te of a drive and its connected load torque TL are
as shown below. Out of the operating points A, B, C and D, the stable ones are
(A) A, C, D (B) B, C
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(C) A, D (D) B, C, D
EE SP 3.75 A singlephase, 50 kVA, 250 V/500 V two winding transformer has an efficiency
of 95% at full load, unity power factor. If it is reconfigured as a 500 V/750 V
autotransformer, its efficiency at its new rated load at unity power factor will be
(A) 95.752% (B) 97.851%
(C) 98.276% (D) 99.241%
EE SP 3.76 A threephase, threestack, variable reluctance step motor has 20 poles on each
rotor and stator stack. The step angle of this step motor is
(A) 3c (B) 6c
(C) 9c (D) 18c
EE SP 3.77 A threephase squirrel cage induction motor has a starting torque of 150% and
a maximum torque of 300% with respect to rated torque at rated voltage and
rated frequency. Neglect the stator resistance and rotational losses. The value of
slip for maximum torque is
(A) 13.48% (B) 16.42%
(C) 18.92% (D) 26.79%
EE SP 3.78 If an auto transformer is used for reduced voltage starting to provide 1.5 per unit
starting torque, the auto transformer ratio(%) should be
(A) 57.77 % (B) 72.56 %
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(C) 78.25 % (D) 81.33 %
EE SP 3.79 If a stardelta starter is used to start this induction motor, the per unit starting
torque will be
(A) 0.607 (B) 0.816
(C) 1.225 (D) 1.616
EE SP 3.80 If a starting torque of 0.5 per unit is required then the per unit starting current
should be
(A) 4.65 (B) 3.75
(C) 3.16 (D) 2.13
EE SP 3.82 For a single phase capacitor start induction motor which of the following
statements is valid ?
(A) The capacitor is used for power factor improvement
(B) The direction of rotation can be changed by reversing the main winding
terminals
(C) The direction of rotation cannot be changed
(D) The direction of rotation can be changed by interchanging the supply
terminals
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to generator speed is
(A) 0.87 (B) 0.95
(C) 0.96 (D) 1.06
EE SP 3.85 A synchronous generator is feeding a zero power factor (lagging) load at rated
current. The armature reaction is
(A) magnetizing
(B) demagnetizing
(C) crossmagnetizing
(D) ineffective
EE SP 3.86 Two transformers are to be operated in parallel such that they share load in
proportion to their kVA ratings. The rating of the first transformer is 500
kVA ratings. The rating of the first transformer is 500 kVA and its pu leakage
impedance is 0.05 pu. If the rating of second transformer is 250 kVA, its pu
leakage impedance is
(A) 0.20 (B) 0.10
(C) 0.05 (D) 0.025
EE SP 3.87 The speed of a 4pole induction motor is controlled by varying the supply
frequency while maintaining the ratio of supply voltage to supply frequency (
V/f ) constant. At rated frequency of 50 Hz and rated voltage of 400 V its speed
is 1440 rpm. Find the speed at 30 Hz, if the load torque is constant
(A) 882 rpm (B) 864 rpm
(C) 840 rpm (D) 828 rpm
EE SP 3.88 A 3phase, 4pole, 400 V 50 Hz , star connected induction motor has following
circuit parameters
r1 = 1.0 W, r'2 = 0.5 W, X1 = X'2 = 1.2 W, Xm = 35 W
The starting torque when the motor is started directonline is (use approximate
equivalent circuit model)
(A) 63.6 Nm (B) 74.3 Nm
(C) 190.8 Nm (D) 222.9 Nm
EE SP 3.89 A 3phase, 10 kW, 400 V, 4pole, 50Hz, star connected induction motor draws 20
A on full load. Its no load and blocked rotor test data are given below.
No Load Test : 400 V 6A 1002 W
Blocked Rotor Test : 90 V 15 A 762 W
Neglecting copper loss in no load test and core loss in blocked rotor test, estimate
motor’s full load efficiency
(A) 76% (B) 81%
(C) 82.4% (D) 85%
EE SP 3.90 A 3phase, 400 V, 5 kW, star connected synchronous motor having an internal
reactance of 10 W is operating at 50% load, unity p.f. Now, the excitation is
increased by 1%. What will be the new load in percent, if the power factor is to
be kept same ? Neglect all losses and consider linear magnetic circuit.
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(A) 67.9% (B) 56.9%
(C) 51% (D) 50%
EE SP 3.91 The linetoline induced emf(in volts), for a three phase star connection is
approximately
(A) 808 (B) 888
(C) 1400 (D) 1538
EE SP 3.92 The linetoline induced emf(in volts), for a three phase connection is approximately
(A) 1143 (B) 1332
(C) 1617 (D) 1791
EE SP 3.93 The fifth harmonic component of phase emf(in volts), for a three phase star
connection is
(A) 0 (B) 269
(C) 281 (D) 808
EE SP 3.94 The iron loss (Pi) and copper loss (Pc) in kW, under full load operation are
(A) Pc = 4.12, Pi = 8.51 (B) Pc = 6.59, Pi = 9.21
(C) Pc = 8.51, Pi = 4.12 (D) Pc = 12.72, Pi = 3.07
EE SP 3.96 The equivalent circuit of a transformer has leakage reactances X1, X'2 and
magnetizing reactance XM . Their magnitudes satisfy
(A) X1 >> X'2 >> XM (B) X1 << X'2 << XM
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difference of 30c between its output and corresponding input line voltages
(A) StarStar (B) StarDelta
(C) DeltaDelta (D) DeltaZigzag
EE SP 3.98 On the torque/speed curve of the induction motor shown in the figure four points
of operation are marked as W, X, Y and Z. Which one of them represents the
operation at a slip greater than 1 ?
(A) W (B) X
(C) Y (D) Z
EE SP 3.99 For an induction motor, operation at a slip s , the ration of gross power output
to air gap power is equal to
(A) (1  s) 2
(B) (1  s)
(C) (1  s)
(D) (1  s)
EE SP 3.100 Two magnetic poles revolve around a stationary armature carrying two coil
(c1  c1l , c2  c2l ) as shown in the figure. Consider the instant when the poles are
in a position as shown. Identify the correct statement regarding the polarity of
the induced emf at this instant in coil sides c1 and c2 .
(A) 9 in c1 , no emf in c2
(B) 7 in c1 , no emf in c2
(C) 9 in c2 , no emf in c1
(D) 7 in c2 , no emf in c1
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EE SP 3.101 A 50 kW dc shunt is loaded to draw rated armature current at any given speed.
When driven
(i) at half the rated speed by armature voltage control and
(ii) at 1.5 times the rated speed by field control, the respective output powers
delivered by the motor are approximately.
(A) 25 kW in (i) and 75 kW in (ii)
(B) 25 kW in (i) and 50 kW in (ii)
(C) 50 kW in (i) and 75 kW in (ii)
(D) 50 kW in (i) and 50 kW in (ii)
EE SP 3.103 In relation to DC machines, match the following and choose the correct
combination
ListI ListII
Performance Variables Proportional to
P. Armature emf (E ) 1. Flux(f), speed (w) and armature current (Ia)
Q. Developed torque (T ) 2. f and w only
R Developed power (P ) 3. f and Ia only
4. Ia and w only
5. Ia only
Codes:
P Q R
(A) 3 3 1
(B) 2 5 4
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Chapter 3 Electric Machines Page 149
(C) 3 5 4
(D) 2 3 1
EE SP 3.104 Under no load condition, if the applied voltage to an induction motor is reduced
from the rated voltage to half the rated value,
(A) the speed decreases and the stator current increases
(B) both the speed and the stator current decreases
(C) the speed and the stator current remain practically constant
(D) there is negligible change in the speed but the stator current decreases
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and the full load slip is 4%, then ratio of the starting developed torque to the full
load torque is approximately equal to
(A) 0.24 (B) 1.44
(C) 2.40 (D) 6.00
EE SP 3.106 In a single phase induction motor driving a fan load, the reason for having a high
resistance rotor is to achieve
(A) low starting torque (B) quick acceleration
(C) high efficiency (D) reduced size
EE SP 3.107 Determine the correctness or otherwise of the following assertion[A] and the
reason[R]
Assertion [A] : Under V/f control of induction motor, the maximum value of
the developed torque remains constant over a wide range of speed in the sub
synchronous region.
Reason [R] : The magnetic flux is maintained almost constant at the rated value
by keeping the ration V/f constant over the considered speed range.
(A) Both [A] and [R] are true and [R] is the correct reason for [A]
(B) Both [A] and [R] are true and but [R] is not the correct reason for [A]
(C) Both [A] and [R] are false
(D) [A] is true but [R] is false
EE SP 3.110 A 500 kVA, 3phase transformer has iron losses of 300 W and full load copper
losses of 600 W. The percentage load at which the transformer is expected to
have maximum efficiency is
(A) 50.0% (B) 70.7%
(C) 141.4% (D) 200.0%
EE SP 3.111 For a given stepper motor, the following torque has the highest numerical value
(A) Detent torque (B) Pullin torque
(C) Pullout torque (D) Holding torque
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EE SP 3.112 The following motor definitely has a permanent magnet rotor
(A) DC commutator motor
(B) Brushless dc motor
(C) Stepper motor
(D) Reluctance motor
EE SP 3.113 The type of singlephase induction motor having the highest power factor at full
load is
(A) shaded pole type (B) splitphase type
(C) capacitorstart type (D) capacitorrun type
EE SP 3.116 The synchronous speed for the seventh space harmonic mmf wave of a 3phase,
8pole, 50 Hz induction machine is
(A) 107.14 rpm in forward direction
(B) 107.14 rpm in reverse direction
(C) 5250 rpm in forward direction
EE SP 3.117 A rotating electrical machine its selfinductances of both the stator and the rotor
windings, independent of the rotor position will be definitely not develop
(A) starting torque (B) synchronizing torque
(C) hysteresis torque (D) reluctance torque
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(C) 59.2% (D) 88.8%
EE SP 3.123 A 400 V, 15 kW, 4pole, 50Hz, Yconnected induction motor has full load slip of
4%. The output torque of the machine at full load is
(A) 1.66 Nm (B) 95.50 Nm
(C) 99.47 Nm (D) 624.73 Nm
EE SP 3.124 For a 1.8c, 2phase bipolar stepper motor, the stepping rate is
100 steps/second. The rotational speed of the motor in rpm is
(A) 15 (B) 30
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(C) 60 (D) 90
EE SP 3.126 A 400 V, 50 kVA, 0.8 p.f. leading 3connected, 50 Hz synchronous machine has
a synchronous reactance of 2 W and negligible armature resistance. The friction
and windage losses are 2 kW and the core loss is 0.8 kW. The shaft is supplying
9 kW load at a power factor of 0.8 leading. The line current drawn is
(A) 12.29 A (B) 16.24 A
(C) 21.29 A (D) 36.88 A
EE SP 3.127 A 500 MW, 3phase, Yconnected synchronous generator has a rated voltage of
21.5 kV at 0.85 p.f. The line current when operating at full load rated conditions
will be
(A) 13.43 kA (B) 15.79 kA
(C) 23.25 kA (D) 27.36 kA
EE SP 3.128 A simple phase transformer has a maximum efficiency of 90% at full load and
unity power factor. Efficiency at half load at the same power factor is
(A) 86.7% (B) 88.26%
(C) 88.9% (D) 87.8%
EE SP 3.129 GroupI lists different applications and GroupII lists the motors for these
applications. Match the application with the most suitable motor and choose the
right combination among the choices given thereafter
GroupI GroupII
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EE SP 3.130 A stand alone engine driven synchronous generator is feeding a partly inductive
load. A capacitor is now connected across the load to completely nullify the
inductive current. For this operating condition.
(A) the field current and fuel input have to be reduced
(B) the field current and fuel input have to be increased
(C) the field current has to be increased and fuel input left unaltered
(D) the field current has to be reduced and fuel input left unaltered
EE SP 3.131 Curves X and Y in figure denote open circuit and fullload zero power factor(zpf)
characteristics of a synchronous generator. Q is a point on the zpf characteristics
at 1.0 p.u. voltage. The vertical distance PQ in figure gives the voltage drop
across
EE SP 3.132 Noload test on a 3phase induction motor was conducted at different supply
voltage and a plot of input power versus voltage was drawn. This curve was
extrapolated to intersect the yaxis. The intersection point yields
(A) Core loss
(B) Stator copper loss
(C) Stray load loss
(D) Friction and windage loss
EE SP 3.133 Figure shows an ideal singlephase transformer. The primary and secondary coils
are wound on the core as shown. Turns ratio N1 /N2 = 2 .The correct phasors of
voltages E1, E2 , currents I1, I2 and core flux F are as shown in
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EE SP 3.134 To conduct load test on a dc shunt motor, it is coupled to a generator which
is identical to the motor. The field of the generator is also connected to the
same supply source as the motor. The armature of generator is connected to
a load resistance. The armature resistance is 0.02 p.u. Armature reaction and
mechanical losses can be neglected. With rated voltage across the motor, the
load resistance across the generator is adjusted to obtain rated armature current
in both motor and generator. The p.u value of this load resistance is
(A) 1.0
(B) 0.98
(C) 0.96
(D) 0.94
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4: 2: 1. A resistor of 10 W is connected across winding2. A capacitor of reactance
2.5 W is connected across winding3. Winding1 is connected across a 400 V, ac
supply. If the supply voltage phasor V1 = 400+0% , the supply current phasor I1 is
given by
EE SP 3.138 When stator and rotor windings of a 2pole rotating electrical machine are excited,
each would produce a sinusoidal mmf distribution in the airgap with peal values
Fs and Fr respectively. The rotor mmf lags stator mmf by a space angle d at any
instant as shown in figure. Thus, half of stator and rotor surfaces will form one
pole with the other half forming the second pole. Further, the direction of torque
The following table gives four set of statement as regards poles and torque. Select
the correct set corresponding to the mmf axes as shown in figure.
