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UPPER PENINSULA

PIONEERS

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Volumes 1 - 40
REISSUED AS A
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THE MID-PENINSULA
LIBRARY COOPERATIVE

HEADQUARTERS

IRON MOUNTAINJ MICHIGAN


1974
CONTENTS

11 DR. DOUGLA SS HOUGHTON" BY ROLLAND C. AL LEN. VoLUHE


39, 1915. PAGES 1 - 8 .

·~TORY or THE DROWN IN G or DR . DOUG LASS HOUG HTON AND


SKETC H orPETER McFARL AN D, THE LAST SURVIVOR Or
THE EXPEDITION-" BY GEORGE JOHNSTON. VOLUME 22,
1893 . PAGES 9 - 13.

"REMINISCENCES BY GEORGE JOHNSTON, Of SAULT DE STE


MARIE, 1815. 11 VOLUME 32, 1902. PACES 15 - 21.

"THE HISTORIC JOHNST ON FAMI LY Of THE Soo" B Y c. H.


CHA PMAN . VOLUME 12, 1887. PAGES 23 - 72.

"MEHORtES or THE So o (EowARO OHSHAwA wo}" ev MRS. THOHAS


0 , GILBERT. VO LU ME 30, 1905, PAGES 73 - 83.

"A SKETCH of.- JoHN SENTER or HouGHTOH. 11 VoL VHE 30,


1 90 5 . PA CES 85 - 9 1,

"THE STORY or J OHN TANN ER" BY MRs . ANC: t E 81HGHAM


Gt LB ERT. VoLU HE 38, 1912 . PAGES 93 - 98 .

"PETER WHITE AS MAN AND AS C 1TI ZEN 183()-1908 11 BY HoN.


LEVI l. BARBOUR. VOLUM E 37, 1909- 1q10. PAGES
99 - 118 .

'~HE F1RST MAH or MARQUETTE; S~ETCHES or Ho N. PETER


WHITE '; 11 VOLUME 30, 1905. PAGES 119 - 140.
DR.' DOUGLASS HOUGHTON
BY ROLLAND c. ALLEN.*

I Naninthearmy
year 1830Michigaii lay on _the very frontier of settlement
the old Northwest 'l'crritory. Detroit was little more than
post although it was rapidly liecoming an important
settlement through wbicl1 was passing a tide of sturdy people to
the oak openings and prairies of the southern counties. There
were less than 20,000 persons of European descent iu the entire
territory embraced within the present borders of the State. Be·
yond Detroit stretched t o the north and west a 1ast and silent
wilderness, broken only here and there on the coast by isolated
groups of traders' and trappers' buts and stockades, through which
communications were maintained with the Indian's of the interior.
The coast v..·as only roughly charted, the land unsurveye<l, and little
was knoWn of the character of the vast inlands of the two penin-
sulas, excepting only the southern counties which Jay in the path
of travel to the more remote and unsettled i"-egions south and west
of the end of Lake Michigan.
Such, in brief, was the state of the Territory on the arrival in
Detroit, in the winter of 1830, of Douglass Boughton, then a youth
•Rolland Craten Allen, B. A., M. A. (University or Wisconsin, 1006-1908), was
born May 24th, 1881, a t Richmond, Indiana. He moved with bl~ parent s to Kansas
In 1883 and thence to Wisconsin In 1891, securing his earlier education In the com·
mon schools or Kansas City nnd Richland county, Wisconsin. Having acquired a
<'ommon school education he h~t'nmc n countr~· school mnster nt the R!!P of sixteen
and arter hnvlng mastered the mnln subjects In the high 11cbool curriculum, un-
tutored, he enterP.d the University ot Wisconsin nt the nge ot nineteen tor the pur-
pose ot preparing himself tor thl! profession of luw. There, howev er, he f ell unde1·
the lnduence ot Dr. Charles ntchnrd Van Hise, now president of the university
but nt thnt tlme professor ot geology, nnd under him began the study or geology ns
11 profession. After three years ot college trnlolng, during which time he supported
himsel f ne n pbotogrnpber, muslclnn and through otber labors or n mlscellnneous
cbnrncter't be accepted nn lnstru ct.or1tl11p ln the high school of Plymouth, Wisconsin.
In the fa I or 1904, after a summer ijpcnt In geo logical work in the wllcla or northern
Ontario, he reentered the university, graduating wltb the class or 1005. lo his
senior year he led tor Wisconsin the annual Intercollegiate debllte with tbe Univer-
sity ot Michigan and won the science meclnl tor success In sclentltlc research. Dur-
ing the summer o r 1905 Mr. Allen was employed ns geologist In Col orado by tbe
United States Geological Survey, accepted a position as Instructor In Ille Unl.-erslty
ot Wisconsin In the fall, resli;:ntng In March, 190.7, to engage In s:eoloi;lc work or
a coinmerclnl nature in Canada, Minnesota and Michigan. Declining tile otfer of
nn nppolntment ns mining geologist under tbe United States government In the
Pblllpplne Ialnnds he returned nt t he end or 1907 to the University ot Wisconsin
tor post gradunte studies. In l!l08-1009 Mr. Allen wns Instructor In geology In the
University or Michigan, and from this position was appointed State Geologist and
Director or tbc Mlcblgs.n Geologi cal nnd Biologlcnl Survey in August, 1909, con-
tinuing. however, bis connection with tbe unl'<'erslty ns a special lecturer In geolos:y
until 1912, since which time his wbole energy hos been absorbed by his duties ns
Director o! tbe Geological Sun-cy. :.tr. All~~ Is n Fellow or the Geolo~cal Society
or America ·and a member of the Lnk c Superior :\lin ing Institute, Mlchlgnu Aradenw
ot Science nod Michignn Eni:;ln ccrlog Socictr nnd the frat ernities or Sliimo Xi
(sclentl6c), Alphn Cbl Sigma (chcmlcnl), und I,nnslni:; Loclge No. ll:l , F'. & A: M. Jn
1910· be wus united in mnrrlnge to Mnrthn Hill of ll111dlson, Indl1.1n11. ·
of twenty-one · "·ho was destineu to acquire and sustain a dis-
tinguiRhecl leaderuhip, Jh'ilt in the intellectual ond profes1:1ion~l li,fe
of Detroit, and· Jater, as State (Yeologist, in ·the development of .
t he mnt~nl resources of the young State nnd . the inception of
instru~ion in~the natural seienccs in tlle Univ.ersity. The occn·
sion of his coming, .g.p er the· lapi;e of thrcc·qnnrters_of n century,
secmi; prophetic of tue profound impress he was destined to leave
on the State of hi& adopUon. He came. fo Michigan, not as an
emigrant f.-eeking n new home in the west but, through tbc influence
of .i_u tclligent people in Detroit who hnu p1·ececled him, to fill n.
ueed for n leader in scientific thought in the growing Territory.
Although Detroit nt this time · was a viJlnge of dri·ly 4,000 souls it
<'Omprii;'e d an unusually 'iritelligent populntion am·ong whom w_e re
n. number of men distinguished not less for their'intellcctual than
tor: their more mnterial nccomplishments. Amo'ng these were
Oenernl Lewis Cnss, Governor of the Territory; Stephens T. Mason,
who becitrile the first Governor of the State; Lucl~s r~yon, senator
und later Surveyot· General 01' th~ United Stntes:; J\Injor Henry
Whiting; Dr. Zina Pitcher, nn eminent physician -.n..nd a regent of
the Un iversity. . i ,,
Iµ 1830 'the friends of science in Detroit united i'n an application
to Dr. A1nos Enton; President of the Rcnnesalher Polytechnic
Im1titute bf~ Troy, New York; to recommend a per~on qualified to
llelive1· n course 01' public l_e ctures on chemistry,· geology, mineral_ogy:
nud natural philosophy. The reqnest was delivered in p~rson by
I.ucins Lyon. and resulted in the ·s election of Donglnss Houghton,
who_wne then act~ug as nu assistant to Dr. Ento~, .the . ~oremost
geologist ot the country. The immediate populari ti_ attained by.
. Houghtou~e lectures in Detroit wne cred.itable not only· to the young
ecientiat .b'!lt also to his hearers, who .forsook in 0. .measure the
gniet.r ot' n."" mmtary post to engage more sedoyely 'in a study of
natural science under the leadership of n yontll who by mauy 'vas
at first deemed bette.r_fitted to receive rather than to im'parf instruc:
tion. Young Houghton, however, nt once gave evidence of re·
p1arknhle scientific attainments which, combined wit11:!bis dominat·
ing but lovable pc1·sonnlity, soon w:on all hearers. In thus early
gaining the reSpcct, ndmlration, and high regard o~ the · people
of Detroit he.hid ·_t he foun.dation which in later·yeor~_; brondened
to include the people of the entire State, supported• ·hin\ in the
organizntion of the Geological Survey nnd the prodigious labor&
whicJt be discharged in the exploration of the trackless. forests
ot the north. · '
.. .--- --
-·-. . _.m.. i831 Houghton was admitted to· the practice of medicine and
3

soon thereafter receivetl nn appointment from General Cass ns


ppysician and botanist fo the Henry lit. Sd1oolcrnft expedition to
the sources of the Mississippi rh·cr. It mny uc conceived that his
experience irntlcr Schoolcrnfl not only i;crvrtl to slimulate his
nntural love for adventurous exploration, bnt alRo instructed him in
those methods o(travel and susfen:rnce in the wildemess of which he
made such effective use <luring the progress of the Geological Survey.
From 1832 to 1837 Dr. IIoughton wns cngng-ed in the profession·
of medicine in Detroit. . Bis practice was large and remunerative,
and he further added to his iucome by profitable investmeuts in
real estate. In 1837 his private fortnnc was such that he was
enabled to acce·pt the appointment of State Geologist from the
hands of his friend Stephens T. Mason, the Governor of the uewly
organi;i;ed state. It would be dcRirabk 10 pause here fo1· n time
to consider this interesting- period in the Jifo of Dr. Ilonghton, and
particularly his relation to the ci ,·ic nnd in1ellectua I nclivitics of
Detroit; but since we arc concerned in this paper more largely with
the remarkable labors of Dr. IIoughtoh, the State Geologist, suffice
it to say that by 1837 ho hnd become the leading scientist and phy·
sicinn, as well as one of the most prominent nod respected citizens
of Michigan. '
It seems clear from the records of the times tllnt nr. Boughton·
is not only responsible for tlle conception and plans of th~ first
geological survey, but it was tlle persuasive force of his personality
that induced the first Legislature to commit the people of the young
State to a work which doubtlei;s promised to many little practical
compensation in return for tlle burden of its support. This early
personal triumph. ·or . the young scientist is the more remarkable
when. it is considered that the science of geology had ns yet made
little progress in America nnd was 'not then ns it is now a. com-
mon branch of instruction in schools and colleges. In fact ita
claims were received 'vith donbt .from the standpoint of the prnc·
tical bearings of its tenets, nnd ncauemicinm1 ucnicd tbe subject
that favor which todny is so freely accorded to nll of the natural
sciences: That the people of Michigan were thus early willing to
iippropriate money for a scientific survey of the State is no less
en evidence of their courageous intelligence than a tribute to the
rema~kable influence of t he personality of Dr. Boughton.
lii the organization of the Snrvey Dr. Houghton found little of in·
struction or guidance in the experience of the older States. Although
the first sta.te surveys of Mas!"-0.clmsetts (1830), Tennessee (1831),
Maryland (1834), New Jersey, Connecticut, Virginia (1835), Maine,
New York, Ouio, an<l Penns~· lvauia (183G), prccc1kd thoi;c in :'ilichi-
~nn 11.' from one to seven yenrs lhcii- resull's we1·e ouly n1c;1gcrly
:n·ailablc and were of liltlc vnluc to Dl'. Uo11ghlon in plauning
fo1· the \'nRl- lnbors which opene<l before 11im in lite wilds of i\lichi-
~nu. It is an interesting fnct, ns well ns an cvi1le11ce of Jioni;hton's
i.ccuiui;, t hat ns cal•ly as 1838 ('lie Survey hrnl been oq;uni7.c<l on tile
plan thal in lhe main ~sentinls is Collowccl to .this <lny in Michi:;an,
anil whic~h i8 approYe<1 liy years of cxpcricuce in other 8latC8 :lH
well. 'l'hi:-; plan pro vi1le<l for ~eologic.al, lopo~1·nphic:ll! wologicnl.
uncl bcil :w ica I <lcparlmc11 ts, 1•nch hea1lrtl by a compcf·cnt i::pecialist,
l111t nil 1mcler the cxcculin? hcnd of the 8111·,·c.r, the State Geologist.
The 1lcpnrtmm1t!l of bot:my 111111 ?.oology <.lid not 1;11\'\'h·c the i;ecotHl
.n•nr of their or~:111ir.a1ion , on account of 1.h~ sfraighteucd coo<li-
1ion or lho Survr.y's finan ces, ll C:lllf>C which also TH"C\'Clltcd the .
pnblir.n I ion of mo~t of the conn ty mnp~ which h:Hl been prepared
l1y t11e Statn ·.ropo~rnpl1('r. Jn fact, it 8ecms 1hnt the fnn<ls whfrh
lh~ Rtrn~gling yonng Rtnle wns nlilc io tlcvote to the Survey, so
ah l~- plnnnc1l 1 were pilifully iuadeqnatc for i L~ exccuti,m, and the
history of Michiga!l prcsenti:; uo nobler example t han that of Dr.
llouA'hton, who8e devotion mul enthusiasm surmounted in such
llH\rked degree the <liflicultics ·thus imposc<l upon bim, :ui well ai;
ull11~rs or an equally forinidnllle nature to which we shall 110w
11 llmlc.
Tim 11111·1mii' of the sci~nr.r. of geolol!.V i 11 A111e1·it•n. hn<l not
1·i~eu to the <lil!n i ty of n. pi:·ofession, and the ina t tcr of secui·ing
competent asf.!iatnnt·i:; was a source of in11ncdi:1te <'OD<:ern to the
Slate Geologis t. 1t sc1·ms tha t there were in 1>elroit at thnt time a
1111111ll<'r of _ro1111g men of 111:11·k1·tl a bi lily. who, for l 1111a lc.ly. 1hrough
)lC\'Sonnl contact with Dr. Ilou~htou hail ac11ufred some or his anlor
:11111 cutlm:si:um\ for lhe sciences :m<l who bcca111e in I i111c. 11111lcr
l1if' tenching and inllucncc, fllted for the work of nssistnuts to the
~fain 4lt~oloi;iRL or lhet5c Bela liubbartl and c. 0. Douglas rcn-
clcl't~ll 1•1licicnt i;~rvirn fr(lm lhc l>egi11ni11:; of the Sm"\·ey to 1 he
tlc11lh ur Hr. lloughlon in 1S4r;.
To those whose lnbora hnve never lctl across tltc wilds of the
11ol'tl11.~·1·11 forests a mere recital of the danger s :uul tlifficnltics which
1nc11a1·Nl the p1·n:;1·cf:R of the survey ns well us 01c physical an<l mental
C'onslil11li1111 of ib' 11urn1IX!t'S 111u1>l fail to produce a full apprecia-
tion of Ilic pro<ligious 1Jurde11 cmlJl'ace1l hy tlte you11g gcolo(.!ist an<l
hii- tlcrnt~cl m;si:;iantR. In allusion lo the nr<luow; chnr:\cter of
his la l111r.s in 1842, Houghton says, "wauin~ !he streams by <lay,
:11111oye1l by 111os1J11ito11 nt night. scpnrate<l fol· weeks together from
·ult i-odl!l'y, were it 11ot lha t the mind i.ll conat.antly occupied by
5

the contemplation of objects whicl1, from t heir symmetry and


beauty, furni sh n constant mental feast there would be nothing
which could possibly compensate for the hardships c>ndnrecl."
Although the law of 1837 con te111plated the co111plet::m of the
survey in four years it wns soon npparent jo Orn Legislature n i:;
well as to Dr. Houghton thnt n longer time would be necessary
fo11 'even a c11rsory examinntion of the entire state. Nevel'lbeless
o large part of the field work was nctnally accomplished by 1842
ond the funds which were thereafter expended were drawu fron\
nn unexpended balance, not including small snms devoted to C'll·
graving. The Stat(! Geologist wns instructed by the Jaw to embody
the results of his lilbprs in a full aud complete report nt the close
of the whole work and his RDD\Hll 1.·ommunicntio11s to the legi s -
lature were, t11erefore, in his own words, ''intended to be little
more than statements of progress." The incompletencsi: of _the
United States linear surveys which were then in progress in i\ficbi-
l!an ' also contributed to delay the work of the gcologic:il ~mrn.v ·
for Dr. Houghton depended on these snrveJs to fllrni !'h him ski>lc-·
ton maps of the townships on which to plat the phJRiog1·aphic
and geologic feattires of the couutry. In fact, Dr. Rougbton
conceived the idea of enlisting the land sm·veyorB th em$Cln~s in
the service of the geological sune.r and "d~rive<l tbe iclC'a of ac·
complishing a · thorqugh geological, mineralogical, topographical,
ond magnetical survey of the new lnnds of the United States con ·
temporaneously with the government surveyll." "As the act mnk-
ing provision for the state geological survey expi1·ed in 1842 leav-
ing still a · large territory in the Upper Peninsula unexplored he set
about effecting a plan which he h ad previ0\1sly concei ved of con-
necting the linear surveys with the minute geological nud mincra ·
logical survey of the count ry. Having explained this sys tem at one
of the meetings of the Association of
American Geologists - noel
Naturalists he, ns chairman of the committee from that body, visited
'Vnsbington during the session of Congress in the winte,r of 1844
· nnd Jaicl his p'lan before tlie proper department. The feasibility of
the project was at once comprehen(led. Th~ only doubt raised wn s
whether deputy surveyors could be found who were i:.<1fficiently
versed in tlie natural sciences to nndertnke the work. This appare11 t
obstacle was instantly removed by the oITer to Dr. Houghton to
·take the contract of tunuiug 4,000 miles of 1in es at a price bnt little
if nny exceeding that which would hnve been paid for a single
survey.11 •
•"MomolT of Douglaaa HouKbton, b7 Jlel& Hubba.rd, Amerlcao Journal of Science, Vol. 66,
p 221. IMS. ··
6

The f\.)'Rlem p.r ove<l immediately succcssf11l , and although nb:rn-


clo11ccf after the 1lcath of Dr. Hongh ton cno11~h Irnrl al rcndy been
clone to show that had the system r cmninc<l in operation to the
1•omplction of the ~urveys we should hnve been poi;sessed of in·
fol'mn I ion which wns ncquirerl onl y several decacfos later with
,.Mfly ~rcal·er. expen se nnd labor.
'l'hc! publishc><l rcRults of Tio ngh l:on's s ul'vcy nppc:w in seven
ann11a 1 rcporh; to the LegiRlatnrc and a nnmhcr of short commnn i·
C'rtViom: relative to ihc uc\•clopment of salt spring!! aucl . other
~ubjcc:lf.:. The work of prcparn I ion of the finnl report on the
gcolo:::y of the Stnte was well . a long tow:-ir1Ji:: completion when it
wnfl inl<'l'rnptcd hy U1A death of Dr. ffo\1ghton in the miclst of his
lnho1'l4, hy drow11in g in Lake Superior n ear F,nglc U.h·cr , October
I :l, 1.84ti. A lthou:::h the Sta I e Topogrn phcr immediately im prcsl'Cd
upon the lc>gislnlure the cxpcdicucy and clc.o::irahility of eutrnsting
the corn pll!I ion nnd editing of lhe final report fo D r. Iloul!hton's
<:hief nl'lsistnn ts, no action ~as tnkcn; and wol'se that t hat, t hrough
nnnC'co1111tf1ole negligence the vnRt collection of notes, sketches,
. rnnpi:. m11l manuscript, representing eight years of 11nremitting toil
hy JT011g'ltto11 and his ni:;i:;ist:m ts, were lost. This was the more
un£orl 1111n tc fot" the memory of Dt•. Ilo11gh (on b~:rni;e only the
puhlicn lion of the finnl report was needed to cstn])lish his t•epu·
tntion na one of.1.lw foremost, if not a ctunlly the foremost, geologist
of his time iu America. ·
.Ju ~t how mur.h he had accomplis hc<l will uevcr be kuown, but it
i ~ C'\'hlc:11 t from I he frngmen ta I rcpot•ls p1·ri:;crvcli in the docnmcnf fl
of the JTon~e a111l 8 1•11ntc of the Michi~an T,cgisln ture t hat he hntl
nttniMcl a fairly l'i<'1lr 1111<lerst:1n<liu:; of l he snr.ccssion an<l stn1c·
tnl'C of the l'alC'owil' ( sccfl11<iary) rocks; hac1 bl or.keel ont the l'i[ichi·
~1111 ('oal Ha1<i11; \llHlcrRloo1l itl :1 lll(':lf;\ll'(\ lite l ater histor,v or
the G1-c?nl L:ikcfl, aucl had lnwrd the posilion of some of their
Cormm• Hhol'c lin1~~; hail calle1l al tcn lio11 to l11e i111po1·tan1·u of our
<lcpo11itR of g,VpF<111n. con I. pent·, ma 1·1. c l ny, I ii 11eRto11c, iron ore, and
copp<~1·; hnd dhH•m·c-1·e!l ~olcl, an1l above nil hnd nl.tni11e1l :rn nn<ler·
filnncliu:! of tlw ~colog,v of lhc <'OJl\H' t'·l>enri 11:.r 1·ockR of Kcwcrnnw
i 1 oi11 t which wna very fnr in (iuvanl'c of hi ii t iml'. Jn1l<'l'd, the in-
fluence o( hia report on the coppe r hearin::: rodes wnR a lllnin fa1·lot·
not only in nttracting l'npitnl to the copper cou ntry and excrdr-ing:
a wii::c i.,ri1idn11cc on c:n·ly profipccting nnd finnn cinl operations. but
in hn11tening the construction of the first cnoal and locks around
th<' fnllfl of St. Marys River.
In nll of the writings of Dr. llonghton em11hasis is laid on the
prnctical results of the survey rather than ita mor e purely theoreti-
1

cal ns pects, which in I}'i s own wordFl "were preserved for the finnl
report." He well understood thnt the tax-burdened people . of t he
stmggling commonwealfu· could nt that time little aO:ord ~xpendi­
tures for 'the pursuit of science for the sake of science nlone and lie
addressed himself therefore to an appraisal of the material re-
sources of whkh the State stood in urgent need-not only in its
competition for settlers with the other young commonwealths of
the northwest, but in fostering and directin g new industries an~
internal improvements. ·
It is only through a bnckwnnl glance across n vistn of a hn.lf
century that we are able to fully appreciat~ the irrcpnrnble lo~~
the people of Michigan Rustaine<l in the death of Dr. Houghton, in -
::volving the main results of his tireless lnbors in the ser vic<'
of his beloved State. lo the beautiful words of Ileln Ilubl>ard.
there wna lost to h is State at the ear ly age of 36 years "oue
who without eulogy may be rnuked among tile most extraord.innr,,·
men of our country, whethci· we view him ns n humble student of
nature attracting all heart a to science; the friendly nu<l skill ful
pl1ysician perilif!g his life to save that of others; the energetic nll(l
independent public m an centering his energy a nd sncrificiug hiFI
. privnte means for the public cause; or the uni versal instructor or
youth and age, the source of as !reqnent aud gene1·nl a reference :u~
the pnges of a cyclopedia. The sold ier dies honored wbo fulls in
battle. He too perished on t he field of his fame; n field whose \'ic·
tories nre bloodless, and in whose fruits lmtninted by misery :inc1
crime the whole human family may rejoice."
The memory of Dr. Houghton is pr esei·ved in the name of 1ificl1i-
gan's largest inland lake, one of itf! wealthiest counties, one of Hs
most important towns, one of its most beautiful wa.terfalls, nnd
one of its most imposing mountains. A monmnent in Elmwood
~etery, Detroit and n cenotaph on th~ campus of the University
have been erected to his memory, while a full length portrait b,\'
Alvali Bradish, his friend and biographer, adorns the Hnll of Rep·
rescntative11 of the State Capitol, and a memc>rinl window hn~ been
placed in St. Paul's Church iu Marquette.
Al though t he progress o! knowledge has long since robbed tl1e
writings of Houghton of nny present day scientific value, the lnpl'e
· of time has on the other hand brought into clear relief on the back·
gi:ound of Michigan's history the extraordinary ability, tbe iu-
domit:ible will, and the conquering perseverance of this remat·k·
able man. May I not suggest to the Michigan Historical Commis·
sion that a compilation and suitable publication of Houghton's
works, which has to this time been denied, would not only be n
8

lltting honor to hiA mcmot·y :m<l memorial to his public service"


tni.t would form a most useful nnd interesting volume ·bearing on
the physical · condition nnd histo1·y ot l\Iicbiga.n in the early years
of her dignity as o.ne ·of the Unite~ St~tes.

. . . .:
~

• ,· I .

·.
•. :
9

STORY OF THE DROW1'ING OF DR. DOUGLASS H OUGHTON•


AND SKE'l'CH OF PETEn McFARLAND, THE LAST
SURVIVOlt OF THE EXPED1T10N.

[Pnbli•hed io t hn S&alt Ste. llarie Newa. Janae,,. 30., l!lllL.]

A m : NOTAl'll TAnLJ:T AT ANN ARFlOR :

To the memory or
DOUGLASS HOUGHTON, M. D.,
Professor of Chemir. t.ry, l\linornlogy nnd Geolog"y io this University, and Ueologioal
Surrnyor Gooernl in This S tate. . '
In S ciooco Lenrne<l, in Aclion Prom pt. While Ilol<lly Eog11ged in Pul>lio Duty, b7
the Overturning or n Bont in Lnke S uperior He Perished, Sinking, Never,
Alna I to bo Seen· A1::11in Until "The Sos Gh·ea Up the Dead."
October rn. 1845, oged 3G.
The trusteoe or t.he U oi\·ersity or .Michig1m th is stone have t1Akt1n. care to pl~

In 'ln 11ncr.rpf1 ted, mengrt>ly-fn rnisbe<l, wea.ther-benlen little frame.


house on Ki in bnll stre.et, nenr Spruce Avenne, in S f\ult Ste. Marie,
occurr.ed lRst week the last chapter · in a thrillin& sud trAgic tale of
Michigan, in which all who know of the greo.t wealth of the upl>er .
p eninsula of this foir S tate a re interested. There <lied , in poverty tbnt
'knew privnt.ious; in nggrnvnting clecrepitnde, heroic P (\ter McFarland,
the trusted friend , compnnion an<l would-be rescuer of Dr. Donglaea
Hdughton nnd the lnst; survivor of the fateful expedition that ended in
the d ealh of the mnn who, of 1tll others, first nttrncted attention to tbe'
yet uutolu, but wornl<1rfully de,·elopecl minernl wealth of northern Mich·
ignn. P eter hlo F'arlau<l wns boru in 1799, where Superior, .Wisconsin,
npw s~n<le. Hie Cather was o. ? cotchmaii who occupied a responeiblo
i>osit.ion in the service of the Hu dson Bay Company; his mother was a ·
Chippewa Indi1m wournn. Peter grew. up in the service of the same
company bis father served. For yea.rs h e was n voyageur and made :
•For alcet<:b oC Dr. Hoairhton'e lite b1 l'ror. flradith ol Detroit, - Mtehi .ran Pion- OollectlOIMI,
yolame '•page 07. ·
1 ()

mnoy tr1vs to Hu<laon Bl\y nn<l bn<.:k, by wny of Michipicoten sncl


Moose rivers. Afterwards he wns rl lea<ler of expeditions.
When Dr. Houghton, in whose houor n township, a county, a lak~
and a city are named, and for w ~om . was placed the ubove memorial
tnhlet in the ceuotnph on the campus nround which so mnny huo<lre<le
of Ano Arbor boys have congrei;nte<l, first cnm~ here to enter upon
the ple.n he originnted to make a geological e.xaminntiou of the Lnke
Superior country, ho ougngetl Paler .McFnrlnnJ ns his chief personal
a.ssistnnt. McFarlnmf served hiw woll nod Dr. Houg h ton's biographer .
refers to him ns the <loctor's faithful, trusted, h eroic companion and
friend.
Dr. Houghlou m1\Cle the winernl discoveries t.hat first attracted
attontion to the npper pe uinsnln. 'rhe <levelopmeut of this section
wns greatly retarded by his bein~ llrowned nenr Eagle river, on the
Keweenaw peoinsuln, by the cnpsir.ing of nn open sail boo.t confAining
four of bis compnnions, his faithful black and white spaniel M~eruee
nncl nil of his vnluable field notes, specimens an<l instruments. Peter
McFnrland and I\ man 110.me<l John Baptiste Bodrie BRyed themselves.
B orlrie died some time ago. McFarland passed away last week and
Hrna wns the curtain rung <lown upon a drama of more than usual
interest. Following is a vorbatirn statement of Dr. Hougbton's tragic
drowning and tho importnnt port played by Peter McFarland:
EAGLE RIVF:H, LA1rn Sul'Ell!OH, Oct. 14, 1845.-Slaterucnts of facts
connected with tpe <lrowniog of Dr. Donglnss Honghtou, geologist of
the Stnte of Michigao, and two of his mAn, Tousiu Piqu&tte and
Oliver Lnrimer, near Eagle river, on tho night of the 13th of October,
A. D. HH5, l\13 related by Peter McFnrlan<l and John Baptiste Bodrie,
surv-i-rors :
"Dr. Boughton ci\mpe<l <'Ut the night of tho 12th of October at E l\gle
Hnrbor; on tho morning of the 13th h(' stnrtt-<l in his boat with the
undEiraigueu nct.ing as voyngenrti, with three hnrrnls of flour, a bag of
peas. sorne pork, tent nn<l bc<ldiug and n trnveling portfolio, for Eagle
river, a distance of eight miles, to the westwnr<l. On arrh-i og at Eagle, .
river they there took in some additional clothin~ · for the sur\"eying
pnrty and proceeded five miles still farther west to the storehouse of
Hassey & A very; they nrrive<l there nt noon and immediately comme·nc~
unl61llling the bont; Rfter waiting some time "the miners at work on the
locntion of Hassey & Avery cnme in to their d inner and from some of
~i.iem Dr. Hought..m procnrecl the key of the storehouee and deposited
bis provisions. We nil took <linner here, after which we stsrtecl for
Mr. Hill's wrveying party, n distance "Of three miles on the shore.
ll

Dr. Houghton and Pet.er McFarl1mtl lheu stnrte<l iuto the woo1ls on tha
line and · not 6n~ini; Mr. Hill lie returned to the boat au<l fonnd by
the arrival of Tousin Pic1nolto aocl Oli\·er Lariu1er tlltlt Mr. Hill and
his men were two miles still furl lier up tho lake. Dr. Houghtou theu
started in his bont in pursuit of Mr. Hill, with nfoFarlnncJ, Dodrie,
Pique~te antl Lnrimer; we met l\fr. Hill nn<l ltis pu rty nl.>out s nndown
ancl after rem11.ining nenrly nn hour uu<l trnnsncLi11g some business we
then put back with the same persona for the purpose of reaching .Eagle
river that night. We lrncl uothi11i; in the bonl bnt some betlding and
the portfolio; at the timt\ of leaving thoro wns n gentle lnu<l breel.e and
a heavy sen froru the ontai<le. Dr. Ho11~htou took his usual seat in
the stern as steersman, whilo fonr of us rowed the boat. On arrivin~
opposite the Hassey location P e ter Mcli'nrlnn<l nskerl Dr. Houghton if
he was going to atop. Dr. Ron{?hloo rt>plied, 'No, for if I do not get
to Eagle river tonight Olivt!r L11rin1er will loi;e his passage down the
lake.' 1IcFnrJan<l them stated lo Dr. Houghton tl1nt ho wll.8 afrniu it was
go.ing t.o blow. Dr. Hou.!..:hton replied: 'No, I guess not; n land breeze
can't· hurt us.' By this t ime we w~ro opposi le the storehouse of
Has~ey & Avery. .McFnrland th e~ toltl Dr. Houghton tbst he must r;o
ashore at the warehouse, AS Lnrim e r'R boggo~e W/\11 nt tbat plnce. At
this we put into the landing and oft.er getting the ba:;gage we then
started for Engle rivor. The wind was About the same as when we ·
left Mr. Hill except that it nommenced snowing a litlle and to i;row
dark; after rowing· uearly three milt>e we fonncl ourselves oppoeite a
place'" called the sand bench. At this place tho wind changed and
commenced blowing from tbe northeast and tho snow cnme faster. In
a short time we encounter~<l a Leavy sen, cnnse<l by a reef projecting
into the lake 1tbout a mile anJ a hnlf. McFnrlAnu then asked Dr.
Houghton to go nsbore. nt the snucl bench. Dr. liough!.on replied: ' We
had. be~ter keep on- we nro not for from Engle river, pull .away boys, .
pull hntd.' At this, l3otlrie i:;poke in the French lrrnguage to McFar-
lnnd, and\
said,
.
'We hacl better go nshore.' Dr. Houghtou immediately
inquii:ed of McFnrlanu, • Whnt cl icl Bodrie any?' AkFnrlnu<l told him,
when Dr. Hou~hto n replied, ·w~ hnd b etter go to E 1\gle river tonight,
as we shall there hnve a new log house to dry us in.' The wind and '
snow kept increasing and a[te r rowing su111 e t ime, Dr. Houghton
remarked, ·once or twice, 'Pn11 awny, my boys, we 1:1hall soo11 be in, pnli:
awo.y,' •and encouraged us by sim ilar expressions. We c0mruenced ship-
ping water and ma<le but li ttle progress. After knocking and rolling'
about among the breakers for owr an hour and it storming all the .
t2

~ime, McFarlnn<l bailed the boat out un<l advised · Dr. · Houghton to put
on hie life preserver. The bag containing it was. handed to him and
he plnced it at hie aide ; instnntly a heavy sen struck the boat and filled
it. Dr. Houghton then proposed going nahore. l\lcFarlan<l told him he
could not lnn<l; that tbe conat opposite there woe nll rocks. Dr.
Houghton imme1lintely put the bont about snyiu~, ' :we must go ashore;
we can do nothi11~ hore.' ·w ithin 200 ynrde of . the shore we shipped
another eon, which wos followed by n larger billow, nnd the bont cnp-
sized with all hnude under her. McFnrlnnd· wns the fi~st person from
beneath, and upon risi,ng to the top of the water, caught hold of the
keel of the boat nt the stern. Upon. looking around, he enw a man's
arm about half wny out of the water. Be instantly lqwered himself
and cau.ght the man by the cont colln~, and npon bringing him · up, i t
WllS Dr. Hougliton, who recognized him. McFarlnn<l told him to tnk~
off hie gloves and hold on to tbo keel of the bon.t.. The advic.a was
followed; McFarland still preserved his hold. Dr. Hqm~hlon then
remarked,' P eter, never mind me, try to .go ashore i.f yon c~n; I will g~
ashore well enough.' Instan tly a. heavy sea struck the b~nt, throwing
it perpendicularly into the air. It fell over bnckwarcls, a.nd Dr. Houghton
disappeared forever. McFarland regained the boat and upo_n getting in,
discovered for the first time one of his companions, Bodrie, ,in the water
nnd clinging, to the bow. In this position they. both remained some
fifteen minutes, but e11w nothing more of their companions . The ~eea·
washed them out again. !lfoFarland drifted towards the rocks and got
n loose hold. I n n moment he was washed off and was carrie4 to and frq
ngainst the rocks some threo times. . The fourth wave lauded him on the
top of a ledg-e of rocks, and by clin~ing to e. crack in the rocks, and getting
hold of a smali bush, he succeeded .i n saving himself. After landing
ha looked arouI!d him and could eee nothing but th~ boat filled with
water and the bedding floating. S oon he h eard a voice among ·the
..focke, asking in French, 'Who is tbo.t ?' McFarland r.eplied, 'It is me,
Peter.' The man was Bodrie. \Ve commenceu looking about in every.
'direction a nd hallooed at the top of our voices, but heard no answer.
We continued examining~ until we found ourselves g rowi ng chilly. and
stiff, when Bodrie remarked, 'Well, we have loat our brothers; it may
be ·that one of us will get to Engle river to tell their fate.' We started
and on the way down .McFnrlund fell several times from exhaustion
and cold. Bodrie rousec.l bis companion up and they finally succeeded
in rea'Ching Eagle river between the hour.a of 11 and 12 a.t night.
We told what had happened nn<l within an hour the entire coast was
. 84
13
lined, in search for the bodies, by miners and others, who were nf:?B!
at hand."
Signed, . PETEn MoF ARLAND,
BArTISTE BoDnrn. ·
"We do hereby 'certify that we were severally present when the above
named Peter McFarland and John Baptiste .Bodrie gave· in their state.
menta of the melancholy occurrence of the death of Dr. Houghton an"d
two of hie men on the night of Oct. 13, 1845, by dro\vning and. th!lt .
the above is a correct statement as given by them.''
E. H. TnoMPBON, Michigan.
C. H. GRATIOT, Engle river.
J. H ocoHTON, Jn.~ Detroit.
J. T. WBITINO, Eng-le river.
Jon~ HAWJ{S, .M. D., Rochester, N. ~.
ALGERNON MERllYW EATllER, Michigan.
BELA Hunn.Ann, Detroi t. ..
In the spring of 1846 the remains of Dr. Hong-bton were found not
far from the scene of the disnster. They were half covered with saud ·
and easily identified. They were interred in Elmwood cemetery, Detroit,.'
where a monument was erecled to bis memory by Mrs. Honghtou.
The night Dr. Houghton was d rowned and the day follow!ng, the snow
that bud commenced at dusk fell to the depth o( foree feet.
With Dr. Hougptou died his undoubted and undisputable discoverj
of gold in the upper peninsula. Mrs. James C. Pendill, of Marquette, ·
a sister of Mrs. M : W. Scranton, of the Soo, has a. pnir of gold
spectacle bows made from n n~gget found ~n Lake Soperior by Dr.
Houghton and presented by him to Peter B. Barbeau. Mrs. Scranton

.
bas a piece of native silver also found by him. The more recent dis.
coveriea. of Julius &pea and others, of Ishpeming, confirm in sonie .
degree what was said of Dr. Houghton's finds. The doctor once remarked
0

'that w.hen he was randy to tell what be knew of precious . metals 00


Lake Superior, people would go wild. Near the mouth of Chocolate ·
river, in M~rquette county, is one of the supposed locations of· the gold ,
discoveries. _
The death of old Peter McFarland vividly recalls these things. In
· the pelief that they are both interesting and informative the .News
presents them to the public. Charlotte, a daughter of the old m&n,
still livea on Kimball stre~t. Well she remembers Dr. Houghton and
. dwells interestingly upon his associations with her father, who waa,
she says, up to the time of hie death, the. oldest settler in the Soo;. :.
15

[REMINlSCENCES BY GEORGE JOHNSTON, OF SAULT DE sn:. ~!ARIE, 1815

ln the yt:>.nt· 181ti, about the middle of ,June, there appeal'cd t>lllf'i ·g-iHj! iu
!:light, from a point at the head of tuc little rnpi<ls, a. distance of nhout two
mile.a from the falls of $le. Narie'i:;, three m'ntly 1iai11h'1l yawls. The
leading one was well manned 11): eigllt expert oarsmeu and uuc slccrsn1an.
'l'lle other two hoats hatl each six oarsmen and oue slcel'E<man, follo\\·in;; in
the wake of the leading boat. They all were carryiug nt their stern tbc
. American banner, with its eagle, stripC's :rntl Rtars wnviug graC"Cfull_y in the
win<l as the boats ascended the river, nnd as they passc1l hefore our lwnsc,
we ol1sr.:rvcd rnany passengers, nnd some apparcn fl~· of note, wear in)! th<>
military frock coat, nnd which inilicatecl that they were oflkers of the United .
Stutes army. They landed on 't he .common, at the presellt military site or
16

l"ol't Il&·ruly, n~11l t1oon n. hll1;."Q mnrqnce nud othc1· tcnli~ wc1-c in't u11 1 !ormiug n
nc:&t nnd ordt'l'ly CJlll')ll. My Jute fa'thcr nnd I wulkf'-tl up to the uew ramp
antl 11-000 recognfac<l Ca pt. Knapp ol the United Stntcs reveuuo cutter. nnd
Samncl Abbott of the Ielnno or ~{ockinnc, nnd those gentlemen inh'oclucetl
us to Gen. Drown nn<l to his suite of offir.cl'8, nod soon after the intt·o<luction
my falht'r invite1l the gcn<>ral nn<l nll the g1.>ntlemen. composing the purty,
to 0111· honRC nn<l to what he tcrme1l hi11 bandbox, nn'1 to render them such
ch·ililir.~ aR theil· rank an<l 011 gentle111eu entitled them to, it being late iu
the nfl:cn1•Jou when they lnntle<l . They all were invite1l lo teu, nnd ·in the
111PaJ1t ime the imrt.v vil~itcJ the rapids n111l I.he 11p1>e1· 1•1111 o( lhc p1n·l·a~<'i from
whence they 1•0111<1 Ace the summit of Cape Ir0<t11oia, tlio entrance oC J,nke
Sopc•ri(lr. 'l'licx-c WtlR nt thiR time n. very lar:;c nn<l numel'OllR nttecmhln~c of
IwliauFC at the foot 9t the falls, nlHl on an eminence wns Rihtntc<l ·the ancient
villa~ of the Chippewas, cousiclC'r<'d as n metropolis dul'in:; the summer
n1011ll11", nnd wh<'re the Indians JiYi11g on the southe1·n antl northern shoro of
l.:1ke fiuperiox· aud its interior portions of tlle country, congregated ·to niet~t
ou fri~nclly 1-elntio11s, nnd to apcn<l ·thefr time in nmuscment" nud in t he
performance o! their g rnutl medicinP. dn.nce, and to enjoy the abunllniu~e of
the rnpiuR, yielding such a plentiful supply of whitefod1 1 to warrnut t1nfficient
1laily foocl for snch nsaemhlnges, nnd n t this time the Tn<linns wc1·e lm«ls of
the soil, freo nn<l inclcpcndent, and fierce ns the northern nutumnul hla"t.
At this t ime the lxulinna were numerous nncl ;yet sHll hostile to the Antel•icnns,
from the fact of their having lost many or thch· friends nnd rclntivee tlu1·i11g
tl1c wm· with England which broke out in 1812. Their wounds were not yet
heuletl, nor wns their aversion to the Amc1·ican name Ieascnc<l, and nt "tl1is
epoch nml under existing circumstances, the leust pretext woul<l have cnlled
forth the tomahawk nud scalping knitc to a ...enge the deaths of their relnti\·es
killed in the wnl'. Agreeably to the iuvHntion given to t he geucral nufl his
,_ suite, the gentlemen mn<lc their appc:1rancc nt the appointed time, nnd tuking
their ~ate Mound the tublc the eutertniumeut commenced and soou nfter,
while ·the gentlemen were atill at the table, the Jute Mr. Nolin, nn oged
t~1H1er or over sixty years o( age, wos announced, nod .Ue wns de11i1·cd to walk·
into the room nntl tnke n sent; but t he ohl gentlcmnn nppenrt~ very much
excilt'd~ nn<l before he took liie sent, relnted to my father in the Fr<~nch
lnngunge, tbut he hn<l co~ to report to him certain !nets thnt luuJ recently
come to hiR knowledge through n. friendly Indian woman, who bnJ come to
his hottFIC by the unck wny so os not to be Reen hy nnyone in the Indian
villnge, nnd whom he hntl Ir.ft and wua still waitin~ at hiH hon~, i·elared nnd
ma<le known to him that the Indians nt 'the village hntl in the. course of· the
a fternoon or immediately ofter Gen. Brown's landing assembled in a ~ret
17
of
council, and t lie r esult tllcir <leliberations wns lo attack the Aiuericnus iu
th_e course of the night and massncre the whole of ihem. As the inform:ition
.was r ailier of a serious autl alarming nature, the whole of which was explaineu
~nd "laid before General Drown, and 111y fat11 er olTcred to the general a nd
his party a shelter in our house, and wliich ofic1· the general dcclincrl
a cc~pting for t he present, stating that be :rnd ltis pnrty had com_e 't o Yialt
the. e~~rancc to Loko Superior, and o.s hostilities hntl ccnsed hetw~cn Engl:rntl
· nnd ,he~ Indi:m a llies an11 th e Unit<!d Rtn1es, nnd that he had con)c in good
faith :,:)nd u n11rcpnre1l :with arms, but if he lind n1·ms to nrm his men n ncl
pnl'ty, be woul<l p refer r em aining i n Ilia c~ m p. ' Ve h:ul fortunately at t hi£1
time recei ved our gootls from Montreal, 1 _nncl over ten hoxes of flue :iu1l
northwest g uns, designed for the In<lian frn<le; wit ll these we armed the
general. and his par ty of forty-five souls, .and supplying tllem with nn ample
quantity of powder nntl balli<, they set guards nnd occup~ed tlle!r tents.
I bad ordet s from my father to take with me Mr. DQlliday, t hen n clerk in
our service, nnd. a. p.umbcr ·ot· half-breeds nnd Cnnaui.ans in our emplo;v, nml
to..k:cep a shar p .J9ok1?ut during t4c night, and. .to tnke.. onr position l>CbYecn
the. general's camp_and the I n dian vil lage, .an cl if nny Indi.ans dare pnss ua to
shoot them down. We .kept ·to our post during the night, nnd ai;_ the <lnwn
of day appea r~<l, we retired home,, passing tbc' general's tent. I i nfOl'llW(l
him that we hnd not discpvered the least moveme11t'lnnoug tile .Indians of the
village, but at t he edges of th~ woods we had h~<.trd':rc.-p,e:iteq sha,rp,souncls of
the Indian whist le . The I ndian s . were no dQubt aware t hat tile gcne1:nl au<l.
his party ·were prepared to receive them tmd consequently gn ve up the a.ttem pt
of the i;:ontemplated surprise and massacre. Tbe gentlemen were :,i ll in\·ite9
to take break fast with ,ps, upon :fine bouncing whitefish, just cau ght by our
fishermen, and while ,a t brea~f~E\t, my father dissuaded the general nnu ~~s
party from visiting Lake Superior, as it was c.onsidered· most prudent un d~r
existing circu mstances. Soon". after the general's camp was struck uowu and
the party were jn t heir b9ata .to join the revenue cutter, in waiting at Mudoy
Lake.
: :: . GEOROB JOHNSTON.

