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Assignment - Chapter 2

Hammad Hussain hammad.hussain@ntnu.no Date : 26-08-2019 Deadline : 02-09-19 Note : You have to submit the solution of all the questions.

Question 1.1 Refer to the sound velocity measurements done by Colladon and Sturm in 1826 (left in Fig.

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done by Colladon and Sturm in 1826 (left in Fig. 1): Imagine that you will have
done by Colladon and Sturm in 1826 (left in Fig. 1): Imagine that you will have

Imagine that you will have to repeat this type of measurement using todays readily available technology such as GPS, acoustic transmitters and receivers, radios, etc). The sound should propagate over a certain distance (suggest that distance) at the middle of the lake (or open sea) with a depth range of approximately 50m to 200m. The platforms are two small boats or one boat and a floating device.

a) Devise a method of measurement.

b) Specify the devices needed and assume (realistically) their parameters.

c) Estimate accuracy of the measurement.

d) Analyze and comment on the claim that Colladon was accurate to within 3 meters/s in his measure-

ment. Additional information about the experiment is provided (right in Fig.1) in Clay and Medwin, Acoustical Oceanography, Wiley, 1977, page 4.

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Question 1.2 Assume a plane acoustic wave in water with a measured flow of 200W through a circular area of radius 0.75m. Let the acoustic signal be sinusoidal at a frequency of 15kHz and specific acoustic impedance Z 0 = 1.25 x 10 6 kg/m 2 s.

a) Find the acoustic intensity in W/m 2 .

b) Find the intensity level in dB re 1µPa (the reference pressure p 0 = 1µPa).

c) Assume that the plane wave is an approximation to a spherical wave originating at a distance of 20m from the point of measurement; determine the source level in dB re 1µPa at 1m and the total source power in watts.

d) At the point of measurement, determine the rms pressure and peak pressure in µPa.

Question 1.3 Sound pressure for a sine shaped waveform in water has amplitude that equals the ambient pressure, Calculate the sound pressure for a source that is positioned:

a) Right under the sea surface.

b) At 75 meters depth.

c) Calculate the corresponding intensities provided it is plane waves.

Question 1.4 A humpback whale’s sound level at 1m and 120Hz frequency is 150dB. Find the soundlevel when the whale is at 1km depth ? (Consider only spherical spreading.)