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Stator Surface Stator Surface Rotor Surface Rotor surface Torque
ABC forms CDA forms abc forms cda forms is
(A) North Pole South Pole North Pole South Pole Clockwise
(B) South Pole North Pole North Pole South Pole Counter
Clockwise
(C) North Pole South Pole South Pole North Pole Counter
(D) South Pole North Pole South Pole North Pole Clockwise
Clockwise
EE SP 3.140 A 3phase induction motor is driving a constant torque load at rated voltage
and frequency. If both voltage and frequency are halved, following statements
relate to the new condition if stator resistance, leakage reactance and core loss
are ignored
1. The difference between synchronous speed and actual speed remains same
2. The airgap flux remains same
3. The stator current remains same
4. The p.u. slip remains same
Among the above, current statements are
(A) All
(B) 1, 2 and 3
(C) 2, 3 and 4
(D) 1 and 4
EE SP 3.141 A singlephase induction motor with only the main winding excited would exhibit
the following response at synchronous speed
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EE SP 3.142 A dc series motor driving and electric train faces a constant power load. It is
running at rated speed and rated voltage. If the speed has to be brought down to
0.25 p.u. the supply voltage has to be approximately brought down to
(A) 0.75 p.u (B) 0.5 p.u
(C) 0.25 p.u (D) 0.125 p.u
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***********
SOLUTION
SOL 3.1 Correct answer is 3.33 Hz.
For the given induction motor, we have
P = 8 , f = 50 Hz , Nr = 700 rpm
So, we obtain
120f
Ns = = 120 # 50 = 750 rpm
P 8
Therefore, the slip
s = Ns  Nr = 750  700 = 1
Ns 750 15
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Thus, the frequency of rotor current of the motor is obtained as
Frequency of rotor current = s # f
= 1 # 50 = 3.33 Hz
15
I = 2.3 A g
Again, for short circuit test, we have phase rms current at I f = 1.5 A as
Isc = 10 A I = 1.5 A
Ph g
Since Isc and I f are linearly related, so we get the short circuit phase current at
I f = 2.3 A as
Iscl = 10 # 2.3 = 46 A
Ph
1.5 3 I = 2.3 A
g
Iscl I = 2.3 A
Ph
g
400/ 3
= = 400 # 3 = 15.06 W
46/3 46
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nodia
Again, for V = 138 V and f = 30 Hz , we have
Core loss = 500 W
or Iron loss + Hysteresis loss = 500 W
^138h1.6
or KP ^138h2 + KH = 500
^30h0.6
= 541.69 W
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or 228.4 = 1400
202.4 w2
Thus, w 2 = 202.4 # 1400 = 1241.1 rpm
228.4
VTh = b N2 l Vs
N1
VTh = 2 sin ^wt h = 2 sin ^wt h
1
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RTh = b 2 l RP
2
1
= b 2 l RP = 4 # 1 = 4 W
2
Vi = V1 = 1000 V
Vo = V1 + V2 = 1000 + 100 = 1100 V
Rating of auto transformer
S 0a = V0 # I2a ^I2a = I2h
= 1100 # 500 = 550 kVA
As the load decreases, the speed increases. Relative speed between stator rmf
and rotor speed reduced which decrease the slip consequently emf induced in the
rotor and current decreases. Hence frequency decreases.
So f 1, f 2 < 50 Hz
but f2 > f1
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Reactive power Q = S sin q
or Q = P sin q = P tan q
cos q
Initially when the real power is 12 MW and power factor is 0.6, the reactive
power is
Q1 = P1 tan q 1
= 12 tan ^53.13ch q = cos1 ^0.6h = 53.13c
= 12 # 4 = 16 MVR
3
Now, when capacitor is added, improved power factor angle
Q2 = cos1 ^0.80h = 36.86c
Total reactive power after adding capacitor
Q2 = P1 tan q 2 (P1 is same)
Q2 = 12 # tan ^36.86ch
= 12 # 3 = 9 MAR
4
From the power triangle (before and after capacitor is added)
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Induced Emf Eg = 250 + 52 ^0.6h = 281.2 V
When the machine is running as a motor
Field current Ilsn = 250 = 2 A
125
Load current IlL = 50 A
Armature current Ila = I lL  I lsn = 50  2 = 48 A
Induced Emf Em = 250  48 ^0.6h = 221.2 V
For DC machine, f is constant, so
Ng
= Nm
Eg Em
Ng E
Speed Ratio = g = 281.2 = 1.27
Nm Em 221.2
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For single, phase, V1 = 4.44 kd 1 ffN1
For three phase, V2 = 4.44kd2 ffN2
V1 = kd 1 # N1 = 0.6398 # 540
V2 kd 2 # N2 0.9597 # 180
2
Pe1 = 1 2
Pe2 b 1.1 l
So
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has to search or hunt for its new equilibrium position. It causes the hunting,
which can be damped by rotor copper losses.
But, the switch does not operate due to malfunctioning. So, there will be no
discontinuity in the characteristic curve. Thus, we have the modified characteristic
curve of the motor as
Given
No load speed, N = 1400 rpm
Armature current, Ia = 8 A
Excitation voltage, V = 230 V
So, we obtain the torque of the motor as
t = V Ia = 2pV Ia
w 60 # N
= 2p230 # 8
60 # 1400
= 9.55 # 230 # 8
1400
= 12.55 Nm
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SOL 3.19 Correct option is (B).
Since, increase in torque accelerates the motor, so the slope of torque speed
characteristic should be negative to restore the speed to original value, which in
turn makes the system stable.
Thus, for stable operating point, the slope of torquespeed characteristic should
be negative.
Hence, the points P and S are stable operating points.
PH = 10 ; Pe = 1
10
From equation (i), we have the hysteresis and eddy current losses as
Pe = PH f + Pe f 2
S S
Hysteresis loss Eddy current loss
Thus, we get PH f = 10 # 25 = 250 W
Pe f 2 = 1 # ^25h2 = 62.5 W
10
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Power, factor, cos f = 1
Terminal voltage, Vt = 1.1 p.u.
Since, power factor is unity, so phase angle of armature current is also zero. So,
we get
Ia = P = 1 = 1
Vt cos f (1.1) (1) 1.1
or Ia = 1 < 0c
1.1
Again, we define the armature current as
E +d  Vt +0
Ia = f
jXS
So, E f +d = Ia (jXS ) + Vt < 0
= 1 (j 0.8) + 1.1+0
1.1+0
= 1 0.8+90c + 1.1+0
1.1+0
= 1.1+0 + 0.8 +90c
1.1
or E f cos d + jE f sin d = 1.1 + j 0.8 ...(i)
1.1
Now, we have the power equation
E V
P = f t sin d
XS
E (1.1)
1= f sin d
0.8
E f sin d = 0.8 ...(ii)
1.1
So, from equation (i), we get
E f cos d = 1.1 ...(iii)
Dividing equation (ii) by equation (iii), we get
E f sin d 0.8
=
E f cos d 1.1 # 1.1
tan d = 0.8
1.21
0.8
d = tan1 b 1.21 l = 33.47c
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E no load (1) = V  Ia Ra
or E1 = 300  2 ^0.5h
= 300  1 = 299 V
Again, when the load is applied, we have
Armature resistance, ra = 0.5 W
Armature current, Ia = 15 A
So, we draw the circuit as
Therefore, we obtain
E load (2) = V  Ia Ra
or E2 = 300  15 # 0.5
= 300  7.5 = 292.5
Since, we know that
E\N
So, E1 = N1
E2 N2
or 299 = 900 (given N1 = 900 rpm )
292.5 N2
or N2 = 880 rpm
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110 # 0.89
= 40.858+  27.13c
This is the current through secondary winding of transformer. So, the current
through primary winding is given by
I1 = N 2
I 2 N1
where N1 = number of turns in primary winding
N2 = Number of turns in secondary winding.
From the given circuit, we have
N1 = 2
N2 1
So, I1 = 1
I2 2
Therefore, I1 = I2 = 40.858+  27.13c
2 2
= 20.43+27.13c
Since, it is required to improve the input power factor to unity. So, the input
current should be red. Therefore, the imaginary part of I1 should pass through
reactance X . Thus, current through X is
IX = Im {I1}
= 20.43 sin (27.13c)
= 9.31
Hence, the reactance is
X = 220 = 220
IX 9.31
= 23.618 W
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Y = yl = total shunt admittance/phase
So, Z = j 0.5 # 400 = j200 W
Y = j 5 # 106 # 400 = j2 # 103 W
j 2 203 # j 200
So, Zl = j 200 c1 + # m = j 200 ( 0.066)
6
= j 200 # 0.934 = j 186.8 W
 Zl  = 186.8 W
Primary leakage reactance
Ll1 = L1  2M = 45  2 (20) = 5 mH
Self inductance of secondary winding refers to primary side
N1 2 V1 2
Ll2 = b N2 l L2 = bV2 l L 2
220 2
= b 110 l # 30
measured as
copper loss at 90% load = 81 watt
or, Wcu ^at 90%h = 81 watt
Now, we have the copper loss for x load as
2
Wcu ^x h = Wcu ^at full loadh # c Ix m
IFL
2
or, Wcu ^at full loadh = Wcu ^at x% loadh # c FL m
I
Ix
= ^81h # 1
^0.9h2
= 100 watt
For maximum efficiency we must have
copper lossed = noload loss
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= 64 watt
Consider at x% load copper loss is 64 watt. So,
^x2h Wcu ^at full loadh = 64
or, x = 64 = 0.8
100
or x = 80% load
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1
V
at VWZ = 100 V ; WX = 100
2
2
VYZ 100
2
E2 = Vt  Ia Ra 2
 36.3%
I2 = E2 = E2 \ E2
X2 wL 2 f
50 230 57
I l b 236 lb 50 l
So =
2
I2l = 45.0 A
nodia
SOL 3.33 Correct option is (B).
Since the core length of the second transformer is 2 times of the first, so the
core area of the second transformer is twice of the first.
Let subscript 1 is used for first transformer and 2 is used for second transform.
Area a2 = 2a1
Length l2 = 2 l1
N 2 ma
Magnetizing inductance, L =
l
N = no. of turns
m = length of flux path
a = cross section area
l = length
L\a N and m are same for both the
l
transformer
L1 = a1 : l 2
L2 a 2 l1
L 1 = a1 : 2 l1
L2 2a1 l1
L 2 = 2 L1
Thus, magnetizing reactance of second transformer is 2 times of first.
Magnetizing current Xm2 = 2 Xm1
Im = V
Xm
Im1 = V1 : Xm2 = V1 2 Xm1
Im2 V2 Xm1 b 2V1 lc Xm1 m (V2 = 2V1)
Im2 = 2 Im1
Thus, magnetizing current of second transformer
Im2 = 2 # 0.5 = 0.707 A
Since voltage of second transformer is twice that of first and current is 2 times
that of first, so power will be 2 2 times of first transformer.
P2 = 2 2 # 55 = 155.6 W
Ia = V  Eb
Ra
at the time of starting, Eb = 0 . If the full supply voltage is applied to the motor,
it will draw a large current due to low armature resistance.
A variable resistance should be connected in series with the armature resistance
to limit the starting current.
A 4point starter is used to start and control speed of a dc shut motor.
nodia
SOL 3.36 Correct option is (C).
An aircore transformer has linear B H characteristics, which implies that
magnetizing current characteristic will be perfectly sinusoidal.
Now the flux is reduced by 10% keeping the torque to be constant, so the current
will be
Ia f1 = Ia f2
1 2
f
Ia = Ia 1 = 10 # 1 = 11.11 A ` f2 = 0.9f1
2 1
f2 0.9
Eb \ Nf
Eb Nf
& = 2 2 = 0.9
2
N1 = N 2
Eb N1 f 1
1
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IP = i 02 + i 22
= 1+4 = 5 = 2.24 Amp
Eb1 = Va = 200 V
E
N \ Eb & N1 = b 1
N2 Eb 2
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Given field excitation of = 20 A
Armature current = 400 A
Short circuit and terminal voltage = 200 V
On open circuit, load current = 200 A
So, Internal resistance = 2000 = 5 W
400
Internal vol. drop = 5 # 200
= 1000 V
SOL 3.52
SOL 3.53
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Correct option is (B).
When both S1 and S2 open, star connection consists 3rd harmonics in line current
due to hysteresis A saturation.
N1 = 4000
N2 = 6000
I = 25 A
V = 400 V , f = 50 Hz
Coil are to be connected to obtain a single Phase, 400 V auto transfer to drive
1000
Load 10 kVA. Connected A & D common B
nodia
SOL 3.57 Correct option is (B).
Transformer connection will be represented by Y d1.
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df
During  0 < t < 1, E1 = (100) = 12 V
dt
E1 and E2 are in opposition
E2 = 2E1 = 24 V
df
During time 1 < t < 2 , = 0 , then E1 = E2 = 0
dt
df
During 2 < t < 2.5 , E1 = (100) = 24 V
dt
Then E2 = 0  48 V
motor.