REMIN I SCENCE JI

In tlle ycnr 181G, about the beginning of Jnly, General McComb ("Macomb)
and bis suite of officers a.rrived at this place, Sault Ste. Marie, and landed at
our dock. He was accompa nied by the gentlemanly A1lnm Stuart, Esq., the
collector ot customs of the Island of Mackinac. Tile general :rnd his party
tQo.k ,np their quarters at our house and were entertained by my father, Jolin
Johnston; Esq., d uring ilieir stay at this place, which lasted a week.
18

1.:11011 (~X}lt'<'~..~ing n wi~h lo \' isit tlu~ (mh·;wcc to Lake :->upct'iuL', lit,\" fo1 l11'l'
0 1·1IP,L etl one of our light nortu r.anm!s to be 111annc1I hy uinc of onr best
0

•·:uwe 111<'11 n nil best experi<'nced yoyngeurs, and when the pL'ovi11i ou uuRket
\\'llR wtdl fillt•li with t.•alaltlNl and the liquor cnRc with choice wiuc>~, the cnuoo
\\'all l:111111·lwd lo aRcrml lhc! l':tpitl8 with or<lc1·H 1o t he men to wnil: a'I: the ht>acl

of llH' 1·apid.- fo1· th\~ gc>m.•ral a11tl his party, while · i11 Ilic 1rn~:111 (·i111c Ilic
g1•11111•1111•11 wn lkc·cl 11p ll'iim rcl,r on l11c PoL·t:igc Road. ohst•l'\' i 11~ l lw fa 1lis
:11111 11djoi11il1j.! 81'(!1\Cl',Y. f-::0011 (':lllU' r~ Clai1·, u foill1f11l n111l htl<~lligcmt
IH 1:1l 1111111 111111 )!llide, :11111 Jlll't'linj! l hl' p:ir'Ly or g 1•11f·ft llll!ll 1111 1lic l'c)!Hl,
1

:11111011111·cd flt:it ll1<! can<w. WM• at lhe hcacl cir the 1·n.piilH i11 waili 11g fot• " Mon
;.!,'P11••1·a I d po111· lcN n11~HF1i•!lll'N." My fu tlwr nccomp:111 ic1l I he pa rl,Y Io t lw
lll':td of 1111! 111wl11gn :11111 ~n I\' th<'IH off, lhe 111~11 all·ik ing u·p I h1\ V•!.\'a~1•11r
"'""I!· ;\ \\'II,\' \\'e11t tlic c~:rnoe. 1<kin1111i11~ 1hc waler a1' li:.rlilly a111l ;!1·:11:t'r11Jly m~
a \\'lll<'1··fowl. 'J'here happcrll'fl lo he nt lhiH ti1110 n Jar~1! Tn1linn ~a mp at
J'oi111· aux Pines nn<l tho Jrnlinns wm·o· 1111rn0ronH. 'l'IH! ''llllOt\ Ht'l'i\'i11g there
with ilu~ J\lll('ri1·an colourf: fl_yin:.r. nud so 80011 r..c · ctait· flpr1111~ to the i;au1l
f14•:wh io bl'ing ahont thn f!iclt> of the t'UJl(){' lo the RhOJ'(', whP11 'thn wurwhlXlJ•
1·,.111'111''1 nnd a":-1111llctl tlwi1· C':ll'f< an<l 11i11111ltanem1Kly w:1f' ~11 i11fut 11atl'1l mid
i11l11xi1·a lr1l Il11li:11u1 umC'r~in:? fro m their l otl~cs with ~111\H nnll wu1· clnbR iu
hu111l~. 1111111.r of 1111:111 t1l11ml1liu~ on theh· wa,1· to the conoc; onr o( lltnni, how·
,.,.,.,., watt 1wl "" di·unk and r cndiinl! ui~h to tl1t! ·~nnoc to wilhin pi>~l.111 !'hot
:11111 po in I iu:.r h iic guu 11 t tb<' J:t<!Ul'l'n 1, it fortn1111tely 1111app<•tl. T.hll 1loct01·
11c·1·omp1111,ri11l( 1'11c ~cneral co11chc1l himRClt low in the cnuoo, hut tlw J!<'ll<!ral
~1 t 11A 1·0111pOH(."tllJ ns if 11othing h111l hnppt•1u'd. J..c Cl11h· 1111 quick as thought
rnu l'owat'll Ui<• l ncliun who wuH dclil1c1·11lely p r iming hi14 guu, Wl"CHlt!tl it Crom
lli111, nut1 giviug him n blow 011 tho lwn<l with the butt cutl ot it, laid him llut
11po11 tlte g1·011111l. Aud JR. Clah· immediately in!ol'mc1l Uw ~enc1·nl 'thnt i t
w1111ld ·~l illl{ll'( l[~l' Ht thil4 ti1111~ to prOL~'<"<l to the C'lllt'allt'C or J,nkC' Rupt•rjnr,
fnr \\'hilt~ lhe~· woulcl l>c 11b11C'11t the I111linnR wonl<l hccomC'· f:olll•1· nncl 011 lla!il'
l'l'turn l>c l>ctl<'L' pl'(!put'C<l 1o tlo hi111 a11Cl "let' mc11sie111·~" ~L'iot111 if uot fulnl
~ llJlll',\' , J t w11~ U~reforc thought 1uhisablc to pnt aliuul u111l rC'l1n•11; soou
wt• 1<11w llw 1•a11t~ com in~ clown the rapids in ;;alhmt HtJlll, mcu 11iugl11g nnd
in fnll <'horus, nnd soon lnudinJ! the general nnd his pnrty ou onr cl0ck. So
t•ucl<'d the cxpe<lition.

JH Iii<' 111onlh of July, 18!!0, n 11umhcr of cnn()('s npp< 0 1-ed a11cc11iliug the 1

1·i"''r. File. Mari<', also a lnrgc · ~ r nckinnc l>ont ~on1.aini11J! n for<'('. of twenty
19
, floldiera lrnde~· Ute com 1i1an11 of Lieut.•Jolin J'. (S.) l'icrce, • or.·l h0.. :1r lill cl'y ,
. United ~ iates a~·my, forming :.1 11 escort to hi8 Exccllcu('._r, Lew i~ C:rnf<, :.111tl his
party. liis Exccllcu~y was at this time Governor of tltc T<'tTilol'y of ;\lichi·
ga.n and bouncl .o n an cxpc<lition io dii:;covcr the sonrcel:l t•f tl1c ;\fo:~is~ippi.
1.'he party lau<lell. pp pos it~ t he pre8 cu t s ite " ·here Fort Brady i!:> now si t na 1cd
. and formed thei~: ca111p on the green near the ~liorc of the Ste. ?if:ll'ie rir<'I', anu
'~ithin g1111sl.Jot of the In1lia11 villn;.;e aituntc1l 011 nu elevated I.Jank, :rn<l :it thi~
· ~asou of t he y<':ir wus well po j)iilafetl by tllc Irnlinns wl10 llad :11Tiw·1l fr11111
the dilrercnt regions of the co1111 try frow theit· wiuter hunt in ~ t•x<·11rf<io11~;
a ·n a besides ihe local population, many Jitile fleetfl of cano<~t:< havi11g nrrivc1l
from the north auu southern sliorci; of Lnke Supc1·ior ou t heir wny <l o,,·11 lo
visit their E nglish father nt l>1·u111111ond JRlnn<l, nn1l to r eceive thr.ir a111111n l
pre!!ents from the ~rili1qh government, aucl this :rn1111al ns~cmhlnge of Ind ians
were now en<'illllJ">Cd on either si<lc of the ri\'C!I', dotting tl1e shore's wi tb thei1·
wigwams, ancl the p1·yl.ia1Jle asi::emblugc of Illll ianfi nt 1his ti111e coul tl not
have Ucen less tliau fifteen huntlreu men cupal.JJe Of lJr;11'i11g ar111R.
.. My fatl1er, Johu ,J_ohw;toJJ, Esq., l1eing abi::cnt fr o111 hoUJc, I rnlleu on his
t:Xcellcnc.y, the govcruor, uwl invi'tc<l him n11d bis party to pnl'lukc of tl.ie
~wspii'aliti es of our ho JUc, and ol!- tlie follo,ving rnol'lling I rec<'i\'ctl a mr.As.1ge
from the govcn1or desiring me .~o .a ttend ihe conle111pl:-itc<l cou nc il he was to
bold with the ludians. I a 1:co1•uiugly a n <l fo r t hwith in tl1e com pan.v of our
<~!erk, Mr. Holliday, repaired to his c:xr.clle11r.y's ca llljl,. aud we . :tnm~ r e·
quc~tecl t o cn.ler his mnrquc-e and ·placed on either sitlc :of hiR ~nt; lloou . the
chiefs .and bend rneu came and took their ~cnts on t he gxoun1l. forming :i
semicircle in the lll:trqn.cc aud l'igh t in front of hif:1 excellency, nnd soon after
the chiefs aud head 1~1c11 seated tbenlficlves, th~ in tc1·prete1· was orclcrccl to
bl'lng, in some tol>aceo.',for the c4iefs to f:1moke, .:111<1 I.he inte .. pre.ter, ~grecal>ly
to 11is imitructioDI~, bto.ught iu an nnnful of-.Jllug tob:u:co aud which he titre"·
upon the ground and within the Indian .cir~le. At t his time I obserYed
stfinding near the 'i~a~'.quec door a y~ung. ch ief, Sessal>a, urcssed in full Brit·
il:~h· hniforrn and appeared too import.ant a cbn raclcr lo inke n. f:1ca t on tbe
~.(r0:l1n<i ,~·ith the ~lclc1· chiefs. At this lime one of lite lwnd men ol1sen·ed,
ana' ca8tlng
I · •
I .
hia eye on t he pile of tobacco he forc him, I . pre:rnm~, Raitl he,
• •

that this ' tobltcco is desigued for our smoking, and, ckawing one of the plugs
of tobacco towards him with bis long pipe stem :rnd 'taking it in his huntl,
drc.\{r his scalping .lr~1ifc from his belt nnd COl1llll('l)t'e1l Clll.ting lJ1e tohl.H'CO.
nricl at ·fi1ifi · i'11stant, · Ressaba, steppiug insi<ie the rn :wqucc, shoved the tobnr.co
lying' bn .Hie groun<l .'\yith his foot, nnd acJdrcssing hi mE:;elf 't o the hea<l man
wb~f;wns · :cutting the. tobacr.o, and with a ~rown, said to him: "How dm·e
~·on accept of tobac.co thrown on the ground ns bones to <logs," and in·
• J'ohn 8. Pierr.c wiu & broc.lier of Pre.~ldent Franklin l'l er e<t,-C. M . 'B.
Ktontl,y wlwcling urountl, he wnlkec:J olT toward~ the vill a~e 111111 hohited lhc
Hrith1h col01·f!, nnd while the cliil•f1:1 antl all ·were aulil7.ecl at Sl~l:'Haba's courl'c
it wmt i·epor~L><l to Gen. Cal.ls that the Ill'itish flng wna hoiste1l :mtl wnvin;;
in the I111lia11 village nnd 110 soon did tlle gener al f.l[ll'ing to hiA feet, cnlliug
hiR iuh!rpref·er to nccompnny him, the~ mu1·chc<l tow111·d the village, nn<l
r,icut. PieJ"t:f\ nn<l Ii i11 men Rfll'Ung to their arms. This u1·okc up t he ~onncil
:rncl lhn chiefs dil'l[>Cl'Re•l. 'fhe jingling- or . the rnmrocl~ in lhc 111uakcl·M 1:1non
1·t•ad1ccl llic r.nN4 of the wo111cn antl ch ildren at the villa~e. n111l the affl·i~hletl
hl'ga11 to lly to ·their i-mu1PR !yin~ on the hcarh, :rn<l whi1:h wm·e J1hovcll off;
:mil tlil! woinm1 ntul r.11ildrnn ruRhin~ p1•omiscuouid,v nnd i<er1~ami 11g! into thP-
cn u o<'R :11111 patlclliug off; the lamentations of t he scream In~ WClmcn and the
lwnwli11~ dlil!lrcm set the dogl\ hmvliu~ nncl the l'iver Hic11~ l>e1~n111 e 1t pm·rect
·"t:ellll O[ c·o11f11Aion. }11 thn 111ea11ti111e the Il1:iti1;h flag \\'UR h:rnle(] 11oWI\ b~•
Ute gcucml. At lhiK time I wnlkcd home und I met m.v moth1•1· oppo~itc my
ollicc 01111 l:'li<~. ap11eari11~ mut'h n~it·atC(l, n<'costccl me. ~:iyi ug : " For GocFf!
flllkt~. <"'leorg1~. 1«•1td inRtau tly for the elder chief!!-, (or thut foolish .roung ch icr,
~raSJ1lm, will u1·ing ruin to the tribe, nnd get them afi~•rnhled here." I im·
111ecl ia tcl,r 11iApa kited n1csf(engerE1 for tJie rliiefl'I on<l P.l clers. ,\ ntl the <:It ief~,
~0011 oh<'.ring the s11111111onA, wc1·e nRaemhletl in n1y onl<'I! uncl I a<h.lreRRetl
1'11c111 with the following wordR: "~t y rricn<ls nn<.l relat ~veK, I am young nud
['O~!M~l<R \'Cl'J little \~.istlom to ;.,;ivc you n<lvice nt this {ll'C8Cllt time; it ifl rrom
you I 1:1houltl receive it, hut 011 this occusion nllow lite to give yon u few wordit
· of w111•11inJ.!; nml I do not llc1:1i~u to be lengthy; n few wo1·1l11 will 1mftlre.
Yon an! all of yon nwaro thnt hostilities Uetween Grent Bl'itaiu ;tnd the
lJnih'<l l'Halt!14 have eentted. Pearn now exi11ts. The two nations 1u·e now liv-
i11~ 011 .fl'ie1111ly tc1·111a; 011e o f youl' y oung 111cu lrnR mi 1:1~ h a n~cl him~lt ntill
haH ~i\'ell ll :;1·o~H i11tmlt to (Jtc gOVCl'nlllcnt of 1\1icJ1iga11, ll l'HJH'eseutntive O(
lhc J>l'CAi<lc11t or the United Btntc11, uy hoiEltill~ the Bl'it iRh llag OU his
11t:lrnowh!1li,:1!1l ten·it·or~·. Yun c:nn n ot expect lhat thl! Hl'iliHh g-on!t'11111ent
will ic11Htni11 h i111 in such nn net. I 1111der~tautl that he hnR ~0111! to urm him·
1<t!ll' 111141 a•aiHll w111·1·i01·1:1; now he wis<! nncl quick and pu t u 11l'op to hiH wihl
tu·lw111c uml icupp1·1•As the l'isi ng of your young 111cn. 'l'he 1i1·i11g of ouc guu
will hl'in~ ruin to your ti-ii~ arnl to the Chippcwns, 1.m tl1at a dog will uot 1.x~
left t? howl iu your villngca."
)ly 111otl1l'l' nt thiR time ('li111c in nncl with :rn thol'ily c:om111andt!tl the
m•~c·111lilc !cl c:l1iefH to he quick, n111l irnppn•i;8 lhc folli es of Kcssalm, the
chi.,f. l-:lii 11gwackho11Rc! the orntor of t he t1·ih1\ awl who hn<l been a.
Jral'tiion during- tlu~ pnflt wnl', wnH aelectecl with other lll'uveH, and they hncl
m•clC'rH from the chiefR to Rtop ficRMhn's proce~dinl(!'I, n1ul the.v forthwith
~tnrh.•d upou t he. portage ronll. nn<l they met Sessnha, who, hav ing divet1te<l
21

himself Of his rcg-imentals, anu llOW appCal'ill;; painku n11<l ill W:ll' HCCOlllCl'-
menta, lca<l in::; a party of warriors, pr<>1i:11·e1l autl <ldcrmi111•1l for n despcrnlt!
encounter witlt Geu. Casi;. Shingwa d:hut+sc, 011 1111~ct iu:; ~es:saba, anu au1kce-1:1·
in:; the par ty witl1 hi111 , said to tlle1n: '':'lly frit>11<1 rs u11d rcluth'cs, I an1 author·
ized by our chicft; anu cltler s to stop yonl' pl'or.ceclin;.:is." f;ci;salm, im1tnully
l'eplyiog, saitl to Shi11gwackhoui.ie, "You wH S n wnr 'leader whcu 111y ~rnUwr
fell in battle i he WM~ _killed u~· 01c A rnc1·ic:ins, n111l how dun~ JOll COlllC t o )lilt
n. i;top to my prtwef'tlingi;?" and rail'iug his war-duh, Rtnll'k a t Rh i n~wark·
house and gl'H;1,c1l his left ~ho 11 1dC'r a11 1l $li i11~w;11·khoww, 11_11tlis111:1}L'U, RJ ill
kep t up hifl ornlion a11l1 w i lh hi1:1 clocp1e111·e :11111 Ilic powc1· vel'iccl him h.~· the
c:hief11, lie JH'C!\'ailc•cl on 1hc• par ly 10 1·1•1111·11 tjltif'l ly tu ll 1l'i 1· 1·P11pet:fire lotl;!t'"·
_then 1:1il11atetl :1t the licnd of the pol"la;,!e :11111 ulon;! 1ltC' i;hfll"c of tlte faJIH. Ro1111
after Jhis a 111 c~sc11ger scut by tl1e chicfH, ca111c to 1111• uud l'l\po rlcd 1ltal
Seasaua's p:wt,r ha<l retired quietly to theii· l'cspertin.• wigwau~a :incl ill. tl11!
nrternoon I assembled the chiefs in my offil'e n11tl told them it wa11 11ecess:11·y
for them to make a11 a)lology to Geu. C11a1:1, und lo li8tc11 to wh11t he hail to
Ray to them, niul if they fountl anyth i11i.r 111her~c 10 their pri1wiplt·i:, it w:u1
their time to reject i11 a p1·oper 1m111ncr the 1n·o11ot:1itions be should 111pkc 1o
. them nn_d to this thc.v usaeni.cd; and I offc1·ed f helll rn y office nN a comwil roo111
and which th~~- gratefully aeccptetl. I then called on G~n. C.1ss nud !!l<1!\•1I
to him tbnt the chief1:1 were ai;i;emulcd ut 111y ollil'C a11t.1 wen! ready to hca1· hi~
~·or<11:1 1 a ud I suggested to the general that my ollicc woul1l he :i. ('Oll \·cuip11t
place to franrmct lmsineBa in autl I invited hint mH1 hiR ~nitc, alHl rt'IHl fri11~
. therein, tlic chiefs lDaking an appropriate apolo:;y for the 1·ou<l111·r of th ci1·
fooli sh young ch ief, wna acceptcu uy Gc11. Cm,;~ n111l 1.J11i::i111·11~ 11in I !1•1·s <'1 •111 ·
menccd nnd ti.Jc trea ty of June Hi, 1820i 'ms consu111111atcd uetwecu the pnrli(•i<.
I recollect aeuding for two bottles~ of wine unu tol.Jacco, and thoi<e or 11i:;
pre8cnt pledged ourselves with the chiefH, nnd tm10kiug the pipe of peace w i th
them, ended onr day's work.•
G~:oitGE ,l onNl!TON.
23

'l'HE HISTOHJC JOITNSTON F.\MILY ·op TRE "SOO."


HY C. H. CHAPMAN. •
Cor.lpllln~ 1>11<•h rcconl11 of the Johnston family af! limited time an<l space would
permit, the writer ha.~ enclcavored to preserve anJ verify the historical correclnei;s
ot events aml 1latPs, even at the anr.rlfire of scverA.I ~ooc\ 1>lories. Th e eom11llatlon
is made laq;ely from the wrltlni;11 of l'l\rly tra.velers to the Lake Superior rt>gion and
from some or th<.> worl<s not In genl'rnl circulation. or Henry R. Sr.hoolrraft, the
historian . who :-unrriecl th P clclcst rl aught<.>r of .John Johnston. An Intimate acqnaln-
tancll with .Tohu l\11'Jlo11~nll John~ton. yo11ng-rst son of John Jolrn11ton, and P.li of the
son 1 and rlu11::;htr.rs of .Tohn McOoui:nll John«ton, for nPnrly a. q1111rttn- (l( a r!'ntnry,
has made tho 1·ompilA.tion of thr fo llowlni: pa~cs a w01·k o r n111ch pleasure, and
011i.l'ile1l th!' writ~r to rorrert I\ n11mher ot <'.rrors a.nil ntlcl a few hlstorlcnl events
hrrrtoforo 1:n1111lili1<hf'rl. Tho following Jettrr rrom Mi1111 Anua Johnston, ~rnnd·
daus:: hter of .John Johnston. is Sf.lf·C.Xjllanatory: ,
Sailors Enrampment, June ft, 1902.
M1'. Charles H. Cha11mnn, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan:
Dear Sir:-Mrs. Anthony sent your J1>ller to us. thlnl<lng that we coulrl give you.
some lnformatl<in about our n11nt, Mrs. Hl'my R. Sl'boolcl'l\fL Sh<' w as the third
<'llild of John Johnston ancl t h e cl<lest <laug hter, who wns horn Ja.n1111ry 31Rt. 1800,
and <lied May 22, 1842, at Nla.i ;nra, Cnnn<la Weo;t, we think whllo on a vl11lt to her
i;.lstcr ~1rs. McMu rrny. ·we havo no rerord of her marriage. She liven at Snult
Ste. Marie for eleven years after her marriage, an d for eight years at Mar.l<lnaw
In the "Old Agency." She was the mt>ther of t.wo children, Janie, who dine! a fen·
Yf.l\rs ngo In Richmond, Va., 11ncl Jolini;ton Schoolcrnft, who 11lcl'I some limo after
thr r:ivil war. I think he was In lhe Southern arm y. We h1\Ve a photos;rnph ot
J1rti. Schoolrraft taken from a pnlntlng, 11lso one or 011r i:;rnnrttnther tnhe11 from
the pa-inting_wo have at hom e. Mr!l..lame11on, an English Wl'lter wall nt~quainterl
with our people and pictures Mrs. Schoolcraft, "wlt.h fentures decidedly I ndhrn, ac·
c;mt slight))' foreign, a soft plaintive volre, her language puro nnrl remark11hly ell'·
gant.. refined, womanly and unaffectedly pious. " • With reganl to mtr
gr1mdfathe1', we havo several papcn1 pertaining to his life, which I could not copy
now, but will send them to Mi's. Anthony so that when yo11 vli;lt DeT0111' yo11 mA.y
loolt them over nnrl r.opy whatever yo11 ma.y see flt. Hoping that yo11 may gl't a
little help l'!lth your paJler from whnt J have written, J nm.
Very truly yours,
ANNA M. JOHNSTON.
• Cl11\rle11 H, Chcq>mAn was h orn In I.hr. tnwn,.h lp of Pnntlnc. Onklnnu collnly, Mlrhknn.
April 9. f8f.I. When four weekii of n~ C' hlR par<'nl ,. mnv('d 10 T<enlu<'kY nnd rPRl<l<'.<l there
1in111 the fnll nf Jl\.'>9. WhPn thf'~' rC1t11rncd to Ml<'hh:an and 11cll1Pd on n fnrm At Ji:llznheth
Ll\ ke, In Wi:itrrforcl towni•hip.' 011kln111l C1nunty. At th<' ni::o or slxl<'en hr. )l'ft lhr. !nrm
and learnP.tl the nrlntP.r's trn<l r.. Tn 1S74 ho wAB A reporter nn . the Sni:lnRw Cm1rl<'r nnd
the Detrnll Free Pre~" nnd in 1875 1'•nR n reporti-r on Clnrlnn;,11 Commrrc lol ~ncl ,.rvernl
othPr pnpeni In tho anuthwe~t. Jn 1~7R he c!"tnbllRhe-<1 the Pontiac Commrrl'lnl which he
puhll,.ht>d until 11179, whr.n he ~old the pan<'r l\nd took chnrge or the mt'rhnnlcnt <l"pnrt-
mt'nt nt t h e Wc1>l <\rn Nr.wi;niir>cr Union. Dr.lrnlt. nn<l <-ont lnnP<l thPrP until the er>rlng ot
Jllll2 when he w e nt t o Sn ull Stn. Mnrla nn<l took chnrito nncl puhll!!IH•<l thr.' C'hlpr>ewa
Count)' Nl'W!I until ll:lli. when he snltl that paper ancl wn" r.lrcler't r cl?l,.t•r or olPl!rl-. o r
ChlflflP"''& C'OUnty nnd he~nn th e study n r law :ind W9.1' nchnll t cd to r>rnctl('r brfnre the
BllflrPme Clnllrt (our yenrs ll\IP.r. fn lS96 he "'9.1! el rr.tr.cl r>rohnte Juiti:e for f'hlppewa
county, whlrh office he rr.sli::ner't on the outbreRk of the Spnnl1<h war. l-le r"l~rd a C'om-
pony and eerv<>u about ten mnnthe as flr•t lieutenant In th e 3!ith Mlrh .. ti . S . Vol ..
rei::lmPnt. About one-half or his servlco was that of c ompnny commanrter. llnon helng
muetPred out with his reglmr.nl he wne nppotnteil cleputy comm i ssioner ot rnllrr>ed ,. for
:Mlrhhrnn.. whlrh offic-P. he nnw holcls. August, 1901, he eetnbllehed the Lake .Superior
Journal at Bnult Ste. Marie. Michigan.
24

John Jnhnslon, the hen<I or the Joltu~lon f:J.niily, so WP. II kuo ....·11 Lo tho hislorinu,
the trnv•?ler, an•I tbe resident or J\liddgan :uni the i:;r ent Nortbwest, ci11ri11!{ lho
fll'st qnnncr of lll~ l:.st ceutury, wt1s born iu Antrim county, lrelanu, t\l:a1· Lhe vii ·
lni;o o( Col eraine, in 17G~. · Hts fath er was a civil engineer, who ))lnnntHl nnll exc·
~ute<i the walurworl<s at Belfast. His mother was a sii;ter or l\'lary :>anrio, wi(e
or Bishop Saurin, of Dromore, ancl al!IO sister o( the attorn~y i.:eneral for lrclancl.
J\tr. Johnr::ton emlgrnle•l t.o the now world in 1792, and waR rer.l!h·etl by Lord Dor·
dic!llcr, i;ovP.rnor or Canada, ancl 11rnsent;,d such strong Jetton; or recon1111e11dalio11
that 1111! ~ovcrnor urgerl the young lrlshmau to remain in M ontron l uni.II an opening
Cor him should or..:111· In thP. Orlti11h i;crvke. Juhnston soon jolnorl a trading party
hounrl f or Lnke Superior. Be .-prnt some months nt the Snut • anrl then followed
L11.lu~ Superior 11.11 far wr.st a!I !..a .Point, oJ>posite tlw Twf'lvti J\ po11Lle!I i!llan1l11. where
Jtu C:Jlilhllllhecl a tracling post. Soon after his arrivnl there h e mot n hcn11tif11l In·
cilan :.;lrl. the 1la11ghter or the heacl l'iilef, Wab·O·j c:eg or tho White Fisher, a holcl
null 1mr.cossful warrior. The following yrar, 17!l:l, .Johnslou 0.1111 tho Indian ,;irl
wore- marriecl and s'1t.tlecl f•l S:rnt 1111 Ste. M;ir.ie, where ho
continur.tl t.n r iisldo until
hl11 rl!\Mh, which oc.,11rred Ri>11tembM 22, 1828. For 3G yr.nrs he wull a lr.a1li11g frontier
men·hau t , an•l alllrongh far r<'movt1d from tho 1?omforl!I or ci1·i1i1.ation there was
alwny!I a reftned nncl 1·11lt11rr.1l atrnosnhcrc about his modc!<l horn•?.
In l SH l.ie11t. Col. Cro~han u! tbe United Stat.es Anny was sout to capture
thP Drillsh pr>><ition at Mad<inllr', then r.omman•led t>y Col. Mr.Uowoll. The latter,
lumrlng ot' the intentions of the AntP.rir.:ms. sought the nitl o( .Johnston and hiR
frion1l !I at the Rnut, and it aµ~nrs to ha ve been frer.ly giv<>n. Not only did a
hnnll or JOI) men SP.t out for Madclnnc un1ler Johni:ton, hut this Corce was provl-
Hiotwcl nn<I eq11i11petl hy him. The American, Col. Croghan, avr1r.arecl to 11ntler·
i:lan•I t hP. situation thoroughly, a111l 11li;pat1·hed Major !Jol111r.11 to inten·c11t the
Jn11!n.1u:;; but tlrn .lohni;t.on party tool< the unlrnown ro11to west. of Su~ar· islantl, now
lhl'I I la)' Lake drnnnel, nnil t h E'n throu~h the West Nrebish, 11111! es1·a11e1l. On the
arri val o( thll Arnericnns A.t tho Snut, they founcl that t.hoi;c whom they hn<I t<P.t out
to 1Jitcrc:e11l harl el llcl!'<I tltP.ir ViJ;ilnnre, nnd, lJeing llr~e<I Oil by J'a~C n111l tl11ty, tie·
f<lro~-c~rl the tratlin~ villa~e near lltC' fnlls. After thlf\ Mn.Jor Holmes relllrned to
ulcl iu tho aR1>ault under Col. Cro)!hnn. He was among thl' 17 11ol1li1.>rs killerl in that
:1rrnir A11gni::t 1, 181'1. His !\worrl wai< stolt!n by the Inrlians nnrl 11resnntcd to <1eorg&
.loh11.-ton. se1·ond i:on of John .Jnhn,;100.
$11ltsN1•1rnfly, nftcr th!' pr:t1·e nf lRlri, when the rep11lrli1· hail rlriVl'll all hi>r a..rlve
•'11r111lr•f' r'ro•n hl'r i:1oil. Mr. .loh11s111n nppPali>rl tn thl' 11ow1•1·s that 11111·1' wt?re to
•·C1n1pr111<nl<' him Cor his loss an1l exptmcliturrs. The Orilii;h vrry ,::rn1·rfully re(usecl
l.11 a<'lrnowlt!llJ.:<' hlfl aRs!stnm·e nr rl'C'Ol1JIH!llS<' him for titr. loss icwnrrC'tl in alrling
thrtll. .lohnston lhen rrr.sl'nt~c l hiR (•lnim to lhH l!nil•:d 81!1l1•g gn\•f•r11111011t fnr IO>l:'<
of propr.rly, nnrl mE't with no !!111'.•·Nrn. owi n g t.o hi<; loynlly to llH? llrili11h 1·a111w. Tim
l.rs l.imony AOI( l'Ort'!'fl(lOn1ll'Ol'I\ ill Vol. ~ of i\morican stale paprrs, on pa~1·s fl!li-701,
>'how lltnt .lohn .lohm;ton was nn Offi<'er In the Urllish !'r.rvi1·e il111·ing lhe wnr or
"i'il 2; ancl it \'1a!I largrly for thiH rra!'on that tl>o rom111ii;siom!r o( the J:Pnrral lanrl
(lffiro nt Wallhington ref11sr.1l to ronnrm his daim to a Lrnrt of lancl at Snut de
Ste. 1'1:1rie whil·h harl hP.en lmpr ovP.t\ a.1111 a lnr.e;e num hrr or hnilrlini.;11. i111·l11rlin~ the
.Tohui;ft)n n>!<lrl<111·r. yol. >1tA1111ing, storr. wnrr.houscs anrl farm h11iltlin~11. hnllt thorn·
on. Thi' I.Ille lo lhli; lnnrl wn11 finally r.onllrmecl hy CnngrrsR in lR:i:I. nnrl i11 Jrnown
:ill 11ri\·n1r. lnnrl l'laim 10:, in thr. l'ily rl( Sn.ult St<'. Mari<'. The nnnexrrl m:ip wa 11
first i<lcrti-hP1l from memory l1y .John ?lfr.D. Johnston. son or .lohn .Tohn!lton. It wns

• Mr. I ~h:•f'l1U1\h ha" fnllnw rcl t11t• nhl \\'a,v (l( ~prJlhU.! ~r\11t ,1.- ::;i.e. \1n r't" 1u11l t.us Lah,..n a:.-rn L \lnin'-
1.n vcrlry llt1• ""Pt~lllll&t uf "nn"'t~ nr thr (n<ll"n Ol\IOC". UCCC!pt(nc 'ln~ ht''\. llll!lVlrtt.v (or ch,.. !'lt•, No
111101o11L(nn 11111rkK bave been USP.ti for lt:Ll cr.< nr le11end~ &R lbey Cllo. we lhl111I, he c11"lly '"CCll!nl7.cd a~
RUOh. -J•:dhnr.
25

afterwar1h; drawn to scale by Col. JO:. S. \\'hc<i>lcr, of lhe Unlt.11cl Slates government
engineering coq1s, who now own1;1 nntl [or ni<rnY year!\ rc1;l<INI in the 'Jl<I Johnston
homestco<l. Col. \Vheeler compared 111Hl c-orrcc!C!cl tl11~ map b.r 11n old map In the
recorcl!I of Fort Brady, made by L1c11I.. wesrott rnrly In t.he l;1st. co11tnry.
TheN were eight" children in the .lohnsto11 family , nil horn nt the San It: Lo1\ls,
lrnrn 1793, died at Malden 1825; George. horn ::.79r;, died nt Sa11lt. Jan. G, 1861;
Ja.ne, born 1800, died at Niagara ).fay 22, 1842; Eliza, horn 1802, died 1RS8; Char·
lotte, born 18Cl6, died 1878; William, born 1811, died at Mackinac 1866; Anna Marla.
born 18H, died at Pontiac 1866; John J.\cDongn.1, born 1816, died at Sault Feb.
H, 18!15.
Of thEJ chilclrnn, sevf'!rnl wore prominent actors in mnkin~ hli:t.ory three-qun.rlers
of a. century ni;o: J,onli; i<ervr:cl 011 \loat«I the Queen Chnrlott<' wheu !';ho wns eap-
lnre.d by one of the Unit ed Sto.t(;s r:;uubont.~ under Co01mn1lorc P<'rry on Lnlce Erle
in 1813. G<~ori;e served in the nrltish nrmy, and wns in the engagement at Jllaclc·
lnao Island Au~ust 4, 1814. William was a:n Indian inteq1reter n.t vnrlons times for
the United States government. John McD. 'l\'as for n number of yenr11 Jnd!an Inter·
preter to his brother-in-law, Henry R. Schoolcraft, nnd aftorwnrrls acte1l in this
capacity for the United States government. .lane :wRR n womnn of i;reat beauty,
highly nccomplished, and of much ability, and was married ln 1823 to Henry R.
Schoolcraft, the writer and historian. Ell7.a, a womnn of grenl uenuty an1l aceom·
pllshmenti;, never married. Charlotte berame the wife oC an Episcopal clergyman
named McM11rray, a missionary at the Sault at the time, but subsequently arch·
rleacon of Nl!\gara. Anna Maria. the younp:est daus;htrr. wai; the wife o( .Tames
L. Schoolcraft. who was murdered at the Sa11lt In 184G by Lieut. Tllrlen of the
ttnlled States army.
All o! t.he early travelers lo Lnke SupC'rior speak of the interer.ting Johnston fnm·
lly and the hospitality and <mtert.aining ability of John .lohnRton. During the
month or July, 182G, Colonel Thomas J,. J\l<'Keun<'Y, of the Indian D<>11ar tment at
'Vai1hington, and a, joint commis aloner with Governor Cass In ne;:;otl:itlng tho
treaty of r;•ond du Lac, in <~oir.pany wHh tlrn governor, visited the Johnston family
nt the So11Jt, and in a letter lo his wife, clcscrihes the girls nm! the home as they
appeared to him at that time. Col. McKenney says:
We i;pent this evening, I mean the Governor, Colonel Cro~hnn and mysC'lf, at
:!\fr. Schoolcraft's. where we met Mr. Johnston, the patriarch of the place, and his
famiiy, e xc:ept his wife, who, though not or the party this evening, I have seen.
Mr. Johni;ton is by birth an Irishman, and his connections in the "old conntr::"
nm among the nobility. He has ))een in this countt·y nearly forty yearF<. His wife
Is a woman of the Chippewa, or, as It r.hould be called 0-jlb-way nation. and
daughter Of the famous Wab-o-jeeg, the great chler formerly of La Point. or Lake
Superior, a man of renown, and one who rulecl ))oth in wls<lom anrl valour, and
proved himself in every emergency, to have beon worthy or the Rtatlon he held as
'!hie! of his I.mud.
A personal acquaintance with Mr. Jobni;ton an<l his family I esteem to be flmong
th e most interesting cirrumst.' lnces of my, so far, agrecahlP- travel11 .
.Mr. Johnston is in his 641.h ycnr, anrl Mrs. Johnston in her f.4lh . He is feeble and
clecrer,it. A frC'e liver in earlier life, he now feels the burden of G4 winters to he
i:reat; anll in addition to the infirm state of his health, he. hos the dropsy in one
foot and ankle. which at. times o~ca~ io11s him great pain, and often <lC'prln>s h!ru
nltogether of ability to wnllt, which he never does without llmping. ancl then hy the
nid or a stall'. His etlucatloi:i and intercourse with polishcrl society in early life, in-
deed up t.o his 30th year, hnve given him many very striking o.c\vnntages over the
inhabitants of thoso di11tnnt regions, and Indeed fit him to shine anywhere; whilst
26

tlw gC1n11i11e lrish hof'pilalily or hi;.i hl':ll't has rnrule his house a p lac:n or 111o"L a)!rne-
ablo r esort to lravoler:;;. In his 1wrson Mr. .Joh nston is 11Pnt; in hi:i 111anner;; affahle
nnll poli•.o ; in convcnmtion intet lli.:nnt. H l;.i language In always Liwt of thoni:ht,
and oftf'n strillini;iy ;::raphir.. He ill nlways chnc rful-evfln wht'n h e is nffiit-tnd most.
Tlu~re IR f.'Olll•,t.hini; charmiug in E< ucb an autumn. It i:ivcs pltt<"<• 10 wint.t>r s o
grad nnlly as to make its rNi r<!rllfrnt i m pc rcoptihle. Lt Is hen 11t i f11 I 1n sre those
hri:.:ht nlcarn;; or setting liie thus shini ng 11pon the evening hours or 111wh n man.
In hr.ight .\1 r . Johnston is ah1111t fh·e feet Len InchC'S; nnrl liefore ho was lu~nt by a,:e
and iullrmily hill iii:;nre was 1lo11htlcss fine. His hair is of lire trn<> S<•olch yellow,
int.nrmixo<I with 1-{ray. His iorell<'r11I, though r otrnatin!!. i" hii:h :uul !'1111, C'SJlf'rnlly
about. t.hc brows. His eyes are liar!<, small, ancl penet rntiui;, <Ln<l full of intelligen t
exprcs!lion. Tlis nose and mouth (e xcept that the Joss of t.eeth has t'l1nng<'1l the
charnr.ter or the latter some, thon;.:h his li(ls have yf't ;.:rent lirmnC'ss) are well
form col, nnrl j111l~in;:: from whnt iR tr.ft, nnd f rom a portrait. whil'l1 hnn.~s ovt'r the
flreplnCG Ill t.ho tlrawlng-rOOlll Of hl ti l"l)Silli.>ll CC, he llllrnt have l)()i'll Vl\I")" han1lsomo
whPll yount;.
Mm. Johnston is ~<muine ChipJJC'wa. without the smallesl a1l1nixt11rc or white hloocl.
She i!; lnll aud lnq;e. hnt uncommonly nr.live and rh€Nful. Shi' <lrl'sses 11<>nrly in
the cost11111P. of hC'r nntion-n l•l'tlit:oat o{ blne doth, a shon guwn o( c·ali<'o. with
l eg;::ins worker! with bP.n<lR, nod mocraf'ina. Her hair i !< hlar.k. She 1il :dt-" ancl fall·
tens it" up behind with a comh. Il er eycs nrc \Jlack a111I l'Xpn·~siv<-. nnol prC'lly wcli
mnrl1c1l, :tcr·ording to phrcnoloi;ist!l, with lhe <le\'r.lopment of lnn;.:ua;.:•'. Sh" has
flno teeth; Indeed her fare, t:ikcn alto::::cthcr ( wilh her hi;.:h chf'r.lt·lic>n <>s. r.om.
presi<r.rl fnrPhe:td, and jnlting hrow'>) denote!! a vigorous inteller.t and i;reat firm-
nei:R of chnrar.ter, null n e•~<ls only to be seen to satisfy evC!ll a tyro in ph ysio~norny
lilte myi:nlf that she requirecl only lho nuvnntagea of ed11rntio11 :i.ml Mcidy to p i nce
bcr 01i n level with the most <listini;uished or her sex. As it Is she iA a prodigy. As
a wlfo 11ho Is rlevotl!tl 'to her hui:lJantl, nil a mother tonrler an1l nffe>rt ionate, ai; a
fri1;1111l rnlthrul. She manA.ges h er <lomest.ic conl'e rns in :l way that. mi~lrt afford les-
non i. to the hettor instrur.ted. They nro rnrcly exC'ned<>1l anywh ere, whilst i;he vies
\rith her i;rncrons 1111!\hll.n<l in hi!I hospil.ality to sl.ran s;~'rH. Sho untlrrstancls but
wlll no t l'IH'a·k Rni;lish. As to lnOuonce, there is no 1"'.hi<>f in llH~ ~hippewa nation
who nxr.rciscs It, when it is ner.ci;snry for hPr to <lo :<o, with Pflll:tl s111·1·e11s. This
has hoen often lP.sted, lmt er<pecinllr at th e trenly of r.c!<sion al thi11 pln"" in 1S20.
Crwnrnnr Cn..o,i1, tho c·ommisRi oner, waR marle fully sensihl o of )11•r pow er 1.hP.n; for,
whrn evnry evi•l<'nr.e wall glvcn that the thr.n penrlln g nep;otiatlon 'l\·011\11 isR110
001. only In rP.1>f11t anr.e on the pnrt or tho lnrllan s to tho propni<iliou;.i or lhP. r.omrni!l-
&ion er, hut in n s1>rlou s rnpl11r c, l'he. :it thi!I crit ic.al moment, f:<'nt for i:omr. of the
pl"lndpnt r.hle (R, 1llrcctlng th ut thny :::ho11\cl, to avolil the oh!!,,rva lion or tho i::rent
l>ntly of Tn1innR, mnl1e o. drrutt nucl meet her In n n a,·1>n11e ;tt thn had< of h <lr rosl·
dcnco, n111l thlWP, hy her l11mino11s t"!XpoRition of their own wcalrn en!I nncl the power
· ot thr. Unltecl RtatcR. nn<J hy :ll'RUrances of the friondly 11i~positlon of th e govnrn-
ment": to.,.,·nrds them and or their own mi11tnkcn viewR of the rntire ohjor.t of the
co111111lsstoncr, pro1!11 cetl a change which resulted on thnt same ev<>ning in the con-
clusion or the treaty.
I hnvo h<'ard Govl'mOr Cass ~ny that he felt himst>lf 11nt1er the grrnll'l't nhli1"Jfions
to J\fr11. .TohnRton for her ro-011orntlon nt that crltiral mo111Pnt.; anrl that thP TJniterl
Stnt.ri: IR <l ehtor lo her, not only 011 acco1111t of th at nrt, hut on many otht>r~. She ha;.i
ncrnr b11c11 l<nown In a Ringle lnr.t:rnr.e to counsel her Jleorile contrary Lo her conrPp·
tlons of what was best for thorn, and never in opposition to the vlew11 of thn izov-
crnment. Her rndiao name Is 0-sbaw.gus-eo-day-way -qua. Tho Dani:;hter or the
"G r een · Mountain.
27

