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com

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

ScienceDirect

Procedia

Available Engineering

online 00 (2017) 000–000

at www.sciencedirect.com

Procedia Engineering 00 (2017) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

ScienceDirect

Procedia Engineering 199 (2017) 534–539

X International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2017

A 2-DOF Model of an Elastic Rocket Structure Under Circulatory Force

A 2-DOF Model of an Elastic Rocket Structure Under Circulatory Force

Reyolando M. Brasila,* Leandro F. Brejãoa, José M. Balthazarb

Reyolando M. Brasila,* Leandro F. Brejãoa, José M. Balthazarb

a

Aerospace Engineering, Federal University of ABC (UFABC), Av. dos Estados, 5001, 09210-580,Santo André, Brazil

a

Aeronaltics

Aerospace

b

Institute ofFederal

Engineering, Technology (ITA),ofPr.

University ABCMal. EduardoAv.

(UFABC), Gomes,50, 12228-900,

dos Estados, S. José dos Campos

5001, 09210-580,Santo , Brazil

André, Brazil

b

Aeronaltics Institute of Technology (ITA), Pr. Mal. Eduardo Gomes,50, 12228-900, S. José dos Campos , Brazil

Abstract

Abstract

It is intended, in this paper, to develop a mathematical and numerical model of an elastic space rocket structure as a Beck’s

It is intended,

column excitedinbythis paper, to(ordevelop

a follower a mathematical

circulatory) force. Thisand numerical

force model

represents of an elastic

the rocket space that

motor thrust rocket structure

should as a Beck’s

be always in the

column

directionexcited by a follower

of the tangent (or circulatory)

to the structure deformed force.

axisThis force

at the baserepresents the rocket

of the vehicle. motor athrust

We present that should

simplified be always

two degree in the

of freedom

direction

rigid barsofdiscrete

the tangent to the

model. Its structure

system ofdeformed

two second axisorder

at thenonlinear

base of the vehicle.differential

ordinary We presentequations

a simplified two degree

of motion of freedom

are derived via

rigid bars discrete

Lagrange’s energy model.

method,Itsallowing

system of fortwo second understanding

a general order nonlinearofordinary

the maindifferential equations

characteristics of problem.

of the motion areThederived

proposedvia

Lagrange’s energy up

equations consider method,

to thirdallowing for ainertia,

order (cubic) general understanding

stiffness of the

and forcing main

terms. characteristics

Among of the problem.

other rich nonlinear dynamicThe proposed

behaviour of

equations

this model,consider up toonthird

depending order (cubic)

parameters inertia,

and initial stiffness choices,

conditions and forcing terms.

either Among

stable other rich

or unstable limitnonlinear dynamic behaviour

cycle post-critical steady stateof

this model,aredepending

solutions possible.on Theparameters

latter is and initial

a form of conditions choices, either

flutter. Numerical stable are

simulations or unstable

carried limit cycle Runge-Kutta’s

out using post-critical steady state

4th order

solutions are

algorithm possible.

in Matlab The latter is a form of flutter. Numerical simulations are carried out using Runge-Kutta’s 4th order

environment.

algorithm in Matlab environment.

© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

© 2017 The Authors.

Peer-review Published by Elsevier Ltd. committee of EURODYN 2017.

Peer-review under

under responsibility

responsibility ofof the organizing

the organizing committee of EURODYN 2017.

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of EURODYN 2017.

Keywords: Beck’s column, follower force, limit cycle, nonlinear dynamics.

Keywords: Beck’s column, follower force, limit cycle, nonlinear dynamics.

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address:author.

* Corresponding reyolando.brasil@ufabc.edu.br

E-mail address: reyolando.brasil@ufabc.edu.br

1. Introduction

1. Introduction

Launcher vehicles (rockets) carry loads from the surface of the Earth to some space mission site. Like any other

Launcher

physical vehicles

body, is not (rockets)

rigid, so carry loads

that the from thedeformations

structural surface of thetend

Earth

to toaffect

someflight

spacedynamics.

mission site. Like paper,

In this any other

we

physical abody,

develop is not rigid,

mathematical so of

model thatanthe structural

elastic space deformations tendastoa Beck’s

rocket structure affect flight

columndynamics.

excited In

by this paper, (or

a follower we

develop a mathematical

circulatory) model

force. This force of an

is the elastic

rocket space

motor rocket

thrust thatstructure

is alwaysasinatheBeck’s column

direction excited

of the by toa the

tangent follower (or

structure

circulatory)axis

deformed force. This

at the force

base of is

thethe rocket We

vehicle. motor thrustathat

present twoisdegree

alwaysofinfreedom

the direction

rigid of thediscrete

bars tangentmodel.

to the structure

The two

deformed

second axisnonlinear

order at the base of thedifferential

ordinary vehicle. We present aoftwo

equations degree

motion are of freedom

derived via rigid bars discrete

Lagrange’s method,model. Thefor

allowing twoa

second order nonlinear ordinary differential equations of motion are derived via Lagrange’s method, allowing for a

Peer-review©under

1877-7058 2017responsibility

The Authors. of the organizing

Published committee

by Elsevier Ltd. of EURODYN 2017.