R = 1.00 W, Xs = Xlr = 1.5 W
So, for max. torque slip Sm = Rlr
Xsm + Xlrm
For starting torque Sm = 1
Then Xsm + Xlrm = Rlr
2pfm Ls + 0.2pfm Llr = 1
Frequency at max. torque
fm = 1
2p (Ls + Llr )
Ls = Xs = 1.5
2p # 50 2p # 50
Llr = 1.5
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2p # 50
fm = 1 = 50 = 16.7 Hz
1.5 + 1.5 3
50 50
In const V/f control method
V1 = 400 = 8
f1 50
V2 = 8
f1
So V2 = f2 # 8
= 16.7 # 8 = 133.3 V
V = 1+0c p.u.
Ia = 0.6+0c p.u.
Zs = Ra + jXs = 0 + j1 = 1+90c p.u.
V = E+d + Ia Zs = 1+0c  0.6+0c # 1+90c
E+d = 1.166+  30.96c p.u.
Excitation voltage = 1.17 p.u.
Load angle (d) = 30.96c(lagging)
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SOL 3.71 Correct option is (B).
Speedarmature current characteristic of a dc motor is shown as following
The shunt motor provides speed regulation at full load without any controller.
Efficiency 95% = 50 # 1 # 1
50 # Wcu + Wi
So Wcu + Wi = 2.631
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Reconfigured as a 500 V/750 V autotransformer
autotransformer efficiency
h= 150 = 98.276%
150 + 2.631
ISt = 7I Fl
S Fl = 5%
TSt = ISt 2 x2 S
TFl bTFl l # # Fl
1.5 = (7) 2 # x2 # 0.05
x = 78.252%
nodia
SOL 3.80 Correct option is (C).
Given starting torque is 0.5 p.u.
TSt = Isc 2 S
So,
TFl b I Fl l # Fl
I Fl
Per unit starting current
Isc = 0.5 = 3.16 A
I Fl 0.05
The two windings are displaced 90c in space. The direction of rotation can be
changed by reversing the main winding terminals.
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for motor Em = V  Ia Ra
= 200  20 # 0.2
Em = 196 volt
Eg N f
So = g # g
Em Nm fm
204 = Ng 1
196 Nm # 1.1
Nm = 196 = 0.87
Ng 204 # 1.1
2
T \ cV m S
f
S2 = V1 2 f2 T2
S1 bV2 l # f1 # T1
So
Given T1 = T2
S2 = 0.04 # b 400 l # 30
2
Then
240 50
S2 = 0.066
Nr = Ns (1  S)
120f
Nr =
P
So Nr = 120 # 30 ^1  0.066h
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4
= 840.6 rpm
15
Total losses = 1354.67 + 1002 = 2356.67
Efficiency = 10000 100 = 81%
10000 + 2356.67 #
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(236) 2  c 400 m = 48.932
2
=
3
Ia = 48.932 = 4.8932
10
Load (%) = 4 . 8932 = 67.83 %
7.22
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So Angle = 180 = 36c
5
the phase emf of fifth harmonic is zero.
So X = 4.118 = 0.6956
8.51
h% = 0.6956 # 1 # 300
0.6956 # 300 + 4.118 + 8.51 # (0.6956) 2
h = 96.20%
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When the speed of the motor is in forward direction then slip varies from 0 to 1
but when speed of motor is in reverse direction or negative then slip is greater
then 1. So at point W slip is greater than 1.
Pnew = 50 = 25 kW
2
At 1.5 time the rated speed by field control
P = constant
So P = 50 kW
In synchronous machine, when the armature terminal are shorted the field current
should first be decreased to zero before started the alternator.
In open circuit the synchronous machine runs at rated synchronous speed. The
field current is gradually increased in steps.
The short circuit ratio is the ratio of field current required to produced the rated
voltage on open to the rated armature current.
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PZfIa
T =
2pA
So, torque(T ) is depends of f and Ia and developed power(P ) is depend of flux
f, speed w and armature current Ia .
If the stator voltage drop is neglected the terminal voltage E1 . To avoid saturation
and to minimize losses motor is operated at rated airgap flux by varying terminal
voltage with frequency. So as to maintain (V/f ) ratio constant at the rated
value, the magnetic flux is maintained almost constant at the rated value which
keeps maximum torque constant.
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So, IX = 87.47 # 20 = 1.75 kV
2
E ph = c 6.5 m + (1.75) 2
E ph =
E ph
3
2
6.5 2
c 3 m + (1.75)
= 4.2 kV
2
EL = 3 E ph a Star connection
EL = 1.732 # 4.2 = 7.26 kV
nodia
SOL 3.113 Correct option is (D).
1phase induction motor is not self starting, so it’s used to start different method
at full load condition, capacitorrun type motor have higher power factor. In this
type the capacitor is connected in running condition.
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Given that the armature of a permanent magnet dc motor is
Ra = 0.8 W
At no load condition
V = 25 V , I = 1.5 A , N = 1500 rpm
No load losses = E # I
a E = V  IRa
So no load losses = (25  1.5 # 0.8) 1.5 = 35.7 W
At load condition I = 3.5 A
Iron losses = I2 R = (3.5) 2 # 0.8 = 9.8 W
Total losses = No load losses + iron losses
= 35.7 + 9.8 = 45.5 W
Total power P = VI
P = 25 # 3.5
P = 87.5 W
output
Efficiency =
input
total power  losses
h =
total power
= 87.5  45.5 # 100
87.5
= 48.0%
Vin = 3300 V
Vout = 3300 + 230 = 3530 V
Output current I2 and output voltage 230 V
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Chapter 3 Electric Machines Page 193
So
3
I2 = 50 # 10 = 217.4 A
230
When the output voltage is Vout then kVA rating of auto transformer will be
I2 = 3530 # 217.4
= 767.42 kVA
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2
(11 # 103) 2
Z Base = V P = = 3630 W
VL IL /3 100 # 103
3
The phase impedance referred to primary
Z primary = Z pu # Z Base
= (0.02 + j0.07) (3630) = 72.6 + j254.1
Zm = Rm + Xm = 6.0 + j4.0 W
ZA = RA + XA = 8.0 + j6.0 W
Phase angle of main winding
+I m = +  Z m
= + (6 + j4) = +33.7c
So angle of the auxiliary winding when the capacitor is in series.
+IA = + (8 + j6) + 1
jwC
j
= + (8 + j6) 
wC
a = +I A  +I m
6 1
So 90 = tan >f 1 wC p  ( 33.7)H
8
1 = 18 w = 2pf
wC
So C = 1 = 1
18 # 2pf 18 # 2 # 3.14 # 50
= 176.8 mF
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both alternator voltage are in phase
So,
E f1 = 3300
3
E f2 = 3200
3
Synchronizing current or circulating current
= EC
TS1 + TS2
Reactance of both alternator are same
E  Ef 2
So = f1
TS 1 + TS 2
= 1 b 3300  3200 l = 16.98 A
3 1.7 + 1.7
SOL 3.123 Correct option is (C).
Given V = 400 V, 15 kW power and P = 4
f = 50 Hz , Full load slip (S ) = 4%
120f
So Ns = = 120 # 50 = 1500 rpm
P 4
Actual speed = synchronous speed  slip
N = 1500  4 # 1500 = 1440 rpm
100
Torque developed T = P , where ws (1  S) = 2pN
ws (1  S) 60
3
= 15 # 10 # 60 = 99.47 Nm
2p # 1440
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Eg = 0.06 # 250 # 3.84 # 8
60 # 2
a A = 2 for wave winding
Eg = 384 volt
IL = 15.79 kA
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phase induction motor and escalator used the three phase induction motor.
Given open circuit and fullload zero power factor of a synchronous generator. At
point Q the zero power factor at 1.0 pu voltage. The voltage drop at point PQ is
across synchronous reactance.
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value of emf induced by motor is
Eb = 0.98
The DC shunt motor is mechanically coupled by the generator so the emf
induced by motor and generator is equal
Eg = Eb
so voltage generated by the generator is
V = 0.98  1 # 0.2 = 0.96
per unit value of load resistance is equal to 0.96
so I 3 = V3 = 100 = j40
 jXc  j2.5
When the secondary winding current I2 is referred to primary side i.e I 1'
So I 1' = N2 = 2
I2 N1 4
I 1' = 20 = 10 A
2
and winding third current I 3 is referred to Primary side i.e I 1'' . I 3 flows to opposite
to I1
So I 1'' = N 3 = 1
 I3 N1 4
I 1'' = j10
So total current in primary winding is
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I1 = I 1'' + I 2'' = 10  j10 A
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Given that:
3f induction motor is driving a constant load torque at rated voltage and
frequency. Voltage and frequency are halved and stator resistance, leakage
reactance and core losses are ignored.
Then the motor synchronous speed and actual speed difference are same.
120f
Ns =
P
The leakage reactance are ignored then the air gap flux remains same and the
stator resistance are ignored then the stator current remain same.
***********
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CHAPTER 4
POWER SYSTEMS
EE SP 4.1 Threephase to ground fault takes place at locations F1 and F2 in the system
shown in the figure.
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If the fault takes place at location F1 , then the voltage and the current at bus
A are VF1 and IF1 respectively. If the fault takes place at location F2 , then the
voltage and the current at bus A and VF2 and IF2 respectively. The correct
statement about voltages and currents during faults at F1 and F2 is
(A) VF1 leads IF1 and VF2 leads IF2
(C) VF1 lags IF1 and VF2 leads IF2
(B) VF1 leads IF1 and VF2 lags IF2
(D) VF1 lags IF1 and VF2 lags IF2
EE SP 4.2 A 2bus system and corresponding zero sequence network are shown in the figure.
EE SP 4.4 A three phase synchronous generator is to be connected to the infinite bus. The
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lamps are connected as shown in the figure for the synchronization. The phase
sequence of bus voltage is RYB and that of incoming generator voltage is
Rl  Yl  Bl.
It was found that the lamps are becoming dark in the sequence La  Lb  Lc . It
means that the phase sequence of incoming generator is
(A) opposite to infinite bus and its frequency is more than infinite bus
(B) opposite to infinite bus but its frequency is less than infinite bus
(C) same as infinite bus and its frequency is more than infinite bus
(D) same as infinite bus and its frequency is less than infinite bus
(B) 50 A and 50 A
(C) 25 A and 75 A
(D) 0 A and 100 A
EE SP 4.6 A two bus power system shown in the figure supplies load of 1.0 + j0.5 p.u.
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The values of V1 in p.u. and d 2 respectively are
(A) 0.95 and 6.00c
(B) 1.05 and  5.44c
(C) 1.1 and  6.00c
(D) 1.1 and  27.12c
EE SP 4.8 The over current relays for the line protection and loads connected at the buses
are shown in the figure.
EE SP 4.9 A three phase starconnected load is drawing power at a voltage of 0.9 pu and
0.8 power factor lagging. The three phase base power and base current are 100
MVA and 437.38 A respectively. The linetoline load voltage in kV is _____.
EE SP 4.10 Shunt reactors are sometimes used in high voltage transmission systems to
(A) limit the short circuit current through the line
(B) compensate for the series reactance of the line under heavily loaded
condition
(C) limit overvoltages at the load side under lightly loaded condition.
(D) compensate for the voltage drop in the line under heavily loaded condition.
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YEAR 2014 EE02 TWO MARKS
EE SP 4.12 There are two generators in a power system. Noload frequencies of the generators
are 51.5 Hz and 51 Hz, respectively, and both are having droop constant of
1 Hz/MW . Total load in the system is 2.5 MW. Assuming that the generators
are operating under their respective droop characteristics, the frequency of the
power system in Hz in the steady state is ______.
EE SP 4.14 A three phase, 100 MVA, 25 kV generator has solidly grounded neutral. The
positive, negative, and the zero sequence reactances of the generator are 0.2 pu,
0.2 pu and 0.05 pu, respectively, at the machine base quantities. If a bolted single
phase to ground fault occurs at the terminal of the unloaded generator, the fault
current in amperes immediately after the fault is_____.
EE SP 4.15 In a long transmission line with r , l , g and c are the resistance, inductance,
shunt conductance and capacitance per unit length, respectively, the condition
for distortionless transmission is
(A) rc = lg (B) r = l/c
(C) rg = lc (D) g = c/l
EE SP 4.17 A 183 bus power system has 150 PQ buses and 32 PV buses. In the general
case, to obtain the load flow solution using NewtonRaphson method in polar
coordinates, the minimum number of simultaneous equations to be solved is
_____.
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EE SP 4.18 For a 400 km long transmission line, the series impedance is ^0.0 + j0.5h W/km
and the shunt admittance is ^0.0 + j5.0h mmho/km . The magnitude of the series
impedance (in W ) of the equivalent p circuit of the transmission line is ____.
EE SP 4.19 The complex power consumed by a constantvoltage load is given by ^P1 + jQ1h,
where, 1 kW # P1 # 1.5 kW and 0.5 kVAR # Q1 # 1 kVAR
A compensating shunt capacitor is chosen such that Q # 0.25 kVAR , where
Q is the net reactive power consumed by the capacitor load combination. The
reactive power (in kVAR) supplied by the capacitor is ____.
EE SP 4.20 The figure shows the single line diagram of a single machine infinite bus system.