So much for the father and mother. I will now make yo u acquainlcrl wllh some
. of their children. Of Mrs. Schoolcraft you have heard. She ill wife, YOll lrnow, o!
H. Ii.. Schoolcrart, Esq., author or travels and other works or gnmt merit, and
Indian agent at this place. She Is a Jitlle taller and thinner, but In other res1lects
as to figure, resembles -her sister, Mrs. McMurray, and has her face precisely. Her
VOiCt< is feeble and tremulous; her nttornnce slow and distinct. 'l'here Is flOlllC lhlng
silvery In It. Mildness of expression, and Roflness, and clelkacy oC mnnncri<, ns
well as of voice, characteri;r.e her. Sho dresses with great tosle, and In nil r<'specls
In the co<:tnme or onr fashionabl es, bnt wears legglns of l>lnC'k silk, 1lrnwu and
ruffi e<l a1·ound the anl<les, rese mbling thoae worn by onr little girls. I U1inl1 them
ornamr.ntal. You would never judge, either from her co mplexlon or lani;11a11:e or
from any other circumstance, that her mother was a Chippewa, except thl\t her
rnotlerntely high cheelc·bones, her rlark nnd fine E>ye, anrl !Jreadth of jll.W Alightly lndl·
cato it; and you would never believe it, except on her own confession or upon some
equally responsible testimony, were you to hear her conver~e. or sec her bcnutHul,
and some o! them highly-finished, compositions, in both proRe nnd poetry. You
would not boliP.ve it, not becau11e si1cl1 att11lnments mli;ht not be 11nlver11nl, I.mt be·
cause, from lack of the..means necessary for their accomplishment.. ,Ruch <'ases
nre so rare. Mrs. Schoolcraft le .Indebted mainly to her fath er, who Is doatingly
fond oC her, for her handsome and polished acqulrementR. She n ccorppanieil him
some years n~o. and before her marriage, to Europe; and hns been the compnnicin
of his solitude, In all that related to mind, for he seems to have e<lur.atecl her for
the sake of enjoying Its exerciiie. The old gentleman, when In E<llnbur;:h, had sev-
eral propositions made to him to remain. The Dutchess of Devonshire, ! thinlt It
was, would have a dopted Mrs. Schoolcraft; and several proposition~ hesi1le WE're
matle to settle UJ>Qn her wealth and Its cllstinction~; anti hlA own fri1>1111~ nn<l
connexions joinetl to Jceep him among them by offers or g !'i>at m11.gnlL11de. Bnt he
told them he bad married the <laughter of a Icing in Am erica, and altho11i;h he ap·
precintod, and was very grateful for, their offers to himself and his Jan e, he must de-
cline them and return to his wife, who, through such a variety of fortune , had been
faithful and devoted to him. Mrs. Schoolcraft Is, I should judge, ahont 22 yeartl o!
age. She would be an ornament to any society; and with better health (for at
present she enjoys this great blessing but partially) woulll tnke a first rank among
the best Improved, whether in acquirements, tast.e, or .graces.
Charlotte comes next in order, being younger than Mrs. Schook.raft by 11omc t.wo
or three years. Here again, without the advantages of education to Lhc same extent,
or eQual opportunities tor improvement, bllt with no <lcfirfoncies In these mntteri:,
you have a heautifnl specimen of female or mixed blood. This intercRtlll J:!; young
lady has but little o! the mother's complexion. She possesses charms which are only
now and then seen in our more populous and polished circles. These are In the
form and expression or a beautl(nl face, where the best and most amiable and cheer·
ful o( tempers-the loveliest and ·roost captivating ornament of l he se x- i;itR always
with the sweetness of spring, and Crom whence the graces i;eem n ever to have de-
parted even for a moment; and all thl11 has im1iartec1 to it an arlditl onal lntE!rest. In
her own tot.al unconsciousness ot their prcsenee, an<l of her powers to pl (>aRe. Her
eyes are black, but soft in their expression, and between lrnr lips, which r have
never seen otherwise than haif parted with n smile, is a beaut!fnl set of h·or>'.· H _e r
style of dress is neat, and ln all rei;pects such as we see in onr eiti!'s. She would be
said to be rather tall; yet her person Is good. She sings most sweetly, bnt seemii un·
conscious or it; and, lest I shoulrl forget It, I will copy Into this letter a beautiful
Bong which she sings with her most enchanting effect, called the "O·jlb-way Mald."
Having prevalled upon her to sing this song several t.imes, I have learned the air
28
wilh a view of bu vi11 g ll written out in pllrt!l. Mrs. Schoolt:rnft !Jns oblini:;lngly Cnv-
oretl me with the orii;inal, :mu wilh h er literal lraui;Jalil>u or it, in pro1:1e; nnd
Charlolto has 11reseoletl me wilh n veri;ion oC it hy n major of lht! United Slntes
army. I have heard this little f!Ollg snug in hoth tho origi nal and itR vernlon. The
ulra are clirrcrent; both aro plniuli ve, nnd both :;wcct, !Jut that in which the original
Is filing ls Urn wildest. My opinion of Ctarlotte i!! thnt she would be n hello in
Waah ini;1m, w<?re she thP.l'C, a!l I find Rhe is bo re. No one spcalcR of her but In terms
o( n1lmirntlon of her amiahlc diRposition, antl in praise or her beauty; and accord- ·
In g lo my own observation and tas te. sh e merits richly all the prnlr;e lhat is be-
Rl.owc•I.
l!ll11.a, who is next younger than Mrs. Sch oolcraCL I hnve never ycl i:;ot her to
consenl ln Sfif'ak !!;nglish. I have not, therefore, been able to jucli;e of her im-
prove m <:>nt. She appears to ho a fine yo1111g la<ly, aucl of excellent dispositions. Her
complexi1111 is more like h er mother'11 than th e rei;t. The youngP.sl, Anna Marla,
ie now aho11 t twelve yenrs olrl, and is ;;rowing 111>. I think, in most r e-
speclR, lllrn Charlotte. Sho <'.crtniuly hltls (nir to be handsome.
Wh<'n I loolc 111>on this group of lntereRtlng children, and r elloct that their mother
i11 a nntlve of our wilds, l wish, (or tho sal<o oC the Indians, thnt evory rcpre11enta·
tlve of the people. and all who mli::hL have infiuence to bring about a. com11leto sys·
tern for tho pres~rvation and improvement, or at least the rising goneralion, could
aeo them too.
Dut test I forget It, I will now copy.

Tll P. 0 -Jlll-WAY MAID.

0 H.Ua N A1. OM' TUK 0 JtU- WAY MAID.

.Aun d u~h Wt'?n t)O win R.ne


Gltc:hy llfn1:omn11 n nine-a
: \.nw nu:ihnw woh dn n1ode
We Y<'ll, YCI\ lHlW hi\, otc.

\\' ah yuw hurn 11'1\tHl o


• 1jihw11 y <111alneo un o
'¥Vo. r't'lnw ja w tw<•tl o
Wa yen, Y<'I\ haw h a , etc.

Ontow n nH\.1111 e
\\.. e Ht•n,o:-clutln yun
'\V•? m;lw J:iw ll<"t'rl o
Wn yea. Y•"l' hllw ha, utc.

C"w w('en i;nah i<hl\ wocn


Kin wainyh " w e yc:i.
'> r.:uh inn w o nut w ~f"c n
w., yr.n. >"'It h:iw ha. etr .

!\1~ t.:Ot'h Hht\ \Yf'l'll ,. YCf\.


J.:o ld!-'h c1•rnw burn mauc'.1 e
Toh u wnn •dn o m:uul o
W1' .Y''n, )'t'lL ha.w ha, e.lc.
I.ilernl Tmnelntlon hy Mrs. Schootcrnrt:
Why. What's the matter with lho young American? He <'l'Oi;sea the river with
teu1·11 io hiB eyes. He sc•~s lhe young OJll>way gi rl preparing to leave the place; he
sobs for his sweeth.iart, he<'llllRC Ahe Is going away, but he will not sigh long
tor her, tor as soon a11 he is out oC her 11lght, he will forget h er.

VEl1Sf0N.

•rt.al t-lrr11m , alnn~ who~P ho1<om hrli::ht,


"'ith Jny I've PN'n your hark appear :
Yo u c-ro><H. no loni;cr with 1lcllghl,
Nnr J, with joy, your greeting hear.
29

An d cnn Atn:h c auP C. a.lo n e, <lrnw tro.r8


From t·~'('H. thnt a lway s srnll'd he(ore?
0( parlln1:- can It hr. tho ft'rir1< ;
OC 1•a r lln i; u ow- t n m eet uo m oro?

nut h ('n \'lly tho ui.:h no"' yrm >' lr.h :


And th o' your g rlP(!I Ii(· now i<lncer fl,
To Oncl our tl renclcd porting nli.:h,
And h id Carewell 19 ple o.i-uree de.i.r-

"'hen o'er tho •prntcrs. w id e and deep,


l'ar-thlno OJlhwn,· Mnld sbnll be.
Nt>w l•l\' l'K wilt mnk(\ you ''"""e t o wee11.
Nor e'er ui:nln, rcmnmhe r me.
Saut de Ste. Marie, July G, 182G.

Mre. .Johns ton an d i;ome or her r cmarl1ahle am·estors t.leserve more space and
time than I can hE"re give. However, J will lntrocl11 <'e th e fa thE'r or this talented
Indian woman with one of hlR wnr i<onizs, as he usE>d, W!ZP.lhcr with his warriors, to
sing It and as tranal11te<l l>y Mr. Johnston:
\Vhere Are my !oeA? Al\\'. wnrrlore. where ? No forr~t Is 11.> blnck ,
That It cn.n hide from '111y quirk e:vr. the Vt8lll<l! or th o lr track:
1'hcr c Is no IRke sn hnuncllr!IH, no pnlh wh<'rc mun l>l:IY go,
I"" i;hl<'ld t hem fr nm my 11lrnrp pur,.ull. or ~n,·c the m Crom my hlow.
The winds th:ll whl~per In the trcr.a. 1hc rlourla thnt ,;110\ tho sky, •
Jmpnrt a i:oft lntclll,rencC', to llhow me whr.re thO)' lie.
The vrr)' hlr<I" lhRt 11:\ll thP nlr. RIHI Pcr,.nm n" nn l hl'y t;'O,
Glvr. men clue my course to t read, ttnd l<'atl mo to lhn foP.

The sun nt tl:>wn, lifts u1> Its IH•a<I, to gulrlt' me nn my wny ,


The moon :n nli;:ht looks iooCll)' •town. nnd cheer" m e "'Ith her ray.
Thr. war-crowned star!<, thOl'C ht'atnlni; ll.1:ht11. my 11pll'lt l'nt:tll nt night ,
t)ircct mo n ll 1 t hrM•l lhc mn7..!, nn•I lend me to lhn Oght.
Jn sncr.:u ureams wilhln my lodgl'.. whit <- ri>stlnJ:: on tho lnntl,
Hrli:ht omr.nR of l'ill f"<'C"ll nrl sc. ancl lll!rn~ my wnrlllt c hnntl
\Vh.,re'er I turn. whcre'Pr I i;o. thPrv I" R whlR Jl<'rhu: so und ·
That tell,; m e J shall crueh lhe Coe, and drive him 'rc-m my ground.

'l'he hcnmlni:; w e.-t lm· lt c~ me on. wllh sntllt'll oC vcr mll hu e,


.And CltlUcl15 o f Jltllrnll<C 1111 thr sky. 1tnd tlcck lt8 h eavr.nl)' h lll C,
There Is no hrt·rzc. throrc I ~ no sli:n. In orrnn, e nrth or Hky,
That tloc" not fiwt·ll my hrl'a!<l with hope, or nnlmnte my eye,
H to the stormy hcach l g o, wlt <'rt' ht•n\'y 11•mt><'SIR piny,
They tell me hul. he>w warrlnr11 hra,·e, "ho11IJ con11ucr In t ho Cray.
All nnturc lills m>· he11rt with 1lr1:!', thn t 1>rOmJlt mi> o n to KO.
To rush with rage, anti llCtcd epear, upon my co11n 1ry' n toe.

Wab-0-jeeg was the second eon oC the famous Mongazlda. Ho was gouera lly victor·
ious, and so entirely defeated the Ott.agtunles that they nev er after wards ventured to
oppose him, but retired clown the Wisconsin river, wharc lhoy settled.
But Wab·o-jecg was something more anrl helter than merely n i;tH:reiu1f11l wnnior :
he was remarkable for his eloquence, and co mposed a n umber or wnr soni;s, vdtlcl!
were su ng th rough the Chippewa villngcs, and some of which hill <lnnghter often
repeated. He was no Jess Rl<lllCttl In hunti ng tbnn' in war. His hu n ting g rounds·
extended to the river Droulc, nt Fond du Lac; an d he lcllloll any o ne wbo uar eil i.'o
Intrude on his district. The ski ns he took annually were worth $350, a Rill~ anlply
sufficient to make him rich In clothing, arms, powder, vermilion, and trinket!':. · LI lee
Tecumseh, he would not marry early lest It should tnru his allenUon from war,
bu t a t the age of 30 he mar ried a widow, by whom he hnd two son 11. Becomin g
tired or his elderly hclpmeet, he took n young wife, a boauliful gi rl of H , by ~·hom
he had six children; of these MrA. Johni;ton was tho eldest. She tlencrlhe1l her
rather as domestic and affectionate. There was alwayR pl<!nty or bcar'R m eat and
d eer's fl esh in the lodge. Ha harl a. i;plendld lodge, 60 t e<?t In lcni:th, which he was
tond oC ornamenting. In the centre there was a. strong post, whi ch rose wve rnl feet
above th~ root, and on tho to p th ere wae the carved figure of an owl, wh lch veered
with the wind. Thie owl seems to have answered the purpose oc. o. fl ag ; it was the
30
ini:ignin of hll' power and o( hie prci:~·nce. When nllsonl on hill loni:: '#i11ter hunts
th.i lorlge wa.R 11h11t up, aucl the owl tnl<en dow11.
Th i! i:;kill oC Wnh·o-jeei: ns a hunter nnrl Lrnppor bro11i;hl hi m iulo frion(lly com·
municntlon with r.t r. Johnston. While on one of his ex111~1Jitlon1>, when n11ca1111>"!1l at
Rod ClllT Poiut i;outhwr..;t or the Twelve Apostlell h;lands, ancl traflicl<i ng with
Wah·O-jPrg, he i:aw lh e l'l<l nst da11~hler o! 1hP. chlPf, :ind no son11('r loolrnrl than he
FOii;:-hc\ll, no 11nonnr slg-hf\rl, I han he askerl hlmseH th e renHon, nnrl enclnll hy n11ldni:: hl11
frien1l to :;ive him his hen11lif11I 11aui.:hter. "\Vh itn mnn! .. Paid the r:hif?f wilh dignity.
"your f'Ul-'loms arc not our cu stoms ! Yon white mP11 1le11irn our women, yon marry
thmn, n111l whPu I hey «<'fll'<' to pl Pn~c your ,eye you say thry arr. not your wives,
l\lltl you forRalrn lJH?nl. n~turn, young frit>nrl, with your lonrl of slcins. to Montreal;
an•I if lhf'r<? the women of Lhe 11rile f:frrs rlo not pul my <'hil<I out of your mind,
return hi ther in the spring and we will talk further; she is yonni;, a11tl f'A ll waiL ..
The ynuni: Irishman, nr<lr.ntly in lovo, and Impatient anrl impC'tnous. after tho man-
n!'r of hiR countrymen, trice! nri::uments, eutrr.atic~. prn!mnt.s, In vain ; he was
obliged to suhmit. He went 1low11 to Montreal, and lhe following. spring returned
nnd r.h1imP.d h!R hridc. The c:hief, after making him swear Uiat ho wonltl lake her
nR hiR wi(P. a<'rorclini; to the Jaw nf the white man, till tlC'ath. go.ve him hill daugh-
ter, with a long s1rnnch or arlvice to both.
MrR. Johni;t.011 rclnt.oi; lhnt. previou s to her mnrrin"-o she fa:;torl, ar.rorrlin g to lite
univ<>ri;al In1llan f'uslom, for n "uanllan spirit. To perform this cerl'lnon)' she
WC'nt nway to the irnmmft or an P.minenr.e nnrl built hPn;elf ri lltl.le lmli::r. ol ceclar
bo11i.:hA, painted hernolf lilo.clc, nnd hogn.n her rast In Rollt111lc. She drcame<I con·
tin1.1nlly or a white man, who n pprmw ho1l hP.r with a c up in hiR hand, saying, "Poor
thtni:! why nre yon puuii;hlng yonrsl'lf? \Vhy do you Cast? Herc IR foorl for
yon!" !Jc wa11 n.lways ncco m11nnlc1l hy a !log whi<'h loolrPcl np in her faN! as lhoui.:h
llll !mow hor. J\li<('I she 1lrcn111l'rl or hrfng on a hl~h hill, which wnR >'mrro1111tlcd by
wnl.C'I'. anrl from whlc'l1 11h1• 1Jd1C'lfl mnny <'l\llO<"S full 11f lntli:in1; r.nm in;: l.1> her :inrl
payln~ lrnr homn~c; nrt.i;>r lhi11 sho roll A.s tr i;hc wrii; carrie1l 1111 into t.he heavens, and
ne eho looked down upon the earth i;hc pcrce lv111l it wnR on fire nncl AAi1I to herself,
"All my rdal.ionf! will he h11n1P.1I!" hnt n voir.e answere d 111111 gairl, "No, r.hoy will not
hC' 1lcstroye1I; lh!'y will he s:i.vc1l;" nncl she knew it was a i;pirit.. heca11M the voicn
"·ri11 not h11mnn. She fnstP.rl ror lna dayi;. <111rinl!; whirh t.lnw hn g-rnn~lmothP.r
bro11i.:ht hE>r 11t int.ervali; some wal.P.r . Wh en sntii;fif'rl that she hncl ohlA.lnsd A
i::11nr1llnn FOJlirlt In the whlt.o i;lro11:.:l'r who hnuntr.11 h11r 1lrcams, i:hP. rPturn eo t.o her
f::\th!'r'R looi:e rnrrylni:: ~n·'ln r.!'clnr honi::h:;, whkh Rhr. threw on tho p:rounrl, 111.er>·
111111: on them aR 1<hc wrnt. \Vh cn i:ht? C'ntrrr<I !he lo<ls::c Rhl'1 throw some mnrr clown
upon h(\r tt1<11n.I pince (llP1tl hP.r mother). antl t1>nk h e r scat. Durio~ th e ten snc-
cemllng cta:v11 FOho wn1< not pPrm.ltterl to ent any meat, nor anything hut a llltlf' corn
hollPd with R hittr.r hnrh. F'or ton rlnys more Rhe nln mPnt smokc<l In n nartlculnr
'!"nnnr.r, 11n1I 1:he tlu•n nartook or lhr usnal foot! o! hor family.
Nntwltli11tnn1llng thnl h<'r fu ture husbnml and f11t11re i::reatnCJ;s were so clearly
prcOg11rr.tl In thl11 llrcnm, tho prot.ty O·shnw-g11s·ro-1lay-wny·q11n, having nlways rr.-
gar1lod 11. white mnn with nwe, anrl a11 a helnj:\' or quite another spedcs (perhnps the
more so In r.onl-'r<Jnenre or her llrenm. lleeme to hnve !P.lt nothing thro11J?;ho11t the
wholo nr.i::otlrition !or her hnnd h11t rcl11rtnncf", te rror, o.nd aversion. On holn g car·
rlt>li with the 111111nl ccromnniP.!I, to ht>r hni;hRnrl's lorl i;~. i;he Onrl Into a clrirk corner,
roll P.d hc:rsclC ;q> in her hlankct, 11nd wo11lcl not he comfo rtr.cl nor evr.n Jookr.d
upon. It IR to the honor or .Tohni; ton that ho tonk no cruel arlvantn~o of their
mntnal position, nnd tlult Ahn rcmafnl'd in h is lorli;o ten rlay11, 1l11rini:: which he
trl':itl!cl ilcr with the 11tmnl'lt tPntll'rnei:s nnrl rn!'Jl~ct, nnrl i;oi•i::ht by 'WP.ry gentle
means to overcome her Cenr nncl gain her at!ectlon; ooe trnvolor, referring to thi 9
31

ln<'itlrnt, ,;ay& It wai: t ouching to soc how tenderly and gratl'!f111ly thl11 wne romflm·
bc·red hy hl,1 wlf(' alter a Jap!;e ot aG yearf'. On the lt!ntb dny, however. sho run
aw;i) f rom him· In n 1Jnroxrsm of ·terror, end; afler fa!' ting In the woo-is for four
; days, r eached her grnndrnther's wigwa m . Meantime her father, Wab-0-jeeg, who
was !ar otl'. In his bunllni; -:Amp, dreamed that hie daughter bnd not cond111:ted
, herself a ccording t o hlR advice, with proper wlfe·liJte docility, and he returned In
, haste; two days' journey to see Rfter her and finding all things accor ding lo his
dream he i;ave h er a i;ood beating wlth a stick, and t.hreatene<l to cut oft both her
ears. Hn then took h er back to lier husband, with a provltlatory present ot fure
an<l Indian corn, and many o.votogies an1l exculpations ot hla own honor. Johnston
succeeded at lcnp;th In t.nmlni; this ehy wild fawn, end took h er to hi e house at the
Saut de Ste. Marie. When she had been there some Umf\ she was seized wit h a
longing onco more to hchol<l her mother's face, a nd r evisit her peovlc. Her hue-
band ha<\ la tely pu rchased n smnll schooner to trade upon the lnke; this hE' fttted
out, and sent her, with n retinue of his clerks nnd r e tnlnP.rs, and In such stato as
became tho wife of the great Bngllshman, to her boroe nt La Point, loarletl with
magnificent presents for nll her fam ily. · He did not go with her hlm11elt, apparently
Crom motives of dell car.y, an<l U1at qe might oe n o constra int upon h er f P.ellngs or
movemenle. A few m ont hs ' r esidence amltl comparative splendor and l\1xnry, with
a man who treated her with respect and tenderness, enabl<ld the !air 0 -ehaw-gus-co-
day-way.qua to contrast her !orm(!r witli her present homo. She soon returned te>
her· husband, and we do not l1ear of any more langulshlngs attcr her father's
wigwam. She lived most happily with John Johnston tor 3G years, till his rleatb,
which or.curred In 1S2S.·
At the treaty of Fond du Lac, con cluded August 7, 1827, was given t o O·shaw-gu11·
co-day-way-qua, wife ot John .Johnston, to each of her children and to each oC h er
grandchildren, one so,ctlon of land. Part· of this land w:u1 selected from the high
lands ot Stli;ar Island, a few miles below the Saut. Following the d eath or h e r
husband, ehe· turned her attention to the manufacture ot maple 1mgar on her est.ate
and each year murketed several tons. I n the fall she would go with her people Ip.
canoes to tbe entrance ot Lake Superior to fish .In the bays and cr eek!! for a fort·
night, and return with a load of fish cured for the wlnter~s consumption. Jn her
youth 11he hunted, and was accounted the surest eye and fleetest toot among the
women ot h er tribe. Her talents, energy, activity, and strength ot mlncl, and h er
sll:lli "In all the dome11tlc voca.t.ions o! the Indian women, have malntalnecl comfort
anrl plenty within hor dwelling In 11plte ot the losses snstalnecl by her hnsbnnd.
while her dei:;cen t from tlte blood · 0 r their ancient chlet11 r ender s her an objr.ct of
great veneration among the Indians around, who, in all their miseries, maladies and
dlffici1ltles1 ap"J)lled to her tor aid or for counsel.
She Inherited the poetlco.l talent of h er father Wab·o-jeeg and here Is a little fable
or allegory which was written down from her reci tation, and tranelated by ber
daughter:

T JIY. ALU!:OOnY OF WINTER A NO BUMMER.

A man from the north, i;ray-haired, leaning on bis staff, went roving over nil
c~untrl es. l-oolclng around him one day, after having travele<l without any Int.er·
mission tor four moons, he sought out a spot on which to recline and rest hlmselt.
He had not been long seated before he saw before h im n youni; man, very beaut!·
ful In appearirnce, with red cheeks, sparkling eyes, and hie hair covered w ith flow·
· ere.; and tr,om between hie lips he blew a breath that was as sweet as the wild
rose.' · . ...
32

Snld the old man to him, as he lea ned upon his sto.tr, his white beard reaching
down upon bis brea6t, "Let us ropo6e hero awhile, and converse a little. But ftrst
we will build up a fire, o.nd we will br ing together much wood, for It will be needed.
to 1,eep us warm."
The fire was made, and they to ok their scats by It, and began to c.onverse, each
telling the other where he came !rom, a nd what had bef~Jl en Min by the way.
Prese ntly the young man felt cold. He looked around him to see what had produced
th is change, and pres6ed his han<ls a gainst his cheeks to keep them warm. ·
The old man Rpoke, and said, "When I wish tc:> cross a river I breathe upon it and
make it hard, and walk over upon Its surface. I have only to 6peak, .and bid tbe
watl'\rR he still; and touch them with my finger, nnd they become hard as stone.
The tread of my foot m/\ltCS so rt things hard; and my power ·Is boundless."
Thll young man, feeling every moment colder still, and growing tired of the old
mnn·s hoastlng, and mor ning being n lKh, as h e perceived by the reddening east, thus
began:
"Now, my father, I wish to s peak."
"Spcnk," i;ald tho old man, "my eo.r, though It be old, le opeu-lt can hear."
"ThP.n," 11aic\ the y oung man, "I also go over all the earth. I have i;een It cov·
ererl with snow, and the waters I have seen o.s hard ns stone; b11t I have only passed
over I.hem, anc1 tho snow has melted; the mountain streams have begun to ftow, the
riven• lo move, the ice to melt; t he earth bas become green under my tread, the
ftow~n; ulossomed, tho birds were Joy ful ; and all the power o! which yon boast van-
ished nway!"
The nlrl man drew a dee p sigh, and eho.lclng his heo.d, ho said, "l know thee, thou
art summer?"
"Tr11e," i;ald the yo11ng man, "and here behold my head-aee It crowned with
fiowenJ! a1ul my chee ks, how they bloom--<:ome near o.nd touch me. Thou art w ln·
ter! 1 lmow thy po~·or le great; .but, my !athor, thou darest not come to my
-country; thy beard would Call otr. and a ll thy strength would fall, and thou
wo111<li;t die!"
Tho olcl man relt this tr11th; tor before the morning was come he was seen van·
lshlni; away; lrnt each, beCoro they parted, exp ressed a hope that they might meet .
agnln before mnny moons.
O·shnw-gi1s·co·day-way·q11a (Mrs. Johnston) died at Sn1•lt Ste. Marie In November,
1813. s,w1>ral i::Tt1ndch.llllren and great gro.ndchllilren ot Mr. ancl Mrs. Johnston
now rcsi<le at the Sault, Neeblsh, and De Tour, on the Strait.a ot Ste. Ma.ry'a.
Dnrini; the ftrnt qunrte r of th e last century, the JohnRton family's old hnJiiestead.
wlU1 ft.q i<rarlo11s 11lttlng·room, large. open nre-place. a nd highly-polished beams and
wooclwnrk, WM to tho traveler, t he resident of the Saut, and the army omcer from
Fort Drnrly a place or lh'l mo11t pleo.surablo resort, taking the place or thn o~ra
honR!l i!l the dtl es. Dnrlng the long win ter evenings while Knbbebonlcca (the
- no r thw<'.st slorm spirit) was breathi ng his Icy. breath o f the severest blasts, "with
no C'nl"lh hcncath and no sky above," the visitors, who would be ~ate<l with the
fitmlly nnc\ ~·ho always to ur..d this home a welcome r etreat, would trcq1tently ob!!orv.e
a surlrlen commotion, an d ftnd , from tho countenancen ot the family, that a~reeable
nowR had arrlveil. "Old - - - has come!" Thero Is general joy. An olc\ Indian
en ter!!, enCcebl<"d hy ye:irs and no longer able to Join warriors and hunters now,
pnrhn[lll, absent on some dangerous enter prise. He PO!'sesses o. memory retentive of
the trn11ltions ot the tribe, and prounbly an Imagination quick at invention or em·
belllshment. He loves to repeat hie tale'J, and all dearly love to listen. The old
man, sentcd ancl surrounded by an attentive circle, begi ns his tale; and a!! the inter·
-est r!Mn, and tho narrative requires It, he now changes hie tone to Imitate dlffere~t
33
$pealcers, varlea his countcriaoce and attitude, or moves ncroi-:s the room to i1er·
sonata the character he descr ibes. Thus the Indians ha111l 1lown their traditions or
'<ilf!erent kintle from geoerntlon to general.ion. Some or tb olr tnlos were cviuently
.torged for the purpose or teaching tho duly of subservle ncy lo the priests, others to
·respect old age and morality, nnd others to Inspire the young to deeds or endurance
·and bravery In the chase and on the battlefield. A few or the ctorl es thus told are
:here G'i vcn:

THE WlllTI> STONE C.AN00.

There was once a very beaullrul young girl, who died suddenly on the day she was
to bave been ~arried to a hanclsorue young man. He was also brave, but his heart
was not proof again!lt this loss. From the hour she was burled there was no n1ora
joy or peace !or him. He wenl often to visit the spot where the women hnd buried
ber and sat musing there, when, It was thought by some or his friends, he would
have done better to try to amUF1e hlmselt ln the chase, or l>y diverting bis thou~hts
in the war-path. But war and hunting had both Jost their charms tor him. His
bearl was already <lead within him. "He ·pushed aside both hli1 war-r.\ub and hie bO"I\'
~nd arrows.
He had heard the old people eay that there wa11 a path that led to the lan1\ or
souls, an<l he determlnecl to follow It. He accordlngly R<'l out, one morning, 11flrr
having completed his preparations tor the Journey. At OrRt he hudly lml'.w which
-way to go. He was guided only by the tracllUon that he must go south. l<~or a-
while he could see no change in the !ace or the country. Forcst11, and hills, and
valleys, an<l. streams hncl the same look& which th ey wore In h Is natl ve place. Thert>
was snow on the ground wl1en he sel out, and it wai; HOm<'tlmt>e Httlln to l)e piled nnd
matted on the thick trees ancl bushes. Al lcni;th It began lo diminish, and finnlly
odleappearcd. The forest a11sumcu a more cheerful appearnnce, the trees put forth
their bu~l!;, and before h e wns aware o! thEI complP.tenei;e or the change he Co11nd him·
sel t surrounded l>y spring. He had le!l behind him the Jund of 1111ow nn1l Ice. The
air became mild, the dark clouds or winter hnd rolled nway from the sky: a pnre
field ot blue was above him, and ns he went he saw flowore besi1le his path, nnrl
bearc\ tbc songs of birds. By these signs he knew that he was going lll~ r ight
way, !01· they agreed with t)lo traditions or his tribe. At lenf;Ul h e spied a path.
It led htm through a grove, then up a long and elevated ridge, on the very top ot
whkh he c1ime to a lodge. At ·the door stood an ._ol.d man with white hair, whose
~yes, though deeply 11tmlc, hnd a 1\ery brlllancy. He .had a long .robe..or slclnR thrown
'loosely around his shoulders, nnd ~ stRfl' In his hancls.".
The young Chi[1pewayan began ' tot.el) MR story; but the vonora.ble chief arrested
him before he had proceedo<l to speu.lc ten words. "l.. hn."\Te expec.te<l you," he repllad,
"'and had just risen to bicl you welcome to my abo1le. f?he, whom you . seek, pnssP.d
.here but a !ew days since, ancl being tn.tli;nerl wlth ·her journey, rested hen•elC here.
Ent.er my lodge and be aeale.d, and I will then satlsty your enquiries, and ~'°e you
-direction~ !or your journey trom this point." Having rone this, they both Issued
forth to the lodge door. "You see yonder gult," said he, "nnd the wide-stretching
'blue plains beyond. ~t Is the land ~~ souls. You slantl upon ltfl borrl er s. anrl my
lodge 1e the gate of entrance. But you cannot take your body aloni;. Leave It here
with your bow and arrows, your bundle, and your dog, You will find them i;afe
<>n your return." So si>.ying, he re-entered the loc1i:;-e, ancl the f reed traveler lJ011nderl
· f orward as It hie feet had suddenly been endowed with the power or wings. But
all ·things retained their naturn.1 co\ors and shapes. ·'l'he woods and leavea, and
'tltreiuns and lakes, were only more bright ·and•comely than ho had over witnessed.
Anlmale bounded across his path with ·a treedom and a confldonce which seemed
34

to tell him there was no bloodshed here. Birds o! beauUCul plnmn~e inhabltef\ tho
gro\'es and AporlNI In the wate~. There WllS but one thing lo which he saw a very
11n11s11al effect. He noticed that his passage was not stopped by trees or 0U1or
objects. Ho apnrnred to wallc directly through them. They were, In ract. hut the
so11IR or shadows or material trees. He became sensib le that ho wns In a land o(
s hallows. When ho had traveled halt a day's journey through a conntry which was
continually becoming more attractive, he rnme to the banlco or a broad lake, 111 the
cen t e r of whir.It was a lari;:e and beautiful lolan<l. Ho Connel a C'nnoc or 11hlnlng
white at one tied to the shore. He was now sure that ho had come tho right path.
fo r th e a1.i;ecl man hail I.old him or this. There were nlso ehinlng paclcllc~. He Im·
m eiliat.e ly entered the canoe ancl took the paddles In his hnn<ls, when, to his joy
and s11r11rh1P., on turning round, he beheld tho object ol Jlls senrch In another canoe•
.exactly lte counterpart In every thing. She ho.d exactly Imitated his motions and
they were AldP. hy elile. They at once p11shed out from shore nnl! bcA"o.n to c1·oa11
tho lnkP.. It~ wnvcA noemecl to l.Je r ls ln p; an<I at a 1ll11t.nnco lool<El•I rr.u1ly to swo.llow
0

them up; h11t just 011 they ente rNI the whitened ellA'O of tllflm they sccmecl to molt
away, n~ It tlrny were hut the images oC waveA. Dnt no !'looncr wnl\ one wreath or
roam pn<1.qe1l, than anot her, more threatening still, rose 111>. Th1111 they wore In
perpetual rr.ar; nnrl wha t ad ded to It was t he clearne.qs or the wnter, through wh lC'h
they r.011111 !ll'e hr.aim ot beings who had perished before, a nd whos'l hon r.s Jay strewn
on the hnttom of the lake. The Master or Life harl, however, dec r C<ld to let them
pasn, Cor the artlonR of neither of them 'had been hl\d. Dnt they snw many olher.r
strug"p;llni; and s inking In the waves. Old men and you ng men, males and females
of all llA'P-'1 and ranlc, were there; some pnssed, and 11ome sank. Tt wa.'! onl y the
little chllllren whone canoes seemed to meet no waves. At length every tllffic11lty
WR.'l ~one, as In B moment, and they both leapt out on the happy lslnnd. They felt
that the vory air WO.fl rood. Tt !ltrengtbenP.ci and nourished them. They wandered
toge th er: l)vcr the hllssC11l fielcls, wbP.re everything was formP.d to plenne the e ye a nd
the P.Rr. Them wore no tempest!!~ there was no Ice, no ch111y winds; no ono shivered
for thE' want of w1um clothe~; no one suffered tor hun1ter; no one mo u rned tor the
dead. They saw no graves. They heard or no wars. There waR no hunting of ani-
mals; for the nlr iti!P.lf wae their food. Gladly would the yonng warrior have r&-
malnr.<I thMe foreYer, hut hCI wan obllgecl to go back for his bony. He did not se~
the Mantr.r o! Life, h11t he he:ird his voice In :1. soft breeze: "Go bnr.k," said this
voice, "to the land from whenr.e yon c1tme. Yonr time has not yet r.ome. The duties
for which I maclc you and which you are to perform are not yet flnlRhecl. Return to
your peorlfl Roel ar.complllih th e duties or a goocl man. You will he the ruler ot your
trlhe ror mnn:v 1lnyA. The rules you must observe will be told yon by my mes11enger
who k eep~ the g"Bto when he su r renders back your horly he wlll tell yon what to do.
J,leten to him anf\ you shall arterwards rcJoll\. the spirit which yo11 m1111t now leave
hehlnd. She Ii; arcepted a nd will be ever bere as young and aa happy as she was
when I llnot called ber !rem the land of Rnows." When thle voice ceased, the nar-
rator awoke. It WM the fancy work of a dr1>e.m. and be was etlll In the ·bitter land
ot enow11 and hnnger and tee.rs.

WAN ISHTSR-IDYUN.

Wanl11hlsh-oynn wnn the wtre ot a hrave young hunter and warrior, by whom she
had t wo chllclren. They lived together In great hnpp lneao, which wns only varied
by the changes o! a toreot life. Sometimes they Jived on the prairies; nometlmea
they built their wigwam In the toreet near the banks ot a stream, an<1 they paddled
their canoe u p and down the rivers. In these trips they got flab. when they were
35
tired o! wild meats. In the summer season th ey kept on the open grounds; ln the
winter they llud their camp in a sheltered position ln the woods. The very change
-Of their na.mp wai:t a source of pleasure, !or they were always on the look-out for
somethfog new. They had plenty, and they wanted nothing. In this manner the
.first years of their marriage passed away. But it so happened tbat as years went by
the reputat.lon of her husband in tbe tribe increased, and he soon became to be re·
gurded as a Weetsbahstshy Atapee, or chief. This opened a new field for his ambl·
Uon and pride. The fame of a chief, it is well known, Is often increased by the
number or his wives. His lodge was now thronged with visitors. Some came to
consult him; some to gain bis favo!". All this gave Wanisish-eyun no uneasiness,
tor the red people like to have visitors, and show hospitality. The first thing that
caused a jar in her mind was the rumor that ber husband was about to take a new
wife. This was like a poison in her veins; for she h ad a big heart. She was much
attached to her husband and she could not bear the idea of sharing bis affections
with another. But she found that the idea bad already got strong bold o! ber hus-
band's mind, and her remonstrances did lltt.le good. He defended himself on the
ground that It would give him greater influence i~ the tribe If he took the daughter
of a noted chief. But before he bad time to bring her to bis lodge, Wanishlsh·eyun
had fled from it, taking her two ch!ldren, !ind returning to her father's lodge. Her
father lived at some distance, and here· she r emai ned a short time in quiet. The
whole band soon moved up near the pictured r ocks, to thei r hunting ground. She
was glad to go with them, and would, Indeed, have been glad to go anywhere to
get farther !rom the lodge of her faithless husband. Here the winter wore away.
When the spring opened they mended and fitted up the canoes which they bad left In
the fall. ln these they put their furs and departed for the Saut. The night before
reaching the destination, the band camped at Point aux Pins, z short distance above
the falls. Wanishish-eyun lingered behind a short time the next morning. She
then put her canoe Into the water and embarked with her children. As she
approached the falls, the increasing velocity of the current rendered the paddles ot
but liltle use. She rested with hers suspended in her hands, while she arose and
uttered her lament:
"ll was him only that I loved with the love of my heart. It was for him that l
prepared with joy the fresh-killed meat and swept with boughs my lodge-fire. It
was for him I dressed the skin of the noble deer and worked with my hands the
moccasJns that graced bis feet. I waited while tbe sun ran his dally course !or
his return from t he chase, and I rejoiced in my heart when I heard his manly foot-
steps approach the lodge. He threw down bls burden at the door; It was a haunch
of the deer; I flew to prepare tl:ie meat for bis use. My heart was bound up In
blm, and he was all the world to me. But he h:1s left me for another, and life is now
a burden which I cannot bear. Even my ch!ldren add to my griefs-they look so
much like him. How can I support life when all its moments are bitter! 1 have
lifted up my voi ce to the Master of Life. I have asked bim to take back that life
which he gave and which I no longer wish. I am on the current that hastens to
fulfi ll my prayer. I see the white foam or the water. It is my shroud. I hear
the deep murmur from below. It Ls my funeral song. Farewell."
It was too late to · arrest her course. She had approached too near the abyss
before her purpose was discovered by her frlends. They beheld her enter the foam;
they saw the canoe for an instant on the verge and then disappear foreve~. Such
was the end of Wanishish-eyeun; and they say her canoe can sometimes be seen, by
moonlight, plunging down the rapids and into the big falls.
36
W A·,VA·BE·ZO· WIN.

