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Rheologica Acta Rheol.

Acta 21,647- 649 (1982)

Positive and negative flow and viscosity of clay suspensions

Z. Sobotka

Key words': Positive and negative flow, viscosity, non-Newtonian liquid, trans-
formed flow tensor, clay suspension

1. Introduction The orientated structure of liquids involves the


anisotropy. For the analysis of anisotropic liquids,
The author introduces the notion of "positive" and the author introduces the transformed flow tensor
"negative" viscosities for the positive and negative which has the same principal axes as the stress tensor
flow of liquids. In positive flow, with higher value of and which is defined by
viscosity, the liquids with structure resist movement
more than in negative flow which is characterized by flij = bijktekz, (2)
lower viscosities.
The different resistance to the flow of liquids in two where bijkl is the dimensionless fourth-rank tensor of
opposite directions through a pipe could be caused by anisotropy [5].
the orientated roughness of the interior surface of the In order to express the rheological behaviour of
pipe. general non-Newtonian liquids in a simplified form,
Using the idea of an orientated roughness of the the author introduces further the equivalent stress
bottom and of the walls it is possible to explain the tensor given by
preferred sense of the eddies above the outlets of
vessels or reservoirs. The occurrence of eddies is ~ij ao(t)aij + al(t) Daij + a2(t) D2aij -t- , , ,

conditional on differences between the positive and Dt Dt


negative shears in liquids. If there were no differences t
between the shears, the liquid would flow out of the + aM(t) DMaij + a _ l ( t ) j K ( t - r )0Xk(r)
~
vessels in an axially symmetric manner. Such a form Dt M to Oxi(t)
of outflow also occurs in very viscous liquids and at
0zl(r)
low velocities which may correspond to low pressures - - akt(r) d r , (3)
in the bottom region. OxAt)
where

2. Theoretical background Daij _ Oaij + vz Ocrij + wiza~j + wjzaiz (4)


Dt 0t Ox~
The stress tensor of liquids is related to the strain
rate tensor or rather to the flow tensor, which in terms is the co-rotational derivative of the stress tensor ac-
of the velocity vector vi is given by cording to Oldroyd [2],

I ~8__~v/+ (1) 1 (Ovi Ovj) (5)


eij = -~ \Oxj Oxi / ('Oij = "2 \ OXj OXi

where x i (i = 1, 2, 3) denote orthogonal Cartesian co- is the vorticity tensor and Zk(Z) in the Oldroyd's con-
ordinates of a typical particle at the time t. vected integral denote the position at time r of the
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648 Rheologica Acta, Vol. 21, No. 4/5 (1982)

element which is instantaneously in the point xk(t) at Expressing eq. (7) in terms of principal values
time t.
The equivalent transformed flow tensor is defined O'I = f O I ) , O'II = fCSll) , oii1 = f O i i i ) (9)
in an analogous manner:
and writing eq. (8) for all three principal values of the
0 2 transformed flow tensor, we obtain the set of three
flij = bo(t)flij + ha(t) Dfliy + b2(t) flij
Dt ---D--~ + "'" equations

fq~0 = ~0 + *l/~x + ~2/~, (10)


+ bN(t) DN~ij + b - l ( t ) It L ( t - r) OZk(r______~)
to Oxi(t) f ( ~ n ) = ¢~0 + 01]~lI + 02/~ti, (11)

f(]~ni) = ~00 + (Ol/~III + ~2~12II (12)


• 0Zt(r) /?kt(r)dr, (6)
OxAt) for determining the scalar functions O0, ~1 and ¢02.
Substituting them into eq. (8), we obtain the tensorial
where D / D t denotes again the co-rotational deriva-
constitutive equation with one material scalar func-
tive.
tion f(flK) only. This equation can, after some re-
The coefficients ax(t) and bL(t) in eqs. (3) and (6)
arrangements, be written as follows:
m a y be functions of time or constants, respectively.
The equivalent stress tensor can be expressed by an
isotropic tensorial function of the equivalent trans- -
Gij =
flIIflIII~(/
-- OII+ /~III)~ij+ ~i2fl)tj
f(~l)
formed flow tensor (~l -- ~II)OI -- /~III)

.~: = f u ~ k t ) , (7) + ]~I]~1IIC~6;- (~I + flllI)fl0" + fli;~flM f(~II)

which m a y be, according to rules of the tensorial O~II - - #I)(~II -- /~III)


algebra [3], expanded as follows:
+ ~I/~II~/ -- 0 I + /~II)/~/j + ~i2flAj f O I I I ) •
(8) CSIII- /0I)C~III - ~ii) (13)

where O0, ~1 and ~2 are scalar functions of invariants This relation can also be obtained on the basis of
and c~ijis the Kronecker delta. the Sylvester formula for matrix functions.