EE SP 4.21 For a power system network with n nodes, Z 33 of its bus impedance matrix is
j0.5 per unit. The voltage at node 3 is 1.3  10c per unit. If a capacitor having
reactance of  j3.5 per unit is now added to the network between node 3 and the
reference node, the current drawn by the capacitor per unit is
(A) 0.325  100c (B) 0.325 80c
(C) 0.371  100c (D) 0.433 80c
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EE SP 4.22 The voltage phase angles in rad at buses 2 and 3 are
(A) q2 = 0.1, q3 = 0.2 (B) q2 = 0 , q3 = 0.1
(C) q2 = 0.1, q3 = 0.1 (D) q2 = 0.1, q3 = 0.2
EE SP 4.23 If the base impedance and the lineto line base voltage are 100 ohms and 100 kV
respectively, then the real power in MW delivered by the generator connected at
the slack bus is
(A)  10 (B) 0
(C) 10 (D) 20
EE SP 4.25 A twophase load draws the following phase currents : i1 (t) = Im sin (wt  f 1),
i2 (t) = Im cos (wt  f 2). These currents are balanced if f 1 is equal to.
(A)  f 2 (B) f 2
(C) (p/2  f 2) (D) (p/2 + f 2)
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EE SP 4.27 The sequence components of the fault current are as follows : I positive = j 1.5 pu,
I negative = j 0.5 pu, I zero = j1 pu . The type of fault in the system is
(A) LG (B) LL
(C) LLG (D) LLLG
EE SP 4.28 For the system below, SD1 and SD2 are complex power demands at bus 1 and bus
2 respectively. If V2 = 1 pu , the VAR rating of the capacitor (QG2) connected
at bus 2 is
EE SP 4.29 A cylinder rotor generator delivers 0.5 pu power in the steadystate to an infinite
bus through a transmission line of reactance 0.5 pu. The generator noload voltage
is 1.5 pu and the infinite bus voltage is 1 pu. The inertia constant of the generator
is 5 MW s/MVA and the generator reactance is 1 pu. The critical clearing angle,
in degrees, for a threephase dead short circuit fault at the generator terminal is
(A) 53.5 (B) 60.2
(C) 70.8 (D) 79.6
EE SP 4.30 A nuclear power station of 500 MW capacity is located at 300 km away from a
load center. Select the most suitable power evacuation transmission configuration
among the following options
EE SP 4.31
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A negative sequence relay is commonly used to protect
(A) an alternator
(C) a transmission line
(B) an transformer
(D) a bus bar
EE SP 4.32 For enhancing the power transmission in along EHV transmission line, the most
preferred method is to connect a
(A) Series inductive compensator in the line
(B) Shunt inductive compensator at the receiving end
(C) Series capacitive compensator in the line
(D) Shunt capacitive compensator at the sending end
EE SP 4.33 A load center of 120 MW derives power from two power stations connected by
220 kV transmission lines of 25 km and 75 km as shown in the figure below. The
three generators G1, G2 and G 3 are of 100 MW capacity each and have identical
fuel cost characteristics. The minimum loss generation schedule for supplying the
120 MW load is
P1 = 80 MW + losses P1 = 60 MW
(A) P2 = 20 MW (B) P2 = 30 MW + losses
P3 = 20 MW P3 = 30 MW
Shop GATE Electrical in 4 Volumes by RK Kanodia at maximum discount at
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Chapter 4 Power Systems Page 209
P1 = 40 MW P1 = 30 MW + losses
(C) P2 = 40 MW (D) P2 = 45 MW
P3 = 40 MW + losses P3 = 45 MW
EE SP 4.34 The direct axis and quadrature axis reactances of a salient pole alternator are
1.2 p.u and 1.0 p.u respectively. The armature resistance is negligible. If this
alternator is delivering rated kVA at upf and at rated voltage then its power
angle is
(A) 30c (B) 45c
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EE SP 4.35 A three – bus network is shown in the figure below indicating the p.u. impedance
of each element.
EE SP 4.36 Two generator units G1 and G2 are connected by 15 kV line with a bus at the
midpoint as shown below
G1 = 250 MVA , 15 kV, positive sequence reactance XG = 25% on its own base
1
G2 = 100 MVA , 15 kV, positive sequence reactance XG = 10% on its own base L1
2
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EE SP 4.37 In the above system, the threephase fault MVA at the bus 3 is
(A) 82.55 MVA (B) 85.11 MVA
(C) 170.91 MVA (D) 181.82 MVA
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(A)  1 pu (B) 1 pu
(C) 2 pu (D) 3 pu
EE SP 4.40 Consider two buses connected by an impedence of (0 + 5j) W . The bus ‘1’ voltage
is 100+30c V, and bus ‘2’ voltage is 100+0c V. The real and reactive power
supplied by bus ‘1’ respectively are
(A) 1000 W, 268 VAr (B)  1000 W,  134 VAr
(C) 276.9 W,  56.7 VAr (D)  276.9 W, 56.7 VAr
EE SP 4.41 A threephase, 33 kV oil circuit breaker is rated 1200 A, 2000 MVA, 3 s. The
symmetrical breaking current is
(A) 1200 A (B) 3600 A
(C) 35 kA (D) 104.8 kA
EE SP 4.43 The zerosequence circuit of the three phase transformer shown in the figure is
EE SP 4.44
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A 50 Hz synchronous generator is initially connected to a long lossless transmission
line which is open circuited at the receiving end. With the field voltage held
constant, the generator is disconnected from the transmission line. Which of the
following may be said about the steady state terminal voltage and field current
of the generator ?
(A) The magnitude of terminal voltage decreases, and the field current does
not change.
(B) The magnitude of terminal voltage increases, and the field current does not
change.
(C) The magnitude of terminal voltage increases, and the field current
increases
(D) The magnitude of terminal voltage does not change and the field current
decreases.
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(A) 2.0 A (B) 2.4 A
(C) 2.7 A (D) 3.5 A
EE SP 4.47 For the power system shown in the figure below, the specifications of the
components are the following :
G1 : 25 kV, 100 MVA, X = 9%
G2 : 25 kV, 100 MVA, X = 9%
T1 : 25 kV/220 kV, 90 MVA, X = 12%
T2 : 220 kV/25 kV, 90 MVA, X = 12%
Line 1: 200 kV, X = 150 ohms
Choose 25 kV as the base voltage at the generator G1 , and 200 MVA as the MVA
base. The impedance diagram is
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YEAR 2009 ONE MARK
EE SP 4.49 For a fixed value of complex power flow in a transmission line having a sending
EE SP 4.50 For the Ybus matrix of a 4bus system given in per unit, the buses having shunt
elements are
R 5 2 2.5 0 V
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S W
S 2  10 2.5 4 W
YBUS = j S
2.5 2.5  9 4 W
S W
S0 4 4  8W
(A) 3 and 4 T X (B) 2 and 3
(C) 1 and 2 (D) 1, 2 and 4
EE SP 4.51 Match the items in ListI (To) with the items in the ListII (Use) and select the
correct answer using the codes given below the lists.
ListI ListII
a. improve power factor 1. shunt reactor
b. reduce the current ripples 2. shunt capacitor
c. increase the power flow in line 3. series capacitor
d. reduce the Ferranti effect 4. series reactor
(A) a " 2, b " 3, c " 4, d " 1
(B) a " 2, b " 4, c " 3, d " 1
(C) a " 4, b " 3, c " 1, d " 2
(D) a " 4, b " 1, c " 3, d " 2
EE SP 4.52 Match the items in ListI (Type of transmission line) with the items in ListII
(Type of distance relay preferred) and select the correct answer using the codes
given below the lists.
ListI ListII
a. Short Line 1. Ohm Relay
b. Medium Line 2. Reactance Relay
c. Long Line 3. Mho Relay
(A) a " 2, b " 1, c " 3 (B) a " 3, b " 2, c " 1
(C) a " 1, b " 2, c " 3 (D) a " 1, b " 3, c " 2
EE SP 4.53 Three generators are feeding a load of 100 MW. The details of the generators are
EE SP 4.54 A 500 MW, 21 kV, 50 Hz, 3phase, 2pole synchronous generator having a rated
p.f = 0.9, has a moment of inertia of 27.5 # 103 kgm2 .The inertia constant (H
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) will be
(A) 2.44 s (B) 2.71 s
(C) 4.88 s (D) 5.42 s
EE SP 4.55 A two machine power system is shown below. The Transmission line XY has
positive sequence impedance of Z1 W and zero sequence impedance of Z0 W
An ‘a’ phase to ground fault with zero fault impedance occurs at the centre of the
transmission line. Bus voltage at X and line current from X to F for the phase
‘a’, are given by Va Volts and Ia amperes, respectively. Then, the impedance
measured by the ground distance relay located at the terminal X of line XY will
be given by
(A) ^Z1 /2h W (B) ^Z0 /2h W
(C) (Z0 + Z1) /2 W (D) ^Va /Ia h W
EE SP 4.56 An extra high voltage transmission line of length 300 km can be approximate by
a lossless line having propagation constant b = 0.00127 radians per km. Then
the percentage ratio of line length to wavelength will be given by
(A) 24.24 % (B) 12.12 %
(C) 19.05 % (D) 6.06 %
Voltage drop across the transmission line is given by the following equation :
R V R VR V
S3 Va W SZs Zm Zm WSIa W
S3 Vb W = SZm Zs Zm WSIb W
SS3 V WW SSZ Z Z WWSSI WW
c m m s c
X XT
Shunt capacitance of the X line can be neglect. If the has positive sequence
T T
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impedance of 15 W and zero sequence impedance of 48 W, then the values of Zs
and Zm will be
(A) Zs = 31.5 W; Zm = 16.5 W
(B) Zs = 26 W; Zm = 11 W
(D) Zs = 11 W; Zm = 26 W
EE SP 4.58 Voltages phasors at the two terminals of a transmission line of length 70 km have
a magnitude of 1.0 per unit but are 180 degree out of phase. Assuming that the
maximum load current in the line is 1/5th
of minimum 3phase fault current. Which one of the following transmission line
protection schemes will not pick up for this condition ?
(A) Distance protection using ohm relay with zoen1 set to 80% of the line
impedance.
(B) Directional over current protection set to pick up at 1.25 times the
maximum load current
(C) Pilot relaying system with directional comparison scheme
(D) Pilot relaying system with segregated phase comparison scheme
EE SP 4.59 A loss less transmission line having Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) of 2280 MW
is provided with a uniformly distributed series capacitive compensation of 30%.
Then, SIL of the compensated transmission line will be
(A) 1835 MW (B) 2280 MW
(C) 2725 MW (D) 3257 MW
EE SP 4.60 A loss less power system has to serve a load of 250 MW. There are tow generation
(G 1 and G 2 ) in the system with cost curves C1 and C2 respectively defined as
follows ;
2
C1 (PG1) = PG1 + 0.055 # PG1
2
C2 (PG2) = 3PG2 + 0.03 # PG2
Where PG1 and PG2 are the MW injections from generator G 1 and G 2 respectively.
Thus, the minimum cost dispatch will be
EE SP 4.61 A loss less single machine infinite bus power system is shown below :
The synchronous generator transfers 1.0 per unit of power to the infinite bus. The
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critical clearing time of circuit breaker is 0.28 s. If another identical synchronous
generator is connected in parallel to the existing generator and each generator is
scheduled to supply 0.5 per unit of power, then the critical clearing time of the
circuit breaker will
(A) reduce to 0.14 s
(B) reduce but will be more than 0.14 s
(C) remain constant at 0.28 s
(D) increase beyond 0.28 s
EE SP 4.62 Single line diagram of a 4bus single source distribution system is shown below.
Branches e1, e2, e3 and e4 have equal impedances. The load current values indicated
in the figure are in per unit.
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EE SP 4.63 The instant (t0) of the fault will be
(A) 4.682 ms (B) 9.667 ms
(C) 14.667 ms (D) 19.667 ms
EE SP 4.64 The rms value of the component of fault current (If ) will be
(A) 3.59 kA
(B) 5.07 kA
(C) 7.18 kA
(D) 10.15 kA
EE SP 4.65 Instead of the three phase fault, if a single line to ground fault occurs on phase
‘a’ at point ‘F’ with zero fault impedance, then the rms of the ac component of
fault current (Ix) for phase ‘a’ will be
(A) 4.97 p.u
(B) 7.0 p.u
(C) 14.93 p.u
(D) 29.85 p.u
EE SP 4.66 Consider the transformer connections in a part of a power system shown in the
figure. The nature of transformer connections and phase shifts are indicated for
all but one transformer.
Which of the following connections, and the corresponding phase shift q, should
be used for the transformer between A and B ?
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(D) StarZigzag (q = 30%)
EE SP 4.67 The incremental cost curves in Rs/MWhr for two generators supplying a common
load of 700 MW are shown in the figures. The maximum and minimum generation
limits are also indicated. The optimum generation schedule is :
EE SP 4.68 Two regional systems, each having several synchronous generators and loads are
inter connected by an ac line and a HVDC link as shown in the figure. Which of
the following statements is true in the steady state :
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(A) Point X
(C) Point Z
(B) Point Y
(D) Point W
EE SP 4.70 The figure below shows a three phase selfcommutated voltage source converter
connected to a power system. The converter’s dc bus capacitor is marked as C
in the figure. The circuit in initially operating in steady state with d = 0 and the
capacitor dc voltage is equal to Vdc0 . You may neglect all losses and harmonics.
What action should be taken to increase the capacitor dc voltage slowly to a new
steady state value.