At Gros Ca11 there was an old lrni; o! a woman living with Iler 1laughter·in·lavr
and eon, and a little orphan hoy whom she was bringing up. When he 1· son-In-law
cnme home Crom hnaLing, it wA.S his c ustom t.o bring his wire. the moose's lip, th&
llitlney of the hear, or some other choice bits or dilTerent animals. 'l'he11e 11he would
cook crli;p, so as to maJ(e a Round with her t eeth in eating th e m. This ldnd att:en·
tlon or the hunter to his w ire a t ln8t exdteu the envy oC the old woman. She-
wl Ah ed to have th e same lu xu r ies, and In order to get the m i; hc finally rcsolvell to
make way with h er son's wife. One day sh e asked he r to lenve h er lntnnt son t<>
the care o C the or11han boy, and come out and s wing with luir. She took her te>
the shor e or a lake where the re was a high range of rocks ov e rhan i;ln~ the water.
Upon the top or thlR rock s he erected a swin g. She t he n unrlrORsed and fastened a.
plecd of leathP.r around her uotl y anrl commenced swinging, going over the preelpfca.
at e very awing. She contin ued It but a sho r t time wh11n 11he lolcl her daughter
to do the same. T he dan ~hter obeyetl. She undres11e1l, antl tyin g the leather
Atrln-g as sh11 was directed, begnn swinging. When the swiug had got In full motion
and well asolng so that It went clear beyond the precipice nt every swel'11, the old
woman i<lyly cut the cords an<\ let h er daughter drop into the lake. She then pu t on
her daughter's clothing. an rl, thus 1lisg11lsed, wen,t home In the tlmik or the evening
and coun terfeited her a1>penra11ce a nd duties. She !ountl the child crying o.nd gav~
It the hrea st, but it woul d no t d ra w . The orphan lioy a sl<etl whe re Its mother
was. She answer ed, "She ill 11tlll swing ing." He said, "l shall go and look for her.'·
"No!" Rllill 11hc. "you must no t- what s ho11lrl you go for7" When the h11Rhanrl came
In, In thr. r. venlng, he gave the coveted morsel to his suppos ed wire. He mlssen
his moth er·ln·law, but s aid nothing. S he eagerly ate the dainty, and ll'hHt to kee1>
th e <'hlld Rtll l. The husband loolcecl rather astonlsherl to see his wiCo ~udlously
a\·ertln~ hP.r fac11, and ~askecl why tho child cried so. She said, s he d id not know-
thnt It would not d r aw.
In th e mea ntime the ori1han boy went to t he Jake sho re. and round no one.
He mentlonl'd his s us11lclons, n nd while th e old woma n was out getting wood, be
tol1l him nil that he had heard or seen. The man then palntecl his face black
nnrl p lac.e1l h lA spear upsid e down In the earth and requested the Oreat Spirit to-
scnd lh;htnln~. thun<ier, a nrl rain In the hope that the body oC his wile might arise
from the wate r. He then began to tast, and told the boy to take the child and
piny on the lake shore.
Wo m11Rt now !!:O hack to tho swi n g. After the w ire had pl11nged Into the lake,
she rou nd hc-rael r taken hold o! by a water tiger, whose tall twisted ltsolf around
her body and rlrew her to th e bottom. There she found a fine lorlgo anrl all t hings
re11rly for he r reception, e.nrl she berame the wife of the water tiger. Whilst the
C'hlld ren wnre playing alon g t h e shore, and the boy wns cnstlng pebbles Intl>
th<I lake, ho 11aw a gull coming from Its center and flying townnls t.ho shore, and.
when on Rhore, t he hlrd lmmerllate ly S!lsumed the human shape. When he looked
a gain he recognl7.ed the lo!lt mothe r. She had .a leather bP.lt aro11ncl h er lolm1, and
another oolt. ot wh ite metal w hic h wae, In reallty, the tail or the wator tiger, her
h .11~han rl . She suckled her babe, an rl said. to the boy, " Come here with him when·
r.vP.r hP. cries and I will nurse h im."
The hny cnrr lP.d the rh lld home nn1l told theRe thin gs to th e fn.th or. When the
r hlld agnln cri P.<l, the rather went nlso with the boy to th e Jal rn !!horo an1l hid bhu·
l'P.lr In n. clump or treeR. Soon the appenrnn <'e oc n ,:: nll wn!I seer. wit h a tong
shining b elt, or chain, and as soon ns It came to the shore, It nsi;ume<l the mo th er's
Rl1ape. anc\ began t o suckle t he child. The busban d had b ro11 g-ht alon g his spaar,
an d. eee lni;- the shining chain h e bolrlly struck It and b roke the links apart. He
37
then took bi's wife and child home, with the on>hnn boy. When they cnter('d the
lo,dge the old woman looked up. hnt It was R loolt or despair; she Instantly clropped
her bead. A rustling was h Panl In the lodge, and the next moment she leaped up
and ftew out of the lodge and was never heard of more.

M,\SH· l\:WA·SUA·KWONO.
Mash-kwa·sha-k wong was a firat-rate hunter, and he loved the chase exceenlngly
and µursncd it with unccai;!ni:: vi;;llance. One dny, on hie return home, on arriving
at his lodi::e. he was Informed by his two sons, who were but small then, lhat tl1_ey
were very lonesome, because their mother was in the 111\hlt of daily leavlu1: them
alone, ancl this on:11rred so soon a!I he started upon b lR dnlly chase. This clrr.um-
et.ance was not nnlinown to Mai;h·kwn·ehn-kwong, but he seemed fully aware of It;
he took his boys In his arms and kissed them and told thnm that their mother
behaved improperly and was acting the ]lart oC a wicked and faithless woman. Dut
Ma.sh-kwa·sha-hwong uehaved towards bis wife as it ignorant of her vile courne.
One morning, rlsin~ very enrly, he told his sons to tnke ronra,:ZP and that they n111l'l
not be lonesome; hr also strictly enjolnecl them not to nh!tent thems;elves nor quit
their lodge; afler this i11j11nc,t1011 was given to the boys he madn preptirntlonP. anti,
starting much ear lier than usnal. he traveled but a short distance from hl11 Jorli;e,
when be halted.and secreted himself. After wnltlng a 11hort time, he saw ltls wife
coming out or their lodge, and Immediately a!ter a ml\n macle his appearance and,
meeting MA.sh-ltwa-sha·kwong'e wire, they greeted one anothnr. His s11splclone
were now conflrnrn<l, ancl when h e saw them In the a ct or carrying on an lllci:al
Intercourse, his anger arose; he went up to them and klllecl them with one hlow ;
0

he then dragged them both to hi s lodge, and tying them together. he <In,:: a hole-
beneath the flre-placo in his lod ge and burled them. He then told his 11nn!l that
It was necessary that he should go away, ns be would surely I.le killed If he re·
malned, .. nd their i;arety would depend upon their al.lillty to keeµ the matter &
secret. He gavo his elder son a small bird (Kicl1ig-e-d1lg·aw·nn-sh11) to roa!<t ror hi!!
email brother over the ashes and emuers where their mother wn11 burled; ho nll'O
provided a small leaf. her bag. an•l then tolcl hie sons the nec!lm;;lty of hill lmmec\lnte
flight to heaven, or lo the altle11; ancl that It would be exJ1P.1llent for thl'm to n~·
and journey southwarcl,.ancl thus propnrecl their mlnd!I for the si>1iamtlon A.bout to
t.ake place. "By nnrl by," said Mash-kw.a·sha-ltwong to hi e 11ons, "persona will come
to yon and enquire for me ancl for your mother; you will Pay to them thnt T am
gone hunting, and yonr little brother In tho meantime will cont11111ally .11olnt tn tl10
fire-place: this wlll lead the persona to whom I allud e to mnke inqulrlPR of lhP
cause of thl!=! pointing, anrl you will tell them that yo11 hnve a llttl1> bircl ron..<tt.lni:
for your brother; this will cause thorn lo clesist from furth er Inquiry at tho time.
As soon all th ey nre gone, .escape! While you are jonrnoying. ai::rr.eable to my
Instructions, I wlll look from on high 11µ011 you; I will lend and rondncl yon, ancl
you shall hear my voire from rlay to llay." Mash-lcwa-shn -lcwo ng at thle tim e r;ave
his sons an awl, A. heA.vnr's tooth. ancl a hone, also n dry coal. nnrl dirt1derl thPm
to place a !<mnll piece of the con.1 on the ground every evening. so l'Ollll ll" they
sb·ould encamp,. from which fire wonltl he p.rodnc<!d and given to thorn; hP told hill
elder son to pince hli:: brothllr In the loather bac;, and in t.hnt manner carry him upon
his back; he t.h en ha<lo them fnrewell.
The two boys helng th11R left alone In the IOrlf:I'., and while In t.he art of ron11Uni::
the little bird provldecl for them. a man came In, ancl tlll!n another nnrl another.
until they numbered ten In all; the younger boy would from time to tlml! J)()lnt nt
the fl re, a.nd the men lnq\llred to know the reason: the elcler hoy said that 11e w11!\
roasting a bird for his brother, and, diggi ng the ashes. produced IL They Inquired
38

whure their father and mother were; Urn hoy amnverlng them, i;ayl11g that their
fath er was n1Jr-;e11t hunting. and that their mother had gone lo chol,) aud collect
woo1l; upon this information tho mcm rose and searched around the outflldrts oC the
lodi;c>, entlenvo ring to find traces or the man aud his wife, !Jut they were not snc·
ces~ful, u11tl returned to the loclge. Defore th1!1, however, a11cl d11rin~ the al>sence
of the ten men, Mas h-kwa·Rhn·lnvong's elder son place<l his Jillie l>rother In the
leathe r hng (Onskemood). nntl rnn away southwanl.
One or tho ten men observe1l that thP. smaller boy hail rc11c:itcdly pointed lo the
fire-place, and that they might find out somelhi_ng l>Y digging; they 11et to work,
and (onnd the woman and the man tied lOg'?ther. On this disco,·ery thl'h' wrath
was ldnrlled, they hrandi11hed th eir weapons, denouncing lmpre1:atlon11 11po11 Mash·
kwa-she·l<woui;, who was, or course, sus1H?cle<l or having eommitletl the uee<l.
The ton men again rf!newetl their search in order to avenge themRelves upon the
pernotmtor or this dark deed; hut Mneh-kwa·6ha·ltwoug, in order to avoid instant
1lcath, ha(I sou" ht a large hollow tree, and entering at th e bottom or root pa1·t, pasr;1ed
thro111?.h und reached th o t.011 o( it, from whence he took hi11 flight u1,wu1·tl11 to the
slty. HIR purirnern finally trncocl him, null followed him as far nfl tho tree, nm! into
I.he 11ky, with loud nncl n11ce1\s l11g- in111recntio11s or revenge nn(I their dcte1·ml11ntlon
lo kill him. The r;1µlrlt or the moth er alone followetl hc1· children. About mirl·1luy
the l>oys hea r<!, as they nm, a noise In the heavens like the rolllni; or tll:;tant
lhun(lor. • 'fhc boys continued their journey south, when lhe noise ceased. To·
wanlll n igh t they enc·ant[ll'tl; they p11t a small pier.e oC llie coal on tho ground,
then a log or nre-wootl wns dropped tlown from the skies to th em, from whcnl:e
a itoo<I blazing l\re was klndlcd. This was done daily, and when the fire was
l!i;htc•I, a 1·nc·coo11 would fall Crom 011 high upon the fire, anc.l in this mnn11e1· the
boys were Ced; and this overruling care they experienced dally. In the evenings
nt their camping place, and sometimes during the day, tbe Red Head's voice
wns hl~nnl speaking to his rhl l<lren, and encouraging them to nso their utmost
0

cxertlon11 to Oy f rom the pt1r<111lt or their mother. To alil them In escaping, they
ware told to throw away tbelr awl, and Immediately there grew a strong and
nlmost lnq>nl'lsahle hedi;e or thorn bushes behind them, In their path, which the
r111rs111n,. mother could scarcely 11ene tratl'!, and thns Impeding her proi:;rmis, tearing
nwiw her whole body and kavlng nothing but lhe head. So thl'y escaped the fir6t
day.
Tho nc>xt <lay they resnm.-11 lhel r march anri could •llstlnctly hr.ar the noise or
r.ombnt In tho sl<y, as if It were a roaring th11n1ler; they al90 heard tho voi<'e oC
lht>lr mother hchln<l them, 1lc!'irln,:: her elder Eon Lo ~top anrl wait for her, saying
thnt Rhr. wli<hrc\ to give the brr.n11t to hl!I brother; thcn again MMh·lnva-i;lm·kwnnf?'s
voi<'P. E'1t('O llrni:l11g his i;om; to fly for their llvt>s and i:ayln!!: thf\t If thrir mother
ovP.rtonl< lhrm •he wo11lc\ !lllrt>l;v ltlll them.
In tho evening or the Recond 1lny the boys prepared to encamp, and the noise
Q( combat on high ceaRcd; on plnr.lni:: a small piece . 0( the roal on lhr. i::ronnc\
n loi: nn1J Mme flre-wooc\ w1t11 let down aq on the prere1llng nl,::ht, nn•I thn fire wa~
l<ln1llo<i, a111! lhrn the raC'roon plarcd on It for their toorl. Thl11 W:\A fulOlllni: tho
11roml11e mn1le h:v their father, that they wo11ill be provillerl ror c\urln~ their fll~ht.
Tho hcnver'n tooth Wll!I hrre thrown nway, anti this IA lhe r1tu11e why tho northern
r.ounlry tlO'V nho11nds with hr1tvrr, anti a li::o thc> lnn•1m!'rllhle llltl11 lalrn9 anrl
m:tr!>h.,.s, nn1l r onPef]ttF:ntly lhe rni:i:rtl nnrl tetllou!I t.rnvcllnS? now rxperleni•crl.
On the third rln~· the hoya rc1111me<l their flight anrl threw av.·ay their bone, and It

•Nntr h:v Mr. r.Por~e John1<tn11 , trnm whnm tht" tnli> wn11 recn!v ed.-AnythlnA' or tht>
klntl. Clr n ,.;mllnr not"n hc>nrtl. IA nttrthurrd by the Tnflh\n to thl11 cll\y 1u1 "" lndlro.tlon
or lhll l'nfllP.nt lnn hP.lWC•n Mn11h - kwn-•hA-kWOn11' nnrl hi~ pur.euer8, and hence a prelude to
war8 nn1l con tenllona llmOnfl' tho no.t1on11 ot the world.
39

OOCl\ITIC I\ high, rocky, lnUllllti~illO l19 J'lui:e, ~he SntnC now Reen On tho DOl'ih Hh!ll'C
o! tlleso i;trA.lts (St. .Mary'R), which was a grr.a:t obstnr.Jc in the way of tho woman
o! tbe Head, for tbis was now her na.me, because that part nione r emnlncrl of lier
whole frame, and wi th it ~he was incessantly uttering dctermlnatlon11 to 11111 her
elder eoo; the boys finally rea~hed the fishing place lrnown ns ti.Jo eddy oC Wnb-
zah·zhwlng at the raplde ot Dawntlng ( Snult Ste. Marie), situated on tho north
shore or the river. Here Mash-kwa·sho·kwong told his eons that lie hn<I himselt
b~n over~1ten in hie fil ght by his pursuers and kUled ; nnd he appeare d to them
in ~he shape ot n reil-hea<led woodpecltor, or a mama. This is n bird that Is seldom
or n e1·er attacked by birds o! prey, for no vestige!! ot hie remnln e are over Rtlen
or rou nd by the Indian hunter. "Now, my sous," said the red-headed woodpcclter,
"I have br ought you to this river; you wlll now seo your i;randfathcr, and h e will
eonvey you ncrm:s to the opposlle s i<le." Then I.he boys lookE>ou to the poutbern
shore or the r iYer, and they saw In tlae middle o! th e rnpld an. Oshuggny stnndlng
on a rock ; to the Oshuggay the boys epol<e, ancl accoeteu him ns their g rnndtnthcr,
requesting him to carry th em acroi:;s the river Bnwntlng. Tho Oslwggny, stretching
bis Joni; neck over the river to the plaee wh ere the boys stood, told them to get
upon hie head and neck, and again stretching to t he southern shore, he landed the
boys In safety upon a prairie; the crnne was eeen wal king In state up nnd down
the prairie.
The persevering moth er soon arrived at Wah-zah·hawlng, and lmmedlntcly re·
quested the Oshuggay ·to cross her over; stntlng that ehe was In pursuit o! lier
chlldren and that she wlsbr.d to overtake them; but the Oshuggay secmecl well aware
o! her characer, aud objected to conveying her across, g iving her to 11nller11tand
that she was a lewd. and bad woman; he continued giving her a long moral lecture
upon the course sbe h!ld purs ued and the bad results to mankind in consequence,
such as quarrels, murriers, deaths, and hence widowhood.
The woman of the Head perslst~d In. her r equest ot being conveyed .across. Objec-
tions and entreaties followed. She talked as it she were still a woman whose favor s
were to be son;;bt, and he as i t he were above such f avors. After thll\ dialogue
the Oshuggay said that he would convey her across on the condition that she would
adhere strict.ly to b is in junctions; he told her not to touch the bare 111\rt of his
head, but to get upon the hollow or crocked part or bis neck; to this !!he agreed,
and got. on. The Osbuggay then withdrew his long neck to about iialt way across,
when, feeling that she had forgotten her pledge, be dashed her bead upon the rocks,
and the small fish that were so abundant Instantl y fed upon tho brain and frag-
ments of the skull and became large white fish. "A fi!:h," s a id the O!lhuggl\y,
"that from this time forth shall be abunoant, and remnin In these rapids to
feed t he Tnrlians ancl their issue from generation to genC1ratlon."
After thi!: transaction of the Oshuggay's lanr11n g the boys se.fely across, nnil
dashing the woman's \1ead upon the rocl<s, he spnlce to the crane, and mutually con·
eultlng one aoother in.relation t~ Mash-llwa -sha-l>wong's sons, they agreed to In vite
two women from the eastward of the trlbe of the Wassissig, and the tv.·o ladR took
them for wives. The O!!hnp;gay plucked one or his largest wing feath er!! and gave
It to the elclP.r boy, and the crane likewise dl<l the 1>amC\, givi ng hi!' fcnther to the
younger; they wore told to conRider the !eather11 as their filons l\(ter this; one
feather appeared like an Oshuggay and the other like a young crl\ne. By and by
they appeared like bum'a n beings to th e lade. Th us the alliance wns formed with
the WBRSiRslg, and the clrcumi;tancee of the Oshuggl\y and crane Interesting them-
selves In behalf ot the boys, and the gt!t to th em or. their. !eat hera and the result,
ls the origin ot the Indlnn Totem.
40
Here Mo.sh-kwa·sha-kwong's sons were told that th ey would l>e consldernd as
chieftains, and that this office would be hereditary and continue ln their generations.
After thlR they multiplied llxceedlngly and hec1une strong anc\ powcrtul. About this
time the Oblnangoes (or the bears' totem) came down from Shaugah-wah-mlckong,
near the extremity or Lake Superior. On their way eastward they were surprised
on reaching Dawatlng to find such a numerous vo11ulatlon ot human helngs; they
were not aware ot lt."1 being In existence; !car camo upon th~ Oblnangoo11, and
they devl!!od the plan of a;ecuring f'rlentlshlp with th e O!lhU ggays nn1l Cranes by
adopting and claiming a relationship with them. and calflng them their grandson11.
This claim was yielded, an cl they were permltte<l to remain at Ba.waling upon the
score of relaUonshlp, thus happily attained. The Oblnangoes eventually emigrated
eastward and i;ettled upon the northern coast or Lalces Huron and Ontario.
PopuJaUon lncnmsed so rapidly at Bawatlng thnt It was nece11sary to form new
villages, some settllng on the Garden river, eome upon the Pakaysaui;auegnn river,
and others upon the Island of St. Jo~ph's and upon U1e Meoashkoog bay and
Mnshkotay Saugle rh·er.
Abont this time a person In the shape ot a huruan being came flown rrom the
sky; bis clothing was exceedingly pure and white; ho was iw.ate<l a s It were 111 a.
nest with a very flue cord attached to it, by which this mysterious per son was let
down, and the cord or string reached heaven. He atldrcssed tho Indians 111 a very
humane, mild, and compassionate tone, saying that they were very poor and needy,
but telT!ng them that they were perpetually asleep, and this was caused by the
Mache Monedo who was In the midst ot them, nnd leadlni; them to death and
ruin.
This mysterious personnse Informed them also that nbove, where ho came Crom,
tbe1·e was no night, that tho Inhabitants never slept, that It was perpetunlly day and
they required no sleep; that Kezha Monedo was their light. He then invited rour
o! the lntliane to a11rs.nd up with him, promis ing thnt they wo11Jcl be brought bnck
In t:afety; that an opportu nity woultl there by present Itself t o view the beauty
ot the sky, or heavens. But the Incllaos do111>tetl and feared lest the cord should
break, ber.auso it appr.arcd to them so small. They diet not believe It pos11lble It
could bear their weight. With tbis objection they excuser\ themselves. 'rhey were,
however, ngnln ai;snred that the cord was sufficiently strong, anti that Kezha Monedo
had the power to make It so. Yet the Indians <lonhte<l nnd Cenretl, nnd dlrl not
accompany the mei;senger sent down to tbcm. After this reCusnl the mysterious
person proctuced a email how anct arrows with which be ehot nt thP. India na In
different part11 ol their bodlee; the result wnR tho killing of multltndoR or 11mnll
whltP. 'n'ormf!, which he showed to them, telling them that they were the Macbe
Monc<lo which cauRed them to sleep, and prevented their 11.wnltenlni; Crom t heir
deRth-lllce stnte.
This divine me11i::cmger then gave to the Indlnn!I laws nnct ruleR whe reby they
sbonld ba ~ul1le1l; nri::t, to love ancl !enr Ke7.ha Monedo, and next, thrlt they must
lovo one nnothP.r, 1md be charltahle nnrl ho11pltablo; and finally, thnt t.hey mnst
not covet th(;llr 11P.lghbora' property, but ar.qnlro It by lahor nn1\ honel't lnclnstry. He
then fnl'tltnt.e1\ the grnniJ medicine or metay we win dnnce; thlit cllremony won to
he ohscrved annually, and with due solemnity, nnd tho Intlll\nR, said Nn.blnol,
exnerl<'nr.ccl m nch sood Crom It; hut unfortu natel y, the fooli sh yonn~ men were
cheated hY. Mn<'hP. Monc1lo, who caused them to n1Jopt the Wl\hano dnnce nnt:I its
cercmonle~. Thlr> latter IR dcc ldeclly an lnAtlt11tlon or the sagemans, or evil
~piriti;, nn1~ this wne fin~Jl y Introduced Into t he metny we wining (i. e.. medicine
dance), and thereby corrupted It.
Tho olrl chief continued hla moral strain thus: While the Indians were lnstru<~ted
by the heavenly meaeenger they were told t hat it would snow continually tor the
41

space ot fivo years, winter and summer, and the end v.-ould tben be nigh at band;
and again, that It would rain incessantly as many '\\'inters and summers more,
which would cause the waters to rise and overflow the earth. dei;troylng trees noel
a ll manner ot vegetation. .A rtcr this, ten "'Int ers and s ummers of drought would
follow, drying up the land, llnd mostly the lakes and rivers; not a cloud would
be seen during this period. The earth will become i;o dry, that it will thon bnrn
up with firo or itself, ancl It wlll also burn the waters to a certain depth, until
It attains tho first crentcd earth and wa ters. T hen the good Indiana will rise trom
deatil to r.njoy a nl)w earth, filled with an abundance o! all manner ot living crea-
tures. Tho only animal which v.-111 not be seen is the beaver. The bnd Indiana
will not enjoy any portion or the new earth; they will be coodomued nod given to
the evil i;plrlts.
Four generations, l1e went o n to say, hnve now pasFed away flince that brotherly
love and ehnrl ty, formerly !mown, still ex isted among the Indians. Thero was
i n those nnclent times au nnnunl meeting among the Indians, roaemllllng tho
French New Yenr'e Day, wh lc.h was genernll y obsc n·ed on tho n ew moon 's first
appearance, Gitcby Monedo c;csne. The Incllans of one vlllni:;e would visit those or
another, and sometimes meet one another dancing; and on tboi:e occai;lons they
would exchange bowe and arrows, their r ude a xes, nwl11, and lcettlea. nod their
clothing. Tula was an nnuunl teatlvnl, wbtch was duly obse r ved by th em. I ii
those dnya the Indians lived bapptly; but everythi ng le now chnnged to the Jndlnn
mind, Indicating the drawing near and appr oach or the end or time.· The Indln ns
who still adhero to t11e laws or tho heavenly messongcr oxperlence haJ>plness; and,
on the contrary, concluded t h e old man, those who a r e wklted and i:ulbere to t ho
Wabano Institution, generally roeet with their reward; and it Is singular to say
that they generally come to their end by acciclenls such as drowning, or miserable
deaths.
He t hen roverled to tbe former par t oC h is story. Tb<.:1 Oshu ggnys and the
Cranes quarreled, nod this quarrel commenced on a trivial point. It appears that
the Cranes took a pole, without leave, from the Oebuggays, and they broke the
pole; this circumstance led to a separation. The Oshuggaya emii;rated south, and
are now lcnown as tho Sha wnees.

IlOSH-KWA-DOSII .

There was once o. man who fo und h imsel f a lone In t he worl d. He knew not
whence he came, nor who were hie paronts; a n d he wandered about, from place to
pince, In search oC something. At last he became 'l\'earlncl nod fell asleep. He
dreamed thnt he h eard a voice saying, "Nosis," that Is, my grnndchil<i. When
he awoke ho actuall y beard tbe word repeated, and looking around he snw n tiny
little animal hardly big enough to be seen on the plain. While douhtini; whet.her
the voice co11lcl como Crom such a diminutive source, the little anlmnl said to
him, "My g ro.nclson, you will cnll m e Bosh-kwa-dosh. \Vhy are you so clesolnte?
Listen t o mo a.ncl you shall fi nd frien ds and b e hap py. Yo n m ust ta\t(I me 11))
ancl bind me to your body and never put me a s ide, and s uccess in life Ahnll atten<l
you:" Be obeyed the voice, sewing up the little animal In the folds ot a string,
or narrow belt, which he tied around his body, . at his nn,·c;L He then i:;rt out
lo search or Romo ono like himself, or ot.her object. H e wnllced n long tin)o in
woods without seeing man or animal. He seemed all alone in the wp rhl. At
length ho cnme lo a place whore n stump was cnt, ancl on goi ng over a hill ho
described n lnrge town in a plnin. A ""'i rle road Jed throu~h the middle ot It; b\lt
what seemed strnngo was, thnt on one Gide there were no lohabltnnts In the
42

lotlges, while the other side . was thickly Inhabited. He walked boldly Into the
town.
The inhabitants came out and said: "Why here Is the being we have heard so
much of-here Is Anish·in·a·ba. See his eyes and llls t eeth in a bait circle-see
the Wyaukenawbedald. See his bowels, bow they nre rormecl;" for it seems they
could loolt through hlni. The king's son, the Mujelcewis, was vnrtlcuh\rly kind to
him, and calling hi m brother-in-law, commandeo that he shonld be taken t o
his falller't; lodge and r~ceived with attention. Tho ki ng save him one of hie
dnughters. These people (who are supposed to bo human hut whose rnnk In
the ecale of being le lelt equivocal) passed much of their Limo In play and sports
and trlal11 of various kinds. When s~me time hnd passed, and he had become
reCreshed and rested, he was Invited to join in these sports. The first test which
they put him to was the trial of frost. At some dlstanco was a large body of
frozen water, and the trial consisted In ·lying down naked on the Ice and seeing
who could end ure the· longest. He went out with two young men \VI.lo began
by 11ulling oft their garments and lying down on their fllCC!I. He <lid likewise, only
keeping on U1e narrow magic belt with the tiny Jlttlo animal Se\Ved In It; for he
telt that in this alone wae to be his reliance end preservation. His compet1tora
laughed and tittered during the early ))art o! the night, and amused themselves
by thoughts or his !ate. Once they celled out to him, but llo mado no r eply. He
felt a manifest warmth given out by his belt. About rol<ln lgbt. finding they
were still, he called .out to them In return, "What!" said he, "are you benumbed
already; I em but just beginning to !eel a little cold." All was silence. He, how-
ever, kept bis position till eariy ilaybre.a k, when he got up and went to them.
They were both quite dead, and frozen so hard that tho llesb had bursted out
undor their llnger·nnlla;'. and their t eeth stood out. An ho looked more closely,
what was his surprise to find them both tro.ne!ormcd into buft'alo cows. He
tied them together a~d carried them towards the village. As he came In sight,
th ose who ho.d wished his death were disappointed, but the Mudjekewle, who was
rea lly hi!! trlend, rejoiced. · "See!" sald' ' iie, "l>ut one person app roaches; it is my
brother-In-law." He then threw down the carcasses In triumph, bnt It was Co.und b'y
their death he bad restored two inhabitants to the betoro empty lodges, and he a!tor·
wards perceived that every one of these belnss. whom he lcillod. had the like ea:ect,
so that tho depopulated part ot the village soon became filled wlth people.
The next Lest. thoy put him to was the trial or speed. He was challenged to
the race sround, and began hie career with one whom be thought to be a man;
but everything wa11 enchanted here, ior he soon discovered that hie competitor
wee a larso black bear. Th.e anfmal outran him, tore up tbe ground, and sported
before him l\nd put out Its large clawe as if to !ri ghten him. He thought of his
little guardian spirit In the belt, and wlehlng to have tho ewrtncss of the Kakake,
_l. e.. 11parrow hawlc, he' found himself rising from tho ground, and with the speed
oC thl" bird be outwent his rival 11.'nd won the raco. while U1e hear came up exhausted
and lolling out his tongue. His friend, the MudjeJcewiA, stood ready with hie war·
club at lho goal, and the moment the benr came up, dispntchcd him. He then
turned to the assembly, ~ho had wlelied hie friend and brothers' death, · and after
reproaching them, he Hlted u p bis club and began to i;lay the m on every side.
They fell In hcnµA on a.II sides; but It :was plain to he seen, the moment they tell,
that they were n ot men but a?lmals-·fox c~. wolves, tiger s, lynxes, and other
kln ri!I, lay thick a.rou nd the MudjelCewls. ·
Still the villagers were not satisfied. They thousht the trial ot frost bnd not
been fairly accomplished and wished It repeated. He agreed to repent it, but
being- fati gued with the race, he, undid hie guardian belt and laying it under bis
43

head fell asJcer.. When he awoke he !ell refreshecl, ancl feeling strong In his own
strength he went forward to renew the trln.1 on the Ice, but qui te forgot the helt,
nor did it all occur to b Im when be awoke, or when he lay <lown to r<'pcat the
trial. About micl11igbt his iim\Js became i;liff, the blood soon ceasod to r.irculatc,
a~d he was found in the morning a stiff corpse. The victors toolc him up and
carrl~i;i bjrq ~0 the Village where the loudest tumult Of Ykt.oriOllS joy was made,
and they cut the body Into a thousand pieces, that each one might cat n plere.
The Mudjekewle bemoaned his !ate, but his wife was Inconsolable. She Jny in
a state o! pnrtlal distraction in the lodge. AR she Jay there, she thought she hoord
some ouo groaning. It was repeated throu~h the night, and In th e mornillg sho
carefully scanned the pince, and running her tlngcrs through the gro.si;, Hho dis·
covered the secret belt, on the spot where her hushanrl ha<l la~t repo~l'd.
".Aublehln," cried the l>clt-thnt Ill, untie me, or unloo!'le m<'. Loolcing cnrefully
ehe found the email seam which enclosed the tiny little animnl. It cried out tho
more earnestly, "Aublshln!" nod when sho had carefully riJlpecl the scams, she
behelcl, to hor S\lrprifie. a minute, nalrnd little heal't, emnller thnn the flmn!lest
new-born mouse, without any vestige of hn!r, except at the tip of it.s tall; It
could crawl n few inr.hes, but reposed from fatii.:ne. It then went forwanl again .
.At each moment It woulrl pupowcc, that ls to 1my, shnllc lti:eH lilce n Oog, anli at
each shako It became larger. This it continued until It nc·qu lrod the strength
and size of a middle-sized dog, when it ran oft.
The mysterious dog ran to the lodges 1>.bout the village, looki ng tor th r. bones
ot his friend, wh ich he carried to a secret pince, anrl as fai;t as he found them
arranged all In their nntural order. At length he hacl !ormerl nll the i:keleton
complete, except the heel bone of one f~ot. It so happenert that t'l\·o sisterR .,..·ere
out or the camp, according to c111;tom, at the time the l>Orl)' was cut np, aud this
heel wns sent out to them. The dog hunted every lo<lge, nnd heing i:nt.istll.'d
that It was not to be found In the camp, he !'<011ght It oulslrl" or It, nnd found
the lotlge of the two sisters. The yonn!!;er sister WM plenfle<l to see him, and
admired and patted the pretty dog, but the elder sat mumbllni; the very heel·
bone he wns seeking, and was surly and sour, and repelled the clog, although be
looked most wistfully up in her face, while she IHtcked the bone from one Ride o!
her mouth to ' the other. At Jas.t ehe held it in such a manner that it mado her .
cheek stick out, when the clog, by a qulclt spring, seized tile cheek, and tore cheek
and bone away and fled.
He now completed the slccleton, and placing himself be(oro It, uttered a hollow,
low, long-draw'n-011t bowl, when the bones came compactly togt>ther. f.ll'. then
modulated his howl, when the bones knit together ann her.ame ten~o. The! third
howl brought sinews upon them, and the fourth, flesh . He t.hcu turn ed hh; bt'acl
upwards, looldng Into the sky, and gnve a howl, whi ch caused every one In tho
village to startle and the ground ltsel! to tremble, Rt which the breath entered
into hla body and he fln1t breathed and then arose. "Hy lrnw! I have overslept
myaelf," be exclaimed, "I will be too late for tho trl11l." "'l'rial ! " sa!rl tl1e dog,
"I to)d you never to let me be nepa~ate from your body; yon have ne.c;lected
this. You were defeated an<l your frozen body cnt Into a t housand pieces and
scattered over the vlllRge, but my skill has restored you. Now I will rl eclare
myself to you, and shO'I\' who and what I am!"
Ho then began t o pupowee. or shalte himseH, a.n d at every 11hake he grnw. His
body. became heavy and mas.;iy, his legs thick and long, with big clumsy ends, or
feet. He etlll shook himself and rose and swelled.- A Jong snout grew from bis
head, and two great eblnlng teeth out of hie mouth. His skin remalnerl as It
'Wa~. naked, and only a tuft or hair grew on hie tall. He rose up above the
'+4
trees. He was eno rmous. "I should fill the earth," said be, ''wero I to exert my
utmo11t power, and nil there le on the earth would not satis!y me to cat. Neither
could It fatten me or do me good. I should want more. It wore useless, there-
fore, and the gl!t l have, I will bestow on you. The animals shall hencerorth be
your Cood. They were not designed to feeC:. on mnn, neither sho.11 they hereafter
do It, but shall teed him, and he only shall prey on beasts. But you wlll r espect
me, and not eat my kind.

OD·llBWA l'AIRT TALL, •

There was once o. little lfoy, remarkable !or tho smalln,e!ls of bis stature. He
was living alone with his sl!ltor, older than himAelf. They wore orphans; they
lived In a beantlCul spot on the Jake shore; many large rocks were scattered
aroun d their ho.blto.Uon. The boy never g r ew larger as he o.dvo.nced In years.
One dny, In winter, 110 asked his sister to make him a ball to plo.y with along ahore
on tho clear lco. She made one tor him, but cautioned him not to go too tar. Otr
he went In high glee, throwing hie ball oo!ore him, and running a!ter It at !ull
spe~d; and he went as fll.St as he could. At last his ball fiow to o. great distance;
he followed it as fast as he could. After he had run !or some time ho saw !our .
dark 1rnbstances on the Ice straight before him. 'Vhen ho came up to the spot he
was surprised to ace four large, tall men lylng on tho Ice, s11C'arlng fish. When
he went np to them, the n earest looked up and In turn was surprised to see such
a diminutive IJelng, and turning to his brothers, ho said, "Tia! look! see what
a little fellow Is here." After they had all lookC'd a moment, they r esumed
their position, r.overed their heads, intent in searchin~ for fish. The boy thought
to him!lelf, they Imagine me too Insignificant Cor common courtesy, because they
arc tall nntl large; I Ahnll teach them, notwithstanding, tbnt I nm not to be t reated
so lfi;htly. Arter they \\'P.re covered up the boy saw they bad each a large trout
lying beside them. Hn slyly took the one nearest him, and placing his fingers
In the gllls. and tossln!; his ball before him, ran off at Cull speed. When' the
man to whom the fish IJelonged looked up, ho saw his trout ellcllng away as It ot .
itself, nt a ;;reo.t ro.t&-the boy belng so small he was not distinguished from the
fish. Ho addressed his brothers and said, "See how that tiny boy has stolen my fish :
what a shame It Is he should do so." The boy reached home, and tol<l hie sister to
go out and get tho tlah he hnd bro11ght homo. She exclaimed, "Where could you
bavo got lt7 I hope yo,u have not stolen It." "Ob, no," he rc1>lled, "I found It
on the Ice." "How," l)Crslsted the sister, "could you have got It there?" "No
me.ttcr," Ao.Id the boy, "go and cook it." He <lleclaine<l to nnRwnr her again, but
thouiht he would one day Rhow her how to nppredalc him. She went to the
place he le[t It. o.nd there, Indeed, she fo11nd a monstrous tl'out. She did as
she was bid, and coolccd It for that day's ·consumption. Next morning he went
oil' again as at first. When ho came near the largo men. who l111h ctl overy 1lay, he
threw his ball with such force that It roll ed Into the Ice-hole or the man ot whom
he had stolon tho day be!ore. As he happened to ralAe blmselr at the time, the
boy said, "Neejee, pray hand me my ball." ''No, Indeed," answered the man,
"I shall not," and thrust the ball under tho Ice. The boy took J1old or his arm
and brol<o It In two In a moment, and threw him to ono Ride, anf\ picked up his
ball, which had bounde<l back !rom 11ndcr the Ice, and tossed It as 11s11al before
him. Outstripping It In speed, ho got home and remained within till tho next
morning. The man whoso arm he had broken halloocd out to his brothers, and
told them his co.se, and deplored his fate. They hurried to their brother, and as
• (Told by Ml"fl. J ane John11too, afterwards M.-.. 'R.R. SchoolcraC~.)
45

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o. 0111 a:ravcs K. }:'•''' II O llS C. 8. llla c kMnllh ~hop built I~
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46

loud as they could roar threatened vengeance on the morrow, knowing the boy's
speed that they could not overtake blm, and ho was near out o! sight; yet he
~eard their threats and awaited tl.leir coming in perfect lndl1!erence. The four
brothers the next morning prepared to take their revenge. Their oh\ mother
begged them not to go. "Better," said she, "that one only should sutter than that
ail should perish.; for be must I.lo a monedo, or he could not per!orm sucft !eat.i."
But her sons would not listen; and t4king their wounded brother a long. started
tor the boy's lodge, having learnt that he lived at th e pince o! roclrn. The boy's
elater thought she heard the noise or snow-shoes on the crusted snow at-a distance
advancing. She saw the large, to.II men coming straight to their lodge, or rather
cave, !or they Jived In a large rock. She ran in with great fear, and told her
brother the fact. He said, "Why do you mind them? Give me something to eat."
"How can you think of eating at such a time?" she replied. "Do as I request
you, and be quick.'' She then gave him his dish, which was a large mls-qua-tlace
shell, an d he commenced eating. Just then the ruen came to tho door, and were
about lifting the curt41n placed there, when the boy-man turned his dish up-sld&-
down, and Immediately tho door was closed with a stone; the men tri ed hard with
their clubs to cr ack lt; at hmgth they succeeded In making a slight opening. When
one of them peeped in with ono eye, the boy-roan shot his arrow Into his eye
and brain, nod ho dropped down dead. Tho others; not !mowing what bad hap·
pened their brother, did the sam e, and nll Cell In like manner; their c111"ioslty was
so great to see what the boy was nl>out. So tbey all shared the same !ate. After
they were killed the boy-man told his sister to go out and see th em. She opened
the door, but feared they were not dead, and entered back again hastily, and told
h er feara to her brother. He went out and hacked them i n small pieces, saying,
"Henceforth Jet no mnu bo larger than you are now." · So men became or the
present size. When ,eprlng camo on, the boy-man said to llis sister, "Make me
a new set ot arrows and bow." She obeyed, as ho never did anything himself of a
natu~e that requi r ed manual labor. though he provided Cor their sustenance. After
she made th em, 11he again cnutlonecl him not to shoot Into the lake; but regardless
ot all admonition, he. on purpose, shot his arrow into the lake. and waded some
distance till he got Into deep waler, and paddled al>ont tor hie arrow, so as to attract
the attention or his sister. 8he came ·In has lo to the shore, calling him to return,
but Instead oC minding her he called out, '"Ma-mls-quon-je·gun-a, be-110.u-wa,con-
zhe-ehln," tllat ls, "you or tho red On11 come and swallow me." Immediately that
monstrous fi sh came and swallowed h im; and seeing his sister standing on the
ebore In despair, ho h1\llooed out to her, " Me-zush-ke-zln-nnce." She won de red what
ho meant. But on reflection s he tho11~ht it must be an old moclceRln. She accord-
ingly tied the otc\ moc\cesin to a string and Castened It to a tree. The fish said to
the boy-man, un<lor water, "What Is that fioatlng?" The boy-man said to th e fish,
"Go, take hold oC ft, swallow It n11 fast as you can." The fish d:irted towarde the
1lld shoe and swallowed IL The boy-man laug hed In hlmsel!, but !'aid nothing till
the tlsh wa.s fairly caught; be then took hold oC the line and began to pull blmselt
and 1leh to ehore. The eletor, who was watching, was surprised to see e:o lflrge a
fish; and hauling It ashore she took her knlte and commenced cutting It open.
When she beard her brother's voice Inside or the fish saying, ''Make haste and
release me from this naety place,'' his sister was in such haste that she almost hit
his head with her kn!Ce; but succocded In mal<ing nn ope ning large enough ror her
brother to get out. When he was fairly out. ho told his sister to cut up the fish
and dry it, as It would last a long t.lme !or their sustenance, and said to her never,
n ever more to doubt his ability In any way. So ends tho story.
47

TO HOl'B.
{H}· ll1c ll\LC John JCJbn~wu, Esq.)

Hope, deceiver of ruy soul,


Who ·1vlth lures, from day to day,
Hast permitted years to roll,
Almost unprecelvecl away.
Now no longer try thine art,
Fools alone thy power shall own,
Who, with simple, vacant heart,
Dream or bliss to mortals known.
Every efiort bnve I ti::y'd,
All that reason could suggest,
Cruol7 cea.ao then to deride
One by fortune still unbl£>sL
Ahl yet stay, for when thou'1·t gone,
Where shall sorrow lay her head?
Where, but on the chilling stone
Thnt marks the long-forgotten dead.