Table 1. "Positive" and "negative" shear viscosities of suspensions of clay in water.

Clay
1.50 1.75
water

No. Shear stress [Pa] Viscosity [Pa s] Shear stress [Pa] Viscosity [Pa s]

Pos. Neg. Pos. Neg. Pos. Neg. Pos. Neg.


1 . . . . 166 104 502.4 316.3
2 98 - 181.0 - 169 117 284.3 196.4
3 117 86 129.6 95.5 175 126 176.8 127.1
4 141 98 87.2 60.7 209 141 117.2 79.3
5 190 117 70.5 43.2 239 160 80.6 53.7
6 221 154 45.5 31.6 295 190 55.1 35.6
7 233 166 28.8 20.5 375 221 42.0 24.8
8 245 175 16.8 12.0 461 252 28.7 15.7
9 258 178 10.6 7.3 479 270 17.9 10.1
10 276 184 6.3 4.2 534 282 11.1 5.9
11 289 190 4.0 2.6 571 301 7.1 3.8
12 307 209 2.3 1.6 596 332 4.1 2.3
Sobotka, Positive and negative flow and viscosity of clay suspensions 649

If the material function is a nonsymmetrical one stirrer, the suspension exhibited higher viscosities
with respect to the origin, i.e. ifftfiK) ~: - f ( - / ~ K ) , than when the cylinder and stirrer were rotated in the
we have different flow rules in two opposite directions same direction. The differences between the positive
which are characterized by different values of positive and negative viscosities are due to the orientated
and negative viscosities. For the equivalent positive structure of suspensions, which has been formed in
and negative shear stresses in the plane 12, we have the course of stirring. They increase with the density
of suspensions.
0"12 -- f112(f111 + fl22) + f113f132-- (fin + flIIl)f112f(fli) Illustrative examples of test results are listed in
table 1.
C61 - flI1)(flI -- flIII)

+ f112(f111+ fi22)+ f113f132-- C~I + flIIl)f112f(fiii)


References
(J~II -- ~I)(flll -- flirt)
1. Mandel, J., Introduction ~t la m~canique des milieux
+ fl12(flll + fl22) + fl13f132 -- (flI+ fllI)f112f(~iii) , continus (Varsovie 1974).
(fllII -- flI)(~llI -- flII) 2. Oldroyd, J. G., Non-Linear Stress, Rate of Strain
(14) Relations at Finite Rates of Shear in So-Called Linear
Elastico-Viscous Liquids. In: Second-Order Effects in
Elasticity, Plasticity and Fluid Dynamics. Ed. Reiner,
Abir. Jerusalem, Oxford (1964).
3. Experimental verification 3. Reiner, M., Am. J. Math. 70, 433-446 (1948).
4. Sobotka, Z., ZAMM 49, 25-32 (1969).
The author has confirmed the existence of the 5. Sobotka, Z., The Rheological Behaviour of Complex
"positive" and "negative" viscosities by tests of Viscoelastic Solids, in: D. Abir (ed.), Contributions to
Mechanics, Pergamon Press (Oxford 1969).
various suspensions of clay as well as those of clay 6. Sobotka, Z., J. Franklin Inst. 308, 423-446 (1979).
and cement in water.
(Received April 16, 1982)
These suspensions were stirred at 1700 r.p.m.
during the first 5 minutes and then at 600 r.p.m, for
three and a half hours in the rotation stirrer before Author's address:
being tested at 12 velocities in the rotational Dr. Z. Sobotka
viscometer Rheotest. If the moving cylinder of the Sv~dsk~ 10
viscometer rotated in the opposite sense to that of the Praha 5 (Czechoslovakia)