EE SP 4.71 The total reactance and total suspectance of a lossless overhead EHV line,
operating at 50 Hz, are given by 0.045 pu and 1.2 pu respectively. If the velocity
of wave propagation is 3 # 105 km/s, then the approximate length of the line is
(A) 122 km (B) 172 km
(C) 222 km (D) 272 km
EE SP 4.72 Consider the protection system shown in the figure below. The circuit breakers
numbered from 1 to 7 are of identical type. A single line to ground fault with zero
fault impedance occurs at the midpoint of the line (at point F), but circuit breaker
4 fails to operate (‘‘Stuck breaker’’). If the relays are coordinated correctly, a
valid sequence of circuit breaker operation is
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(A) 1, 2, 6, 7, 3, 5 (B) 1, 2, 5, 5, 7, 3
(C) 5, 6, 7, 3, 1, 2 (D) 5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7
EE SP 4.73 A three phase balanced star connected voltage source with frequency w rad/s
is connected to a star connected balanced load which is purely inductive. The
instantaneous line currents and phase to neutral voltages are denoted by (ia, ib, ic)
and (Van, Vbn, Vcn) respectively, and their rms values are denoted by V and I .
R V
S 0
1
3
 13 W RSia VW
If R = 8Van Vbn Vcn B S 13 0 1 WS W
3 W b
i , then the magnitude of
S 1 SSi WW
S 3  3
1
0 W c
of R is T XT X
(A) 3VI (B) VI
(C) 0.7VI (D) 0
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SS0.75 0.5 1.0 WW S 0.5  0.5 1.0 WW
T X T X
EE SP 4.76 Consider the two power systems shown in figure A below, which are initially not
interconnected, and are operating in steady state at the same frequency. Separate
load flow solutions are computed individually of the two systems, corresponding
to this scenario. The bus voltage phasors so obtain are indicated on figure A.
These two isolated systems are now interconnected by a short transmission line
as shown in figure B, and it is found that P1 = P2 = Q1 = Q2 = 0 .
The bus voltage phase angular difference between generator bus X and generator
bus Y after interconnection is
(A) 10c (B) 25c
EE SP 4.77 A 230 V (Phase), 50 Hz, threephase, 4wire, system has a phase sequence ABC.
A unity powerfactor load of 4 kW is connected between phase A and neutral N.
It is desired to achieve zero neutral current through the use of a pure inductor and
a pure capacitor in the other two phases. The value of inductor and capacitor is
(A) 72.95 mH in phase C and 139.02 mF in Phase B
(B) 72.95 mH in Phase B and 139.02 mF in Phase C
(C) 42.12 mH in Phase C and 240.79 mF in Phase B
(D) 42.12 mH in Phase B and 240.79 mF in Phase C
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maximum continuous power limit of its prime mover. It is equipped with a speed
governor with 5% droop. Initially, the generator is feeding three loads of 4 MW
each at 50 Hz. One of these loads is programmed to trip permanently if the
frequency falls below 48 Hz .If an additional load of 3.5 MW is connected then
the frequency will settle down to
(A) 49.417 Hz (B) 49.917 Hz
(C) 50.083 Hz (D) 50.583 Hz
EE SP 4.79 The concept of an electrically short, medium and long line is primarily based on
the
(A) nominal voltage of the line (B) physical length of the line
(C) wavelength of the line (D) power transmitted over the line
EE SP 4.80 Keeping in view the cost and overall effectiveness, the following circuit breaker
is best suited for capacitor bank switching
(A) vacuum (B) air blast
(C) SF6 (D) oil
EE SP 4.82 An HVDC link consist of rectifier, inverter transmission line and other equipments.
Which one of the following is true for this link ?
(A) The transmission line produces/ supplies reactive power
(B) The rectifier consumes reactive power and the inverter supplies reactive
power from/ to the respective connected AC systems
(C) Rectifier supplies reactive power and the inverted consumers reactive power
to/ from the respective connected AC systems
(D) Both the converters (rectifier and inverter) consume reactive power from
the respective connected AC systems
EE SP 4.84 A single phase transmission line and a telephone line are both symmetrically
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strung one below the other, in horizontal configurations, on a common tower,
The shortest and longest distances between the phase and telephone conductors
are 2.5 m and 3 m respectively.
The voltage (volt/km) induced in the telephone circuit, due to 50 Hz current of
100 amps in the power circuit is
(A) 4.81 (B) 3.56
(C) 2.29 (D) 1.27
EE SP 4.85 Three identical star connected resistors of 1.0 pu are connected to an unbalanced
3phase supply. The load neutral is isolated. The symmetrical components of the
line voltages in pu. are: Vab = X+q1 , Vab = Y+q2 . If all the pu calculations are
1 2
with the respective base values, the phase to neutral sequence voltages are
(A) Van = X+ (q1 + 30c),Van = Y (q2  30c)
1 2
EE SP 4.87 The Gauss Seidel load flow method has following disadvantages.
Tick the incorrect statement.
(A) Unreliable convergence
(B) Slow convergence
(C) Choice of slack bus affects convergence
(D) A good initial guess for voltages is essential for convergence
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EE SP 4.89 If the initial accelerating power is X pu, the initial acceleration in electdeg/sec,
and the inertia constant in MJsec/electdeg respectively will be
(A) 31.4X , 18 (B) 1800X , 0.056
(C) X/1800, 0.056 (D) X/31.4, 18
EE SP 4.90 The post fault voltages at buses 1 and 3 in per unit respectively are
(A) 0.24, 0.63 (B) 0.31, 0.76
(C) 0.33, 0.67 (D) 0.67, 0.33
EE SP 4.91 The per unit fault feeds from generators connected to buses 1 and 2 respectively
are
(A) 1.20, 2.51 (B) 1.55, 2.61
(C) 1.66, 2.50 (D) 5.00, 2.50
EE SP 4.92 A 400 V, 50 Hz, three phase balanced source supplies power to a star connected
load whose rating is 12 3 kVA, 0.8 pf (lag). The rating (in kVAR) of the delta
connected (capacitive) reactive power bank necessary to bring the pf to unity is
(A) 28. 78 (B) 21.60
(C) 16.60 (D) 12.47
EE SP 4.93 The p.u. parameter for a 500 MVA machine on its own base are:
inertia, M = 20 p.u. ; reactance, X = 2 p.u.
The p.u. values of inertia and reactance on 100 MVA common base, respectively, are
(A) 4, 0.4 (B) 100, 10
(C) 4, 10 (D) 100, 0.4
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(C) harmonics (D) corona
EE SP 4.99 The network shown in the given figure has impedances in p.u. as indicated. The
diagonal element Y22 of the bus admittance matrix YBUS of the network is
EE SP 4.100 A load centre is at an equidistant from the two thermal generating stations G1
and G2 as shown in the figure. The fuel cost characteristic of the generating
stations are given by
F1 = a + bP1 + cP12 Rs/hour
F2 = a + bP2 + 2cP22 Rs/ hour
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EE SP 4.101 Two networks are connected in cascade as shown in the figure. With usual
notations the equivalent A, B, C and D constants are obtained. Given that,
C = 0.025+45c, the value of Z2 is
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(C) pulsating with zero average
(D) pulsating with the nonzero average
(A) RYB
(B) RBY
(C) BRY
(D) YBR
EE SP 4.108 In the thermal power plants, the pressure in the working fluid cycle is developed by
(A) condenser (B) super heater
(C) feed water pump (D) turbine
EE SP 4.109 For harnessing low variable waterheads, the suitable hydraulic turbine with high
percentage of reaction and runner adjustable vanes is
(A) Kaplan
(B) Francis
(C) Pelton
(D) Impeller
EE SP 4.110 The transmission line distance protection relay having the property of being
inherently directional is
(A) impedance relay
(B) MHO relay
(C) OHM relay
(D) reactance relay
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(A) 1204 MW (B) 1504 MW
(C) 2085 MW (D) 2606 MW
EE SP 4.112 A 110 kV, single core coaxial, XLPE insulated power cable delivering power at
50 Hz, has a capacitance of 125 nF/km. If the dielectric loss tangent of XLPE is
2 # 10  4 , then dielectric power loss in this cable in W/km is
(A) 5.0 (B) 31.7
(C) 37.8 (D) 189.0
EE SP 4.114 The generalized circuit constants of a 3phase, 220 kV rated voltage, medium
length transmission line are
A = D = 0.936 + j0.016 = 0.936+0.98c
B = 35.5 + j138 = 142.0+76.4c W
C = ( 5.18 + j914) # 10  6 W
If the load at the receiving end is 50 MW at 220 kV with a power factor of 0.9
lagging, then magnitude of line to line sending end voltage should be
(A) 133.23 kV (B) 220.00 kV
(C) 230. 78 kV (D) 246.30 kV
EE SP 4.117 A 3phase transmission line supplies 3connected load Z . The conductor ‘c’ of
the line develops an open circuit fault as shown in figure. The currents in the
lines are as shown on the diagram. The +ve sequence current component in line
‘a’ will be
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(A) 5.78+  30c
(C) 6.33+90c
(B) 5.78+90c
(D) 10.00+  30c
EE SP 4.120 A hydraulic turbine having rated speed of 250 rpm is connected to a synchronous
generator. In order to produce power at 50 Hz, the number of poles required in
the generator are
(A) 6 (B) 12
(C) 16 (D) 24
EE SP 4.121 Bundled conductors are mainly used in high voltage overhead transmission lines
to
(A) reduces transmission line losses
(B) increase mechanical strength of the line
(C) reduce corona
(D) reduce sag
EE SP 4.122 A power system consist of 300 buses out of which 20 buses are generator bus,
25 buses are the ones with reactive power support and 15 buses are the ones
with fixed shunt capacitors. All the other buses are load buses. It is proposed to
perform a load flow analysis in the system using NewtonRaphson method. The
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size of the Newton Raphson Jacobian matrix is
(A) 553 # 553 (B) 540 # 540
(C) 555 # 555 (D) 554 # 554
EE SP 4.124 A round rotor generator with internal voltage E1 = 2.0 pu and X = 1.1 pu is
connected to a round rotor synchronous motor with internal voltage E2 = 1.3 pu
and X = 1.2 pu. The reactance of the line connecting the generator to the motor
is 0.5 pu. When the generator supplies 0.5 pu power, the rotor angle difference
between the machines will be
(A) 57.42c (B) 1c
(C) 32.58c (D) 122.58c
EE SP 4.125 The interrupting time of a circuit breaker is the period between the instant of
(A) initiation of short circuit and the arc extinction on an opening operation
(B) energizing of the trip circuit and the arc extinction on an opening
operation
(C) initiation of short circuit and the parting of primary arc contacts
(D) energizing of the trip circuit and the parting of primary arc contacts
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0.5 mF per km. The inductance and capacitance of the overhead transmission
lines are 1.5 mH and 0.015 mF per km. The magnitude of the voltage at the
junction due to surge is
(A) 36.72 kV (B) 18.36 kV
(C) 6.07 kV (D) 33.93 kV
EE SP 4.128 A dc distribution system is shown in figure with load current as marked. The two
ends of the feeder are fed by voltage sources such that VP  VQ = 3 V. The value
of the voltage VP for a minimum voltage of 220 V at any point along the feeder is
(A) 225.89 V
(B) 222.89 V
(C) 220.0 V
(D) 228.58 V
EE SP 4.129 A balanced delta connected load of (8 + j6) W per phase is connected to a 400 V,
50 Hz, 3phase supply lines. If the input power factor is to be improved to 0.9
by connecting a bank of star connected capacitor the required kVAR of the of
the bank is
(A) 42.7 (B) 10.2
(C) 28.8 (D) 38.4
EE SP 4.130 A 3phase 11 kV generator feeds power to a constant power unity power factor
load of 100 MW through a 3phase transmission line. The lineto line voltage
at the terminals of the machine is maintained constant at 11 kV. The per unit
positive sequence impedance of the line based on 100 MVA and 11 kV is j0.2 .
The line to line voltage at the load terminals is measured to be less than 11 kV.
The total reactive power to be injected at the terminals of the load to increase
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(C) j0.5408 W and j0.0956 W (D) j0.1260 W and j0.1630 W
EE SP 4.133 Incremental fuel costs (in some appropriate unit) for a power plant consisting of
three generating units are
IC1 = 20 + 0.3P1, IC2 = 30 + 0.4P2, IC3 = 30
Where P1 is the power in MW generated by unit i for i = 1, 2 and 3. Assume
that all the three units are operating all the time. Minimum and maximum loads
on each unit are 50 MW and 300 MW respectively. If the plant is operating on
economic load dispatch to supply the total power demand of 700 MW, the power
generated by each unit is
(A) P1 = 242.86 MW; P2 = 157.14 MW; and P3 = 300 MW
(B) P1 = 157.14 MW; P2 = 242.86 MW; and P3 = 300 MW
(C) P1 = 300 MW; P2 = 300 MW; and P3 = 100 MW
(D) P1 = 233.3 MW; P2 = 233.3 MW; and P3 = 233.4 MW
EE SP 4.134 A list of relays and the power system components protected by the relays are
given in ListI and ListII respectively. Choose the correct match from the four
choices given below:
ListI ListII
P. Distance relay 1. Transformers
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EE SP 4.135 A generator delivers power of 1.0 p.u. to an infinite bus through a purely reactive
network. The maximum power that could be delivered by the generator is 2.0
p.u. A threephase fault occurs at the terminals of the generator which reduces
the generator output to zero. The fault is cleared after tc second. The original
network is then restored. The maximum swing of the rotor angle is found to be
dmax = 110 electrical degree. Then the rotor angle in electrical degrees at t = tc is
(A) 55 (B) 70
(C) 69.14 (D) 72.4
***********
SOLUTION
SOL 4.1 Correct option ( C).
We have the given system as
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As fault always require/demand reactive power, so voltage should lead current.
Using this condition, we have the following observations for the given system:
At fault F2 which is not near to source require reactive power, hence
VF2 leads IF2
Fault F1 is near the source, so the current will lead voltage for active requirements,
i.e.