AUTOBJOORAPHICAJ, LETTERS
or the

LATE JOHN JOHNSTON, BSQ.,

of the Falls o! St. Mary's, Michigan.


Introductory Remnrke by Henry R Schoolcra.!t, 1844.
F~'!" men have connected their names more 'l\'idely or reputably with the red race
o~ Amei:lca than the late John .Johnston, Esq., to whose life the present lines are
devoted. A native of lr~land , l)e ~nme to this country the year nrter the adoption
ot the constitution, a young man, having been brought up In case and amuence,
mt:icetl freely In the polished circles or hls time, and kno·r.. lng nothing ol society or
tho 'l\'Orld, but what be had seen In these. circles or read or !n books. In n spirit ot
honorable adventure he went up Into the region of the great lltkes, engaged In the
alluring and then hnlt ,chlvalrous pursuit of the fur trade; hnt lntendlns; ln a. f.ew
years to .~o back to Me estate, t.b en In the pos!lesslon of hie mother, In Antrim. Wlth
the elasticity .o.f spirits of ble countrymen, an~ the love of novelty, Independence,
: and romance, or which the region In question th.eyt furnish ed stimulants, he pursued
tbls business till he had ai;slmllo.ted his habits .to it. He eaw In It the means of
bonora'l>lq lndependency, without submitting to}.he actual druclgery of the exchanges
and "traffic at the Interior vlllage. His first position was at Chngolmegon, near tbe
southwestern bead or Lake Superior, where he married n dau:;hter of a celebrated
warrior, who was the reigning chteC. He then fixed hie residence at the Falls,
or as It Is commonly called by Americans, the Sault or St. Mary's. In this position
ho exercised that peculiar species ot factorshlp (although be was h imself the
outfitter and not concerne~ .with a company), which Is necc.<1sary to conduct a
department of the Indian tr'n de. F rom his connection with the leading chief, his
frank and honorable denllng, tho reception he always gave the red men, and bis
48

general Intelligence, be exercised a wldo lnnuenco over the nntlve tribes. His
original letters on coming out, and his lrnQwn connection at home, had i:;iven him
a. reput..nble standing in tile high governn1ent and ll11siness circles or Montrenl
and Quebec. His residence st· St. Mary's waR known as the sent of. hospitality.
He bo.d early taught th e roreAt maid, whom he had selected and placed at tho
head o! hie house, the duty ot refined hoaplt.allty-a duty, it may be said, easily
engraftcd on the native stoclc; and as hie children grew up, they soon became
adepts In all the arts and attentions of receiving and entertaining compal!y. The
greateAt pains were taken with their education and manners. He possessed a choice
library or standard En~llsh worlcs. He was n man or taste, and great fondness for
readin g. He amused the deep solitude or his position, during the winters, In thle
way, and sometimes Indulged In composition. rn this manner his bonse became,
In (act, a ecat or refinement In the heart oC the wllderness. And In this position,
with frequent Journeys, local and foreign, be passed the remaining eight and thirty
years oC his lite.
This pel"!od covers a very interesting era in our national history. It embraces
the coming on, proi::;ess, and termination of the war or 1812, In some o! the events
or which he became involved; the survey and settlement ot the boundary llnee
on that wild frontier, extending to north lntltnde 49°, and the Incipient ruove-
menta In our Indian affairs, which have eventuated In large cessions or tenltory
by tho tribes, and the acceptance by most of them or lho plan of a removal and
colonization west of the Mississippi. Mr. Johnston hlm~elf ever felt the deepest
interest lo the fate anrl fortunes or th o race. In plans tor the intr odnctlon o!
education and Christianity amonsst them, and ln their g<:>nernl exaltation ln mind
and mornls, and r e11toratfon to all possible political ri gh ts.
It Is owing to these conslllero.tlons that I have introduced th e present paper,
which will, In the sequel, be precelved to connect ltse!C Intimately with the condl·
tion, character, and lilstory ot the Ojibwas, and of a numerous family of kindred
tribee. My acquaintance with Mr. Johnston commenced In 1822, and was continued
!rom that time to tbe period of bis death. Convinced that his remlnscences ot
ll!e would present subjects oC future ond deep Interest, I frequently solicited bls
undertaking it. but owing chlefiy, I! not entirely, to the plea of 111-health and
chronic pains. he deferred it till his last year, and unfortunately, as It Is thought,
tor this species oC literature, he did not live to complete it. He chose the form
ot lettore, he said, to separate his labor Into distinct portlone, the completion of
one ot which encouraged him to begin another. They are e.ddreeeed to me.

LETTB:R I.
St. Mary's Falls, 14 Jan., 1828•
. My Dilar Slr:-I at length bnve made up rny mind to comply with your request
and that ot my beloved Jane, by throwing together a !ew recollectlonff respecting
my family, and ot my own life; subjecte that could not possibly have any Interest
with the world, and are only suited to the eye or Crlendsblp and or Jove.
As to m y father's !amlly I know nothing but what I have beard In conversation
between my mother and my a un t Nancy Johnston, from whom I learned tha~ mY.
grMt grnndrather John. le!t Scotland ofter the mRssacre of Glencoe under
William the third. He, and I believe bis sister, married Into the bo11ses or Leathes
ot Bury St. Edmunds In Sutrolk, and Musslnden of Hcrrlngfieet Ho.11, In Norfolk.
MY grandfather William possessed an estate In the county of Antrim, held by
lease under the Earl o! Donnegal. and an estate In the county Down, called
Newtonbreda, bordering on t~e estate o! Lord Dungannon, to w hom be sold It as
49
bei ng contiguous .to the demesne o! Belvoir Castle. My eldei:;t uncles, Lenthes, John
nnd Mir:hael, were educated nt the famous school ot Armagh, along with Mr.
Mn.cnrtn ey and Mr. Carleton. The first became nn Enrl. nnd the second Viscount
Dorchester. My gran<lfnther le ft his house or Nowfori;e a1Hl came to r eside In
.Belfnst, for Uie education or his younger chlldren. Having a considerable sum ot
money on hand from the sale or his Newtonbredn estat e, be planned and exocuted
the water works of Belfns t, on the security or a lease ot 41 year 11. The then Lord
Donnegal being Insane, his tutoro could only grant leases, but the next heir pledged
himself and family at a pu blic dinner given by the t own to my grandfather, that the
wo rks should be gr anted in porpetulty as soon ne the circumstances or the family
would admit .or it. But this word or honor, so pu blicly plighted, wo.A afterwards
1_1hamefully broken; and tho reason adduced for It wns that from the lncren.ood
growth an1l Ofllllencc oC th e town, the wate r works gnvo nn lnfinencc nearly equal to
tbat of the lord o ( the soil, though It was nllowed by all that the increaRc, p ro HJler-
lty, an d h ealth o! the placr. was chiefly owing to th e abundant supply oC an arti cle
so essential to health and mnn utacture. My g rnndCnthcr's younger child ren were
s ix, two sonR ancl rour daughters. One of hie claughters marrie1l the Ilev. Wm.
f!au rln, rector or th e tow n, a second married an opulent merchant, whose name
was Johni;on, a third married tbe Rev. Robert Hcyland, rector o! Colo raln, and
t he rourth, my dear aunt Nancy, gave up the pleasures of n fiu;hlonable life to Jive
w ith my mother, when a widow, and assist her with h er lncomo and in ou r educa·
tlon. My uncles lAialhes and John went early to their uncle Loathes. who, ind&
penden t of his estates, hnd n good deal ot Interest trom always representing the
Borough of St. Eclmun1ls Dury In parllo.ment. They both went into the army;
Leathes had soon a company In the guards, and John In n marchi n g regiment;
but their early int roduction into fashionable life had a fat al effect on the rortune
ot .both. !or they soon phrnged Into all the dissipation nncl extravagance or the
period; nnd got so much embarrassed that th ey joined thei r uncl e In cuttin g otr
the enl:til or the estntee, an1l for 25,000 pounds and a n annu ity, to one or 600
ponn1ll', and the other or 200 pounds per annum, sold tbelr r li::h t or Inheritance to
their uncle, who bea11eathed tbe whole to his natural children, who o.re now In
1'Hll posses!c'lon of both eat.ates. My uncle Michael had a chaplaincy in the army,
nnd d ied of consumption. l.cath es married the daugther of t he late Sir Benjami n
Bloomfield, and had a family of four sons and o. daughter; he then went out t o
India, where he died n. lieutenant colonel. John, after losing th ree or tour com·
mission!!, 1liell at Inst a lieutenant colonel of marines, Instead or being an old
lieutenant general. I have n ever seen nny of my 1111cle Le.nth es' children, I only
know that hli: eldest son William is now a lieu tenant general or engineers, re·
aiding at College Green, Bris tol, after having spent many years i n the West Indies.
The two youngest i;ons or my grandfather, W illi am and M ussl nden, chose the navy
no<l nnny for their professions. They made a tour Into Scotland, where my uncle
Mueslnden raised a company In the neighborhood or Glencoe in a few weeks.
They then visltecl. Edinburgh, nnd were severally presented with the !reed om
ot tile city. I remember the beautl!ul ll111mlnated vellum, with large g reen wax
seals appended, which my !listers cut up to malce patterns for working bobbin
Ince when we wero children. William was a midshipman at the talclng or Louis-
burgh, I think, in 1759. As soon as pence wnR proclaimed he Q.ult the navy, and was
appointed surveyor or Po rt Rush, In the north ot lremnd. The family were all
grown up o.ncl dispersed when my grand!atbcr was made collector of Colerain.
He had lost bis first wUe tor some years, and being tired of living alone made
to
a. vis it Liverpool, where be married a w idow lady of 11lgh connections, but
before embarking !or Ireland be had ·to pay 800 pounds sterling, for debts ahe had
50

tormerly contracted. I believe he only ll\'ed two or three years attar hi~ second
marriage. About this time roy tathor married Eliza.beth, the ~ldest daughter of
John McNell, EsQ., ot Coulreshkan, lo English, Wheatland. He got as a marriage
partlon the reversion or the quarter land or Craige, less than three mUes from
the Giant's causeway, a beautl!ul situation o.nd' tine land, which did not come Into
my mother's poef:leeslon till the expiration ot twenty years after signing the mar-
riage articles. I was born the 25th of August, 1762, and was sent to school ln
Colerain In my seventh year. When I left home my Cather ·was on his death bed,
he had been much amlcted with dyepepllla, for. which his Crlend and physician,
a Doctor Stephenson of Colerain, had administered mercury without lntormnlc
him of It. He had been on a visit to a friend beyond the river Bush, and on r~
turning In the evening round the tide In, and rather than go two miles !artber up
to a bridge, he swam his horse over, and caught a cold which Immediately Cell upon
hio Iuru~s. and In less than three months carried him to an untimely grave In his
43d year, to the Irreparable loss ot his family, and regret ot all who knew him.
My mother was le!t a widow with two eons and three daughters. Jane was the
oldest, I was the next, Ellza, yet llvln1>, the third, William th e fourth, and Charlotte.
the youngest and most beautiful, but the earliest In her graye, b eing carrie<\
ot't by the smallpox In her seventh year. I could long dwell on her sweetness of
temper: her early piety, her beauty and her graee, and above all her dl11tlngulahed
loYe Cor me, but the subject ho.a ever been too painful ror me. And now my dear
slr, having given you nearly all the knowledge I pos~ess r especting my !nmll:r, I
shall conclude this hasty sketch by promising that wben onot.her scribbling ftt
comes on I shall again renew tho eubject, though I feel It will become more
Irksome to me as my picture gradually fills the foreground.
Ever a.11'.ectionately yours,
JOHN JOHNSTON.

LEJTTER II.
St. Mnry's I•'alls, 1!) Jnn., 1828.
My Dear Slr:-ln compliance with my prom ise, I resumo the subject of D'IY
"Simple Annal!l." My mother's Income was much clrcumecrlbed by the death of
my father, so much so, that ehe was obliged to withdraw me from school In my
tenth year. Instead of having a handsome Income Crom three·lourthll ot the
water works, which devolved on l1or and my aunt Nancy, sur.h had been the mis·
man11gement, not to give It a harsher name, of the Rev. Robert Heylancl, who had
a fourth or the Income, by his wile, that several sums were demnnded o! my
mothe r and aunt, said t.o be expended In repairs over and above the rent.al, which
was moro than iOO poundA sterllng a year. On my return from 11cbool I was
exnmlned by my a unt, who found that I neither knew Lntln or gngllsh i:ram·
matically, and could scarcely write my name; so much tor an Irish Latin school;
and that too kept by an Eplecopallan c1ersyman! My aunt Immediately set me
on I\ i:o11rse ot English grau1mar, and or reading ancient and modern history. I
had a kind ot tutor also for writing o.nd arithmetic. To conquer the ldlo habits
I had acquired tor three years we.a no Cll.8y task, amt perhaps no other person
could have lndur.ed me to applkntlon, or hn.ve given me n taste for rnacllng but
my aunt, whose gentle and polished manners gained ber alike onr love and our
r espect. My dear mother's household cares gave her little time to attend to ua
untH after tea, when she, my aunt, and sisters sat down to work, and I read with
them tor two or three hours, ·which would ha-xe been very tiresome, but for Inter-
vals lil which my mother an d aunt pointed out the beauties oc particular paeeagea,
51
and the virtues and vices or the dlfrerent chnractera which history preAentecl to
us, and the consequ,.nt cffc<'t on their Jives nncl fortunes. Dut the British classics
nud our best drnmntists were to our young and just exiinndlng nlinds u 1>ource oC
the purest delight. Thia r;tnte of Innocent e njoyment and consequent hnppiuoss,
continued, with little Intermission, for flve years, until I began to fan cy myselt
a man, and that l ought to break through tho trn.m1n el11 ot female Influence nnd
control. Thege ideas were much strengthened by the conversation of servants and
the country people In our neighborhood, who, as o.11 the lower class or Irish ever
have been, are the most cunning and fulsome flatterers In tho worlcl. I now
betook myself to coursing with greyhounds, shooting, f\ abi og, etc., Instead or taking
the a1lvanlage Cifiered m e by the Rev. Robert Sturn ck, o! studying, at his Academy
or White Park, within one rnllo of my moU1er'e house, where he Instructed some
or the first gentlemen's sons of the kingdom; among whom were my two friends
and neighbors, Edmund nnd Francis McNaughton; the eldest now n Lord ot tho
·Treasury, and member or Parliament tor the county or Antrim; the second Sir
Francia, at present ChleC Justice ot Calcutta; the Hon. Robert Stuart, afterwards
too well known as Lord Castlereagh; Jam~s Alexander, nephew to the Earl or
Caldon, and now an India Director and member or Parliament, with many more,
~·hose suhsequent history I am but little acquainted with. All the auvantagea or
s'uch society, and the lnstrucions of a man or exemplary piety, lenrnlni::. and the
most polii;hed manners, who was on terms or fri endship and good neighborhood
with my mother and aunt, I foolishly abandoned tor the pursuit ot field sports and
still more debasing grntlflcat.lons. In my sovonteenth year I was sent t.o Belrnst
to talte charge of the water works, and for 11ome time attended at.eadlly to my
business, by which means I raised the value or the property considerably; but I
hacl still a great deal of idle time on my hands, anu having 1;ufficle11t means or
Indulging myself, I squandered m y time and money In vanity and dissipation,·
with no other saving quality but a detestation or low and vnli::ar company, Into
which I ~·as n ever led but once or twice, and for which I paid clearly uoth In
purse and pence or mind.
Jn the miclst o( all my folly and extravagance I still retained a love of reading.
But unfortunately I ha<l no g11i1le or Instructor to make a proper i;electlon for me.
so that the trni:;h of a circulating library waA read over with very Iii.tie tas te or
dlscrlmlnnt!on, and wits therefore a mere sacrifice or time. I as yet lmew nothing
or politics, and 11ad been only t nught that loyalty to my king waR uhsol utt>IY neces-
sary to every gentleman. My ideas o! love of count ry wero vague. I thought
obedience to the laws, nnd respect for th e constitution, constituted all the duties ot
a patriot. I was too blind and Ignorant to perceive that my coun t ry, properly
speaking, had no r.onstitutlon; and that the laws forced u po n h er by another
state were unjust and oppressive, and studiously calculated to repress twe ry errort
at Improvement or lnuependence. I s eldom or ever recollect da tes, hut believe
volunteering was nt lte h eight about 1783 or 4; but I n ever would join nny of th elr
con>~, being posseRsed with t he Idea that they wore on the eve of r ehelllon, when
only temperately, but firmly, demanding th e ir just ancl natural righlfl, so long
wlthhnld by an Ignorant, selflsh, and jealous government. The C".Ol'JlOration o!
BelCnst now fixed their eyes on the water worlc i:; ns a means o! greatly increasing
tbclr wealth and Influence: nod had art aou addreRa sufficient to induce t.he weak
and unprinclp.led Earl of Donnegal to break tbe. promii;e of bls ancestor, to grant
the property In perpetui ty to my family. It la true the first lease wns renewed
when still there were ten or fifteen years u n expi red, but the second was now drav.·-
!ng to a close, and I took advantage of his lordship's being on a ·visit to hie Irish
estates to solicit the fulfillment of his promise, or at least a renew ..! of the leaee.
52
But ns I could not succeed, troru tho r eason~ alrea1ly mculloncd, I matle up my
mind not to rcmlu t\ burden on my family, but to go !\broad ns soou aR I , could
procu\'e sufficient menns. In the inlerim I sent. out my deal' urothc r William to
Now York, where he l>oun<l himself ap1>rentice to a mercbnnt of the nnme oC
Henry, who in two or three yel\rR failed, but was 110 pleased with him as to give
him up bis lndentun\S. He then went into company with a Mr. Samuel Hill,
broU1er to U1e Rev. Charles Hill, or Ballycnslle. my particular frlencl. They did
bui;inlJSS for some Lim" at N ew York, ancl then removed to Albany, where Mr. Hill
married. As to mysctr, I continued my Jdl o 11nd clehauchcd life for several years,
until tho lease ot the water worlcs · was within four or five years or expiring,
.w hoo, finding that all my efforts to obtain justice from Lord Donnegal were un·
availing, I, by tho consent or a.II the parties concerned. raised 400 pounds on the
romnl ndo r oC tho lense from Mr. Alexander, hlR lorclsbip'a ngent ro1· the Delrast,
gtvlng up the property as security; the remaining avail to be accounted for to my
f amily, which by tho way, wns never done, and then prepared to leave the scene
ot my follies and misfortunes. In 1769 J.,ord Macartney came to visit his castle
at Llsanore, within 14 miles or my mother'a residence, where I wn.ited on him with
a letter or lotrod11cton from my nunt. Ho rcccivecl mo with g reat. kindness, and
after stating to him my dl1.1a1>polntments at home, I mentioned m)' wish to go
to India, from whence he had recen tly returned, and where ot course his In terest
chiefly Jay. He toolt me into his library and showQd mo n list of :!II persons he wns
bound to provirlo for, condl!i"Cen<lingly nddln:;. he hnd not nd v11 11c11rl ilimselC In
the world without being under oblii;nllons to runn y frii!nds , who~e scrvlc<'S It
was his first duty to r epny; he however i:ald it I wns 1leterminl'1I to go to Indln
in preference to any whore else he would, du ring the winter. do everything ho
could to forward my wishes. He further remarked thal 'l\'e hcar1l n i;rent <lea\ or
those who caruo from India with fort\lnes, bill not a word o( tho hnndrNls who
!ell victims to tho cl!mate, an<l the exc<1sAes Into which young mun we re 1111\>le to
be led In Ruch a voluptuous count ry. I then propm1ed to go to Cnnn1Ja, in cni;e or
procuring letters to Lord Dorchester, the the n Gov<'rnor Gencrnl. To th Is he i n
the moat friendly manner assented. an<l said, though he himself was nol on terms or
lnt!m ney with Loni D .. his trleuds were. and thut I sliould write to him when
nearly ready to set out, when he would forward me letters from Lord Liverpool
and Mr. Brook Watson, two or Lord D's best !rlen rls. whose recommendations
would have the (treatest weight with him. Accor<lingly in spring, as soon M
my a.ffalrs were al\ arranged, I wrote to his lordi;hlp, who In a post or t"·o i;ent
me tho promised Jotters, accompanied with o ne from himself cou tnlnlng the most
friendly advice and good wishes. And now lhl\t I have brought my hrlef Rn<I little
e vent!ul histo r y to th<> eve oC that step on which my subsequent t'orlnnc i:;o entlrnly
hinged, I shall lay down my pen and glvo you a little reprieve Crom the tedium
ot a recital so little Jnteroatlng oven to o. partial ear.
Dcllevo me ever truly yo11 r 11,
J OHN JOHr-<STON.

I.ETTER II I.
St. Mnry's T>'allfl. 2G F eh .. 1!l21l.
My Dear Slr: -111 h ealth, ln1lohmco, nn1l tho p11rsult or f11le :u1111senH' nts, which
only end In vanity and vexation of !;pirlt, have 1llvP.rle rl my nltt' nlf•>n from writing
t.or some time pa.'I~. B ut I now resum e tho subject with the hope ot pursuing It
with more steadiness and perseverance than I have bilher to dono. T had mnny
acquaintances 1.n Belfast and the neighboring couotieft, whlcb, whllo we are linked
53
ln the pursuit or pleasures, we a re a pt to call friends, but the moment a chaugo
takes place In o nr ci re:umsta nces, t h"l Ill usion vnnlahes, and as if tonch(.'ld by 'the
spear o! Ithurlal, th ey aoon s t ar t up ln th eir 11roper form , and t h o chain ot con-
nection is broken fore ver. Howeve r, I h a d tho consolation ot two pnrl.lc11la r ex-
ceptlons, ln my excellent a n d ever esteemed friends, Doctor McDonald and
Narcissus Batt, over who m t he lapse an d chanf;O oC c ircumstances have hnd no
other elicct t h an to prove t!Jat t r ue hono r a nd worth, such ni:1 theirs, a ro Immutable.
In the latter end o! JunP., 1790, I em barked on board the Clara, Captain Co111ns,
tor N ew York. We werc·detnlned for ,;evernl hours oIT Carlck!ergns in the middle
ot the ni ght, by a na va l officer a nd boat's crew, who took pORResslon o! the ah'lp,
and ma<lo a strict i>earch to r British seamen; though then at peace with the
United Stntes. I represented lo the office r the crnelly nnd injustice o! cleln!ni ui;
an outwitrd bound vessel w ith a !air wind, es pecially 118 U1e captain assured h im
that there was not a m an or the description h e sought fo r on board; hut w h en I
snw he was determined t o d etain the ship a ll ni ght, I addressed a letter to the
Marquis or Downehlre, t o whom I had t he h onor of being par ticularly lmown,
stating the clrcumRtances. I r eacl the letter pu blicly, nnd prepared to seud it by n
gentleman just going a i<hore, but shortly after, "the man o! brief a11thor lty," gave
up the ehlp to t he ca ptain, an d having ea ten a snack and drunk a p int of balr atid
half grog; h e civilly bade us good night a nd n safe passage. I h ad never been a t
11ea before, though bred up on the coast, which caueeo me to surrer more from
seasickness than some ot my fellow p assengers. I Jay clown on the floor or the
round hom1e, from whence n o Induce men t could tempt me to stir !or nearly two
days; at the explrnt lon o! which I fou nd my11el! perfectly well, and ns hungr y a s
a hawk. I got a beefstealt and some porter, and never felt seru:llclmeRs aCte r.
We were four who m essed together In tbe rou nd house with the cnplaln, the Rev.
Charles Gray or Coleralne ; the R ev. Robert Cnthr.nrt, an ol<l friend and uelgh bor,
ancl a Mr. Mathews !rom Eclinbu r gh. We fa r ed as well as people at sea could pos-
sibly wish, and h11d such a n abun dance of wine, por ter and spirits, t hat I was
enabled t o be:>tow a large hnmpor o! wine, spruce, beer, oranges and lemons, sent
on boa rd for m e by my friend Mr. Batt, amo ngst the pas2cngers In the hold, severa l
o! whom were s lclc. Onr far e wa s only ten guin eas each, though since r isen to
forty; such has been th e ad vance In Jiving with in the last thirty years! We had
a favorable passage until w~i arrived o !I'. the Azores, wl1ere we wore cl1ased by a
sixty gun ahlp, which having hoisted Spanish and then French colors, lortuced the
captain to believe was one of the ships of w1\r presented to the Alge r lnce by
France. He altererl his course and p u t before the wind, t h e ship repeatedly
flrlni< at na; but out vel!Rel being a p r ime sailer, and light, we soon increased our
distance, and th e n ext morning, when scar cely visible, she a ltered h er cour11e
anll ~ve up t he chase. T he second or third day after, when crosRlng the Gui!
stream, we were overt aken hy a b eavy gale, which raised a t r emendous l'f'R. In
the nigh t our r.ab in w indows were s tove In; we had two or tbree teet of water
In the floor; trnnks a nd boxefl broke from the ir cleatlngs; the poor people In the
und P.r bert.lrn were n.11 a fl oat, a nd snch a scene of terror and· confu!lion toolc p lace
al'! l sl1all never forget. Som e were p raying al on rl, others con fessi n g t.helr slnfl,
others screaming from fear a n d pain. wlll lst escaping from dro~:nlng In thei r
berths; and nt ever y r oll o! the s}Jlp [lash ed Into contact with trunks, clleRts n nd
boxes. Amon,::Rt t h e latter suffer ers was n Mrs. Lindsey, the wife of a clergyman
from th e Hi,::hlnn ds or Scotl ancl. Whilst s prawling on the floor she was struck
In the heacl by a n Iran bound t runk, which laid It open for about three Inch es.
When candles came down; tbe dead lights Jn.abed In, the scene exhibited such a
mixture o! !rlgbttul and ludicro us as talrly surpassed description; poor Mrs.
54

Lindsey, who at bcHt might ho.vo passed ro r one or tho witches !u Mo.chcth, now
looked n pe1·fcct Hecnle; her runttctl loclcs drippln i; with gorA,_ nntl her vu lgar
unm ei.ning counteunn co dlstor tetl Into n most un earthly grin. No one vlt lod her
or her fanatic husband. He had rondo hlnu;elf pnrticulnrly obnoxious to me trom
bis language to tho cnp tnin when chased hy the Algerlne. He told him it was an
act of cowardi ce to run away from any vessel whilst we wcrn all Engllsbmen;
wit!: a great clenl more or tho moat illlbcrnl and vuli:tar nbuf!e. The captain mildly
RllflWcl'ecl that bo COUid npJJeul to nJO!ll o! his men, who hilt\ :;ailed With h i m WUen
commanding a prlvo.teer during the revolutionary wo.r, wheth P.r he ho.cl ever
evlncccl any signs of cowardice whP.n In conflict with tho enemy. Dut now, as
accoun tabl e to hie owners !or the ship, and to the paR:;cui;cr s for their snrcty, be
only p er!ormed hl11 cluty uy nvo ldl n i;- clnnge r, even 8\l!>JIO!llng tbe ves~el wnn not
whnt we supposed her to be. I had at lensth to interfere, and sent the very Rev.
Mr. Lindsey to his cnhl n rather 1>recl pltatcly.
Nothi ng furth er occ urred worth noting un til we gol In sic;ht or Long Island,
which, a.R we approached, th e trees i;eemed to stnrt ono Rftc r nnothe r Crom the
wnter, o.nd the r.cenory every ins tnnt c\eveloped new nnd interes tin g ben11tle11; but
ou rounding Governor's Island, when the C'lty, like n sple ndid amvhithj!nler, burst
u pon the view, I was absolutely trnnspnrterl with pleasure anti del!i;hl. We
co.me to our moorlnss aftP.r sunset, and I sle11t on board thnt T mi1;ht put my root
on American ground the day of my birth; having just n.ttnlncc\ my 28th year. And
as this begins a now epoch In my existence, I shall h ero conclude t he atory of my
voyage.
Remaining ever truly and affectionately yours,
JORN JOHNSTON.

LETTER IV.
SL. Mnl')' '11 Fnll, l,.:L l\fnrch, 1828.
My Dear Rir: -The first thi ng that struck me on entering New York wns lbe
lcln<lncss nnd url.Jn.nlty ot the 1>eo1>lo. I hnd asked my three fellow pas ~enge1·s to
brealct'ast with me, o.nd entered Into the first coffee hou110 we saw. The poo1>le
told me t hey were not in the J1nblt o( providing meal11 ror tbose wllo co.lied nt their
house, bnt as wo were strani;erR, they would give us the best urcnkfast they
.:ould; nccorcllngly we hacl rrcs h rolls, excellent butter, rresh eggs, cr<'alll, ten.
coffee, smolceu beer and lrnm, for nuout one sbll\lng sterlin g each, which I tho11ght
d\lgured woll for our ~11ture comfort willl11t In the C'o11ntry. l Lhen went a nd cnlled
upon Mrs. Sadler, In Watf!r strent, who wns a rllstant co nnection of my mothor's.
I found hnr n.nrl Mr. Sneller hlm netr, kind, friendly, anti hospita.IJle. They Ins isted
_on my r cslllln.v; with them whils t I remain ed in town. Mr. Sn<llcr th1Jn took me to
Hill and Johni;ton'R Rtore, anrl I i;oo n fouutl mysetr In the arms ot tho best o.nd
moRt arrectionAte of hrolheri<. I pn1<scd n ,very happy week in New York. n11rl snw
In chur ch the grent nnrl i;ootl Washlnp.ton. to whom 1 i;hould hnvo had tho hono1·
of being lntrochtct"d, had I been nl>le to mntce a longl'r 11lay; hnt my pA.ssni:te wnR
takfln for J\lb:iny In a flnc !:loor. C'al!Pcl lite Hiht"rnin, Cnp to.in Moor. whom for
tho first time ( i:;nw my nat.lonnl fin~ cllll plnyed In nil It.A bC'trnly. We hncl n de·
ll~hl(U) ll/\8'-':\~e Of lhl'Ct'l days, lho11gh \\'C Hopppcl l'Cl'C"lll"tlly to p11t llFlhOrC paR·
sen~ars ar;cl tnke in others. The romanti c l>eauti<'s or the Hnrl!'nn have hern so
often and ahly cJe!;r.rlbecl, that any attempt 011 my part would l;le nbsol11te presump-
tion. Amongst my fallow Jlad sen~crs were s everal r;cntccl wi::ll-bred ladles. The
men ,.;rere plain, !rlendly, and unnrrccted, o.nd I !o11n<l' n very agreeable comp:1nlon
5 5
Jn a Mr. Nollie. who \\·ai; going to v isit a n estale hii> fot hl'r hall lately bought nc:-11.r
Johns town, In t he r.cn t er oC t bc stale o r Ne w York.
'Ve put up nt L ewis 's H ot el, thcu th o first in All.iany; whe r e wo spent fo ur
or fin1 <lays very pleasantly. I one d ny took a s troll for nlto u l a mile uv the hlll
from Mr. Lewla's, and E.<aW five 0 1· i;Ix me n , nil armed wllh ri fles, dnsh out of tile
wood to ow left. I was a t 1\rnt n l!tlls startl ed a t cbeir 1111co11th appearance, but
they a ccosted me c ivilly, a nd snl<l th ey p r esumed I was n lll rnnger. f rom my walk·
Ing unarmed so fa r from tho city. T hey to ld m e t b ey wore In pursuit of ·a paclc
of wolves th a t bnd attacked n gen tl cmnn on hor sel>a cl<, tho dny l>efo re, on the vory
p lace wher e we now stood ; when noth ing bu t lhe power and spcecl of his ho·r ae
saved h im. 'I'hc h orse was cut tn i;evcrnl p laces, and tho gcotlcmnn's boots nearly
to r n off his legs-you ma y t h lnlt I was ver y Ulanlcful fo r t he wa rn lns. My In·
formn.nts entered t ho woo1J on th o o ppos lto side or tho rnnc:I, nnd I d id not p unme
my wn l)( any farther In thn t d irectio n. i got acqu n ln tocl wi t h a Ml'. Becllent ot
Boi:ton, who was on bis w:iy t o Mon t.re a l, a s we ll ns myf'olf; w o th e1·e Cc> re 11ired
R WA gon between uf!, th e re bC' lng no other rnodP. o r convcrence. We t ravele>d
through n fin e but onl y partllllly c11ltlvntell coun try, until we ca ru e> ro S11ratogn,
wh ere th e s eer. cry wos dark nn<I glnom )', a n d the roads IDlllll lntl)lernhly bad, being
mn.de or r ound logs laid b e11ldu cnch othe r. ror ml o r, causcwnys oflen for m!IPS.
'rhr.11e r onds I was Informed werCt made by Gen era l Durgoync In h is 111-condurtP,d.
a n d con !'equenlly lll·fnted oxpodlllon. I l'nw t he height on whi ch the gallant
Fra.7.e r f ell, an d went over par t of th e ba t tlegrou nd with painf ul ancl bumlllat!!d
fe ollni;s, which I wa s obllgecl t o conceal. a.e no one would J1nv o sy m1in.thlzed w ith
m e. How cl lffc re nt are mr p rr.11e nt lden.<i on the RubJe<'l, wh en p r hlo nnd pr ejudice
no lon.i:;er hll n<l m y CY<'!::. n11 11 I cn.n trncc tlJe hand of Omnipotence, onmlug th e
efforts of trrnnnl c power tn i;tranr.Jc the lnian t Hercules, who Is de!ltlned to give
Jaw lo th e western worlcl ! I do n ot now r ecollect whether we 1>kpt more than one
ni ght on th e roa d f rom .'\l hnny to F or t FMwnr<l , bu t WI! n r r lvccl late In the CVE' nl n g,
an d Mr. Dedient lmmecl!a t <?l y h lr l! d n bnltean t o tnl<e 11R d own J.nlw Georgo earl y
In tho mnrnln g. which clt'pr!ved mo rrom v is it.Ing th e ru ins of th o fort. The pn.11·
i;:age down t h(\ !ale e wnii b<>aurlrlll, nn cl th e 1wt'ne ry romantic In th e hl ghPst <lesree.
W o i;torned a t Lhe o nly house then on the bor der or the Ink"; I think tho pla ce
was C'allecl Ra ttlei>nake Poinl. There 1 i;aw a hunter ror tho firi;t lime. His
t'Os tnme wn.!l i:o 1lil'ferenl Crom :inythlng l ha d h itherto 1><>e11, that l conceived h im
t o he an l n<l i:\11, hut on ac-costln~ him fo11nrl he snoke i:oocl Jl:ni:;llsh. H e told me
h o hncJ b<'P.n i n th c wootls t hree mo nthR, a ncl ha ll not hrf'n nR s11C"l"C!\~f11l n.'I 11~11 al:
h e h:icl t wo or l.11 rt'e <l o~s w ith him, the m er ci;t skelrtC'n11 I ever h<>helcl. Ho to ld
me that in n fortni gh t h c wo n lcl m nlrn t h em quite f n.t, by rce1li n s th em on rattle·
s nnlcei-:, for whlr.h 1111rpose h e h n!l come lo tl1e la l((', wh !'r c t he y were nlrnn dnnt;
ns nl i:o to r e freRh hi mself. Cooper 's desc rlpt.i on of Ll'at.h<> r StoC'kln s hnR repentedly
call ed this m:m to m y mind .
In U1e e v~n l ng we pas!'ed the r ock call e<I R oi;t>r's L<>nr. which C'ertnlnly wn!I a
f ea t o! activity fr:w men wo11 1t1 he <>q11;i.I lo. unl<'sR nur!;uecl R!; he wn!I hy nn
uo rcle>nting foe. wh k h r e<111ce<I ll to n m<>rc malter of ""1ll'rh or n othing." with h im.
' Ve pa!=:o;ctl th!! 1:11lns of 'flcontlf' rogn In the night, nn!l !;l!•pt 11l on Inn, tho lower
sto r y of whirh wns ll te rally wnnhed oy t ho:> waters or l.nlte Ch:implain; hero we
were ohllgecl l o Hpend a 1l ny hnforn we ro11!(1 JH'OC'llr!' n J.ont tn c-on\'CY HR down to
St. Joh ns a l 1'ts northc r.n exlrt>mlty. \ \· e pa!\~<'d the flrst nl.i:;h t at a hl:1cJc!;1nllh
nnd farm'i!r'P. '!vh erc w e ha c'I eve r yth ing clran a ncl romrnrt11hlc. the contra"t h<>t wecn
th eir mode of Jlv ing :ind the l.Jel ngP we call i nr mer s In the north of Trclancl w a.1;
po.ln! u lly atrl lcing. The !;eco nd ni gh t w e pa ssed at n J11d go McNeal<'"!I. w ho I
round was a closcendnn t of the McNonles ot Cloghe r, near Bush Mills, and Gia nt's
56

Causeway; the eHtate when I leCt home, was possessed by Sir Wlllil•m Duncan,
!Rte or Calcutta lu India.
W e arrived at St. Johns in the night, the commandant had gone to bed, and I
was obliged to wait more thnu 1111 bour in the guard house before I got liberty to
seek 11.u Inn. In the morning I met Lieut. Boyd of Clnre near Bnllycnatle, in the
north of Irehtnd, an old acqualntnnce nnd neighbor with whom l spent the day.
l took a cnlnsh from St. Johns to Laprairie, and then hired a canoe and man
to tnke me over to Montreal. The fellow lOOk me to a small Island al>out a mile
above t he town, where he landed and went into the wood. I waited in the canoe
for near an hour, and then went In Rearch of him. I found him skulking In the
wood. There was sometl1lng so sl nlnter l o bis loolcs, that I begun to anspect blm
of n design to rol> me. I made him come to the canoe and eml>ark, swearing that
1! he did not talce me to the mnlnlnnd I would spilt him to the t eeth with my
paddle. When we got opposite the windmill above tho town, I mncle him land
and sho ulder my portmanteau, and thus marched hltn before me Into town. l
was directed to O'Sullivan's coffco house, where I toolc UJ> my abode, intending
to rest a few days \)efors I proceecled. to Quel>ec; chiefly thnt I might get ornr the
effect or the mosquito bites, l>y which I was absolutely deformed nnll feverish.
I had brought over with me a Cew guineas of the latest r.oinitge, o;e of which [
gave to Mr. O'Sullivan to get chnnsecl, nn<I. had a ht~arty la11gtb at hie lgnoranre
and lmpe1·tinence, when he tu1·ncrl It 111 his ftngen1, and wltb a loolc half wise,
hat! cunning enlcl, '"It Is a very J)rotty counter." I tole! him to go and i;:et it
weighed, nncl on hie return h o was Cull as servile as b('torn ho had l>een insolent.
Tho n ext evening- I met In the corrce room my old a1·quaiotlrnce and friend, Mr.
An1l rew Toil. He waa now :i. p11rLnP.r In the houst.' ot Tod, M1lgill & Co.; hie
ttnt·le Ii;aae being one of tho first merchants in Montreal since the conquest in
17fi0. To him I Imparted my object in going to Quebec; he with great capclor
and trien1Jsh\p pointed out tho chances against my Rttcceedlng with Lord
Dorr.hcst'.!r, and atlviRed me, if nothing satlsfnctory was done for me, to return
to Montreal nn1l pass the wlnt<'r, and in the spring T shonld nccompnny him to
lltlrhili macldnac, where a fair field wns open to adventures In the Indian trnde, to
which proposltlon 1 gave my asaent. And now, my dear air, bavin:; arrived at a
new resting place, "shall I oot t.eke mine ease in mine Inn," onl y promising to
take up tho th read ot my narrtltive as soon as you express a. desire to he.a r turther
Crom,
Your · ever a!fectlonate,
JOHN JOHNSTON.

LETTER V.

St. Mary's Falls, April 28, 1828.