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of EURODYN 2017.

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of EURODYN 2017.

10.1016/j.proeng.2017.09.151

Reyolando M. Brasil et al. / Procedia Engineering 199 (2017) 534–539 535

Brasil, R.M., Brejão, L.F., Balthazar, J.M/ Procedia Engineering 00 (2017) 000–000

general understanding of the main characteristics of the problem. The equations consider up to third order inertia,

stiffness and forcing terms. Depending on parameters and initial conditions choices, either stable or unstable limit

cycle post-critical steady-state solutions are possible. The latter is a form of flutter. Flutter first arose in aerospace

engineering studying structural breakdowns of aircraft in the years 1910-1930 [1,2,3]. [4] analyzed this problem

from the point of view of structural stability. For more adequate analysis, it is necessary to introduce nonlinearities

to the mathematical model (up to cubic in our paper), for determination of amplitudes of post-critical stationary

states, as in [5,6,7]. Although first studied in aircraft, flutter also occur in missiles, launch vehicles and even

suspension bridges (as in the infamous Tacoma Narrows incident). It is a dynamic instability that occurs due to

feedback interaction between two or more distinct modes of vibration of a system and introduction of external

energy, as per [8, 9, 10]. [11] presents an analytical solution of the fourth order partial differential equation of

motion of Beck’s column. Flutter causes amplitude oscillations to grow over time causing structural failure.

Numerical simulations are carried out using Runge-Kutta’s 4th order algorithm in Matlab environment.

2. Physical model

Fig. 1 is the simplified physical model of the structure of a launcher vehicle. We have two rigid massless bars AB

and BC , L1 and L 2 long, pinned at nodes A and B . Displacements are restricted at point A . We have lumped

masses M1 , M 2 and M 3 attached to nodes A , B and C , respectively. Torsional springs k 1 e k 2 provide elastic

restoring forces. Viscous dampers of damping constants ̂ 2 are added to the joints. We adopt the following

̂1 and

modelling hypothesis: 1. L1 L 2 L ; 2. the bars are rigid and massless; 3. lumped masses M1 , M 2 and M 3

represent the actual masses of half the bars connected to that point, thus M1 M 3 m and M 2 2m ; 4. the

stiffness of the torsional springs represent the elastic properties of the continuous structure, k 1 k 2 k , 5. it is

adopted ˆ1 ˆ 2 ˆ ; 6. the adopted inertial reference is point A , origin of an orthonormal basis BI iˆ, ˆj ; 6.

motions are restricted to the Axy plan.

The fundamental static equilibrium configuration of the system represents the vehicle at rest in its launch

platform. We consider a fixed reference coordinate system fixed at A , as shown in Fig. 1. This system is non-

inertial for an observer on Earth, but is assumed to be inertial in the frame of the vehicle on flight. F is a follower

(circulatory) non-conservative force applied to C , in the direction of bar BC . It models the rocket’s thrust force

due to combustion gases expansion at the motors in the basis of the vehicle. We do not consider, in this model, its

dependence on time.

In a Lagrangian approach, our generalized coordinates are angular displacements 1 e 2 of bars AB and BC ,

from their original vertical equilibrium positions. We denote 1 t q1 t and 2 t q2 t .

3. Mathematical model

r1 0 (1)

r2 L sin q1iˆ cos q1 ˆj (2)

r3 L sin q1 sin q2 iˆ cos q1 cos q2 ˆj (3)

536 Reyolando M. Brasil et al. / Procedia Engineering 199 (2017) 534–539

Brasil, R.M., Brejão, L.F., Balthazar, J.M/ Procedia Engineering 00 (2017) 000–000 3

Fig. 1. (left) System motion under follower force F ; (right) rocket appearance under follower force F

(4)

r 1 0

r2 L q1 cos q1iˆ q1 sin q1 ˆj (5)

r3 L q1 cos q1 q 2 cos q 2 iˆ q1 sin q1 q 2 sin q 2 ˆj (6)

3.3 Approximations

We adopt a third order truncated polynomial McLaurin approximations to the sinusoidal functions.

2 3

qi qi

cos qi 1 , sin qi qi

2 6 (7)

Reyolando M. Brasil et al. / Procedia Engineering 199 (2017) 534–539 537

Brasil, R.M., Brejão, L.F., Balthazar, J.M/ Procedia Engineering 00 (2017) 000–000

1 2 2

2 2

q q

mL 3q1 q 2 2 q1 q 2 q1 q 2 1 q1 q 2 2 q1 q 2 q1 q 2

2

T (8)

2 2 2

V U W

1

2

2 2 1

2

k 2q1 q 2 2q1 q 2 mgL 3q1 q 2

2

2

(9)

where U is the strain energy of the springs and W is the work of the conservative forces (masses weight).

d N

L L Fi nc f jnc • rj

dt q i qi qi (10)

j 1

where the non-conservative generalized forces are in the left hand term.