VF1 lags IF1
Here, on T1 side series switch are closed hence starconnection and grounded due
to 3XGn . On T2 side, shunt switches are closed hence one delta and one star with
ground.
T1 :
T2 :
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For the unbalanced three phase system, we have
Ia1 = 1  90c pu ;
Ib2 = 4  150c pu ;
Ic0 = 3 90c pu
The phase current is given by
Ia = Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0 ...(i)
Now, we have
Ib2 = aIa2
So, for the given system
4  150c = 1 120c Ia2
or Ia2 = 4  270c
Also, we have
Ia0 = Ib0 = Ic0 = 3 90c
Substituting these values in equation (i), we get
Ia = 1  90c = Ia1 + 4  270c + 3 90c
or Ia1 = 1  90c  4  270c  3 90c
= 8  90c
So, Ib1 = a2 Ia1
= 1 240c # 8  90c = 8 150c
Thus, we obtain
Ib = Ib1 + Ib2 + Ib0
= 8 150c + 4  150c + 3 90c
= 11.53 154.3c pu
If all the bulbs glow dark simultaneously, then all the gear and infinite bus
are in same phase sequence. But, in the given problem, they are coming in
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sequence (not simultaneously) La then Lb , and then Lc . So, phase sequence of
the generator is opposite to infinite bus system and frequency is high (as dark
period is for more time).
Let current I be supplied by source ^s1h, and r be the resistance per unit length.
Applying KVL, we get
400  ^r # 400h I  ^200r h^I  200h  ^200r h^I  300h  ^200r h^I  500h = 400
or 400Ir + 200Ir  40000r + 200Ir  60000r + 200Ir  100000r = 0
or 1000Ir = 200000r
So, I = 200 A
So, we redraw the current in distribution system as
Thus, the contribution of source ^s1h in 100 A load at P is 0 A , and the contribution
of s2 in 100 A load at P is 100 A.
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or
or d 2 = 5.65c
Also, V1  cos d 2 = 0.11 cos 116.56c
or V1 = 1.05
dC2 = 2 0.10P + 3A
dPg # g 2
2
0.2Pg + 3A = 100
2
Pg 200 12
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= 2 000 = 20
500/5
Substituting the values in equation (i), we get
top = 0.140# 0.1 = 0.14 # 0.1
^20h .02  1 0.617
= 0.226
d = 30.504c
Reactive power is given by
E V 2
Q = f cos d  V
Xs Xs
2
= 1.3 # 1 cos ^30.504ch  1
1. 1 1. 1
Q = 1.1818 # 0.8616  0.9090
Q = 0.1092 pu
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51.5  f
= droop constant
P1
51.5  f
=1
P1
51.5  f = P1 ...(i)
Now in steady state total load is 2.5 MW , so load by second generator is ^2.5  P1h
. For G2 we write
51  f
=1
2.5  P1
51  f = 2.5  P1 ...(ii)
Adding eq (i) and (ii), we get
51.5  f + 51  f = P1 + 2.5  P1
102.5  2f = 2.5
2f = 100
f = 50 Hz
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L = inductance (in henries per meter)
So, for the given parameters of long transmission line, the required condition for
distortionless transmission becomes
r =g
l c
or rc = lg
load is
Q # 0.25 kVAR
Since, we have Q1 = 1 kVAR , therefore, capacitor will supply
QC = .75 kVAR
i.e. capacitor must supply .75 kVAR .
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three buses have the equal voltage magnitude which is 1 Pu so, it is a D.C. load
flow. The injections at Bus 2 and 3 are respectively
P2 = 0.1 pu
P3 = 0.2 pu
Therefore, the phase angles are obtained as
q2 P2
>q H = 6B@1 >P H
3 3
i.e., q2 = 0
and q3 = 0.1 rad
= 10 # 106 watt = 10 MW
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We know that, cos (q  90c) = sin q
So, i1 (t) can be written as
i1 (t) = Im cos (wt  f1  90c)
i2 (t) = Im cos (wt  f2)
Now, in phasor form I1 = Im f1 + 90c
I 2 = Im f 2
Current are balanced if I1 + I 2 = 0
Im f1 + 90c + Im f 2 = 0
Im cos ^f1 + 90ch + jIm sin ^f1 + 90ch + cos f 2 + j sin f 2 = 0
Im 8cos ^f1 + 90ch + j sin ^f1 + 90chB + Im 6cos f 2 + j sin f 2@ = 0
Im 8cos ^f1 + 90ch + cos f 2B + jIm 8sin f 2 + sin ^f1 + 90chB = 0
cos ^f1 + 90ch + cos f2 = 0
cos ^f1 + 90ch = cos f2 = cos ^p + f2h
f1 + 90c = p + f2
or, f1 = p + f2
2
2
PL = 0.5P G1
So, L1 = 1
1  PG 2
2PG 2
For economic power generation
C1 # L1 = C 2 # L 2
where C1 and C2 are the incremental fuel cost of plant G1 and G2 .
(10000) b 1
1  PG l
So, = 12500 # 1
2
4 = 1P
G
5 2
PG = 1 pu
5 2
PL = 0.5 b 1 l = 1 pu
2
Loss
5 50
or PL = 1 # 100 = 2 MW
50
Total power, PL = PG + PG  PL
1 2
40 = 20 + P2  2
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PG = 22 MW
2
Current in SD is I2 ,
2
SD = V2 I2)
2
1 = 1  30c I2)
I2 = 1  30c pu
Current in QG ,2
IG = I2  I12 = 1  30c  (1  j 0.288)
= 0.268  120c
VAR rating of capacitor,
QC = V2 VG = 1 # 0.268 = 0.268 pu
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E V
So, Pm = sin d0
X
(1.5) (1)
0.5 = sin d0 Pm = 0.5 pu
1.5
sin d0 = 0.5
d0 = 30c
In radian, d0 = 30c # p = 0.523
180c
Substituting d0 into equation (i)
dcr = cos1 [(p  2 # 0.523) sin 30c  cos 30c]
= cos1 [(2.095) (0.5)  0.866]
= cos1 (0.1815)  79.6c
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1+0
= 1 & d = 45c
SOL 4.37
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Correct option is (D).
We can see that at the bus 3, equivalent thevenin’s impedance is given by
Xth = ^ j0.1 + j1.0h  ^ j0.1 + j1.0h
= j1.1  j1.1 = j0.55 pu
Fault MVA = Base MVA
Xth
= 100 = 181.82 MVA
0.55
Applying KVL
V + VL = 0
VL = V
VL = 1 pu
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P + jQ = VI)
= 100+30c ;100+30c  100+0cE
5j
= 100+30c [20+  60c  20+  90c]
= 2000+  30c  2000+  60c
P + jQ = 1035+15c
Real power P = 1035 cos 15c = 1000 W
Reactive power Q = 1035 sin 15c = 268 VAR
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No option seems to be appropriate but (C) is the nearest.
11 (6C)
e1 = 3 = 11 # 6 = 3.46 kV
6C + 5C 3 11
e2 = 11 # 5
3 11
= 2.89 kV
w = 2pf = 314
Changing current IC = V = V (wC)
XC
3
= 11 # 10 # 314 # 1 # 10 6
3
= 2 Amp
100 25
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Same as XT1 = j0.12 # 200 # b 25 l = j0.27
2
90 25
XT2 = j0.12 # 200 # b 25 l = j0.27
2
90 25
X Line = 150 # 220 2 = j0.62
(220)
R V
Sy11 y12 y13 y14W
Sy21 y22 y23 y24W
We know YBus = S W
Sy 31 y 32 y 33 y 34W
Sy 41 y 42 y 43 y 44W
T X
Here y11 = y10 + y12 + y13 + y14 = 5j
y22 = y20 + y21 + y23 + y24 = 10j
y 33 = y 30 + y 31 + y 32 + y 34 = 9j
y 44 = y 40 + y 41 + y 42 + y 43 = 8j
y12 = y21 = y12 = 2j
y13 = y 31 = y13 = 2.5j
y14 = y 41 = y14 = 0j
y23 = y 32 = y23 = 2.5j
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y24 = y 42 = y24 = 4j
So y10 = y11  y12  y13  y14 = 5j + 2j + 2.5j + 0j = 0.5j
y20 = y22  y12  y23  y24 = 10j + 2j + 2.5j + 4j = 1.5j
y 30 = y 33  y 31  y 32  y 34 = 9j + 2.5j + 2.5j + 4j = 0
y 40 = y 44  y 41  y 42  y 43 = 8j  0 + 4j + 4j = 0
Admittance diagram is being made by as
From figure. it is cleared that branch (1) & (2) behaves like shunt element.
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N = 120 # f = 120 # 50 = 3000 rpm
pole 2
Stored K.E = 1 Mw2 = 1 M b 2pN l
2
2 2 60
= 1 # 27.5 # 103 # b 2p # 3000 l MJ
2 60
= 1357.07 MJ
Inertia constant (H) = Stored K.E
Rating of Generator (MVA)
H = 1357.07
555.56
= 2.44 sec
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SOL 4.60 Correct option is (C).
Given PG1 + PG2 = 250 MW ...(1)
C1 (PG1) = PG1 + 0.055PG12
and 4 ...(2)
C2 (PG2) = 3PG2 + 0.03PG22
from equation (2)
dC1 = 1 + 0.11P ...(3a)
G1
dPG1
and dC2 = 3 + 0.06P ...(3b)
G2
dPG2
Since the system is lossless
Therefore dC1 = dC2
dPG1 dPG2
So from equations (3a) and (3b)
We have 0.11PG1  0.06PG2 = 2 ...(4)
Now solving equation (1) and (4), we get
PG1 = 100 MW
PG2 = 150 MW
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Ae (R/L) t = 2 Vm cos (wt 0  a)
0
Z
Maximum value of the dc offset current
Z = 0.0201+84.29c
2
Z1 (Positive sequence) = Z = 0.0201+84.29c
2
also Z1 = Z2 = Z 0 (for 3f fault)
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Z1 = Z = 0.0201+84.29c
2
Z2 = Z1 = 0.0201+84.29c
and Z 0 = 3Z1 = 0.0603+84.29c
Then Ia /3 = Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia0
Ia1 (pu) = 1.0+0c
Z1 + Z 2 + Z 0
and Ia1 = 1 .0 = 9.95 pu
(0.0201 + 0.0201 + 0.0603)
Fault Current I f = Ia = 3Ia1 = 29.85 pu
So Fault current I f = 29.85 # 100 = 4.97 kA
3 # 400
PA + PB = 700 MW
Shop GATE Electrical in 4 Volumes by RK Kanodia at maximum discount at
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Chapter 4 Power Systems Page 257
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= 250 MW
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2p # 50 # 2p # 50 # 1.2
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SOL 4.75 Correct option is (B).
Given that FP = KAFS ...(1)
Rf V Rf V
S aW S pW
where, Phase component FP = SfbW, sequence component FS = SfnW
SSf WW SSf WW
c o
T X
R 1 1 1V T X
S W
and A = Sa2 a 1W
SS a a2 1WW
VP = TKAVS X
` 3 ...(2)
IP = KAIS
and VS = Zl [IS ] ...(3)
R0.5 0 0 V
S W
where Zl = S 0 0.5 0 W
SS 0 0 2.0WW
T X
We have to find out Z if VP = ZIP ...(4)
From equation (2) and (3)
VP = KAZl [IS ]
1
VP = KAZlb A l I p
K
VP = AZlA 1 I p ...(5)
R 1 1 1V
S W
A = Sa2 a 1W
SS a a2 1WW
T X
1 Adj A
A =
A
R 2V
S1 a a W
Adj A = S1 a2 a W
S W
S1 1 1 W
T X
A = 1
3
R 2V
S1 a a W
A 1 = 1 S1 a2 a W
3S W
S1 1 1 W
T X
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Page 260 Power Systems Chapter 4
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So here no energy transfer. The bus bar voltage and phase angle of each system
should be same than angle difference is
q = 30c  20c = 10c
& C = 1 = 1 = 139.02 mF
2pfXC 2p # 50 # 23
XL = V = 230  23 W = 2pfL
IL 10
& L = XL = 23 = 72.95 mH
2pf 2p # 100
So L = 72.95 mH in phase B
C = 139.02 mF in phase C
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Now one load Permanently tripped
` f = 48 Hz
If additional load of 3.5 MW is connected than f = ?
a Change in Frequency w.r.t to power is given as
drop out frequency
Df = # Change in power
rated power
= 5 # 3.5 = 1.16% = 1.16 # 50 = 0.58 Hz
15 100
System frequency is = 50  0.58 = 49.42 Hz
240  220
%V.R. = .94
0 # 100
220
%V.R. = 16
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From figure we conclude that positive sequence line voltage leads phase voltage
by 30c
VAN1 = X+q1  30c
VAN2 = 4+q2 + 30c
10 13.8
= 1  1.1 # 1 # 1 = 0.56 pu
1/0.8 2
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SOL 4.90 Correct option is (D).
The post fault voltage at bus 1 and 3 are.
Pre fault voltage.
RV V R1+0cV
S 1W S W
VBus = SV2W = S1+0cW
SSV WW SS1+0cWW
3
T X T X
At bus 2 solid fault occurs Z (f) = 0 , r = 2
Fault current I f = Vr c = V2 c
Zrr + Z f Z22 + Z f
Z f = 1+0c = 4j
j0.24
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(X pu) new = (X pu) old # 100
500
(X Pu) new = 2 # 1 = 0.4 pu
5
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SOL 4.99 Correct option is (D).
Y22 = ?