· M.y Dear Slr:-Though It rcq11lre11 llltle, If nny, m ental el?ort to contlnne a
story such as mine, yet I have tound elclrness an ettectnal preventive to the leaRt
O'Xertlon for more than Rix weeks paot. But as I flntl myself relieved !rom lnte:ise
·pain, I once more talce up rny pon to mention. that arter spcntll n~ a wrek In
Montreal, I took a place with the k lng·s courier In a cnlash tor Qu<'bec. We
traveled <lay an1l nl"ht, so that I never put of\' my <:lothr.s, nor got a mnmc 11 t•s rest,
except whilst changing our volturc, or when m~· companion d"layr.11 hntr nn hour
to lay in a stoclc or bacon and cgi;i;, or so me such delicate faro. sufli r.ient one would
hnve thought, to sustain a rea!'lonnl>le mon for a weel<. Dnt my frlencl Moni:1leur
Labo.die weigh ed nearly 300 pounds nu1l was <leterminccl that ne ither had ron<lR nor
the nio st jolting vehicle In the world, should caueo tho lea!lt dlmloutloo of his
57
en bo11 p ui 11t . paid t wo gulnc;\t' fo r my sral, nnd hnd the honol' hcsicl<'s ot treatlug
Mr. Labadi e to all his slight repa sts. We arrive>d th e third day, nntl nt Frnnks' Hotel
I soon got O\'e r my fati gue and p rivations. I wns n ot sorry lo lluil that Lord
Dorchester wns yet at hie country bou1<e, n.s It onnbled me lo ramble over the town,
tile plalne of Abraham, etc., etc. l hod never before betm In n ro rtlfi ell town, unles;s
t he old crumbling rnmparts o r Londonderry couid ent!tlo it to the name. I, there-
fore, took grent pleasu r e In strolling on the wa lls nncl enjoying the variety or pros-
.Peet presented from them; however, my entire Ignorance or garrison duty Jed me
Into a scrapo Jucllcrons enough, thou~h It ended pleasantly. In p11rs11l11i; my wn lk
one day along th e ra mpart, I met the first sen ti nol, who call eel ou t to mo lo stop
and .return if I bad no t a pnsl.I. Thlnkini; the fel low only w:1ntc<l to extrnct somo
money from me, I continued to nppronch, when he l.Jrou i;ht h iR m11sltct to tho
,charge, and swore he mu Rt 110 hie duty. Scclni; the poor mnn wns In earnest nn<I
apparently ni.;ltatcd, I return ed, nnd ae evening wns near, I returned to my IOcll'lugs.
The nP.xt morning, l.Jefore my uRnnl hour or rising, Mr. F'rnnl< R 1.:n111e rather al.Jrnptly
into my room to inform me thnt tbe town mnjor waR helow inq11irlag for m e. nnd
to bring me with him to Col. England, the commaudant. · 1 h:ulc Mr. FrankR t oll
.the major t hat IC he would Cl\11 In n couplo or hours, when I s honltl ha,'e dressed
and breakCaRted, I should, with pleasure, accompany hi m. Shortly nfter Mr. Franks
entered again, and very ser lonRly Infor mer\ me, I was talc en for n epy; bnt l\R he
had formed n good opinion oC me: It I wished t o e\'nde examination
he would C:lcllltate my csenpe. I told him I was much ohlh~ed to him for hiR
proffered frlen<lship, but could not think o( slirrin~ until 1 hnd ,::ot my h r l'al;tai;t
and Men tho town major. Ho stared at me, nntl Raid he hellevP<i l was somethlni;
more than I appeared to be. l le(l him to rnj oy his sai.;o 1·onjert11 re. an <l went
down to bren.ltfai;t. Tho mo.jo r wnr. pnnctnnl to his hou r , nn il I went ·n long with him
t o Col. Englund. lily nffnlr wns i;oon cleared np, anr\ the 1~o lon c l nRked me to brenlc·
tnst th e u cxl morning, nnc! prc!lented m<J with a p;tper, 11llowing 1111~ to visit f.hc
works at th~ proper hours, and nny company I <'hose to takf' with me; which nro~o
troru my havlni:; mentione<l thnl some p<'opli- from J\lontr!'nl, with 'l\'hom I had i-:ot
e.cquaiate<l nt lhe hotel, 'l\'ishe<l to visit Cape Diamond.
I had got ncqnaintcd with Mr. Molz, Lord D.'s private S('Cret nry, to whom I i;avo
my lett('rs. l n a few daya aCtcr, hie lordship came t o town, whr11 I h11o<l the hon or
of being introd11<'e<l, a nd was rccelverl In a very kind and friendly manner; bu t, as
Provl<lence would have It, General Sir Alured Clnrk now arrived with the commls·
slon or Governor General, nnd with letlers of recall tor his lonlshlp; however, he
declileil not to risk Lady Dorchester and the family at so late n season , thereCore
·c ontlnncd In office during the winter. His lordship contin ued ve ry Jdnd a.n<l
hospitab le to me, and questio ned me ns to tho fn te of 11nclM who had benn his
schoolfellows. He introdnr.cd 'ms to th e chlc! merrhants of th e to wn, aud "''ishcil
me to write my i<lea!l on th e pmclicabillty of opening a cllrcet trncle with Ire}an1l.
In two or three <lays roy memoir was finished, and he agaiu lnvltc<l me along " ·llh
t he gentlemen roncerned, to <line at the castle, when the areal\' wai; fully rlli;cussl'tL
T hey all acknowledged the J11sllcc and utility or the statement I had made, hn t
candidly avowed that their con nections in London, and tho general nature or their
Imports, precluded their taJ-ing advantage of a direct trade; though It was very
evident that the products or Ireland coming circuitorn~ly throu~h thei r Englli;h
corresponilentR, cost them m11c11 nearer tha n th ey otherwi!';O wo111<1. Th1111 all pros·
pect or ente r ing inlo th e mercantile line fell to tlie gronnrl, and r announced to his
lordsh ip my <leterminatlon io return t o Montreal; he then told me. as ho was
determined not to take his !nml\y borne at so late n season, h e wonlt\ introc111ce me
t o the bishop oC Canada, wh ere I would spend the winter ngrecnble, and learn to
58

apenk the ll'renc·h lnngunge, anJ w:ui so kin d Rl:I lo artct that If in tho Interim nay
place worth my ac1:eptancP. llet·nme vncant, l i;h~uld be appointe1l to it. However,
I persisted Jn my resolution, not deom lni; il prnd en t to RJ-.en1i my tlrue and money
w:i:itlng for n co ntingen cy lbat migh t neve!" occur. A Cew days after I took my
leave, and waR to SE't off the second day after, In com pany with n young ens ign,
who was going to Join his rei;imcut nt St. J ohnl:I. nut before I left town, Mr. Mot:r.
came to me with nn offer from his lordship of a town:'!hlp on the Acndian line, but
on enquiry I rounrt It w oul•I r equlro a c.onsidcrnblo Rum or money to mnkc tbe
r equisi te locatlona to secure the t itle. I thereCore beg~ert leave lo decline the otter,
as neither suiting my means or incllnl\lion. In n short time after Mr. Mol7. again
returned-and in tho roost deli ca te mnnner told mr. ho 'l\'as authorize•! to orrcr me
any money I might s t.and in nc1!d o! (or tho wint.el'. But as my funcls were still
far from exhaus ted, and as my dctet'lninntlou was neve r to Ito und e r n pecuniary
obligation, I might not easily IJo nhlc to repay, I r.xc11se1l myself by 1u;s11riog him
I hnd a sufficient s upply for tho winter. But I requcstcc\ that h is lorclsh Ip won l<l
favor mo with a letter or lntro<l nctlon to S ir John .Johnson, o[ wliom, and or bis
father, Sir Wllllnm, I had r cn1l anti heard enough to lnRpire mo with admiration,
and a wish to have the hon or of h la ncqualntnnce. I received tho dcs; lred lett er In
tho ernn lng, a nd tho n ext m orning left Quebec in a cnrrlolc, with my yoi1 ng Scots
companion. Thoui;h early in Noveruhcr there was nenrly a. toot or snow upon the
grou n d, and we co ntinued tho 11 s11 o C carrioles until we cnme to Three Rivers, Crom
whe nce we t oolc co.lashes into i\!ontren.I.
My fdend Mr. '1'011 r eceh·C'd me with tho 11t.1110st. kin dn csa nnu introcl111:e1l me t.o
several officer s nnd gentle men or the town. Sir .Tohn Johnso n was nb1<en t on an
excursion to th o lalco o! Two Mountains, but hfA cousin, Cap t. Dease, flhowcd m('
th o kindest n tlontfon and 11oriplL1tllty, a nd took me with him to llls house In tho
co\mtry, where I 1·ema.lncd until tho nrrh·nt of Sir J ohn, on whom "'e cnlled the dny
after, a nd I prescntetl my lettor irom Lortl DorcheRter. The reception I m<!t with
has le ft an impression tllat cnn mwrr be effaccrl from my bear t; and the nnabntccl
frl enrlshlp and hospitality I ha ve eve r since been honored with by him. Lady
Johnson and tho Indies ot the fnmlly, when several times passing n winter in Mon·
treal, l:lball ever remnln arno11~ st my mos t g rateful and plea.sing r ecollcr.tions.
.As I could not think of bein ~ a t.nx on the hospitality ot my \\IontrC'al frienrls all
winter, thou gh much pressP.d hy S ir John to take up my aborlo with him, I toolc
lodgl ni;s nt tho village o! Varennes, about fi fteen miles !rom tow n, on th A oppoi<lte
side of the St. Lawrence, al a Mr. Vlcnn e's, whero I eonU nuen my ;;tndy or the
F rench la ngunge, which I hnd comm enced before I Jo(t Irelanrt, and bei;a n to spealc
It pretty much rte a child begins to walk,, s tumbling at every ste p: hut to th (l honor
oC Frenr.h urhnnlty and pollteno8s, my grentest blunclcrs wr: r e corrcclc<l without
, nubjectln.r; me to the pain ot s eeing my awkwarclnese nncl l g11ornn1·1~ the s11hjec:t ot
mirth or rl dlculo.
f visited Montrenl i;everal tlmc:1 clnrlng the win te r, nn<I attPndPrl t hr. a ssPmblles,
which were conrlncted with e;rC':it decorum. and wltero I-'ldy Johnsc>n and hP.r da11gb·
ter, j1ist then hroui::ht ou t, wnro r ccel vNt wlt.h e\·cry 1lci;ree o r dP.rere11ce nnd
r espect. The wlnlP. r pai;scli "IT very ngrnenhly, anrl In th~ beginning o r i\tny, 1791,
J rc t 11r11C'tl to ?ll onlri>nl. to Ut i:t' my pasflni;e with my (rle ntl, .\ntll·ew Tocl. for l\Tlch·
lllmnr.kinac, br the North or ()t;, w i fl l'i\'l'r. Tho mocll) ot trnvP.lin i;-: In n hin·h ca1100,
tho wild an cl rornnntic 11cenery on rnch s iclo of t.h e rivC'r, nil wn~ ne w an1l chnrm ln ~
to me, except th e Ins t fi\'e or s ix dnys of our voynge, when tbe moRqnitoes a nnoyed
us beyond nil P.n durance. I, who had nothing else lo do hut defP.nd myselr f rom
the m the be-c;t wny I could, was le rt n perfect epeclAC'le or defo rmity, my ereii near
closed· up, and my mouth distorted In a most !rightful manner; j udge then the
59
condition of t.he poor meu, e11gaged In ca rrying the bn);i:;ai;-n over the 11orl1l~HH will!
lbelr faces, neckr; and breasts oxpo11cd, and the blood nuil 1:w11nt in co mlni:;led
lilreams ruuniur; from th em. Dul t\J cY !;ecrued to mind il Vl"'ry liltle, mi.kins ~nme
or some yo11ni; m en ;whose first Lrip it. wa.s, whom they c1~J lcd mn11 g 1:ri; cle lard, or pork
cl\l.el-R, nud trent.ed with great coot.em pt if t.hey cxprcfl>•C<I pnia or rat-i~ut:. \.Ve
arrived the 16th at Mackinac, and wore receiv ed with great politcncs!\ n11d ho~­
pltnllty by Capt. Charleton of the 6th foot, then commanding. I had bee n a cqnnlntcd
wlth h im lo tho north of Ireland, when In command In th o town of Colornlne. Our
meeting so unexpectedly nt n dlelnnco ot more than four thon!'and miles from home,
was very pleasing to both, and called up a variety o! mixed id1>as, som'e or which
t o me were rather painful, as they contrasted my prci;cnt Rltuation with the time
I had received him hospitably at my mother's house, wl1cn plncing a delarhmcut to
guard the wr eck of a. ehip cast away within Jess tbnn hnlr n mile or Crnlge. As
t.ho t r adcn1, neither from _tho Mtanl116lppl or the Lalco Superior, harl yet nrrivcd,
X bad some weeks leisure, which I employed tn explo ring tho l alnnd a nd in read·
Ing. I shall, tbereroro here conclude this tedious epistl e with a prom lfle that my
next shall have at leaat the merit o~ novelty to recommend It. .
Evor truly yo11rs,
JOHN JOHNSTON.

LETTEH VI.
St. Mary's Jl'nlle. Juno 10, 1828.
My Dear Sir: -1 11 h ealth and ofton depression of splrltn, owin g t o the Iniquitous
manner in which th e Tn t'lian trn<l e Is, nn<l has been alwny11 rarrl<1rl on here. and in
tn.cl all over tho continent, wltl1 the addition of painful r oOPc tlons. on my own
lmpr11<1r.nce and unabilily to compete wltll opponen ta cqunlly a r llv11 RR 11nprinclplNl,
hn.vo been the cause of my l ettln~ eo Joni;- an Interval lnpflr. 1<lnre th!' 1\ate of my
last. But I now resume my pen In hopes of presentin g yo11 with o. e;lcetch of the
arrlvnl of the traders, and th e 11hlftlng or the s een <'! from i:trrcts 11nocc11pir.d, where
dullnci;s and silence r eigned 1111molcste1l, to houses crow<lcrl t o ovP.rOowlni;. wherA
riot and revelry, festivity and 11ong, 11wcpt nil descriptlon n <\own Its br.n1ly r11rrent
wi th 11cnn:ely a i;lngle exception. The ~xcus~ pleadoll l1y th<1 traders ii; thP.lr
mo.ny fati~ues, risks and privations rluring the winter, nml oft en an entire 1<eclnsion
f rom all i;oclety, so that when they ngaln meet at Macl<lnar, where they nre 1<11re
to Rec th ei r Montreal friends, and an ample supply o f wino~. i;pirits, etc.. etc.,
they think themi;c\vee eiititled to mnl<e up tor what th ey cn.11 loe;t time, hy making
the most or the short Interval that elnpseR between the rnl o or th <1lr furs. ancl their
r epurchase of goods for a n ew ndventnre. The chief tr11derR anrl Montreal m er·
chants ltcep open tnble for their friends anrl rlcpendnntn. a 111l vie with <'-llCh other
In hospitali ty to stran gers. But tho cxceRs to whi ch their Indulgence is carried,
RBldom enrle without n quarrel: when old grudges aro opcn ecl up, and language
mnde use of thnt would disgrace n Wnpplng t avern, and th e fin ale a boxin~ match,
a.s b ru tal and {eroclous as any exhibited In ancient timci; by I.ho Ce ntaurs and
Lapythe.
But were I to r elate all I ha""e hcnrrl and been an 11nwllllng wit.nRss or. thii; would
become o. chronii:le or scando.I lnetcncl of a letter, I i;hnll lher(lfore let the cu rtain
drop for thP. i>rci;ent , only r etainin g the llb(lrty of taldni;: IL up occasionally, as new
o.cte of this far from dellghtfnl drnma. may pr esent thomsclvP.S to my rEJ collcction.
The Montr11al canoes bcgo.n to move oil' with their cnrgoes of furs and T>P.ltriei<,
during the month or July, and lbo tro.ders whose posts were the most distant, wcro
ohl efly all oft by the beginning of Auguat, so t hat t ro.nqull!ty and rationality began
to reaesumo their long forgotten sway.
60

About the middle of August my Cr!entl Mr. Tocl, filled mo out with a ca noe
ot th e largest size with five Ca nnrllan bontrnen or voyagN·s, to winter at La Poi nte,
In Lake Superior, wh ich station 1 preferred to one more to tb e 11011th.
· Owing to constan t high wlncle, it was late In September be(orn 1 arri ved a t m y
destined winter ground, wh ere I met with Count Andrinnl, nn Italian nohlema n
and philosopher, who was talc ln i; obser vatio ns to ascerta in wh ether the enrtb was
more elevated or depressed towards the poles. The conclusion he bad come to was,
that at the poles the earlh rnnat be tlatter than at the erinnto r, ro r we were then at
La Pointe, a distance of two thonsand miles from the ocean, not more than 690 !ect
above It.a level. The subject was t hen mnch dlscnsse<l amongst nnlltrnllsts, bn t
ie n ow set at rest forever, for wore the high aspiring parties to move towarde
ea ch other In hostile arrny, tho consequences woulll be rnth er clisagn~enule to ue
emmets occupying the iotermediato mole h!lls. As soon as the count left .me
to continue his to u r of tho lnke, l sen t of? two o! my men with I\ am o.11 eriulpment,
to winter In tho Mauvaise or Dad river . The others r 8et to fishing. th nt we
might lay In a stock for winter store, the cold weather hnvlug commenced ear ly
In October. I now got a houso oC round logs tln lshell for myself, the Interstices
plastered wltb clay, and a chimney of the same material; my men had a lso a
si milar house tor themselves, nnd r began to get fire wood cu t ood brought home,
while tho weather was yet favorable. But on the 17th o( November my faith less
Canadians dese r ted, taking with them my fishing canoP., an oil cloth, n ets, axes, etc.,
and nearly all my fish, leaving me only a Ind ot 17 or 18, who slep t in my li ttle
k itchen, and wh o luckily could i;peak a little Ottawa, by which he would mo.Ice
the Chlppewo.ya 11nderstaad him. r had M uoighbors two C11on1llnns, who rrom
having ncqul r ecl a knowlecl i:;e oC the language, ha<l hecom e trnd ers; they, aR wetl
ns their men, knew or the dese rt ion o! my people, and had connlve1l nt.. Ir not
encouraged th em In i.t. I wnR thu11 left in the midst of savages and Cauaclla ns,
much baser and more 'treach erous than the.y, to enr.011nler a winter on the s hore of
Lake S upe ri or, with only one nttendn nt, a very short nllowanc.o of provlslo1111, a niJ
depr ived of the menns of fis hing, which I hn1l flalte re1l myi;elf would have been a
eure r esou r ce, at least ngnlnRt actual want. r sat down rnlhcr In bacl 11plrlts to
r uminate on my situation, and at length It struck me that my r a se, Jn many par·
tlculars, had a resemblance to that or Robinson Crusoe, and T got up determin ed to
follow his eimmple by making every exertion In my power to ameliorate It.
I began lmme<llately to prepare axes, and set to chopping fire wood, whii:h r ahf\
my man carried home on ou r shou lders. The d istance luckily was not gn~at, Cor I
was u nwilling to touch about fivo cords le!t by my men, which r r.onslll~recl a dcr·
nler rei;ort, ln cases or bad weather o r any accident. We got on very well the fl rnt
day, but the second my hand R hccnme bll stered, and I persis ted till my axe ha n dle
wn.s ataluofi with my blooo. I then proposed to m y man that he El houltl continue to
chot> and I would be carrier; thi s lnc\ucerl e m11latlon, for I proposed to ca r ry as
·rast as be coulc\ chop, and In loss than a fortnight we had six cords more at our
door, beside a good me.ny laq;e logs that we were obllgE!d to roll. Constant exercise
gave appetite f or our bu mble fn re, and fatigue lnd11ced sound nlcc1> that le! t llttlo
ti me for painful refl ection.
The I ncllans had left 11s tor Romo lime, and h ad gone to a ronsldernble rlli<tanco
on their. hunting excnrslons, all except the old rath er or the chief, who only went
to a small river In the bay oC St. ChR rl ei<. from whenr<', howcv('r, he r eturneil just
as the Ice In on r bay was closing-. My good nelgh hor A n11;b cd into the water
nnd hauled the canoe to shoro, and without ceremony 11onsoascd thcmi;elves ot
eight, or ten beave rs t he old mnn had kllled. They kept him, hie two wives nnd a
Mrs. Jnyer, one o! hl a daugh ter s, who w in t ered w ith him, In a constant atate or
61

Intoxication !or KOmc dny r., nt tbe end of which they fnirl y t11 rn cd them out of
doors, telling lhcm they rnu sl provide for themselves, Ill! they wo11ld feP.d them no
longer. Some lime aftE-r Lhfl old man cnme to me and complained of bu11 ~er, as
hl 11 'Wives rould uot go to n deposit of wll<l rice th ey had co nccale1l at n coneldor-
nbie dhitan<·c, the weather hcn·lng becom e very bar!, and the snow too cleep to walk
without s now Rhoce. I tol d him I woul<l not see him or bis family lltnrve, tllo ugb 1
much ·fekred I should want !ood long beroro spr ing, and that lie ought to recollect
h e had no t paid me a emall cred it I bnd made him before hP went to hunt. H o
acknowiMged the !net, but said, those who bad taken him to shore mntlo him
drunk. l\nd k ept him so, uolll his Jlttlo stock or furs was exhuuHteci, th ough 'he
ltn ew not what he had rece ived In return, except his meat and (}ri nk fM n few
days. I ai:ceplc<I his excuae, and continued to tr eat him nil winter with g r eat
resriect, na he i;h\)wed me a large bugle belt, with w hich . noel a silver gorget,
be hau heen prose ntetl by Sir Wllliam Johnson after th e !nil or Forl Ningn ra to
the B r itish forces. H e so.Id bo bad kept hie belt free trorn 11tain until now, a n d
bopecl hie son Wabojeeg would continu e lo do w arter he sho11lcl be g on o to the
lan d or i;plrite.
• • • • • • • • • • •
Mr . Johnston laid down bis pen at th11 threshold o! his enlrnncc upon e. new
tbeat.1·e or life, presenting to h im objecta nod moo.us so d ifferent from nil be had
left hehind that the ex prrlcnce o! the pa!lt atrorded but Jillie to g uide him In the
conduct of the fnl11re. The di sappointmen ts ho bnd mel with hnd not. however,
1;1oure<1 hiR tem per, or dampened hie spi r its. He wo.e nr<lent, young, a ctive, pos·
sessecl a co nat.itulion nalurully vigorous, with a <llsposltion soclnl, frnn l< and open,
a hi gh s"n"c of probity, a firm dependen ce upon Providence, an1l a heart glowi ng
w ilh ar<li-nt as pirations after truth, nncl governi-d by the l>rondo!lt prinrlple!I of
nctiv{' hcmevolencc. He wni; now ahout to commence the most Important period or
bis life, P.mhradni; s . r ei;J tl rm r.e o! the better part or bal( n cent11ry in th e remote
eollturli-i; of th e America11 forest, separaLed from the sodety In wh kh he ha11 cierivcd
so much nf his !orm<?r enjoy ments, and throw n wholly upon his own reM11rr.11s. He
was hrouJ:?;ht lo endure privations aurl to encounter perl lA, <'! whi ch he hall heard
be{ore only ln the history oC su[{erlng humanity. The lncldentn or his new i:ltuation
n.lsC'I brought, him i nw eo n1,nr.t nod 1~cq11 nintance with eomu of 1,h e mo5L nnt.c d incti-
v td110.Js who hnve flgurecl in th.o commerce nnd politics of th e C1\ nrulaR rlurlng the
last 40 year&. And hnrl he hcr.n spared to complete hill autobio~raphy, it would
have Jed him to mention the nllmes anc\ charar.lers or many or hlll colemporaries,
a nct to advance n fun d of anecclote, a n d historical and other data, exhi biting a lively
pletur.e o[ his tlmei::. Severn) of the or.currences or this era, relnt.I vc to tho norlh-
we'st tur trad e, nre of dramatic lnter e11t; but the veil which covers perflcly and
crime would have been raised by him with extreme relu ctance. He evidently con-
tem nlo.ted with po.i n th e approo.eh ot hie narr ative to tho period when It would
become necessary to all ude to the fierce elrl te11 carri ed on betwMn rival m onopollstR
In this traoe, nn<I as Imposing a task whi ch seemed like "walking npon lhe ashes
under which lite fire la n ot yet extinguish ed."
Whal he h1111 not furni shed however, It would be <llfficult to supply. few materials
for the pnrpORll bei ng kno'l'.·n to exist. He very rarely kept copies of his letters,
n one or his prlvnte lfltters, o.nd neve r preserv ed the letters sent. to h!m hy others.
T -h e sco.nt.y mntcrlal s I have been a ble to collec:t w er e preimrvocl entirely hy other
bands. H e bncl an aversion In his latter yeara to writing o.t nll, or rnther the
Irksomeness of the task was owing to Ill h ealth, which lert him but a s mall por tion
of h ie Ome without the sense or acute po.In. And b e de5troyed many letters and
62

communication!! which a pcrnon or g reater business htiblti;, or moro di s trust or the ·


world's sincerity, would have induced him to preserve. l~ncts, dn tes, nnd occur·
rooces have thu s, In o. mensure, become blended in vague recollections on tbo part
ot his frl entls antl family. A continuation of his lice, on nnythin g Jllte the plnn
co mmenced by him i;elf, Is t herefore impossible, and will not be attempted. Even
the brief notices which follow wonlcl b arclly he un1lert.ake11. were It not ror the
abruptness with whteb his rnanuscrlvt terminates, a nd for a desire to ai d In hold·
ing from ohllviou the name or a man, who, gifted with powers to shine in polished
drcles, gave up th o' wor ld !01· the rolrn or rnlslng up to virtue nnd piety a numerous
'tnmlly, uncler peculiar circumstances. For IL wa s In this r egion, to which be has
conducted the retulw in hl n letters, that h o co uneclecl himself, hy lnlermarrlnge,
with one of the lending families or the na t ive race.
Mr. Johnston's earliest elforts in the fur trade wore successful, notwithstandi ng
tho perfidy 01' his m en, who deserted h im during his first seaso n. And b e continued
his effort!! with pro111iects more flattering, as experience roa clo him a cq ualntt>d with
the difficulties to he encountered, and the precautions necesi;ary to ensu re success.
This t raffic hna always been pursued at great person al, as well as pecu niary r isk;
but he soon found himsot r placed in n sltunt.lon, In which It became tho duly -or
aubord inatl!S to malce those exchanges with the n atives, which frequently require a
patient submission to caprices and S"1perstltlons rc11ui;nant to a sensitive mind.
And while every Reason Wtla supposed to nhrlrlge tho p erlocl of h is stay In the
country, h e Indulged In t hoso r efl ectlooe and anticipations aris ing from a temporary
pursuit.
Mr . Tod, unde r whose auspices bo had entered the Incllan cou n try, invitee! him to
fiettle at Ne w Orlenns. wh e re th is e nterpris ing m erchant hail ob tained from the
Spnnish governor ~eneral of Louisiana th e m onopoly of U1e !11r trado or that prov-
ince. But the Invitation wan clecltned from a rlrnnrl ot the climate, lo which Mr.
Tot.I himsoll :>oon retr- a vi cti m. About th e snme timo an openin g presented ltsel!
to Mr. Johnston for his settle ment at Green Day; hut bis prcclilectlonA In favor or
n more northern po11ltion preclominnted, a nd he fixed his r ei;lrlence a t the Falls o r
St. Mary, in 1793. He hnll th e year previous marrlet.1 th o you ngest t.1a11gh tor ot
Wnbojeeg, the hereditary n nd war chic! oC I.a Pointe, In Lnlce Superior, and now
came to ei;tablish himself In permanent buildings at n. spot co mmanding the great
thoroughfare into the northwest. Dy thle term we lnclndo a n Immense tract ot
wllderne s11, Intersected with lakes, ri vers, nnd mo untai ns, which has been dletln·
gulehcd from the en rllest ti mes as the seat of that great and haznrclons branch
or Internal commer ce, known u n der the name of tho fur trncle.
A high, anrl it mny be thought 11 proud, spi rit of pel'Sonal lndepe111lenco, which
ba<I been on e ot th fl orlglnnl causes o( b is co ming to Ame.ri r.a, and whi ch uieclalned
all secondary moileR oC action, lwpt him a loof from the great rival companlei;, who
_h ave, at vnrlona times, borno swa y ove r tho northern region11. He ei ther uoellned
th o oll'.crs ot participation lt1 these somewha t two celehrnted frnternltlcs, or neglected
tho mean11 necessary to a co partn er11blp. \Vhlle h e Lltus kept free -Crom entangle·
ments In n system which ho conic\ not al"{n:v11 approve, he, however, ran risks or
another lclncl, and etood somewhat in the position oC a man between two fires, wh o
can neith er llce to the righ t nor t o tho left. L11cklly his cours;o lay strai ght forward,
but It Is scnrr.ely possible lhnt I\ mnn o! less lntrt>piillty or ch a ract er In the hour
or need, or 11rhanlt y of manners In the social clrclo, could hnvo sust.nlncd himsetr.
Just an d honorable In a ll his Intentions;, thou gh they were sometimes grossly
mls lnterp·retcd, ho expected eq ua l Justice an d !nir dealing from other s . And when
not thus openly m et, he did not h esitate to give vent to a strong and manly oxpres·
11lon ot his Ceelings, regardless or consequences. Thie was sometimes t he cause or
63

future bitterness ancl petty resentmentR. He escaped once lhe blow or n secret
assassin; once the risk or a combat with pislols, with th e slii;ht losfl of 11 lock Crom
his templcr.; n11d twice, so far as I rc<'!oll ect his own r clat.lou, the brntnl fury of tho
Indian knife. His own resentm ents wer<' momentary, nnrl be took n. delight, when
circumstances bacl placed an antagonist in hi!'! powe r, In forgiving injuries and
relinqnlflhlng advantages, and in throwlni;: the sha,de or ohl tvion over all the errors
anci frnlllies of the pasl. His reliance 1111011 the overrulin g hanrl of Pro vidence,
wherever plncccl, was unboundr.d; and J lmow not that it hafl ever fntl cn to my lot
to IJecome intimately a c(1uaintc<l with any person wh o <·ould, at t.he f!C1tuons o! hie
grcnLef! t aflliction, cxcl11irn with such tr11.qt.i n" confidence, "Thy will he <Jone." ·
It may he inferred from t h ese paRSnges tl~at the bu6lne~s in whir.h Mr. JohnRton
was engaged was one !or which his dif;posllion and mcnt.al habits rlid not particu-
larly q ualify him, ancl whi ch be woulcl not himself have chosen, co uld ft have been
presented to him with all Its repulsive, ne well as attra cti ve fentureR, 011 Ille first
coming to I.he country. Nothing, in fact, could be less congenial to his ta!lte. Once,
however, engaged ln It, ancl ho appeared, ns he hlmaelt observed, to be hnnlecl on by
a fatality which seemed to forbi d a return to his native land. Ancl the prospect ·or
gettin.c:- on In the world, without Imposing any pecu·nlary burdens u pon his relatives
a point on which he was peculiarl y aensltlve--detennlned him to r.ontln11e, e.a a.
fixed employme nt what he can l1ardly b e said to have selected of hlR own tree will.
In the ordina ry Intercourse ot the Indl nns with Mr. Joh nston, at his residence at
St. Mary'!l, he was their l\dviser, phyr;lc!nn, nod friend. And his dielntcrcsted con-
duct on many occasions led tJ.iem to perceive that he had placed his cla!m11 to their
triendslilp on higher grounds t han the mere prospect or i;nln. Hl11 house v.•as tbt-
resort or the needy Indian and Canadian.

"Ancl every stranger found a read y chair."


He possesF:ed an acth' e coacljutor, In a cts of charity: Jn Mrs. Jonn11ton, t.he daugh-
ter of Wabojeeg whose klnclnei:.s and practical benevolenf!e were in full unison with
his own. He always kept In his dwellin g a full suppl y or medicines, wh ich be-
adrninistered graUs to nil who applied. He nsed the lnncet freely In cnses of
pleurisy, which is a common complaint among the nativefl. Althoui:;h h e had made
no professed study or medicine, his prnctical knowledge, a lrle d l>y books of refer-
ence, was respectable; and when the surgeons of the Uni tee\ Stales army afterwards
came to be placed In hls vicinity, they deemed several of h ts modes of practice
judicious. He was often the means of granting relier, wh ere relief tlepenrled upon
the ordinary remedies of common complaints, and he seldom ventured upon other
prescriptions. But his l!!-ct and decision In this department proved that, llad he
given early and proper attention to It, he wns eapacitatecl Lo have excellecl in It.
The readiness with whi ch he could be approaclled by complaints of 1>overty and
bad Juclc, o.nd the little effort It required to enkintlle his <'harltable feelings, some-
times lr.<1 him to lle Imposed upon by th e Inland clerks and i;erva.nte in hl!l employ.
A tale of m1f'Cerlng seldom fa.lied to reconcile him to Joss or d isappointment, whlch,
there la good reason t o b elieve, was freq uently attributable to a want of proper
dlllgence and economy, or still more Inexcusable faults on t heir part.
Wit.h cliiipo11itiona thus liberal, and s1H·1·ounilod by oppon en t.ii wh ose vig-il:l.nce wnfl .
constantly on the watch, and who, In some imitances, we re reli eved from those
scrnplc11 of !'.onsclence which lrnpt him ever above a mean net, and led him to rleApise
trick anrl finesse, It may be nnt!clpated t hat his marcb In the road to wealth was
not so rapid ns those wbo could reconcil e themselves to life In the I ndian country
without ordinary comforts, and who looked upon every dollar spent to purchase a
book, or a. vase, as so mucll money thrown away. I! Mr. Johnston bad any !ault
64

In this respect, It COl'talnly bordered on tho opposite extreme; and in ordering his
household .expenses, he might sometimes Incur tbe imputation of being p r o!1iee.
·Yet he 1rncceoded from · the outset, often meellng with successes wh ich he had not
anticipated, and added steadily to that income, on the yearly re-Investment and
Increase o! which he depended. Twenty years devoted to this pursuit placed h i m
a
In state ot comparntlve lnc\evendence, and ga ve him the ch ief control or the trad&
ot·•the southern 11hores of Lake Superi or, and i\omo ot tho adjacent regions. H&
contemplated hill cler.llnlng yea1·s, nnd the provis ion he would be able to make tor
hie children with sntls!actlon.

WABOJEEG, OR THE WHITE FISHER.


This lnrllv idunl hns Indelibly interwoven his name with the hl11tory of the Chip-
pewa nation, rl u ring. the latter halt of the e ighteenth century. His nncestora had.
from the earliest times, held tho principal chlcrtalnshl p in Lake Superior. His
tather, Ma-mongnzl<la, was the rullug chief during the war or the conquest' o! the
Canadas . by tho Dritish crown. In common with his tribe ancl the northern
nations generally, he was the fas t trlond of the French government , nnd "·Rs i>res-
ent with his warriors, nnrler Gen. Montcalm, at tho Joi.a ot QuelJec In 1759. He r nr-
rled a short 11peech from that cclebrnted officer to his people In the north. which
Is salcl to hnve been verbally dellvel'ec.I a short time before he went to the fielrl.
The period ot tho ran or the Frenr.h powe r In the Canadns le one or the most
marked evenL<~ In Indian reminiscence throughout all northw est America. They
r cter to the days or F rench 1rnpremacy as n kind of golden ern, when all things
in their affair!! wore better than th<\y no~ are; and I have heard them lament over
the change as one which wns in ever y respect tletrimen tal to their power and
happiness. No other . European nation, It ls evlrlcnt from the!:e allusions, eve r
pleased them as well.' The French cha racter a nd man ne rs adapted them11elves ad-
mirably to the existing cm:toms of forest ll!e. The common people, who went u p
into the. Interior to trade, fell In with their customs with a degree of pla11tlr.lty and
an. air of 11;ayety a.net full RSAent, which no other foreigners have, at least to th&
Rame e~tent, shown. These Conrlers rlu Bois hnd not m uch to boast of ou tho
score ot rlgl rl mornh1 themselves. They bad nearly as much superstition ae tho
wildest Indians. They were In fact. at least nlne·tenths oC them, quite ns Illiterate.
Very many of them were far inferio r In their mental structure and capacity to the
bold, eloquent, anrl well-Corme1I anrl athletic northern chle!s and hunters. They
respecte d their religious and fP.stlve Mreroonles. T hey ne,'"er , as a chler once told
me, laughed nt them. Th ey met their old frionrls on their annual returns Crom
Montreal, with n l<lss. They t.ool< the dnughtern or the rP.cl men (or wlvOr:J, nnd
reared large ramlll ca, who thus cons1.it11ted a strong bon!l or union hetween t he two
races, which rl'mnl ne unbroken to th Is day.
· This is the true secret or the slronunns efforts made by the northe rn nn<l we!ltern
Indians to Sll!llnln the French power, when It was menaced, In tbe war or 1744, by
the fleets and am1lc11 oC Great Britain. They rallied Eris, at Fort Niagara, Mon-
treal, and Quebec, anrl t hey hovered with lnfnrlaterl 7.enl around the outskirts ot the
northern and wester n sr.tllemP.ntR clurlng the many anrt sanguinary wa.rR rarrled
on between th o English and Fri>nr.h. And when the l"rench wer e beaten they s till
nrlhered to th eir cause, and their rh iMA i;tlmulnted t he Prenr. h local romman<lers to
continue and renew the co n test, eve n after th e fall or Nlagarn anrl Quebec. with a
heroic c.onslstency o r purpose, whlrh reflects credit upon their forP.~lght, bravery,
nnd constancy. We hope In a ruture number to bring forward a sketch of the mnn
who put hl mselt at the head or this latter etl'ort, who declared ho would drlve the
65
Saxon race into the sea, who \Jeseiged twelv e 1111u took nine of th e west ern s tockaded
torts, and who tor !our yenrs and upwards mainta ined tbe w nr, 'a rte r the French
had struck their colors and ceded the country. We r cf1:r lo t he great Al g ic leader,
Pontiac.
At present our attention Is called to n coolempoi-a ry chief, o r equal i>ernonal
bravery and conlluct, certainly, \Jut who llved and exercised h!B nnth orlty at a more
remote point, and had not the same mnssei; and means at bis commanll. 'fhie
point, so Jong hid in the great forests of th e north, a n d which , Ind eed, b a s b een
but lately revealed in our poRltive geography, is the a rea of Lal<e S uperior. It Is
here that we find the Indian tradition to be riic with the 1111.mc of Wabojeei; and
hlR wan;, Ii.nil hlA l~Ontempornrl ea. Jt waR one of th e cltn~d. 1:011ftequences of so
remote a poi;ltion, that It withdrew his a tte ntion mor o from t he actual connlc te
between the French anti E11i;liAt1, and f\x e1l t h em u pon h is weste rn a ncl south er n
frontiers, which were menar.e1l nn<l lnvarlcd by U10 nu merous hnn<li; of t h e Dacotnhs,
-and by the perfidious kinsmen or hie nation, the Qntngamtes a mt Sa ucs. He ca.me
llito active life, too, as a prominent war Jen<ler, at the .nrer.ise era when tho Can·
a<las had fallen Into the l3ritti;b powe r, nntl hy engni;lng zc>a lo1111ly in th e ddense
or the bor1ler11 of his nation west. he a llowe d t ime to miti gate nnd adj u st t hose
f.eellnga an<l r.tt.achments "·hlr.h, so far a 11 public policy was co ncern ed, mu st be
<:onsl1lercd to hnve monlcled the Indian mind to a com)lllnnce with, and a s ubmis·
slon to, the British authority. Wabojc<>i:: was, crnpb atl cnlly, th e 1lefender of the
Chippewa rlomain against tho eftorts of other branch es of the r ed race. H e did
not, tlaerefore, lend his peopl e lo flgbt, l'I R his father, Mn·tnongazicla , and nearl y all
the great Indian wa r captain R had, to eonhle one t ype or lhe foreign raco t o t riumph
over aoothP.l', hut ralsed his parties nnd Jc> d them tortlJ to mnin t;llo his tribal RU·
premacy. He may he contemplnte!l, thP.roCore, ns havin g had n m ore pntrlotle. object
for hia 1tchievernent.
J..nlte Supf?.rlor, nt the lime or our ea rl ir.st a cq uai nlance w ilh the reg ion , ·was
occupied, ns It is at this 011.y, hy the Ch ip pewa rar.e. 'fhe chi c [ f'<'al of th eir po wer
appeared to be n ear the southwestern extremity or th e Jal; r, at Cha,::oi mcg:on, whore
fat.here Mnrquet.te 11nd Allo11c7. fonnll th e ir way, an1l eRtablishcd a 111i1;slon, eo
early as 1668. Ano ther of I.heir principal, anll prohahly m ore nn<'ie11t Rc>a ts, was at
the great rapids on the outlet or that Jn.kc, whi ch tb ey na med th e Snult d e S te.
Marie. lt was In allusion to their resid ence h er e th at they called th is tribe Sanlt-
~ur, that is to say, people or the leap or rapid.
Indian tradition makes the Chippewas one o( th e ch lc-f, certa inl y hy fn.r t ho moRt
numerom• and wltlely·spread of the Algonqnln stock p roper. It re1iresen ls th em to
· have ml,::rat.etl from the ea!:t to the w r.i;t. On rP.ach tng: the v ici n ity of Mich illm nck l·
nRc, they separatccl at a comparatively mo rlerate era into three t r ibes, callin g them·
selves respectively, Qdjibwas, Qclawas, an cl P odnw adu mees. W h a t t heir n am e was
before this era, hi not known. It ls manife st that th e ter m Orl jihwa is not a v ery
ancien t. one, for It does not occ11r In the earliest au t horn. Thoy wer e probably ol
the Nlperclncan or true Al go nquin stock, an d had taken the route oC th e Utnwss
river, from th o St. Lawrence valley, In to Lalce H n ron. The te r m lti:elt Is clearly
trom Bwa, a voice; an<l Its prefix In Odjt, was probab ly d cs i~ned t o mark a peculiar
lntonntlon wh!C'h the mui;cles are, as It w ere, gathererl 11p. to denote.
Whatever be th e facts of th eir orli:rln, they had tal<en th e ronto np I.he strnlts
ot St. Mary into L ake S11perior, both slcles of which, and far beyond, t11ey occn pled
at the era of the French discovery. Jt Is e vi de nt that th eir cournc in th is d irection
must have l1een aggressive. They were advancing towards the west nod northwest.
The tribe Jcnown as Kenlstenoe bad passed through the Lake of the Woods, tlnough
the great Jake Nlpeelng, and as far e,e the beads o! th e Saskatch ewlne and th o por-
66

tage of the J\Hss~ lpi oC H11d!=!on ·~ bay. The warlilco baud of Leec h lake, CAiied
Mulrnn rlwns, bad spread themselves over the eoliro sources of thr. llllssissipp\ and
extended their bunllng excursions west to Red river, where they came Into contact
with tho Assinabolnco or Slono Sioux. Tho central power, at this era, still remained
a t Cbagolmegon, on Superior, where lndeod, the force or early tradition a ssorts,
there wns maintained something like a frame of both civil and eccleslaetlcal
polity an d government.
It Is said in th o traditions related to mo by the Chippewas , t hat the Outagamles,
or Foxes, ha d preceded them Into that par ti cular section of country which extends
tn a · g eoernl course from tho hcnll of Fox rl\•er, of Gree n bay, towards the Falls
of St. Anthony, r eaching in some poi nts well -nigh to the borde rs of Lalce Snperlor.
They arc rememhcrcc\ to have occu1llcd the Interior wild rice lakes, which lie itt the
sources of the Wisconsin, the Ontonagon, . the Chippewa, ancl the St. Croix rivers.
They we ro nssoclnte tl with lhe Saurs. who had ascended the Mi11sii;:sippl eome
distance nhove the Falls oC St. An tho ny, where they lived on friendly terms with
the Dacolahs or Sioux. This frlcnd~hlp extended · also to the 011t11gamies, and It
was the means of preserving a goocr understand in g betwel'n the Dacotahs and
Chlp1>ew:rn. ·
The Fox trlhe is closely affiliated with the Chl1111owas. The)' call eacll other
brothers. They nre oi' the i;nme ~cneral origin ancl speak the 11ame genernl Jan·
_guage, th e ch i ~f 1lirrerencc in so11nrl beini; ·that th e Foxt>R use tho letter I where
the Oclj! bwas em p loy an n. 1'he parti cul ar ca11Rll oC their 1\!Ragrecmenl Is not
!mown. They are i;nl <I by tho Chippewas to have been un faith£ul an<l treache rous.
lnclividu nl qu arrels and trc11passeR 1>n their hu ntin g ~ro uruls lee\ to murders, and
ln th e encl to a war, In which th e Me unm onees and the l'~ren ch unl tecl, nnd they
were thus driven from the ri ce lul<t!!< and nway i rom the Fox and upper Wisconsin.
T o maintain their position they Cormecl an alliance with t he Sioux, and foni;ht by
their side.
It was in this contest that Wo.bojeeg fir~t dlstl ngulshcHl hlms111r. and vlncllcnterl hy
his bravery and atlclress the former reputation of his family, and laid anew the
touuclatlons of hi:; northern chieflaindom. Havins heard allusions made to this
peri;o u on my ftrnt 1mtrance into that re gion, many years a.go, I made particular
enquiries, and fonnd li ving a sister, an olc\ white-he1uled woman, ancl a son and
daui;hl.cr, about the nge or mi!lclle lire. From these sonrc:es I gleaned th e !ollow·
Ing !nets: He waa born. o.s nea rl y as I could com1111 te the time, about 1747 .· Dy
a elng11lar a nrl romantic Incident his fa th er, Ma·monga7.!cla, was a bale broth11r or
the father or WabaRhaw, a celehratecl Sioux rhlef, "'ho hu t n few yea r s a go <lied
at his village on thP. upper Miss!F;11 l11pt. Tho co nocctlon happ ened In t his wa y:
While lhe Sioux and Chl 11oowas were livlng In nmlty near ea ch olhl!r, anti fre·
Quently met a nd r<'ru.tcd each othe r on t heir hunting grouncls ancl at their vil111i::es,
o. Sioux ch ief, oC rllstl n ctlon , atlm tred an cl married a Chi ppewa ,::Ir!, by whom he
liact two sonR. Wh en the wnr hetween th ei:;o two nations broke out. thoi;!l persons
of th e h o11tlle tribes who h ail marri ed Chippewa wive!!, nncl were livi n i; in tho Chi p·
pewa country, withdrew. !lome tn\\lng their Wl'l"es a loni:: and others separating from
th em. Among th e lntter wnR the Sioux chi ef. He re mnl nP.d a short time after hos-
tilities com·mencecl, hnt flnrlln~ hiR pni;ition llP.man1forl It, he wns romriP.llecl, with
grent relnctnnr.". to !Pave hf11 w lf!' hehlncl. ns she co11l1l not. with s afct.y, hnve nc-
compnniecl him into the Sinu:c: tcrritoriP~. As the hloorl or the Slon;oc f\o\V~d in the
veins of bar two so n!'!, ne ithe r was it sa fe ro r he r to lt>ove th e m am ong the Chip·
pewas. They were, however, hy mutu al agreement allowed to return with the
rather . . The eldeet of these eons became the father ot Wabasha.
67