The generalized non-conservative forces, due to the follower force F are:

(11)

f1nc f 2nc 0, f 3nc F sin q2 iˆ cos q2 ˆj

q

3

q

3

qq

2

q q

2

6 6 2 2

where F is the scalar value of the follower force, considered time independent.

3 Equations of motion

In our simulations, we consider the orbital flight phase of the vehicle. In fact, in the space environment, the

acceleration of gravity may be neglected [12]. Moreover, only the contribution of intrinsic damping to the geometric

configuration of the vehicle is considered, and therefore such damping is called geometric damping. The equations

of motion are:

538 Reyolando M. Brasil et al. / Procedia Engineering 199 (2017) 534–539

Brasil, R.M., Brejão, L.F., Balthazar, J.M/ Procedia Engineering 00 (2017) 000–000 5

3 1

0

1

q1 q2 2 q1 t

2

1

1 1 q1 q 2 2 0 q 2 t

2

0 q 2 q1 q 2 2 1 q1 t 2 1 q1 t

c (13)

q1 q1 q 2 0 1 1 q 2 t 1 1 q 2 t

3 3 2 2

q1 q 2 q1 q 2 q1q 2 q 2 q1

c 6 6 2 2

0

where

k FL ˆ

c , , (14)

mL ² k mL ²

4 Results

Next, computational simulations are presented in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, using Runge-Kutta’s 4th order algorithm in

Matlab environment, from the parameterized model of Eq. (14), for a case of post-critical stable steady state limit

cycle. The initial conditions are 1 t q1 t 0.01 rad, 2 t q2 t 0.01rad, 1 t q1 t 0 rad/s and

2 t q 2 t 0 rad/s, and m 1 kg, L 1 m, k 1 Nm/rad, ˆ 2 kg/s and P 4 N.

We presented a simplified 2-D-F nonlinear mathematical model of the elastic structure of a rocket excited by a

follower (circulatory) force due to the motor thrust, always in the direction tangent to its lower extremity.

Simulations presented post-critical limit cycle. In our ongoing research, thought will also be given in the future to

possible control strategies of the resulting vibrations, a crucial problem when real rocket motions are considered. In

future further work, we will develop the exact analytical solution to the fourth order partial differential equation

governing the motion of an elastic space rocket structure under follower force excitation. Last, a Finite Element

Method numerical model of the problem will be developed.

1.5 1.5

Generalized displacements q1 (red) and q2 (blue) [rad]

1 1

0.5 0.5

0 0

-0.5 -0.5

-1 -1

-1.5 -1.5

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Time [s] Time [s]

Fig. 2. (left) Generalized displacements in limit cycle case; (right) rates of generalized displacements in limit cycle case.

Brasil, R.M., Brejão, L.F., Balthazar, J.M/ Procedia Engineering 00 (2017) 000–000

0.6 1

0.8

0.4

Rate of generalized displacements q1 [rad/s]

0.6

0.2 0.4

0.2

0

0

-0.2

-0.2

-0.4 -0.4

-0.6

-0.6

-0.8

-0.8 -1

-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

Generalized displacement q1 [rad] Generalized displacement q2 [rad]

Fig. 3. (left) Phase plane of generalized displacement 𝑞𝑞1 in limit cycle case; (right) phase plane of generalized displacement 𝑞𝑞2 in limit cycle cas

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge support by CNPq, CAPES and FAPESP, all Brazilian research funding agencies.

References

[1] D. H. Hodges,G. A. Pierce, Introduction to structural dynamics and aero elasticity, New York Cambridge

University Press (2002).

[2] V. Mukhopadhyay, Historical perspective on analysis and control of aero elastic responses, Journal of Guidance,

Control and Dynamics (2003) 673–684.

[3] G. Herrman, I. Jong, On the destabilizing effect of daming in nonconservative elastic systems, J. Appl. Mech

(1965) .

[4] J. M. T. Thompson, Instabilities and catastrophes in science and engineering, John Wiley, Chichester (1982).

[5] C. E. N. Mazzilli, Dinâmica não linear e estabilidade: uma formulação para sistemas submetidos a excitação

dedsuporte ou carregamentos não conservativos. Thesis (in Portuguese), Escola Politécnica da USP, São Paulo

(1988).

[6] J. Roorda, S. Nemat-Nasser, An energy method for analysis of nonlinear, nonconservative systems, AIAA J.

(1967) 1262-1268.

[7] J. Dugundji, Nonlinear problems of aero elasticity computational nonlinear mechanics in aerospace engineering,

In AtluriSN, editor. Progressin astronautics and aeronautics. Washington,DC: AIAA (1992) 127.

[8] R. L. Bisplinghoff, H. Ashley, and R. Halfman, Aeroelasticity, Addison Wesley (1955).

[9] E. H. Dowell,etal. A Modern Course in Aero elasticity., 4. ed., Kluwer Academic (2005).

[10] Y. C. Fung, An Introduction to the Theory of Aero elasticity, Wiley (1955).

[11] S. P. Timoshenko, Theory of elastic Stability 2nd Ed., Dover, Mineola (2009).

[12] H. D. Curtis, Orbital mechanics for engineering students, Amsterdam, Elsevier (2005) .

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