I1 = V1 Y11 + (V1  V2) Y12
= 0.05V1  j10 (V1  V2) = j9.95V1 + j10V2
I2 = (V2  V1) Y21 + (V2  V3) Y23
= j10V1  j9.9V2  j0.1V3
Y22 = Y11 + Y23 + Y2
= j9.95  j9.9  0.1j
= j19.95
V1
Z 1 + Z2
In figure C = = 1
V1 Z Z2
Z1 + Z 2 # 2
or Z2 = 1 = 1 = 40+  45c
C 0.025+45c
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Steady state stability power limit = ?
Pm1 = EV = 1 # 1 = 6.25
X 0.12 + X
1 2
= 6.25
0.12 + 0.5X
& X = 0.008 pu
If one of double circuit tripped than
Pm2 = EV
X
= 1#1 = 1
0.12 + X 0.12 + 0.08
Pm2 = 1 = 5 pu
0.2
X1 = X2 = 12.1 W
X 0 = 29.04  12.1  12.1 = 4.84 W
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equation (1) implies that total instantaneous power is being constant.
Z = L = 11 # 10 3
C 11.68 # 10 9
= 306.88 W
Ideal power transfer capability
2 (800) 2
P =V = = 2085 MW
Z0 306.88
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= 2 (121 # 108 # 2 # 3.14 # 50 # 250 # 10 13) = 189 W/
km
Same as QR = PR tan f
= PR tan (cos 1 f) = 50 tan (cos 1 0.9)
= 24.21 MW
VS VR A VR 2
QR = sin (b  d)  sin (b  a)
B B
VS # 220 0.936 # (220) 2
= sin (76.4c  d)  sin 75.6c
142 142
(24.21) 142 + 0.936 # 220 # 0.9685 = VS sin (76.4c  d) ...(2)
220
from equation (1) & (2)
VS 2
= (215) 2 + (83.46) 2
VS = 53190.5716 = 230.63 kV
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SOL 4.115 Correct option is (B).
A new generator of Eg = 1.4+30c pu
XS = 1.0 pu, connected to bus of Vt Volt
Existing Power system represented by thevenin’s equivalent as
Eth = 0.9+0c, Zth = 0.25+90c, Vt = ?
IB =110 # 106
3 # 11 # 103
IB = 5773.67 Amp
Symmetrical RMS current = IB # Isc
= 5773.67 # 5.26 = 30369.50 Amp
& Irms = 30.37 kA
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= 1 [10+0c + 10+300c] = 1 [10 + 5  j8.66]
3 3
= 1 [15  j8.66]
3
= 17.32+  30c = 5.78+  30c
3
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conductor. Since GMD of conductor is increased this causes critical disruptive
voltage is being reduced and if critical disruptive voltage is reduced, the corona
loss will also be reduced.
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Receiving end voltage(VR) = sending end voltage(VS )
ohmic value of reactor = ?
We know VS = AVR + BIR
VS = VR
VR = AVR + BIR
VR (1  A) = BIR
VR = B = 200+90c
IR 1A 1  0.9+0c
VR = 2000+90c
IR
The ohmic value of reactor = 2000 W
VP  VQ = 3 V
Applying KVL through whole line
VP  VQ = (I  10) 0.1 + (I  30) 0.15 + (I  60) # 0.2
& 3 = 0.45I  17.5
I = 20.5 = 45.55 amp
0.45
Now the line drop is being given as
= (I  10) 0.1 + (I  30) 0.15 + (I  60) 0.2
= (33.55) 0.1 + (15.55) 0.15 + (14.45) 0.2
= 8.58 V
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The value of VP for minimum voltage of 220 V at any feeder is
= 220 + Line voltage
= 220 + 8.58
= 228.58 V
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SOL 4.130 Correct option is (D).
Given Load Power = 100 MW
VS = VR = 11 kV
p.u. # (kV) 2 j0.2 # (11) 2
Impedance of line ZL = = = j0.242 W
MV 100
VS VR sin d
We know PL =
X
3 3
100 # 106 = 11 # 10 # 11 # 10 sin d
0.242
100 # 0.242 = sin d
121
d = sin 1 (0.2) = 11.537c
Reactive Power is being given by
VS VR VR 2
QL = cos d 
X X
3 2
3 3 (11 # 10 )
= 11 # 10 # 11 # 10 cos (11.537c) 
0.242 0.242
6
= 121 # 10 [cos (11.537c)  1] = 10.1 MVAR
0.242
Zij + Zb S W8 ji jnB
ZB(New) = ZB (Old) 
SZnjW
New element Zb = j0.2 W is connected T X in jth and reference bus j = 2 , n = 4 so
R V
SZ12W
1 SZ22W
Zij + Zb SZ23W 8 21 22 23 24B
S W Z Z Z Z
SZ24W
T X
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Chapter 4 Power Systems Page 275
R V
Sj0.2860W
1 Sj0.3408W
= S W8j0.2860 j0.3408 j0.2586 j0.2414B ...(1)
6j (0.3408) + j0.2@ Sj0.2586W
Sj0.2414W
T X
Given that we are required to change only Z22, Z23
j2 (0.3408) 2
So in equation (1) Zl22 = = j0.2147
j (0.5408)
j2 (0.3408) (0.2586)
Zl23 = = j0.16296
0.5408
Z22(New) = Z22(Old)  Zl22
= j0.3408  j0.2147 = j0.1260
Z23(New) = Z23 (Old)  Zl23
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= j0.2586  j0.16296 = j0.0956
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For transformer protectionBuchholz relay
***********
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CHAPTER 5
CONTROL SYSTEMS
EE SP 5.1 In the formation of RouthHurwitz array for a polynomial, all the elements of
a row have zero values. This premature termination of the array indicates the
presence of
(A) only one root at the origin
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(B) imaginary roots
(C) only positive real roots
(D) only negative real roots
EE SP 5.2 The root locus of a unity feedback system is shown in the figure.
EE SP 5.3 For the given system, it is desired that the system be stable. The minimum value
of a for this condition is ______.
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The value of a is _____
bK
et 0 et tet
(C) > t tH (D) > H
te e 0 et
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(C) Controllable but not observable
(D) Not controllable and not observable
EE SP 5.10 The signal flow graph of a system is shown below. U ^s h is the input and C ^s h is
the output.
EE SP 5.11 A singleinput single output feedback system has forward transfer function G ^s h
and feedback transfer function H ^s h. It is given that G ^s h H ^s h < 1. Which of
the following is true about the stability of the system ?
(A) The system is always stable
(B) The system is stable if all zeros of G ^s h H ^s h are in left half of the s plane
(C) The system is stable if all poles of G ^s h H ^s h are in left half of the s plane
(D) It is not possible to say whether or not the system is stable from the
information given
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C ^s h
= 2 s
R ^s h s +s+1
then G ^s h is
(A) 1 (B) s
(C) 1/s (D) s
s3 + s2  s  2
If u is unit step input, then the steady state error of the system is
(A) 0 (B) 1/2
(C) 2/3 (D) 1
The maximum phase angle f m and the corresponding gain Gm respectively, are
(A)  30c and 1.73 dB (B)  30c and 4.77 dB
(C) + 30c and 4.77 dB (D) + 30c and 1.73 dB
EE SP 5.15 Assuming zero initial condition, the response y ^ t h of the system given below to
a unit step input u ^ t h is
(A) u ^ t h (B) tu ^ t h
2
(C) t u ^ t h (D) et u ^ t h
2
EE SP 5.16 The Bode plot of a transfer function G ^s h is shown in the figure below.
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The gain _20 log G ^s h i is 32 dB and  8 dB at 1 rad/s and 10 rad/s respectively.
The phase is negative for all w. Then G ^s h is
(A) 39.8
s
s
(C) 32
(B) 392.8
s
(D) 322
s
Y ^s h
EE SP 5.17 The signal flow graph for a system is given below. The transfer function
U ^s h
for this system is
(A) 1 (B) 5
(C) 10 (D) 100
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xo1  2 0 x1 1 x1
> H=> H> H + > H u , x1 ^0 h = 0 , x2 ^0 h = 0 and y = 61 0@> H
xo2 0  1 x2 1 x2
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(D) a = 3, b = 1
EE SP 5.25 The frequency response of a linear system G (jw) is provided in the tubular form
below
EE SP 5.26 The steady state error of a unity feedback linear system for a unit step input is
0.1. The steady state error of the same system, for a pulse input r (t) having a
magnitude of 10 and a duration of one second, as shown in the figure is
EE SP 5.28 The open loop transfer function G (s) of a unity feedback control system is given
as
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K bs + 2 l
3
G (s) = 2
s (s + 2)
From the root locus, at can be inferred that when K tends to positive infinity,
(A) Three roots with nearly equal real parts exist on the left half of the s plane
(B) One real root is found on the right half of the s plane
(C) The root loci cross the jw axis for a finite value of K; K ! 0
(D) Three real roots are found on the right half of the s plane
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YEAR 2009 ONE MARK
EE SP 5.33 The measurement system shown in the figure uses three subsystems in cascade
whose gains are specified as G1, G2, 1/G3 . The relative small errors associated with
each respective subsystem G1, G2 and G3 are e1, e2 and e3 . The error associated
with the output is :
(A) e1 + e2 + 1 (B) e1 e2
e3 e3
(C) e1 + e2  e3 (D) e1 + e2 + e3
EE SP 5.34 The first two rows of Routh’s tabulation of a third order equation are as follows.
s3 2 2
s2 4 4
This means there are
(A) Two roots at s = ! j and one root in right half s plane
(B) Two roots at s = ! j2 and one root in left half s plane
EE SP 5.35 The polar plot of an open loop stable system is shown below. The closed loop
system is
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(A) always stable
(B) marginally stable
(C) unstable with one pole on the RH s plane
(D) unstable with two poles on the RH s plane
10 (s + 5) 1000 (s + 5)
(A) (B)
s (s + 2) (s + 25) 2
s (s + 2) (s + 25)
100 (s + 5) 80 (s + 5)
(C) (D) 2
s (s + 2) (s + 25) s (s + 2) (s + 25)
EE SP 5.37 The unitstep response of a unity feed back system with open loop transfer
function G (s) = K/ ((s + 1) (s + 2)) is shown in the figure. The value of K is
EE SP 5.38 The open loop transfer function of a unity feed back system is given by
G (s) = (e  0.1s) /s . The gain margin of the is system is
(A) 11.95 dB (B) 17.67 dB
(C) 21.33 dB (D) 23.9 dB
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when u (t) is the input and y (t) is the output
EE SP 5.44 The asymptotic Bode magnitude plot of a minimum phase transfer function is
shown in the figure :
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This transfer function has
(A) Three poles and one zero
(B) Two poles and one zero
(C) Two poles and two zero
(D) One pole and two zeros
EE SP 5.48 A unity feedback is provided to the above system G (s) to make it a closed loop
system as shown in figure.
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For a unit step input r (t), the steady state error in the input will be
(A) 0
(C) 2
YEAR 2007
(B) 1
(D) 3
ONE MARK
(A) Stable
(B) Unstable
(C) Conditionally stable
(D) Stable for input u1 , but unstable for input u2
EE SP 5.50 If x = Re [G (jw)], and y = Im [G (jw)] then for w " 0+ , the Nyquist plot for
G (s) = 1/s (s + 1) (s + 2) is
(A) x = 0
(B) x = 3/4
(C) x = y  1/6
(D) x = y/ 3
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EE SP 5.52 If the loop gain K of a negative feed back system having a loop transfer function
K (s + 3) / (s + 8) 2 is to be adjusted to induce a sustained oscillation then
(A) The frequency of this oscillation must be 4 3 rad/s
(B) The frequency of this oscillation must be 4 rad/s
(C) The frequency of this oscillation must be 4 or 4 3 rad/s
(D) Such a K does not exist
with
(A) X = c0 s + c1, Y = 1/ (s2 + a0 s + a1), Z = b0 s + b1
(B) X = 1, Y = (c0 s + c1) / (s2 + a0 s + a1), Z = b0 s + b1
(C) X = c1 s + c0, Y = (b1 s + b0) / (s2 + a1 s + a0), Z = 1
(D) X = c1 s + c0, Y = 1/ (s2 + a1 s + a), Z = b1 s + b0
EE SP 5.54 Consider the feedback system shown below which is subjected to a unit step input.
The system is stable and has following parameters Kp = 4, Ki = 10, w = 500 and
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RLC circuit shown in figure
EE SP 5.56 If the above step response is to be observed on a nonstorage CRO, then it would
be best have the ei as a
(A) Step function
(B) Square wave of 50 Hz
(C) Square wave of 300 Hz
(D) Square wave of 2.0 KHz
3 (s  2)
EE SP 5.57 For a system with the transfer function H (s) = ,
4s2  2s + 1
the matrix A in the state space form Xo = AX + Bu is equal to
R V R V
S1 0 0 W S0 1 0 W
(A) S 0 1 0 W (B) S 0 0 1 W
SS 1 2  4 WW SS 1 2  4 WW
RT V X TR XV
S 0 1 0 W S 1 0 0 W
(C) S3  2 1 W (D) S 0 0 1 W
SS1  2 4 WW SS 1 2  4 WW
T
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Chapter 5 Control Systems Page 293
EE SP 5.58 Consider the following Nyquist plots of loop transfer functions over w = 0 to
w = 3 . Which of these plots represent a stable closed loop system ?
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(A) (1) only (B) all, except (1)
(C) all, except (3) (D) (1) and (2) only
10 4 (1 + jw)
EE SP 5.59 The Bode magnitude plot H (jw) = is
(10 + jw) (100 + jw) 2
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. Its root locus plot against K is
EE SP 5.61 A system with zero initial conditions has the closed loop transfer function.