The moth er, thus 1llvon·etl by the mulual consenl of ull part i<'S, r1~mai11Nl incon-
solo.ble !or some time. She wns still young antl hn.111limmc, nnrl nftr.1· n f('w ycnre
· became th e wife of n young Clllppewa chlcf of Chngo!w(~gon, of the ho1101·p<1 totl'm
or tb'l Atld! ck or r ein1ler.r. Her t11·st child \Jy th!e f\!'Co111l rnnrria1'P. w:u; Mn·moni;·
azidn, the father of \Vnuojceg. Jo this manner, a co nnC'cllon cxistell between two
tamllles, or scpurate hostile nnlloos, each of wb ich distiui;11i shed itself for bravery
and i:;k.111 in war n.nd council. It haR a lready been stnted thnt Mu·mongazi1la was
present, on the side or the French, In the great action In which both Montcalm onrl
W ol! fell, and he continued to exer cise the chlefl31nehip till his death, ~·hen his
second son succeeded him.
· If ~·as one. of the conseq11 ence11 ot the hostility or tlrn Indians to the Engilrch
rulr., that many o r the remol.o tribes were left, for R time, with out trn<lern to
eu pply their wnote. This wnR the ca1>e, trncl! tlon nsscrtR, with Ch ngolmr,::on,
whi ch. for two year11 nftP.r tho t.nkln g of old Mncklnnc, \\·aii left vdlhont a tn11lcr.
To remon1>trate ngain i;t (hiH, Mn·mo ngazldn vl11ltell Sir WllliRm Joh uso n, the SllJlOl"
lntcnrlcnt general or Indian a lTnlrs, by whom ho wiie well received, a111I presented
with a broad wampum belt an1l s:;orget. This ar.l Jnlcl the foundation or a Jai;lfni;
peRce hetween the Chippewa9 ond the English. The licit, it is n1ldC'd. was of bhrn
wRmpnm, with figures of whit<'. And when WnhoJ<'CI; <'Billi' to lhc c·hieflalnshlp
he took from it th e warnrum omployP.11 by him to mustPr h iH wnr parllcs.
Jn maki ng tradl tlonary enquiries I haYe found that thr J 1111ian norrators were
car eful to preserve aml noto any fact In the early liYe1> or thrir 1l111tlni;ulAhed
men, ·1vhich RJlpNtrod to prefigure their rut11re cmlnc?llre, or hncl an ythi ng of t.hc
wonderful or premoni to ry in lt.u chararter. The foll owh1~ inC' lllc nt or this sort wRR
nottcecl respecting thii; <:h lM: J\fa-monga?.i1ln i.;e nornlly wC'ut t.o 1nRlct1 hlR rnll
bunts on the mirldl e ,::ronnd!I toward!! the Sioux tcrrltor~', 1ald11t: wllh him all hl11
near r clatlvei;, amoun tini; usunlly to 20 personi;, cxcluBivc or childrc>n. E n1·Jy one
morning while th e you n ~ men were prepari n~ for thr c·hasr. t lrny were f'tnrt le1l l1y
tbe report of 11everal i;hots, 11lrcctP.d toward!! the lol!i:;e. A9 lh<'Y had tbon,::ht thc-m-
eelve.s In i;ecnrlty, .the first emotion '\\'B" surpriE<e, an1l ther hn<l !ICarcely time to fly
to their nrms wh en another volley was ftrc1l, which wounded one man In the
thli:;h a n1l Jdlled a clog. Ma·moagaz lrla immedlntcly sall iccl out. with his you ng
men. and prono uncing his name e.101111 In lhc Sioux Jnni::nage. dnmandcd If
Waha.<>hn or his brother wrrc among the assailan ts. The firing instantly CC'ased-
a pousc ensued, wh en a I.all fti:-11re In a. war dresn with a prof11Rlon of fenthnrs upon
hlll head ste11pe1l forwRrd nn<l J>reRented hlR hantl. It wni; the elder Wahar.htL, his
half brother. The Sioux penr.enbly followed their lcacli:>r Into th P. lod!!:e, 11pon
which they had, the moment before, directed their shoLq, At the Instant the
Slou~ chief entered. Jt was necessary to stoop a little, In poi:;sing the door. In the
net of 1>tooping, he rr.celvecl o. blow trom a warclub weilded . by a small boy, who
hnrl posted hlmRelf there for tho purpose. It took the young Wahojeei:;. Wahai;ha,
plen..c;ed with thi s early Indication of courage, took th P lltlle lad ·in his arm!!,
careF.sed him, a nd prononncecl that. he wonld her.ome a. hrn ve man. and prove an
lnveteirate enemy ot the S iou x.
The bord(lr warfare In whi ch the father of tho Infant warrior wne constantly
engaged, early inltlaterl him In t he a.rts and c<>remonles pe rtaining to war. With
the eager Jntere!;t an1l lovo or novelty of tile young, he Jfi;lened to thP.ir war songA
ancl war stories, and longed for the t i me when he would be old enough to join
.t h ese parties, and also mako hlmsel( a name among warriors. While quite a youth
be v ol unteered to go out with a party and soon gn.ve <"Onvlnclng proofs ot hfs
cou rage. He also early learned the a r ts of hunting the deer, the bear, the mOORe,
and all the smaller anim als common to the counlry; and lu these pu rsuits he took
68
i:ho or<llua r y lesson~ of I ndian young men, in abstinence, suf(orlng, clanger and en·
·durance of fatigue. In th is manner bl11 nrrves were knil and fo rmed for activity,
and his. mind st ored with th ose lessons o( caution which 1\re the result ot local
·OX[lCl'icnce in the forest. He possessed a tall and comrnan<llng person, with a lull,
black, piercing eye, and the 11snal features o! h is countrymen. He had a clear and
i11ll-toned voice, and spolw his native\ language with grace and fluency. To these
attractions he united a n early reputation !or bravery and skill In the c~ase, and
at tho ni:;e of 22 he was already a war leader.
Expeditions or ono Indian triho against another r equire the utmost cautlon, aklll,
.antl secrecy. There are a hundred things to gl\·e informatio n to such a party, or
Influence its action, which are nnknown to clvilizecl nations. The breaki ng ot a
twig, tho slightest Impression or a Coot print, and other lilce circumstances, deter-
mine n halt, a retreat, or an advance. Tho most scrupulous alteutlon le also paid
to tho Rigns or the heavens, the flight of birds, and above nil, to t he dreams and
prcllictlons or the Jossal<cell, priest, or p ro1lhct, who accompanies them, nnd who
is entrusted with the sncr ed sack. The theory upon wh ich nil these parties are
cond ucted Is secrecy and strntnp;em; to steal upon the enemy u nawar es; to Jo.y ln
ambush, or decoy; to kill nn<l to avoid ns much as possible tho baza1·d of being
ldllcd. An intimate geogrn.pblcal knowledge of the country Is also re<iulrecl by a
succei:sful war leader, and such n man piques hiruselt, not only on lcnowl ng every
prominent stream, hill, valley, woorl, or roc:k, but the partlcnlnr production!', nnl·
mnl and vegetable, oC tho srcne of operations. 'Vhen It ls con sidered that this
species of knowled~e. nhrew1lncss, nncl sagacity is posi:es~ccl on both sides, and
that the nations .it wnr wnkh cn.-11 other, 0.11 a lynx for its prey, It may be c.on·
cel vctl that many or ~h ose hordnr war pnrtlns arc either light aldrmlehes, suclclen
on-rnshe!';, or utter fnllnres. It is sel•lom t h at. I\ close, wcll·contestetl, long·r.ontinn·
·eel hare! battle is foni;ht. To lrill a few ni1~n. tear oft the ir !<rn.11>!1 I n haste, ancl
retreat with thei:e trophies, Is a brave ancl honornh!e trail with t h P.m, aucl may bo
bonstecl or in their triumphal rlancP.11 nncl warlike feslivili<>s.
To glean the rletails of theso movemP.nts, woulcl be to arq11!re the modern histo ry
or the trihn, which induced me lo clircrl m y enquiries to tho 1111\!Ject: but the
lapun or even 40 or 50 years had shorn lrn<lltlon or most of these lietAlla, ancl often
loft tho memol'y of results only. The Ch ippewas told me thnt this chloC hnc\ lect t hem
seven time!! to 11111·.r.cssrul battle agaln11t the Sioux a n d the Outngamle:i. ancl that ho
hnd Ileen wounrted U1rlce-oncP. in tbe thigh, once In the r ight shoulder, aucl n
third in the side and breast, hcing n glnnl'ing shot. His wnr parties consistt'd
either or volunteers who hac\ joine<I hlt1 stan<iarcl at the wnr •lanrP., or or auii:ll·
lnrlcR who had ac.ceptecl h Is mes!lngea of wam pum and tohncro anrl come forward
In 11. horly to the npnoln terl plnr.e of rcmcl1w.von!I. Thei;e pnrtleR varied i;reat.Jy In
1111mber; hiR fir st party co11R isted or hut 40 men, his i:;rea tcfl t an<\ most rr.nownecl, ot
300 who wern mus tered from tho villn~ce on the shores or th e~lnkn, ns far eni;t o.11
SL Mnry's fall!I.
It Is to the lncl1lcnts of th!!I IMt expNlltion, which ho.cl o.n Important influence
on the prohre1<s of the war, thrit we muy devote a fr.w momunt!I. The pll\r.e or
roncle:r.vous wn11 I.a Pointe, Chac:omiehon, or ns it Is cnllc<i In morlr.rn rlays, l.n
Pointe of I.alee Snpcrlor. The !IC'r.no or tho ronOlc:t. which "'all a Jong anrl bloorly
one, \\'a!I the fnlh~ of the SI. Croix. Tho t"·o plarP;; arc dl11t:1.nt ahout 250 mll<'s.
bY tbo most <llrert ro11te. Thia area cmbrnr.rR the snmmit land hctween Lalrn Supr.·
riot' ancl the 11ppr.r Mim~l~slpp!. Thll i:t rcums flowing ench way lntcrloc:k. whkh
onnhles tbe natives to n!':ccncl them ln their light ranoeR. nn<I nfter carryi ng the
latter over tho portai;m1, to dc11cend on tho opposite side. On thlR o<'cai;lon Wnbojeeg
nnd his partisan army ascended tho Musl<lgo or Mauvala river to Its connecting
6.9
portage with tho ·Namakagon branch ot tho St. Croix. On crossing the summit
they embarked In their. small aud lii;ht war canoes on their descent westward:
Thie portion oC the route was passed with the utmost caution. They were uow rap-
idly approaching the enemy's borders, a nd every sign was regarded with deep
atte!ltion. They were seven days from the time they first reached the wa ters ot
the SL Croix until they found the enemy. They went but a short dlRU! uce each
day, an d encamped. On the evening o! the seventh day the scouts discovered a
large body ot Sioux and Outngamles encamped on the lower side oC the portage ot
the great (nils ot tbe St. Croix. The disco ve ry was a e11r11riae on both aldoe. Tho
advanoe,.or the Cblppewas had landed at tho upper end or tho portage, Intending to
encamp tbere. The Sioux and their allies had just prececled them, from the lower
part ot the stream, with the enme object. The Foxes or Outagamies Immediately
ftred, and a battle ensued. It Is a apot, lnd~d. Crom which a retreat either way
ie Impracticable, in the face or an enemy. It le a mere neck oC rugged rock. The
river forces a pas1mge throug h thli< dark and 11olid barrier. rt le equally rapid and
dangero1rn for "canoes above and below. lt cu nnot b-0 crossed direct. After t ho fir-
fng began Wabojeeg landed and brought up hie men. Ho dlr<'r.ted a part ot them
to extend tbemi;elves In the wood around tho small neck, or peninsula, oC the por-
tage, wllence alone escape wao possible. Doth parties fought with braver y; tho
Foxes with desperation. But they were outn11mberecl, overpowered, and de feated.
Some a ttempted to descend tho rapids, and were lost. A !ow only escaped. But
the Chippewas paid dearly for their victory. WaboJeeg was slightly wounded
[n the breast; bis brother was kl lle'd. Mnny hrave warrlorn fell. It was a most
sanguinary scene. Tbe trarlltlon oC tbifl bntllc Is one oC tho most prominent and
wide-sp read of the events or llrn lr modern his tory. I have conver~ed with more
than one chief, who dated his flrst milltary honors In youth, to thiA scone. It pnt
an end to their fend with the Foxes, who retired !rom the lnterme<.llate r ice lakes,
and tle<l do\fD the Wisconsin. It ralsecl "the name of the Chippewa lender to the
acme ol llla renown nmong hl!l people; but 'Vabojeeg, ne humnne as he was brave,
grieved over the loss ot his peo1>le who h atl !alien In tho nctlon. This Ceellng was
expressed touchingly and characteristically, In n war song, which hs uttered ntter
th is victory, which hae been preserved by tho late Mr. Johnnton, ot St. Mary's, in
the f ollowing stanzas:
On th at clay when our h croN1 Jay Iow-lr1y low,
On thnt dny when our hl'roes lay low.
I !ought by their side, nna thought ere l died.
Just ''""ll'CRnce to tnko on the fol' .
.rust veni;en.nce to take on the f oe.
On that rlny when our chlcftntne Jay ilr.nd-ln_r dead,
On thnt t1o.y when ou r ('h lcftn.l ns Jny dNl.a.
I foui;hl hand to hnnrl. nt th e head of my \Jn.nil,
Ana h <'.rr.. on my breant , hnve I hied.
Ana here. on my brenst, have I bled.
Our chiefs 11hnll return no more-no mnr(',
Our chl(lf11 "hn.11 return no more,
Nor their brolhore ot wnr. who can ehow ~c-ar !or BCllr,
L ik e '<\•om en their fn tll!I s holl dr.plore.
J,lke wom en tliel r fntt.'/J t<ho.11 deplore.
FlvP winters In hunting wo"ll nr,nnc1-wr'll spend,
FIYI' wlnlt'rR In hunting we II F<nencl.
Tiil our youth. grown to men. WP'I! to wor )Pa d agnln.
J\ ntl ou r tlny R. like onr rn th ors, wP.'11 end.
And ou r tlays, like our fnthers, v.• e'll end.

It Is the cuatom oC these tribes to go to war In the spring and summer. which ·are.,
·not only comparallvoly seasona ot leisure with them, but It la at these seasons. that
they are concealed and protected by the follo.ge o~ the forest, an d can approach t ho
70

enemy 11usecn. At these n n n 11al r eturns oC wa r mth and vegetatio n, tboy a.tao en-
gage in fc..'lllvlties anti da n ces, durlns wh ic h tbe events nnd e xp loits of past years
a re su ng a nd r cclled ; aud wbilo they derive fresh courago 11nd atim11!U!'l to renewed
exertio ns, t ho young, who are lis tene rs, lcnn1 to. emu la t o th ei r fa t h ore, a nti ta.ko
the ir ccirlles t lessons in th e art or wa r. Not hin g iR done in t bo aumruer months
Jn t qe wny or h un t ing. The i; mall ! u rred n11t ruats are cbani;iug th eir pelt, which ls
ou t ot seaso n. Tho doo relire11 with h er !awns, from Lhe plains and open grounds,
In to th iclt w oods. It Is the gene ral season or r epr odu ctio n, an d th e r ed man, tor
a t im e, lnter mlts his war on th e anima l crea tion to resu m e It a ga inst mnn .
Ae th o autumn app roaches, ho pr e11a r es tor hie ra il h un t.s, by retiring from th e
ou tsk i r ts or t he s ettlemen ts, on tl from tb e open la kea, s hort-a, nod st r cam!l, which
hnve been t he sce nes of h is s ummer festivities , and proceed!', ncter a sho rt prepara-
tory h u nt, to his w in ter l ni; g r oun ds. T h is r ound or bu nll ui;. and or restlvlty and
war, J\lls 111> the year; a ll th e trilles con form In th es e gc n t' rRl c ustoms. There
nre no war pa rties ralsecl In t he win t er. This season l!'l exd11 slvely lleYotecl to
aec urin g t ho 111()a 11s or their i;ubslst11nce nnd cloth ing, by s eolllng t he vo.lun.l>le skin!!,
which are to purchase I.he ll' clolhin g an d t heir ammnn!llo n, traps, antl arms.
The hunti ng gr ounds of th o clilef, whoso lira wo are consideri ng, extended along
the sou the rn shores of Laite S upe rior. from the Montrell l ri ver to tho Inlet or the
Mls..'lcodn or Burntwood river o r F ond d u Lnc. Ir he asce nded tho oue, h e usually
made t he wide circui t ind kaled, nud como out at t he oth er. He often p<?oe tratcd
by a cen tra l r ou te up the MllSk lgo. This ls a r egion otlll obou od !n g, bu t less so
tllan ror mer ly, in the bear, rnoose. I.leaver, otter, ma r tin , and muslcrat. Among t he
smaller anim11ls are a lso -to bo not lcerl th o mi nk, lynx. haro. porc upine, n nd part·
ridge, nnd t.o wa rds its so u~h er n an d wei;torn limi ts, tho Virg-inln tl cer. In thin
l\mple nrea, the L a Poin1.c o!· (;hr.go imegon Itt<lians h u nted. It i:1 a rnl c of the
chase that ellch hunte.r hafl a po r t ion o( th e country ass li:;n cd to him, on which
he a lon e may hunt; anrl lh c re a.r e con ve ntional lawa whic h deci1l e a ll questlo111; of
r li;bt and p ri or ity in 11ta r l.lng and lcllllng g11me. In t h ese ques tlo rrn the chleC
exercise!'! a p roper au thor ity , 11n<l It Is thus In th e power of one ot th ei;e forest gov·
ernors an<I mn~l otrales, wh er e t hey happen to be men or sound s enso, j udgment,
and manly inde11end ence, lo make t hemselves relt a. 11<1 lc n own, and to hecomo
true benefactors to thei r t r ibe!\. An d s uch ch ieCs create an lm pres!llon up on their
follower s, nncl leave a rcp11l atl on behln<I them, which In o( mor e vnhrn th a n t he ir
achievements ln war.
Wabojecg excelled In bot h ch a racte rs; he was eq\l a lly popu la r a s a civil r uler and
a war chief; a nd while h e admln is tP. recl justice t o his people, h e wne an expert
h11nter, a nd made du e a ncl ample provision ror his fam il y. He usua ll y s;leaned !n
a oeo.Ron , IJy his traps and cnrbine. four packs o f mi xed !urn, th e nvo.lla · o( 'l\•hlch
weM nm plo to pi·ovldo clothin g tor nil tho members O L hl!1 lodge clr elc, 11s well as
to r ene w h lA s upply oC ammu n it ion an d othe r essen ti a l a r ti cles.
On o ne occasion he harl a aln i; uln r conlc11t w ith a moose. H e hnd gone out one·
morning early to set ma r tin tro.p a. H e hnd set abou t rn, a nd was r etu rn i ng to his
lodge, when hn u ne xpect edly enco11nter ed a la rge moose, In bis pat h, wh ich mRnf.
fe!lted a d is position to a ttn ck him. De lng una r med, nn <l ho.v lng nothing bu t a
kn ife anrl 11mn ll hatch et. whi ch he r,ar rled to make h lB traps , ho t r lec\ to n.void It.
But tho a ninrnl r a me towar• hi him In a fur io us man ner. H o took 9h eltor behind o.
tree, shlfl!ng his po!lltlon rro m t r ee 10 tr<>e. retrea tl n~. At l<> ngt h, a11 he fled, h e
picked up a pnle, and q11 klcl y untyl ni; hi!I mocca.<1in st r in g!<, he b ound bis Jcnife t o
tho end or the pole. H e lhen p laced hlmseH In a fnvornble position, behind a
tree, and whe n t he moo11e came up stabbed h im several times In t ho th'r oat and
brenst. At las t. the an im a l exha11ated with th e l oss ot blood, Cell . He then dlR·
71

palclted him, an1I cu~ out his tongue to c;arry home Lo his lorti;c Rs n trophy of
vlct~ry': When they went hack to the "Pol for lhc cnrrn1<s t.h1~y fou1icl 1.i1e snow
trampled down iu a wille c•.irr.le, nnd copiously f:Jlrinklcd with hlood, ,.;hich. g:ive !t
the o.ppcnrnnc:e of a battl1~tiei1l. It. 11rovc<1 to IJ() n male or ui:H:ommon Hi7.e.
The ·domestic history o( a native chief can seldom be oht.ntn e1l. !n t.ltP. pre1<ent
instance the facts that follow mn)' be regarded with intereflt., a s having been ob·
talned from residents or Chni;oimegoo, or from his desceu,lnnls. He did not take
a wife Lill about l·he a~e of :rn, and hi! t.hen nmrrietl a widow, by whom he had one
i;or. He had obtained e:nly notoriety !•-" a warrior, which per.haps ab!;orbed bls
attention. What causes there were to ren,lcr. this union unsntlsrnctory, or whether
thero were any, h; not known; bnt after the lapse or two years he marricrl n girl
or 14, or the lotcm of the hear, by whom ho had 11. famlly of six children. He is
repre!;ent<1d 11.e of a temJ><1r and manners .affectionate and forbenrini;. He evincecl
tho11ghtf11loeas and <llllgence In the management or his affairs, nnd tho order and
dls1>0Hltlon of his lodge. When the hunting season waA ovor, he employed his
lf'isure moments In adding to the comforts or hls lodge. HiA loclge was of an ob-
long shape, t.en fnthoms Jong, and macfc by setting two rOWR O( posts firmly in the
ground, nnd 1>hcathin:; thP. Rides nnd roof with the smooth bar)( of the birch. From
the ce nter rose a post crowned wllh the r.arvetl figure of nn owl, which he hacl
probably 1>elee.t ed as a bird or goorl omen, for It was neither his own nor his wife's
totem. This figure was so plnrcd that It turned wllh tho wind. and answered the
purpose of a. w~athcrcook .
In pen;on .1\'.~boje.eg wai; tnll, hclni:; six fret six inches, P.rcct In C'.nrrlage and of
slon1ler makr·.,·.'.HI?. possessed n commanding countenance, united to cnse and cllg·
nity of msinnerii. He was a r enrly nnd 1l11C'nt. speaker, an<l conducted pcri;onally the
negotlntiom1 with the Fox and Sioux nal.lons. It was perhnps 20 yenrs a.Cler the
l>at.t.le on the St. Croix, which established the Chippewa h')1101lnry In thnt q11artcr,
nnd while his children were «till young, l.hnt there ca.me to hiR villagE', In the
<'apnr.ity of a trader, a young gentleman or a rei;pec:tahle family 111 the north o! Jre-
lan<l, who formed an exalted notion 'of hlR character, hearing, 11n1l wn.rlilce exploits.
This vlHit, ancl his <'Onscquent r esidence on the lal<e, l\nring the winter. hecame
an important era to the chief, and hns llnlu~cl his name n.ncl memory with num erons
pe r sons In c ivili:>;ccl life. Mr. Johnston asked the northern chier for his youngest
rlaui;h ter. "Englishman." he replied, "my daughter is yet young, and yon cannot
take he r a s white men have so of ten tnkcn our rlaushtcrs. It will he time enough
to thlnlc of complying with your request when yon return again to .t his Jake 1n the
summ er. My <laughter is my favorite child, an<l I cannot part with her, 11nless you
wlll )lromlsc to acknowledge her by such ceremonies as white mcm use. You mu!<t
ever keep her, and never forsalcc her.'' On thls basis o. union wits forme1l, n union,
.ft may he Raid, between the Erne and Algonquin racen- nn<I It was faithfully
adhered to, till his death, n period or 37 years.
Wnhojceg hnrl Impaired his l1ealth In the numerous ~rnr 1rnrtles "'hlch he con-
clucted ncross the "'Ide summit which separated his huntlni; i; ro11nds frol'O the
Ml!!slsslppl valley. A slender frame, under n life or incessant exert.io n, brought on
a premature rl ccay. Consnmptlon revealed It.self at a comparn th ·oly early a~e. and
he fell hC'fore this insidious <11Rease, in a few years, at the early a gP. of about 45.
He cliecl In 179~ at his native village or Chagoimegon.
The incident which hns been namerl did not fall to mal1e t.he fore~t chieftal~
acqnalntcd with the lerullng truth or Christianity, in I.he rf)\'P.lal.lon H. mal1es of a
So.vlonr for all races. On th e contrary, lt ls a truth whlcb wn11 brought to hie
know1C'.d1'e nnd cxp.l!l.ined. It is, o r conr!'le, not known wit.h what particular effectB.
As ho saw bis end approaching. he requested that his body mi ght not be burlecl out
72

ot eight, but placed, according to 11 custom prevalent In the remoter l>Rnde of this
tribe, on a fOrm supported by posts, or · a scattold. This trait lo, perhaps, i:i~tu'ral
to tbe hunter state.

My trlendA when my ~plrlt lg Ocll - ts Oed,


¥Y Crlends when my spirit I• tied.
Ab, put mo not hound, In tho dnrlc nnd cold ground,
Whero light •h1lll 11n lon ger be Abcd~be shed,
Where dnylluht no more ~ht•ll 1Jhnll be shed.

But lny me up Rcarrolded hl1th- 11ll 1Jlgb,


Chte<s lny me up ecnlloldea high,
\Vhcro m.r trlhc ~hall "till sny, f\R tlll' Y po1n1 ·t(> my clay,
llo ne'er rrom the roe •oui~hL to lly - to Qy.
He ne'er lr~m the roe sought t o fly.

And chtldrcn, who pll\y on th e ~ hor.,- the xhore.


And children who piny on the shore,
As tho wnr dance tbey be Qt, my nnme al.Hiii repe n.t..
And tho rot., or their chlertnlu deplore-deplore.
And tho rate oC thelr chleftl\111 depl ore.
73

'l'hc, rc:wcmt noi ice of 1hP <kinh of Etlwarcl Oh!;h.aw:uw of the "Olil
fia11lt," ·With n. i;;kckh of _hia life. i:l.k<~ll fro111 the
S:rnlt Sh~. ~l:wie 1\c>w1<,
in a recent .~snc of 'fhc HN·n l<l ii. 1l('R<'rvi11~ of mol'c i hnn pnR~iug uotil'C?
Hi~ sti·m1g-t•, Ra'l life 1;.c1:1111,1 a littin~ 01111 o( the 11wd<>st t1.n1aRt~· of whii'h
he W!\S . th~ laR.t, nntl hitl <l<'a.th hn~al.:s a11ot'hcr link iu hiR1ory wilh tl1l'
myRt<'1:io11R llllfl . mo~t i11h•1·<'~ti11g race who W<'l'<' our in·c1lecl'8l'lOt'll iu
this foil· lnn<l· of 'Mil'hi~:rn . . · ' · ·
E11w:irc1 Oh1>ha.w:1110 wa1-; a r<'a.l and not n 111:111rif1whJl'<''1 <'hil•f!':1i11.
lK'! i ll~ 1·eg:nlnrl.Y ill'Rrf'111l1•1l. froin a Ji11c of chil'ftni11R, ·hut ht~ w:uc n c•hi<'r
without n nat iou 111111 wi_t honl n. co1mtry. Ile wat': one of th<' fow 111'
hiR l'l\CC left in J1is nnt i\'(' ]!IMC.
\\1 hcn a boy, or ]H'l'h:t)'H a nn·.y young 111nn, he with hiF.l h1·01he1'. wc!1·c•
fol' ti t ime lllC'lllhl"l'R of {he ho:ll'll ing Rt' Itool of the 'jln ptiRt Ill iRRion of
the! Snult, pln<'<~cl 1h1'1'~ h.v J1iR fathel', old Chirf Rhnwn110. n mun nf
. gr<'nt . nntural . i11h~lligc11c.<' nllcl uignity of ~i1ni·nr.i ,:i-. nppr!!Cinfo1~ tilt'
:white mn.n'e :uknntngc in cdncntion~ an<l who _'liecl RO l'C<'<'n1iy :11~ to
. he still well rcm<'111h1•1'l' il hy Y~l'J" mnny of the 1n·c~f'nt inhnhitnnl~. Tim
. -Ol~l chief ,W:lA the )ni;t who hnc] ni1y p01:tion of t Jie frihc to rnlc. nncl
t hnt, ao Rmnll :i. po1·f i.011 n~ 1'o mnkl'! hiR l'nlc h:11·il ly more t"lt:m no111i11nl.
'From t·hc Grunt! H.apiuii S11111lay J (9rnltl, <.kt. 8, l~HO.
74
J111l he wns a mnu of i111luc11tc nmong the few of his lll'Ople nu<l rc-
i::p1~<'l<'ll nncl trentc<l with ro11Riclc!1·atio11 hJ' those 1mlC'1' fac cR wl10 1·c-
phtr<•1l Jiis vanii;hcd s11bjcds. I vc1·y well 1:cmc111li<~r Etl\\'Ot'll Ohslrn·
wnno ns a l.>l'ight nnd p1·omisi11~ youth, ea.pnulc, nmbitiou11 ancl pl'Om1,
fC'cling !tis owu cnpnt:Hy an1l his position ns "crown prince ;" hut t he
l'irc111n~tn11t·cs of life were ni;ninst him. "The mnn with 1he fll'cwatcr"
hnl'I h:Hl more to <lo wi t h the vnn ii;f1i11~ of the Intlians, tha11 nny secru·
in~ i;m•crnmcntnl injustice 01· thC' hnllel8 o( Jnuinn ti~ht.i11 g AolllierR.
That fi:11nc 1n:rn wilh the fi1·e-wntcr hns bren the 11wst fl11 cc1~sfi f 11l of nil
"111ii-:~io11a1·iC'A to the IuflianA" i11 teaching t:hc111 not 0111,y to vie with,
but: to cxeP.I thri1• while h1·c11m~n in the capacity of 1h·ink the mselves to
. !!(1<'0.dy and d iAhono1·n1Jle den th. 'fhe ~iste1· 1 J,ir,7.ie. hcc·;unc f hr wi fc of
Jolin Logan Ohipmnn, well known in l\!icbignu poli1icr-, who w:1e there·
(111·e hrnther-i11-Ja.w 1o E1lward. A little ind1knt· r011111•cl<'tl w ith this
11i:11'l'ingc 111:1y not be ont of }ilacc hct'<', the parties to it hrini; mostly
~011C'. J,iz:r.ie li\"cd with h<>r parcnl1:1 in their romnntic isla111l h ome nt
the foot of the rapids of thl! St. Mary'~ rh·e1·. Mr. Ohip111a11 , t he u a.
youn:; man. wns prndicing law in the oli1 town. He \Vas Jn·ig-ht nn1l
c-npnhl<', lrnt with not innch thct'<!, to. dl'nw ont Iii~ ltl'illi11n t talents,
(rn<l h<:) too, wns atr11~gli11g- wi'tlt I he foe in the hau1ls of "!he mnn with
the! li1·e-wal<'r," aucl snhject at times to great ment·nl <1ep1·cssiou . One
~atnl'<l11y en~ning i,it the "long ngo" he visite1l J,i?.:r.ie and pel'snn<lec.1 her
1o l1ccome his wife, antl atnr!·ccl out for a pa!'E-;On 1o 11erforn1 the cr:re-
111011y at Oll<'C. Uc fornHi the Mc:thocli8t minister, who waA, if I mistake
nor, the ne,-. ~Ir. I'ilezel, now nn olu man, if living, aucl a. "snpcrnu·
1111ati-1F' of the ~lic:hign~ i\lcl'hodiat conference. Mr. Pitczel lte~it:lfctl,
11-.du~ to pc~nm:1de him to 1:h:rn:;e his puqiogc, thiuking it would he :t
11wtl<'l' of life-lo11g regret. but without avail. "I asked yo11 to ln:U'l'Y
111<'. not to :uldi;e me, soul if yon will not, somco11c else will," he ~ni<l.
~l'ci11~ reasoning wns trnclcss, the del'gyma.n pcrfo1·mc1l the 111nr1•inge
l'<~re 111nn~·, nll<\ "lllr. Chipman fOl" :1. while took 11p his nbo<le with the oltl
d 1i<'f 01i Sta:n\:irno's islnncl. On Hun clay cvcni ng there wnA a Ii ttle un-
rlethnll(l co111111otiou . ninou:; the g1·oup of young people nncl fri ends as·
RP111hl<'rl at the chnpcl service in the B ~iptist mis11io11, where M t'. Cl1 ip-
111:tn niul his comrades usunlly nt tende~l. A young \Vest l'oin t licu-
tt•1i:111t. now n g·r :wc, 1·etirccl gcncrnl of the arrny, secretly pnKscu a s lip
of p:1pcr n111ong the metnbe1·s of the choir on which were wl'itl'en tltesc
worus: "Chip Jina mnrricd the chief's dau~hter." After se1·vi ce t hcrn
wns o gntliering together, an1l gossiping over the news, and much re-
gret wns expressed for his hasty action, but, to-. his credit be it saidr
75
h~ stoo<l by it loynlly ·nnrl honor.al/ly, showed his wife e,·er~· 1~0111·fpo1111
ntt<>ut'ion nnd interested hims.e lf greatly in the welfare of h<'r family.
lt w:rn undoubtc<1Jy io hi s efforts thnt :E(lwnrcl, ·the bt·other-in-la"·· ow<'il
his' 'c dncational opportunitier:; nn<l his ambition to rise, which, lint· for
his misfortunei might have mncle him a unique fignre in Indinn history.
·OJ~ Chief. Sltnw:u10 lived to nn honornble nnd r espected old ngc. })1
nn · article prepared for ·nnotllcr oc('asiou is the followm::r desr.riptiou
of n visit to his rom:111tic home n few ycnrs ngo hy some well-known
Grnnd Rapids people:
At 1he foot of the rnpich~, nenr the Ani<>rknn sliorei but .still in 1he
swirl nnd foam of the fnl!R, iri a small islnncl cO\"C't'<'Cl with green or hal-
st11ns nnd ce<lnra. It stnn<.ls like nn emern l<l in a setting of white; noth-
ing roultl be more picturC>sq11e. AboYc, nu<l nt one side, n rnngnil1c<'~1t
hn<'kground, rises tho river higher :rnd higher. th~ water quickly 11C?-
scen<ling, a great slope of rnsh ing, tmnhling, <l:uihing white·fonm. <'Ill·
blem of intensest life. Below, the <kep blue of the lJroa<l rfrer, setllin~
into calm after Hs wil<l frolic, moving majesticnll.Y on. At the oth<'t'
side of the great ship-<'nnals, cmhlcm of mnn~s poW<'I' n1ul force. On this
romnntic spot, when the Iu<li:rns were removed from tbe rel.lt"l'rn.tio11 on
,.''l'he Pointe," oltl. Chief Shn\vnno, the Inst of the petty chicftain8 o f
thn.t regi on, lmilt n l1 om<'. It wns not n pnlnC'.c, lmt it wns romfo1·tnhlr..
He kept a birch-bark ~anoc to bl'iclgc the uo.rrow cl1~11nel. lwtween 1111~
island nnd the shore. Shawano was a man of medinm hei~bt, ~·i1. h n
iine, intelligent face, a granu "Webstcrinn hencl" wit li n shock of iron -
grny· hail'. D is rnunner ·''Nls courtly, his speech grnve nnd dignili<'tl,
'vith a tin.ge of sadness. l.lere, with his old wife, lie live<l for yem·fi_.
ciucl 11ere; I presume, he died.
One lovely snrnnwr cYening. jnst before snm1et, n part.v of gll<'Stf( n t
the qua.int, ohl-timc hotel Bet out for n en.JI 011 oltl Chief Shawnuo.
·'l'here were ohs! nncl abs! and litlle feminine sllricl\s ns tlw uniuitia1f'cl
stepped into the swaying, tipping cnnoc iri the swirling water, hnt 1hr.
dnrk hand guiding it wns stencly nn<l sure. The olU gentleman rer.ein•cl
his guests witl.i courfoous hospitality. One of the part,,- the chief hncl
known as n child, who, familinr with his In.ngnagc, ::icted a1:1 iutPt'·
prctcr for the rest. He wns glad to sec her and to ml'ct her frit•1ul1>,
's poke feelingly of the time Jong past wh~n he knew he1· fni-hcr :rn1l
1tiotller, of the scltool, the religious i;crvices nt her father's "mission,"
especially the singing there, of which he was very fond, mentiouing-
somc of the hymns, nn<l occnsionnlly using an -English word. $omconc
_itsked _i_{ l1e__would not like · to h ear again one of tbe old hymns in hi~
76

own tongne. Assenling, the song l>cgau, wl.te1i i11stnntly 'the ol<l chief
1·e111on~ll his bat, reverently lJO\YCd his head antl stood in impressive
i;ilencc while the hymn was sung. 1t was another rendering of Millct'a
'.',Angelus," nn<l the eyes of more than one in the gl'Oup were suspiciously
moisl". Ilid<ling tltem fnrewell, be 1:1till stood with bared !tend ns they
wen I: down the nnr1·ow path througll the sweet scent<'!d flt•s a nd cedars
1o the hnuk. 'furning for n last look, uo ouc of thnt party wili ever
forget t he pidnre pr<'!sented to view.
The snn was scttihg in brilliant hucR right into the high linckgl'Onn<l
of white foaming ~vatc>rs; the sunset sky wns rarely beautiful even fol'
thn t cOt!nt r y of lovely Rtmscta; tlle green iRland arniu the boiling wnYe~,
ilic wintling path lcatling up to the little house, nntl there in the sun-
li~lt t:, the "grand old ma n" with tbe 'Vehstcl'inn l1ea<l a rnl il'on·g\'ey
hn i l', lint in hnncl, kin~ly in manner, 'vnving his Inst fart'WC ll. ·
What wc1·c his tho11ghts \Vere these his guests, h is frie1Hls 01· hiR
fo<>s? W:ui he glad thn.t he stood tlrnre in the snnset of h iR life nnd of
Ii i11 1·:wc? And wa!'l thcl'e a c1·own fo1· thnt noble hc·nrl waiting in the
''h:lppy hunting grounds" beyond the glowing suuset?
Edwn1'1l Ohshnwuno was buried io the ne'". Riverside cemetery · of the
<'it.'· of Sau lt Ste. )fnrie nmong his pnle-fi.lcc.d conte111 porarie.s ; hut near
1he 1-1 pot where his, fathe1· lin!d so long, and th1·011gh which the gren.t
~hip dinnncls ~·ere hnilt, wns the Indian bnrying-gronn1l wher e were
laid 1,hc 1·cmnim1 of his tlark.-faced auccstOl'A . The tlrst shaft of the fil'st
cannl, was s1111k l'ight flo wn througll their bones, to the great uistr('11a
of 1he smTiriui.; I ndian!'!, to wl10m this spot had been rcserred forcn~r
l.i)· 11·en t,y with the gon!1°n111ent. Another chief, SheguJ, n mim of noble
1•rcse1wc, of nuuRually intelligeut mind, of grent ot·atoricnl power~ elo·
q11c11t. impns!'.iouecl in E1JlCech, on thnt sonowfnl dny when he enw the ·
first Rhaft Rtmk, went t o the missionn 1·y, who w1111 nli:;o hiR pn.sto~. mul
in Jl<'\'Cl' to be fol'gotteu WOl'cls expressing his deep feeling, asked if
:ir1·. Hingham woul<l go wit h him t o tlte "grea t father nt \Vnshington"
to rc11.wus tt·ate agninst t he <lcsecrntion~ nncl claimc<l fnlflll111c11t of gov·
<~rn11u~nt pro11iise. The mntte1· was thoroughly di!!cuAsccl, an<l unjust n!f
i t se<')ne<l, it wa!! <lcdtled, protest was useless. The cnr of p1·ogress like
tho ca r of Juggnrnnut, 1loes not pause or turn nsi<le iu its relentlesR
l11:1rr.h, ]('8t cleaJ men's bones lie crushe<l, or living hearts be· broken.
The !'l:Hl1Jest fa re I C\'CL' sn.11·, was the <lark face of that native noble-
rnnn flf; lie y iC'lde<l to t he inevitable .
" ' ith the mention of theRc ··names, charnctcrn nud scenes of this nn-
cicnt'.c ity l>y t he gl'ent waterway, nre rcca lleu many others, w hose writ-
77
ten lives would reatl like· the rnnsler pieces of fiction, anu whnl'lc eurious
hisl ol'ics should not he n.llowed to he lost in the •lim 1 hn!'lieu past.
It is Rnid that with ilte pnss iu;; away of erc1·.'· h11111n11 life, is in<'-
<:ovcrably lost some portion of important 01· i 11 tC'n•(lti ng h ii::tory. ~ o
one hnving an ~· irnn~inu t ion or nny depth of fcclin~. can 'IYan11C'1· throu1:d1
any old ·cemetery without "rca<!iug between the lincR" on the old tomh·
stone~, nntl without the- thought that ('Oniel the quiet alecpcrf.I nl'i1;e nnd
tell the i·cal s tory of thei1· JivcR it wonld 111·orn nJH!\Y1 '''l'rrHh iR strange1·
t linn fiction." Even if tlnu; mnny wrongs might be righted, it is best
that the "11ea I of Ri l1•ncc" is fa Rt set upon the gr:n-c.
Ju the olcl town of Sault St~. M:u·ie there w;s a burial. pine<' lirEit
lll~cd probnlJly OYcr two centuries ngo hy the early F 1-cnch Jesuit miR·
aiounrics, explorers nnd fur-trn clcra who penetl'nte<l this' thcu wilcl ~·<>·
gion, inhabited only by numcro\ls wandering tribes of s:n:ngc I1Hlians
nt wnr w ith each othc1·. It wns dircctl;y on the hnnk of t he noble rh·c1",
~ltade<l by mnguitkcnt forest trees. It has hc('n ol>liter ut<'d well on
"townrtl n C<'ntury, IC\"dlcd :rn<l l>n ilt ovC'l• llR fa\' lJ:wk p('rhnps llR. the
m('mor.r o f thP. present "ol1lC'st inunl.>ilnnt," if'R Jocn lit~· arnl existence nl·
mor;t forgotten. A mol!t intercsl iug relic fonnd uot Jong ngo in nn ('X·
cavntion there is n. little crucifix rnaue in France, c;; q niR i tel~ wr011gltt-
in iron or silver, mnch discolored but otherwise pm·f<•ct, bnried who
know13 when wi th ao 111e faithfnl Frc ncl1 priest of 11tc Romoµ Cntholic
church.
How <]Uictly the E:leepcrs h:n·c laiu there on the hnuk of the rh·er,
\mm_indful of the di:rnges JlMSing by-smmue1· n1u1 wiutC'r; the swift
flowing w nter, . nn~l the sol id ice; the wiltl war-whoops or sn.rngcs in
fierce, 1lead ly combnl'., nn<l the plnnting of the c'1·oi,:i; a11tl i11ioning of
din.uts of the Oht·i stian clt m·c-h; hil'ch l':'lnOC'R flyillg pn!>t with <Jlli1·k
Rhnrp strokei; of tl1c paddle, ncco111p:u1ied hy Rl11rnfR yc>llR nlHl W('i1·'1
i:;onir-> inspiriting enough to Ren<l the lii.;ht cnnoe m·<'r 1hc walc>l'R with ·
out hancls; lmttennx of the fnr-tr: 11Jc1·s from MontrC'nl n1ul QuchC'c with ·
their voya9e1ffs keeping time 1.o their oars with th~i r quaint Cnnadinu
l>ont aongs; the patient g li<ling of FIO.il vP.saels with thci1· modest frcighti:i;
.the little• high·IH'CS$Ut'e stt>:unboat p nillng its wny np iu great import·
nnce at stntcd periods; the larger Rten.mers in Ol'cnsioual tl'lpa with
t heir lon<la of tonrists, until in the mnrcll of civilizn tion the birch-cnnoe
with its pndtlle, the huttcnnx with their 1''0!J«-!JClll'S Jin,·c giwn pince ro
floating palnc<!a ancl immense "whnlclJacks" cnrl'ying i·ich cnrgoes-mul
f!till, t he "fathers" aleep on by the l'iYer side wl1ilc tbe modern wo1•ld
1·ushes pn.st unmindful, foo, of tl1em.
78
'l'ht'<'C .bnrial plnces were in use tluring the pust ccutnry, one by tlm
l.'onglomernle c itizens of the town, one by the militnry when li'ort Brady
Willi cs tnbl il:lhed, and one by the Indinns on tlie point of Juud· jutting