T (s) = s2 + 4
(s + 1) (s + 4)
The system output is zero at the frequency
(A) 0.5 rad/sec (B) 1 rad/sec
(C) 2 rad/sec (D) 4 rad/sec
EE SP 5.62 Figure shows the root locus plot (location of poles not given) of a third order
system whose open loop transfer function is
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Chapter 5 Control Systems Page 295
(A) K3 (B) 2
K
s s (s + 1)
(C) K (D) K
2 2
s (s + 1) s (s  1)
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EE SP 5.63 The gain margin of a unity feed back control system with the open loop transfer
(s + 1)
function G (s) = is
s2
(A) 0 (B) 1
2
(C) 2 (D) 3
EE SP 5.65 When subject to a unit step input, the closed loop control system shown in the
figure will have a steady state error of
EE SP 5.66 In the G (s) H (s)plane, the Nyquist plot of the loop transfer function
G (s) H (s) = pes passes through the negative real axis at the point
 0.25s
EE SP 5.67 If the compensated system shown in the figure has a phase margin of 60c at the
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T
X (0) = [ 1, 3] and the unit step input u (t) has
EE SP 5.70 The Nyquist plot of loop transfer function G (s) H (s) of a closed loop control
system passes through the point ( 1, j 0) in the G (s) H (s)plane. The phase
margin of the system is
(A) 0c (B) 45c
(C) 90c (D) 180c
EE SP 5.72 For a tachometer, if q (t) is the rotor displacement in radians, e (t) is the output
voltage and Kt is the tachometer constant in V/rad/sec, then the transfer
E (s)
function, will be
Q (s)
(A) Kt s2 (B) Kt s
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Chapter 5 Control Systems Page 297
(C) Kt s (D) Kt
EE SP 5.73 For the equation, s3  4s2 + s + 6 = 0 the number of roots in the left half of s
plane will be
(A) Zero (B) One
(C) Two (D) Three
C (s)
EE SP 5.74 For the block diagram shown, the transfer function is equal to
R (s)
EE SP 5.75
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(A) s +2 1
2
s
(C) s + s + 1
s
2
(B) s + s2 + 1
(D) 2 1
s
s +s+1
o = AX where
The state variable description of a linear autonomous system is, X
X is the two dimensional state vector and A is the system matrix given by
0 2
A = = G. The roots of the characteristic equation are
2 0
(A)  2 and + 2 (B)  j2 and + j2
(C)  2 and  2 (D) + 2 and + 2
EE SP 5.76 The block diagram of a closed loop control system is given by figure. The values
of K and P such that the system has a damping ratio of 0.7 and an undamped
natural frequency wn of 5 rad/sec, are respectively equal to
EE SP 5.77 The unit impulse response of a second order underdamped system starting from
rest is given by c (t) = 12.5e  6t sin 8t, t $ 0 . The steadystate value of the unit
step response of the system is equal to
(A) 0 (B) 0.25
(C) 0.5 (D) 1.0
EE SP 5.78 In the system shown in figure, the input x (t) = sin t . In the steadystate, the
response y (t) will be
EE SP 5.79 The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given as
G (s) = as + 2
1.
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s
The value of ‘a ’ to give a phase margin of 45c is equal to
(A) 0.141 (B) 0.441
(C) 0.841 (D) 1.141
EE SP 5.81 A lead compensator used for a closed loop controller has the following transfer
K (1 + as )
function For such a lead compensator
(1 + bs )
(A) a < b
(B) b < a
(C) a > Kb
(D) a < Kb
2
EE SP 5.82 A second order system starts with an initial condition of = G without any external
3
e  2t 0
input. The state transition matrix for the system is given by = G. The state
0 et
of the system at the end of 1 second is given by
0.271 0.135
(A) =
1.100G
(B) =
0.368G
0.271 0.135
(C) =
0.736G
(D) =
1.100 G
EE SP 5.83 A control system with certain excitation is governed by the following mathematical
equation
d2 x + 1 dx + 1 x = 10 + 5e 4t + 2e 5t
dt2 2 dt 18
The natural time constant of the response of the system are
(A) 2 sec and 5 sec
(B) 3 sec and 6 sec
(C) 4 sec and 5 sec
(D) 1/3 sec and 1/6 sec
EE SP 5.84 The block diagram shown in figure gives a unity feedback closed loop control
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system. The steady state error in the response of the above system to unit step
input is
(A) 25%
(B) 0.75 %
(C) 6%
(D) 33%
EE SP 5.85 The roots of the closed loop characteristic equation of the system shown above
(Q5.55)
(A)  1 and  15
(B) 6 and 10
(C)  4 and  15
(D) 6 and  10
EE SP 5.86 The following equation defines a separately excited dc motor in the form of a
differential equation
d2 w + B dw + K2 w = K V
dt J dt LJ LJ a
The above equation may be organized in the statespace form as follows
R 2 V
Sd w W dw
> H
S dt2 W = P dt + QV
S dw W a
w
S dt W
T X
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Page 300 Control Systems Chapter 5
(A) = J G (B) = LJ G
1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0
(C) = K  B G
2 (D) = B  K G 2
LJ J J LJ
EE SP 5.87 The loop gain GH of a closed loop system is given by the following expression
K The value of K for which the system just becomes unstable is
s (s + 2) (s + 4)
(A) K = 6
(B) K = 8
(C) K = 48
(D) K = 96
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EE SP 5.88 The asymptotic Bode plot of the transfer function K/ [1 + (s/a)] is given in figure.
The error in phase angle and dB gain at a frequency of w = 0.5a are respectively
EE SP 5.89 The block diagram of a control system is shown in figure. The transfer function
G (s) = Y (s) /U (s) of the system is
(A) 1 (B) 1
18^1 + 12s h^1 + s3 h 27^1 + s6 h^1 + s9 h
(C) 1 (D) 1
27^1 + 12s h^1 + s9 h 27^1 + s9 h^1 + s3 h
***********
SOLUTION
SOL 5.1 Correct option (B).
In the given RouthHurwitz array of polynomial, all the elements of a row have
zero value. This is due to symmetrical location of the roots in the s plane with
respect to origin. The system is either marginally stable or unstable. Now, we
check this characteristic for all the given options.
Option (A):
Only one root is at origin. So, it does not satisfy the symmetrical condition.
Option (B):
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Since, the system has imaginary roots, so we get the polezero location diagram
as shown below.
Option (D):
Again, the system has only negative real roots, as shown below. So, the root
location diagram does not satisfy the symmetrical condition.
As the root locus have poles s = 1,  2 and root lies in even multiple of poles,
so it is converse of the main transfer function. Hence, gain should be negative, i.e.
G ^s h H ^s h = K
^s + 1h^s + 2h
This is open loop transfer function and closed loop transfer function is given by
C ^s h G ^s h H ^s h
=
R ^s h 1 + G ^s h H ^s h
K
^s + 1h^s + 2h
=
1+ K
^s + 1h^s + 2h
= K
^s + 1h^s + 2h  K
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SOL 5.3 Correct answer is 0.618.
The Block diagram of given system is
^s + ah
or 1+ =0
s + ^1 + ah s + ^a  1h s + ^1  ah
3 2
or s3 + ^1 + ah s2 + ^a  1h s + ^1  ah + ^s + ah = 0
or s3 + ^1 + ah s2 + ^a  1 + 1h s + 1  a + a = 0
or s3 + ^1 + ah s2 + as + 1 = 0
For the characteristic equation, we form the Routh’s array as
s3 1 a
2
s 1+a 1
a ^1 + a h  1
s1 0
1+a
0
s 1
For stable system, the required condition is
1+a > 0
or a >1
a ^1 + ah  1
or >0
1+a
or a ^1 + ah  1 > 0
Solving the inequality, we obtain the roots
a = 1  5 , 1 + 5
2 2
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Chapter 5 Control Systems Page 303
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Also, from the given transfer function, we have
G ^s h =
K ^1 + 0.55h^1 + as h
s a1 + s k^1 + bs ha1 + s k
8 36
K ^1  s/2h^1 + s/ a1 h
=
s a1 + s kb1 + s la1 + s k
8 1/b 36
The first slope  6 dB/octave is due to one pole that is 1/s
Then, slope 0 dB/octave is due to addition of a zero in T.F. ^1 + s/2h.
Again, + 6 dB/octave slope is due to one zero at corner frequency wC = 4 .
Comparing it to the transfer function, we get
^1 + as h = ^1 + s/4h
or a = 1/4
Similarly, at wC = 24 , there is an addition of a pole ^ 6 dB/octaveh. So, we get
^1 + bs h = ^1 + s/24h
or b = 1
24
From the shown Bode plot, we observe that if we extended the slope  6 dB/octave
, it meets the frequency axis at wC = 8 . So, we have
0 = 20 log KX
s w =8
C
or 1=K
8
or K =8
Therefore, we obtain the desired value as
a = 1/4 = 24 = 0.75
bK 1
24 # 8
4#8
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Error constant, K p = lim G ^s h
s"0
= lim 4 =3
s ^s + 0.4h
s"0
Y = AX + BU
State transmission matrix
f ^ t h = L1 ^sI  Ah1
s1 0
6SI  A@ = >1 s  1H
^s  1h2 s1
t
e 0
f ^ t h = > t tH
te e
s ^s + 2h^s2 + 2s + 2h + K = 0
^s2 + 2s h^s2 + 2s + 2h + K = 0
s 4 + 4s3 + 4s2 + 4s + K = 0
Routh array
s4 1 6 k
s 3
4 4 0
s2 5 k 0
s1 20  4k 0
5
s0 k
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For marginally stable
20  4k = 0
or k =5
0 1
OM = >
0  3H
So,
det ^OM h = 0
So, the system is not observable.
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Now, we have to obtain the transfer function,
G ^s h =
C ^s h
U ^s h
From the SFG, we have two forward paths given as
p1 = h 0 1 1 1 1 1 = h20
s s
p 2 = h1 1 1 = h1
s
s s
The graph determinant is given by
T = 1  (sum of all loop gains)
+ (sum of all gain products of 2 nontouching loops)
 (sum of all gain products of 3 nontouching loops)
+ ...
So, T = 1  a  a1 +  a2 0 k
s s
= 1 + a1 + a20
s s
Also, we have the determinants for the forward paths p1 and p2 as
T1 = 1
T 2 = 1  a  a1 k = 1 + a1
s s
Thus, using Mason’s gain formula, we obtain the transfer function as
T.F. =
/ pk D k p D + p2 D 2
= 1 1
D D
2^ h
h 0 1 + h1 1 + a1
sa sk
= s
1 + a1 + a20
s s
h 0 + h1 ^s + a1h
= 2
s + a1 s + a 0
Since, we have
h1 = b 1
and h 0 = b 0  b 1 a1
Substituting it in equation (1), we get
T.F. = b 0 + b1 s
2
s + a1 s + a 0
C ^s h
or G ^s h = = 2 b 0 + b1 s
V ^s h s + a1 s + a 0
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between 0 and  1 point, i.e. the Nyquist plot does not enclose the point ^ 1, 0h
or in other words number of encirclements is zero.
N =0 ...(1)
From Nyquist criterion, we have the relation
N = PZ ...(2)
where P is the number of open loop poles in righthalf of s plane and Z is the
number of closed loop poles (roots of characteristic equation) in righthalf of s
plane. Since, for a stable closed loop system, we must have
Z =0 ...(3)
Thus, from equations (1), (2), and (3), we get
P =0
i.e. no poles of open loop system lies in righthalf of s plane, or in other words,
all the poles lies in lefthalf of s plane.
Hence, the given system is stable if all poles of G ^s h H ^s h are in left half of the
s plane.
G ^s h
1 + G ^s h
Again, we obtain the closed loop transfer function for the dotted box as
sG ^s h
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^s + 1h G ^s h + 1
So, the block diagram reduces to
and L13 = G ^s h s ^ 1h
= sG ^s h
So, the transfer function is obtained as
pT
T.F. = 1 1
T
G ^s h^1 h
=
G ^s h
1  ;  G ^s h  sG ^s hE
s
sG ^s h
T.F. =
s + G ^s h^s2 + s + 1h
For any value of G ^s h given in the options, the desired system transfer function
can not be achieved.
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SOL 5.13 Correct option is (A).
We have the state space equation,
xo1 0 1 x1 0
> H => H> H + > H u
x2
o  1  1 x2 1
x1
y = 81 0B> H
x2
From the statespace equation, we obtain the matrices
0 1
A => H
1 1
0
B => H
1
C = 81 0B
So, we obtain
S 0 0 1 S 1
6SI  A@ = > H> H=> H
0 S 1 1 1 S+1
Therefore,
S+1 1
6SI  A@1 = 1 > H
S2 + S + 1  1 S
Hence, we obtain the transfer function of the system as
T.F. = C [SI  A] 1 B
S+1 1 0
= 81 0B 2 1 > H> H
S + S + 1 1 S 1
1
= 2 1 81 0B> H
S +S+1 S
= 2 1
S +S+1
This is the closed loop transfer function,
So we get
G (S )
= 2 1
1 + G (S ) S +S+1
G (S ) = 2 1
S +S
Thus, the steady state error for unit step input is
eSS = 1
1 + lim G (S )
S"0
= 1
1 + lim 2 1
d"0 d + d
= 1 =0
1+3
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Since, slope at 1/3 is increasing and slope at 1 is decreasing. So, we can write
frequency response function as
G ^ jwh =
1
b 3 + jw l
^1 + jwh
3 c1 +
1 jw
1/3 m
or
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