i111 o the rn.pitls. 'l'hc first two hnve been remove<.l to the so.me rnngc of
hillR aonth of 1he <'ity to which Fort Brady hns been removed more
r cl'cntly. It wns in these olcl cemeteries that I ·,vnncleL·eu with my <'hild·
ho<Hl t•ompnnioua, rending nn<l . hearing. the inscribed nncl uninR<'1·ibetT
h iRtorieR of the sleepers lying t hc1·e.
1 n the mili tnr.r grou111ls civ:i Ii ans were sometimes buried. On the
luoRt i111p9Ring mnrhlc there, was n long elnhorate i11Rcl'iption; name,
,Joh " ,Tohustonc ,;' nge, eighty; na tive lnnd, Ireland; rnnk, noble. By .
hi s i<itle the wife of Ilia youth nn<l age, a princess of flH~ Ojibwny tribe
.of ::-forth American l ntlinns. About this couple hovct'A romnnce cnongh
fo1· the wihlest fn ue.v, nncl a mine of wca1th fot· the "fou1u1ccl on fact,.
novrli::it. Fni· scpn l'ated ns wcl'c the plnccs of their birth, they were
ccinnec1r<l h,r it wornlerful wntcrn·ny, n chain of 11ncriual but. unbrokro
li11kl'I. Lnkc Superiol', Ht. ?lfnry's river, J,nke Tinron, St. Clnir rh'el',
Lake St. Clni r, Detroit river, J,nke Erie, Niagnrn. river, Lake Ontnrio,
f::t. L:\\vrtmre riYer , Gulf of Rt. J,:\wrence and the broa<l Atlnntic.
8omcwherc nhQ11t one hun<lred nnd. twenty-fiYe yenrs ngo (17!>2), John
Johns tone; n yonng Irishmnn of rnnk nncl fortune, left his home fol' the
wiltls of North A~ericn. Tllere is a s tory extant or frntcrnal treacllery
111Hl sd1em iug to get him away ncv~r to return for the brother's advnn-
1:igc in p ince and powel'. Howeve r thnt may be, Cupid ca lled him.
1hongh he knew it not. Brave littie Cupid! Beside the Indian maiden
in h rt• fo1·c>st home he h n<l bent his bow ancl sent bis nrrow stra igltt te>
i t~ 111arlc i n the head of the youug uoble far nwny in tlt~ E mcrnh1 Isle.
Tht•1·e i s yet in tltc family an elegant gold watch br onght by John John·
i...tone when he left home, and closely fitted into the iunct· case is still
the bit of fine t issue pnper, skillfully c11t into henrta and doves nn•l
n1picl::i, plnc~cl there by t he " g irl lrn left behind 1dm," os WaFl tbe cnstom
then fol' gcn~le maiclcnF! to <lo.
?lfr . Johnstone's business in America wn.s with the Hndl;on Bny Fm:
i·ompn ny. He lnndeu in Cnnndo. and took the birch canoe and pn1ldle·
line to the for interior, where the r oyal dusky maiden unconsciously
nwn i tcd his coming. They met, nn<l loved·, nnd mnrriecl, "Indinn
fa s hion," renrin~ n ln rgc family of sons nnd daughters.
netiring finally from active busi ness, :Mr. Johnstone settled nt tile·
. Snult de Ste. ~farie noel built n. large house nenr the site of the oltl
~ portrnita of the Johnst.ooe family sec Vol. 32, p. 305. Mrs. Gilbert spells this.
nnme Johnstone; Schoolcrnft and other nu thori ties give 1t Johnston.
79
<:cmetery on . th~ r frer hnuk, an<l just below wlJC're old Pol't Brad~- was
huilt later on. 'l'hc ltoui;c was clegnut for its time, null hns hccome J1is·
tor.ir . . The motlern i111 rchnscr cnc:u;cc.1 it with c lnp\Jo:u<ll'! to prcsNTe·
t)Je original, and in o.ltcrnt.iou fo r h is own occupancy kfl it ns •HearJ.\-.
ns possible of the ol<l design- the lnrgc parlor ond dining-room in the
-<>enter, nt tltc cnst en<l n Jn rge kitchcu, nt the we!';t encl n1Hl in t.hc rem·
tile sleeping rooms.
I u the "'l'a le of 'l'wo Cities'" written l~!J!) fol' the "Pionc<'l:R'~ iR·
. ihia <lcscrivtion: "A Jong, low, well built log-houRe in a hcnnl'iflll oli1-
fni;hionet1 gnrtlcn, roRcs in perfection, lilacs, s~n·ct-williamR, llachPlor-
l1utto 11s, mnri~olus aucl ofhc1· floWC'L'S of Jong ngo gl'ew luxurinntly ill
.front, while back of the house wn11 n kitchc-u-gnrclc11, where long rowR
of cul't'nnt hnshes hung full of r ich-colorecl frui t . the tnatc of whfrh
I ing<'rs i u rne11101·y ;rel. Ile re had gn tlierctl from a wn_r bnd' many ·
notable people, n11d here was kept llJl nil poAsihle of the fllnlc n.11d eel'<'·
rnony of a 11 oulc horn~c of lrclnnt1; the presiding gen ins n lli;!uiftctl and
:i;tntely wo111an , <laughter of a uotcJ Ojihwny clticC 'l'ltc BOllS nnd
daughters of the l1ouse were sent nwn).. to flchool, bnt trnint'll nt liomc
to t.hc s trict con ,·entionnlifi cs of the Rociul life iu which 1hPil' fatla•1·
woa 1·care<l. Some! were sent to lrclanc.l 1o be cc1ucn fc11. On fhc i;l'eat
:Ricleboard in the dining-room were nl'l'nngcd .m:iuy picrP.i> of aolill Riln•t·
.service brought from ll'eland, :111tl nlways e::rncU,v in ihe an111e placP.11.
-On ".the ·\valls were oltl portraits, and nbout the rooms 11ir111~- foreign
.articles, exciting in Olll' childish miutls great wonder nnu aclmil'nt.ion."
Of the <laughters one rnn1·ried Ilcnry H. School1:raft_. Indinu ag<'ut for
the ·government , 0111·c kn own in that 11 \\ pper count ry" nH "Uncle S:nn'R
p ct." who lived i11 Washington many ycnra. It wna Schoolcrnft's book
<>l,l the I ndians from which t he poet I,on gfcllow <lrc\\· for informnfom in
"llinwathn.1 " in wbicll J..JOngfellow'e nbsolntcly coi:rcct 11~c of 1he 111-
<linn words is ,·cr,r 'rcmn 1·lmble. Another sistel' mnrriell n h1·othcr,
. Jnmea ~dioolcrnft, a VCl'J' h:rntlsomc 111nn, n11c1 i;hc n ,·c1·y hn111ll10111e nntl
elegant wo111nn. \Vlirn a chi ld I usccl to think 1.hnt if <'Y<'l' I :.r1·cw 11p
:ind could sweep the tt·nin · of m;r go\\·n in the sn111e p;rancl fashion :\lt·R.
Jnmcs Rclioolcrnft did ns ·i;he wnlkccl with stately trend np the aisle ·
of t!~.e little ·mission chapel, lifo wonld he worth livin g. Riie wm·e
mostly black, l..irightcncd with rich red, ns mo1>t hC<'om ing to her fine
Lrnnette complexion aucl the rich red of hc1· check. It was her lms-
band's mnrder nt the old homestead which gnvc the tow n its great
tragedy o~. July ~' · 184G, en Iled the "Tanner summer." He hnd spent
1 Published in Vol. 29, p. 322.
80
f;ntnnloy, the "glorious 1?om·th," with n gn.y pnrty of f\'i clltls in Cau-
arla nt the Hudson Day corupnuy'o s tati on, of whom Mnjor Jn li u!-3
Ktn~hury, in cornmnn tl nt Fort Brncly, "·ns one. The tlan~hter of
;\fajor Kingsbm·y was the fir11t wife of General Simon TiolJi\r<>r ~uckncr,
lntc cn n<litlntc for vice-president on the gold c1cmocrnt. ticket. They
l:li'n;re1l ln tc nnc1 l>o lh hn<l rested until Monday afternoon, when Mr.
Schoolcrnft went for n. wn lk i n the n.i.>o\'C men tioned gnr1k11, going on
n little in to the near woods, when he wna shot ihrongh the he:\l't from
the amlrnsh of a ncnr tree and fell fonvarcl 1lenll. Thnt is n long tale
li.r i t1<clf. with n m.r1:1tery sti ll unsolvc<l. -:irrs. Schoolcra ft's cltiltlrcn
hnd complexions 011 foir and veins ns blue ns though no <lrop of Indian
_ul ood COlll'E>ed through tlJenL .
Anoth er 8·i ater, also nn cl<>gnnt nnd chnrming womnn. innnied the
Rev. 'Will in1n J\lcJ[rn•rny of the Episcopal chnrch, aftcrn·nnl n long nn d
well-known bishop of C:ma<lrr. When the Rev. Ahel Bin!!ltnm first w<>nt
t o the f=::i.nlt ns missionary to hoth whites nn<l I ndi;1ns, ;\frs. :\(e'i\fnrrny
!lilt l>y his si<lc in the Snbhath afternoon service antl int<'l'prctc<l bis ser·
mon into the musicn l phrases of her mother tongue, n1Hl he alway~ rc-
tain<>1l for hct' a most tcnclcr regard. It wns a ;;rnn lltlnng:htcr of Mrs.
Mc:IC11l'l':1~-, liYing- in Rt. Louis, wl.J.o nut long ago mnrl'ic<l F arrer Cohh,
son or !'he ncv. 8:~n for<l re. 0ol>h, re<::cn tly of this citj'.
Th e el<1<'11t i::iF.tter, ")Cifis Blizn ," 11cvcr manic(l, nurl wn s the most
pict11rcsquc of this fnm ot1fl f nmily. 8 he <lelightcd in hrt· l in<>agc, kept a
maid, n ~·onng Indinn girl named J5qnn-7.hau-shis, who followccl her
l'\'<'l',\'Whcrc at a slate<.l, respectful tlistnnce, and was ns pictures<]nc_.and
fn111ilint· a fi~m·c ns her mistress.
l 11 wiutcr ";\C iss Efom" wore n long blue pell ise, or 1·kiak with w i n~­
lik<' c·np e$. a square of ]il a itecl folllS nt the hnck tri111111<>1l with hlnck
V<'IY<'t; n l'Oppcr-colot·c•<l snti n hon11ct with round, high ('1·nw11 :incl brond
fr011t:; n l011g gre<'1'1 bnr<>gc H: il t ietl oYer t he front wi t l1 n. 1·ihho11 , :i lwnyR
<l 1·11w11 l o one i;i1le . : 11111 hclcl hack by h ct· l'ight arm. 111 s 11111111c1· s h e '
wo r e :i. "ulue-ltlack silk" gown, u. ho1111 ct with a hea,·il_y cmhl'oi<krcll
f,1:1d• lace ,-ril, clt·awn over the face nncl reaching nearly to f he feet, ol·
n · lnr!-!e gl'e<'n !.<rlk cnlnRh mncle like the top of a covereu bnggy, "'ith rat-
tan <·m·cJR Rhin<'d jn, to folcl .up or let down. mn.nngecl hy :1. ril>l>on nt-
tach<>cl lo one aide. In Qn<>ucc there is n carl'in:;e _callrcl C'alnflh in com-
mon use. 1''hdht•r the cnl'!'i:q;c gave the name to the \Joonct or the bon-
net to t he cnniage. I cn11not say.
";\ l isR Blir.n'' ne\'et· d1:ingert lte1• style of dress. In season she ulwn.ys
. ('art'iM n sprig of swcet-sccnterl green, like eglan tine, n1· n frogl'ant. bu d
or blossom . whi<:h Rhe iwirlcd iu ouc hn1ul, whi le ,yj\Ji ihc o!1l<'r Rl1c
carricu a hlue-bcn dcd hng. Exncl in r; clue l'01rni1lc·rntio11 . Rhe \\'flfl ki11cl-
11esa itself; n111l when left alone i n the gre:'lt li o11w:<fcut1 it w:'li:; n grc:1t
resort for "u a <.:hiltlrcn," who w ere fascinnkd wi th its air of f>t.:i tc, t li c
wonuerful stories 1old with her own peculiar lnngnngc, i11to11ation and
pride, and the sponge cake no ouc e lse eonld make s o 1lelieio1rnl.r deli-
cate as .i::he. 'l'hcy were nil famous <'Ooks.
The Jae;t time I :snw lier slie I~y ou her bec1 wni tiog fo r clcall1--<!i~h(y
ycnrs old-home, f:1111il~-, fortnu c gone . ))car " ~ f i ss E lizn !" After 1l1 cRe
many years she atn1H1s out a clear cut, 1rnic1ue nw111ory of n happy C'l1ilr1·
hoocl.
J\Irs. Johnstone, the Indian mollicr, wns n st ro 11~ drnrndrr ni11l of
~rcat inflncnce w Hh her pcop le. S he· i t n·n~ who rl ii:;co1·1·n•<l. :rn d liy
skillful rnnncu n~r JH'<'H•ntecl, the inlc rHlC'd 111:1R~nc1·c of fo e ~O \'t' rn1n c11t
party at tl1c t ime of ihc 11-c:it}' w ith Grurrnl en~~ \\'hen he Jllll'ClinF:CCl
the land fol' i he go,·cr11111cnt.. Unc11urnl<' <1 in book t;. r eared nmon:; a
savage people in ihe wil<ls of fon•st life, Rue pOS81'l:l:,lcd lhat i1111:ll e 'Ii~·
uit:r, intelligc11('C, self-respect nn<1 courage whi cl 1 "rises to oc<:a i:;io11;'
superior to c:ir<.: t11ni:;tance.
She won<1C'rfnlly n.dn p ted hCl't:;Clf to Iler slr:111 ~c p0Ritio11; wng the l1c:icl
of the _l1ou seholtl , lo,·c11 l1y lirr fa 111ilJ, 111eeti11 g nn ecpinl · il'rn11J g 111 f' ! 1:1
1

of the hon:;c from palnec or wi i.;wnm .


I have <lese1·ili1•<1 tlwF.:e wo111 cJ1 in <lctail hf> <·a11Rr. 1111'." wel'l~ fi11<: 1n it·~
of a. class tltnt hns rnnishcd. \Yhnt is 1>:1id of th<' m may 111~ R:1i<l " ·itli
tqnn l trntlt of n1:iny otl1er dn111cs Ri1niln rly sit11:itP<l at · tl 1r. olcl S:rnlt
de Ste. · llfnric. T he "gr~JH1 c1nrnes" :incl Jo1·el:· "cl:u1gllicrR" of Arnrr il'a
llfll'e not all l1cc11 fair of face o r clescc~1Ll cd frolll l'ilgr i111 or l'11ritnn .
Of the soni:i, George Johnslouc was n. Yery \\' ell c<l nca t ecl l11nn, <'Oil·
ventionnl nnd very cr.rcmonion s in m:mn er, 11ni(ing in hi111 r;e lf H't',1"
11oti"c1?nbly, the at11dicd mnH11er s of h is "rnnk" in both nnt.io11E1, t li e lriKh
and the ·In<lin11. Ile freq ue nt ly Jicl<l gover111 1H•n! l'm;i! i o11s n11cl wm: for
8evern1 }·earfi s!n t ioned ll,r the go,·ern 1ur.n t 011 'l'r:i rr.rR.c lJay . 1;0111('\\' h<~ rc
ne.nr what is n ow cnlletl OM :M: issiou . Be ·w ns tl great rt!n1le1· n11i1 g:we
liis brother-in-law, Henry R Schoolcraf t, Yfll nal.Jlc nssis t·:wre i11 rc-
senrches among ille ludi:i.n s in cornpiling llis ho11kR. Ju 8d1nokrafl'K
"Characterist ics .of tl1e Heel Tince of Amcri cn" w ill he fo mHl :t r lin.ptr.r .
by him. llis first w ife wa!l nn Ind i:m wo111an, " ·ho left two F:Olls nnrl a
daughter, one n fine look ing girl. For h is seenn cl wifo he 11innicd ]llisK
}fnry Hice of Boston, Mnss., a m ember of ihe Bapt ist 111ii:1sion. She
was a very bright-, capnhlc, energet ic womnn, hold ing np th e failing for:
82
t1111cs of ·the fam ily ns long as she lived. lier three sous, JJcu, Jamie
nn<l :-;arn, nil <lied iu the nrnry 1. think, U.m·ing the Civil wnl'. lier daugh-
ter. "l\lis!'l J~li7.:t" tile second.. tl1e only one left, lives wi th her mother's
l't!lntires in Iloston . 'fhe luat and JOungcst of the ol'igiunl fnmily, John
.Jo hulltone, .Jr., di ed only n. fow years ago, ::i fine looking, vc nernLlc mnii
of three aco1·c n1Hl ten, wh ose life, so strnngely l>lco<le<1 nn<l mingleu
wilh ,·arying couditions, gave him an en<lles!'l fund of. \\'OndcrfnllJ: in-
tc1·cRti11g storic!'l. lle was eclucnteu nt nschool iu New Yol'k state. I
think in Predo11ia1 and for n. Jong time nctcu ns interpreter fot· the Ile>.
Alic~! Hinghnm at the mi11sion.
\\'ii.ft both of 1hCSC lllCD JnWC Jicd lll\l<'h of great intcl'CSt to the
~1111k11 t of Nu·ly i\f ichignn h i8tory u 11<1 In1l in 11 lot·e. That gen cm ti on
h:iR nliout all pnllscd away. A ,·c1·y few rernnin who c.nn from na.tmn l
iulrlligcnr<', c<lucntion null pcl'sonnl expcrie1wc, give relinhle nud intcr-
c•sting infot•mntion conceruing tlle curious coIHlitions of this fronhct·
<'01t11lry, ot· do its more curious .people ju_sticc, during the cnrlier yenrs
of the century now so near ils end .
One 111nn, not very old, sl'ill Ji,·cs on 8ngnr Islnn1l, nenr the Snnlt,
whoRc life has hecu nn eventful one. Mnny years ngo the HcL ·Abel
lJiu;;hn1n, in 011e of his tl'ips with snowshoes nucl dog h'nins to the
winl.cr cnmpR of th.,e Jndinnfl, "'cut to Gonlcy's hny, on t J1e north shore.
Jlc fonnd that <lre::11Jc<l scourge, smnllpox, raging iu the little colony.
\\' hil'l1 hnd nearly depopulnted the settlement. Whole families ltn1l been
l'\Y<•pt n.wn:v~ nnu mnny dying. One little Indinu boy of fonr JCHl'S hntl
plnckily Ji,·c<l it through~ hi!! f:'tce n muss of sc:trs, while his w·hole
family hnd d ie<'I, leaYing him with hardly n relative in the wodd. He
hnd · no clothing IJnt r:-1gR, an<l nowhere to go. 1\fr. I3inghn111 begged n.
. 111au's olu 1:ont, in which he wrnpped the naked littl~ body, tnr.kr.d him
ll(l in the blankets nnu furs of hi'R toboggan nnd took llim home to the
111ifl.sio11·housc. Herc he "'nR put into a tub anc.l sr.ru!Jbr.tl, his hcnd close
llhnyetl, t·hc o ll1 con t lnn·nccl, anll ''JjitUe :i\foscs,'~ newly clothed . stood
out \\'ith hiA t.wiuklinrr ..,, blnck r.~·cs
.,1 ) his round ' Imwllin..,.
b b
f:l•·c
" ,
well 81':1rtcd
On tl1e rond in llis new lift'. "Little l\:loses" will Ue\·et• be fol'gottcn by
those who le.new him. Ile· WM uncommonly bl'ight; in school he learned
gasily, waR cnpnble in almost every way, and with a. bit of qnid<, fie1·;v
kmpcr which Romctimcs brought him iuto 1ro11blc. He lfrc11 to ~·oung
mnuhoo<l at the mission, nnd 1hen went forth to l'lhlft for himRclf, being
abundnutlr able to earn his own living. Foi· UJany ycnl's lie curried
the United Stntes mails iu winter OYer the snows and ice, having
mn 11y strnugc ex peri ences nnd nnn·ow escapes, sometimef! going along
83

through the <lensc wild 'forests. During the Ci\'H "·nr he e11liE1lC'<l in
the urmy and fought brasely for tlie Union. It wns i;niu his eom·n~<'..
not only ncn•r f n.ilecl, hut wns nn inspirntion to olhcra, arnl thnt hti
mn.<le an uncommonly fiue soldier. Moi-;es Grcenhird, the "veteran ,"
hns his own little home and receives a modest pC'nsion from the gm·ern·
mcnt. The scars. on his still expressive face Jiayc fnuccl with the ~·p:ns.
nn<l hiR life is not nil l'omancc; but ":Moses'' will ~·nlk mauy miks
t!1rough any stress of wC'nthcr to look once more ltpon the focc of nn.v
of 1he misaion family who mny wnn<lcr northwnnl to the chi l<lhoo1l
Jiomc. ·
J\lr1:1. Dr. ,T. C. Uuchnnnn rctnrnccl n short time ngo from n hn1:1ty Yi~it
to the "Ohl Sault." g(}wnnl Ohslwwnno nnu ]l(oBeS GreeDbird, hf':tl"·
ing she w:1s there, c:11ne many miles to see he r :incl io ~l'nsp her l1n11d;
iudcccl, conhl hardly lor::e sii;ltt of her during he r short stny. It ~ms
less tllan n fortnight before Edword's death, nnc1 he was nppnrently well.
He w na elegantly drcstlc<l nnd very gentlemanly in mnuncr. ":Mo~c>s''
waa "Moses" sti11, and hia wnrm ll eart showed in his still twinkling
eyes .
.•Toho Gurnoc and wife, who celebrated their gol1lcn wed<1ing n fe\\"
weeks ugo; 'Villium Shnw nnd wife, ol<l residents, nnd Lewis Cn<loUc
n~<l some few others of the French and Intlinna of olden time, still lin!
ns connecting linlrn between tbe modern "Soo" n1Hl the old Sault 1lc
Ste. Mnrie; but soon these. too, will reach tbe bonndnr:r Ii ne n nd "pne.'3
on," nnd the old fnmilinr nnmes will belong only to nnfn01ili:-1r p~ople.
modern, like the city, and t he cm·ioua pnst will be "A talc thnt is tohl."
80
85

A SKETOil OF JORN SEN'l'Eit OF HOUGRTON.1

On Jnnunl'y lat, 1D04, there was only one man living wbo had maiu-
taiucd a. resi<lencc on the Kcwecnn.w peninanla for a longcl' t ime :t~nn
John Seut et• of Ilonghton. 1'hia rnu.n was ,J oseph .Snhl, still living.. n.f
Co pJl<?r · llnrbor. M~·· Senter nrrivc<l nt l~:iglc River iri t he s ummer 9f
184~. l\fany.- iutc1·eating n.11ccuotcs m1<l reminiscences ni·e told by llim
or hie experiences here sin ce thnt time·. 'l'hc comple te rccol'<l of nil
these statements woul<l virtually be n history of the Copper Couutry o!
:Michigan s ince its dcvelciprncnt began. Mr. Seutel' was cll'nwn to tho
Ke\veenaw peninsula· tht·ough hie connection with tlie govel'Oment cu·
gincering corps. His birthplace was Keene, New Ilampshirc. He left
there when a young man, going to DubHC)ue, Iowa, where l}c i·e1!rni11ed for
three yea.1·s. Dubuque nt that ti;ne wna n 1;1tatiou of t he Surveyor Gen·
eml'a 'office. The territor y lrn <ler the juriRdictiou of this o mce -::om-
pl·ised a lnr ge portion of the northern Mis1;1i~sippi valley nn~ the North·
west. Tllo office wna in chnrge of Genera l Jnmea \Vilson, wbo wns
young Sentcr's protcgc. Jnmea A. Reid wus assistant drnnghtaman in
the oflice and young Senter worked under h im. General ·wa iter Cun-
ningham represented the United States government iil the Gnlenn len<l
ficl<:ls of IllinoiH, n short distance from l) nlJuquc, which were nt thnt
time in their cnl'liest oeveloprncnt. Jn thORC dn.ys the government CX·
crcir;ccl nuthority over the mineral yicl<l of the country, nil rights to
·ruining opcrntiona being governed by n roynlty pnif1 to the govcrr nent.
Michigan copper deposits were j ust being heard of, nnd the govern·
mcnt <lekgntefl G encl'Ul Cunningliam t o take 11p hif:I p ost on the Kewec·
n:nv · peninsuln nnd look nfter the fcde1·nl interests. Gene ral Onnning-
liam naked General 'Wilson to Jlcrmit Rnrveyor R-eid to nccompnny him
to l\:Tichig'au. It wna nlao nrrnngc<l thnt yonng Senter. sho\1lcl be one
of the party. Genernl Cunningham nlso aecm·ed the services of nn
Ottnwa half-hree1l In1linu . ns interpreter nnn guide. Senter returned
t.o his homo in New H:1111pi:lhirc for n viAit before making his tl'ip north.
J\Tr. Senter reached EnglC River before the first known £1hipment of
COJlll<'l' wns made froin the Keweenaw pcninRnla..' The entire tlistrict
comprising. whnt ia u ow Keweenaw, Houghton, Ontonogon nn<.l l3nragn.
eonntics nnd Isle R oynle, was then orgoni r.e<.l ns H oughton . county• .
Eni:tlc River was the principal town and the county eent•
. . . ~Woo.~. indebted tot.ho Rov. i A. Ten Bro~ok for this oket.ch.
86

The first shipment of · cop1Jer from the ICewccurtw peuinsuln consisted


of n number or specimens fot·wm·<le<l by J. ·rolmnn Wllitiug" wh?
lnnded nt :Engle River <lul'ing the Jnat week of Octobe1·, 18:t5, nud witllin
n few days forwarded his samples. 'l'he method of consignment nnd qf
currying the specimens is an Interesting point in llistor:r. Tiley were
shipped to Henshaw, Ward & Corupnny, Boston,-<nrc of John H. I,iv~
ingstone, Sault Ste. Mnrie, Michignn_..:.agent of the Amerir.an Fnr Com·
pany,--care of Diddle & Drew, Mnckinnc,-<nre of Degarmo Jones, Buf-
falo. (McKnight.} J. U. I,ivi11gstone, therefore, nppcn rs to bnvc
hccn the first shi ppi ng ngcnt who fol'\vnrded copper from Keweeun.w
peninsula. Mr. Ilenshn.w, of the fi1·m to whom these specimens were
forwarded, was nppointcd by 11 rcsic1ent Jackson ns Sccretnry of .,Va1·,
but the appointment was not conflrmeu by· the Seno.te. This wns In the
days when President Jackson mnintnined llis fnmous "Kitclleu Onb·
inet"-n body of unofficial counsellors who were more instrn111entnl in
guiding the policy of the prcsitlent thnn were the members of .the
official cabinet. The preAi<lcut nnn congress were constantly nt log·
t:,'t?rheads, and it was perfectly 11nturn l that the lcgislntme sholl ltl re- ·
fuse to nutbori?.e the nppointmcn t nm rte by the chief ex:ecnti ve.
The first steam vesRel to sail on Lake Supt~rior wns the screw pro·
peller lnclei;cn<lcnqe. It wns bui lt nt Chicago and stenmc<l np to St.
Mary's Falls, where it was cai•ricd overland for FH~vcu-eighths of n mile
across the portage at thnt poiut. This vcs~el wns cnpnhle of making
five miles nn hour with her stcnm, uutl was suppliell with n. fo1·esnil
nnd mainsail which ndde<l to her · speed .in . accordance with the wind.
Cnptnin A. J. Averill was f.lailing·lllt\!lter of the lnrlcpc:11rlwce. The vcs·
eel was built by his fnthe1'. In those days shipbuilding hnu not nt·
tnined its present tlegl'ee of pel'fcction ~nd the possibilities of n vessel
·could not be cal cu la tc<l with the precision possible to<lny. To rtRcer·
toin tile speed of vessels iu those days tl1e crnft bncl to be p'ut into the
wnter nnd trietl before an estimntc could be made with t he lenst degree
-Of o.ccuracy. Mr. Senter wna nhoard the I11dc7ie11clence when it made
its Orat trip, nnd also the last. Mr. Whiting nrl'ivccl on the sn1i1e vesi:iel
I\ few \Vecks after Mr. Senter reached Engle River. The e:tnct date
upon wllich Mr. Whiting arrived nt Engle River is not known, but it
wns probably nbout the 25th of Oc tober, 1845. It is n. matter ot record
that the Indcpcr~dcnce urrivefl u t Ln Pointe, on the Apostle falnn ds,
November lat, 1845. L:rnding- po1·ts on Lake Superior were \'Cr.v few
in thoM dnys: Duluth w as hnr11ly n nnme then, nnd the port n.t the
}tend ·of Luke .Superior wna the town of Supel'ior, now known ns Old
87
Superior. All steam vessels !':aili11 ~ on L<1ke Superior for .the ten yc>:1rs
.i:-ucr.eC'tlii;ig the first tr ip of the Incl.c7><:m.denoc were enrriecl arouncl 11.ie.
portnge nt the Fnll s in St. Mary 1s river. In the rnenntime n. way by
the ship enn::il wns u11der constrnr.tion . The first Yessel to pass thr o11gh
this canal was the s ide·wbeelcr JUinois, the dnte of its trnnsit being Jnly
. 17th, l85G. The sr.cond steam ,·easel to land on Lnkc Superior was the
Ju,lia. Palmc1·, :ind on hel' first tri p when shr. landed nt Bng1c H.iver.
August 28th, 1StJ.G1 she had on bonrd .Mr. Scnter's early fricn<l, Genera ~
\Vilson, bis wife nnd <laughter. The Julia J 1 almc1· w:rn a si<lc-whcclel' olle
lrnn<lrccl feet Jong. She w:rn built nt Dulfalo n11<1 hnu l1<'en in service t l1 ere
for some little t ime before being sent north. '£he .J11lia I'aLni.c1· ran two
sea.sons. The first season ber FJnilin g·mnstcr wns either Captain Wood
or Captnin Charles Stannnrd, nnd the second scnson her sail ing-master
"·as Captain Samuel Moody. ·It hus been a. matter of t radition that the
J 'u lia Palmer fln.il ed only one aenRon on T_,ake Superior, bnt this is not
true. At the close of ti.le senaon of 18-17 the vessel was tied up in the St.
Mary's river, forming a pnrt of n wood dock, w he re she remained for
many years.
Although there is some uncertainty as to whether Captain Stanna rd
ever ·sailed the ,Tulia Palmer, it is positive that he waR one of the very
earliest sailing·rnasters on Lake S,u perior. Be was the first to locnte
Stannard Rock, in the Keweenaw penins11 ln 1 which rock now bea.rs hiR
name in honor of its discoverer. The J1tlia Palmer's last trip .consume<l
sixteen days from Snnlt Ste. Marie to Copper Ha1:bor, having cncoun-
tcre<l n very und storm.
llfr. Senter, shortly after hi s arrival, locnted nt what is now tbe
Phoenix. This place is nbout two miles from Eagle River, where the
postoffice. was lo ~ated . There was qnitc n i>cttlement a t rhoenix at that
time. Mr. Sen ter wns appointed assistant postmaster. September 28th.•
18'17, lie r eceived the a.ppointment of postmaster at Eagle River, suc-
ceeding the first postmaster nt that place.
A i'elic brought to Eagle Hiver by Mr. Senter, and still in his posses·
siou, is a desk brought by hrs ancestors from the north of Ireland over
two hnnche<1 :years ngo. This desk was 1rned constantly by bim through-
out his bnsiness (':trccr of over fifty years on Lnke Snperior.
1'he first mill for the rcducti<m of ore in the Copper Country was
erec:te1l n JCUI' or so bcforn· Mr. Sen t er nrri,•cd,-probahly in 1843. It WM.I
c'a lled n. Germa n Pnlveri:r,er and was built by Dr. Charles T . Jackson ,
who nfterwarqs been.me United St ates geologist. This mill was some-
. what after tl1e principle of the qld Obilian mills, being operated by
88

horse power with a sweep or arm working in a gl'oove. Thig mill wns
unsuccessful in re<lt11:ing lite product of the Lnke Superior mineral lo<les
because of the mnssr.s found in them. The mill, howe\·er, was of the
standard type usc<l in Germany, where it was very successfu l in reduc-
ing the soft ores of that country. Thia pulve1·i?.er was never in use after
?\fr. Senter 's arrival.
The next metllod introtlnced into the Michigan mining district for the
reduction of rock wns the Cornish stamp, a method successfully era-
ployetl for over forty years and only r ecently fallen into disuse. Th~e
stamps were of prncticnlly tlle same construction as those used in the
western gold fields. T he s hoot \vas nttach.erl to a vertical shaft and this
Rhoot and shaft wc1·c lifted by m ea ns of a r.rnuk attached to a revolving
shaft. The vertical slrnft and tho shoot combined weighed nppro::'Ci-
111a tely one hnntli·eu and fifty pounds.
The fir~t type or Rtamp in which th e steam piston wns attnched dircctl;v
to t he steam shaft wns invcnte<l by n Mr. Ball. and wns infltnlled in the
stam p mill at Oo ppct· Falls mine. 'l'his type of stan1p was very 1mti fl-
fact0l'y a ucl is Ri'ill nsc<l i11 mnny of the JJnkc Snpr~·i or 1:1 tnmp mills, n11<l
nil atcam s tamps of the preseut day are varin tious from t he type i11·
Yented hy Mr. Dall. 'l'llis stamp head wns built in a fonmlry in lower
~ii chiga n aud was., Jande<l at Eagle Hiver. A special wagon, n v<'ry
heavy contrivance, wns built to haul it from the ln.nding pince to the
Copper Falls mill. 'l'his wagon is still in existence at the old Cop per
Falls mi ne. The Copper Fn lls mill in which the head wns installed wns
burned nfter a few years of se1·viC'e.
The first actunl nii11ing on Lnke Superior of which ther e is nn nn·
theatic record was done by James Hayes, who operated n Yein of blnck
oxi<li:r.cd copper in the neighborhood of the Copper Falls mine. A news·
paper article wns written some years ago by Mr. HayeR, in which his
experient'.e was gi1en.
There were uo survey lines in Keweennw pcni11snla until !'leY<'ral y<-ara
~fter the nrrivn l of !!fr. Scnte1•. Henry A. \Vilts, who had rim the
fourth meri<linn for nlmost its entire length, and with wllom Mr. Senter
had been ncquninted while he was situated at the Dubuque Surveyor
Gcn.-rnl's omre, ~ontim1e<l the four th merirlinn northwnrd until it
r~nc h e il Lnkc Superior in 18'17-S.
]\.fr. Scntrr engngcd in t he mercantile hni;i nes; shortly after hii< ar-
riv::f.I. lrnil<ling a store 20x30 feet nnd Rtoclcing it with goocls. This Btorc
building is still sf..'ln din~ nt Engle Rh·ct·. R e nlso built n. p ier <lock
and war ehouse nt Engle River, both of which nre s t ill standing- thongh
89

in u:ul l'epair. 1'1.tis dock and warehouse were solu a f.ew yen.rs ugo
to the Cliff Miuing Company, which waR nfterwards ubsorbeu by the
Tumarnck ?IUning Compauy-tlle latter concern now owning t he clock
anu wa1·ehousc.
Mr. Senter hns entertained in his store mnny men who a fterwnr<ls at-
tained J>l'Ominence, u,oth in t he mining world and in other lines. H oratio
. :S. Digelow, one of the pioneer mining prollloters of Lake Superior, slept ·
in the store many times on n bc<l moue of goo<ls from Mr. Senter'a stock.
'fhe ho1els of the early uays lnck~cl rnnoy featnres uow consid el'ed esscn·
tin! :incl some . of the most fastidious p e r AOnB prcfetTcd sleeping in Mr.
rieutcr's store to takin g lodgin g in the hostelries.
A s ubject which haFJ been in constnut uiHputc for rnorc t hau ltnlf o.
<'Ctl111ry is t he weight o f 1he l1c:wicst pic('c o f mass copper e\·er tnkcn
from a Lnke Superior m ine. 1;;vidcncc which ca.me to light .Tanuary lat,
1DU4, places a high tribute on the wonderful memory of Mr. Sen ter.
'l'l1e mnss of copper, the weight of wh k h wns ao long diRputccl, wns
talcen from the old Minnesota mine in Ontonagon County in 1855. ]\fr.
Senter has al ways cont.enued that the weight o f this m ass was four
Lundn~d and twenty tons. A number of 0\11 r csi11C'nts who wer e 11cre
at the t~ m c the mnas was ta.ken <lispntccl this poi11t. but they also <lis·
J'Utcd :rn1oug themseln!s as to the actua l weigbt of ti.le piece of metnl. Mr.
Stnnnnrd of Ontonagon conten ded ihat it weighed five hunclretl and
sixt,r·follr tons, while Mr. Mercer, also of Ontonagon, maintained that
Hs wei~ht was fh·e lsu ndred and forty-scvcu tons . Bot h of these men
l.J:we r esided in Ontonagon continuonsly s ince before this ma>1s was dis-
<'Overcu in t he Minn csotn. miue. Ther e were many lively discuasions on
.th is point, and its settlemen t seemed hopeless nntil Samuel Brady of
t he Mi~.~hignu Copper Mining Company, wlio~e property i ncludes the old
Minn('sota mine, disr.overed n letter in the nrC"h ives of the ol<l company
in Jnuuary, Hl04. I n this letter reference wni:; made to the now famous
mnaR, givin g the weight ns four hundl'ccl nn11 twenty tons-thus settling
beyond fur ther question the dispute on this point. Mr. Senter received
llia informntion nbont the weii;rht of the mass from J . n. ·Townsend, who
wna clerk nt the mine at the time the mass was taken out, and in con·
·nection with his duties hnd cha rge of the weighing of the mineral. A
short ti me nftcr the nrnss was brought from the mine Mr. Townsend
stntNl to U r. Renter t hat he ha <l wcigh cu the copper himself nnd bnd
nssi11tcd in shipping it, giving th~ w eight, which ·Mr. Senter r etained in
hfa memory ever since.
90
Mr. Senter visited nl~ lh c e:nly rniui11g districts \·er.r f1·cq1H.mt.lri com·
ing in contact with t he mine oliic inl s h.Y re:ison of his position ns ugent
:::'" 1·1t e D npont rowdcr Couipnny, a llOSition whkli he licld for on'r
fifty yca•·::i. .As ngcut for t lte )) npout Powder Oo 111pn11.r Mr. Senter
gave specinl heed to the ,,·ants of his customers, taking cnre of nil ·
order~ at whatever cost nn<l in any eu1ergen('y. A case in point is thnt
in which the Clevelnrnl row<lcr Comp:1ny failed , Jcn,·ing n large nnm-
ber of nufillecl or<lcrs. T he Dupont I'owde1• Cornpnn.r wn s t he piouerr
powder compnny on the Keween aw pcninf)u ln, :uHl, of conrse, n 11 hni>i-
n~ss of tl1e Cleveland J>owdcr Co mpnny' was witll concerns which hnd
at one time been Dupont custo111e1·s. 'When the Clm·eln n<l Compnn:r
fai lr.cl, l<!nvi1 1g so111c of 1l1 r. min e oper:d:m·A jn an r111b:'\1':1!'~dng pos it ion.
th e Dupont l'owder Go111pauy shi pped in Hi:: pow<lrr in s11l1i<' ie1.1 t qnanti-
ties nnd with c1wngh ii :-i~t· c to 111pc:t ni l cmeq;encies, nlthouglt it resulted
iu nctunl loss to the m::11111fa c:lmc1·s.
The lil's t 01·gani7.e<l co111pnny to outa in [l lease fro m t he ~0 \'Cl'!llll('Jlt
fo1· a · copper mine on Lake 8nperior wns the Lake ~ 11pc rio1· Coppc1·
Oornpnny, wh i ch opcrntccl what is now t he l'lloenix mine. Them " ·ere
n nulllper of other early lessees whose names :-ire uot n'tnl'(led. The
North A r11C'r icn11 Cop11cr Co 111pu ny , however, is rc111 c mhcr cc1 ns hn,· i11~
lleld Jcnse N o. 7.
Th e <lisco,·cry of n lnrge pirce of Jlont coppC'r in t he Ontonngon riYP.t'
!tns become hi storic. Tl1is specimen, which is among 1·hr. l a l'grst CW!l'
disco,·c1·ccl, was detachc1l from its s111-rouod ing gnugue anti is now in
U1e Smithson i:"ln Jnstitn tc n t Wash ini;ton . \\'llile res ti ng .in Ontou:1g<m
river it hail hccn for n1:111y rears nn ohjcct of Ycncrntion to th P. In<l iauR.
To molest it wa~ ~nn:;r ron s, HF> i t wns J1cld sacre<l h.Y 1'hC'rn. 'Jhcit·
venerat ion wnniug, n<'got ia t ions for the pm·chnR"c of the copper were
.:u~l l y closrd with tl1c ] n<lia1rn hy a Mt·. J. l'anl!, who. in roinprrn~· ~..-ith
a ltnlf·b 1·e(~t1 J1111i:in n nu1 <'cl 1':ii:k l\[i1111cc!C'n r , snccccdc<l in rcmo\' ing it
oy means of n skill to the lllOnt!J of !'he river, ,,..Ju>. r e i t w ns pnt nbon r<l
. a hont nod r:U'rie<l to the lower Jnke region. At Sault Ste. Marie!
t he United StnteA Government scir.e<l the mnss of copper, ns nt l11nt
time nll m i ning wn>i iitill done on royalty~thc Feuernl gor crn111cnt 111 n in-
tnin in;; niit ho rit.y OH' l" fhr 111 i n<~ l' al 0nf p11 t. It wns on t11 r g1'01111d~ 1hnt
this ii1<'ml hn <l h<'rn 1akr11 fro111 1l 1e f?;O \'C't:n111ent i•rn pC'rl"y t ha t thi!"
$e iz.nre wns rnn <l<'. T hr ="PL'<: i rnrn w:1;; tnk<'n to Y\°al'h i11gln11 n11cl fo11111 ,
its way into the R 111 it h Rnn i ~in Tnstit11 te, where it n'm:1inc<l ln1ric1l hC'·
Jlcath ruhhii:;h in t he l>n~;r.mcnt for many yen rs. Thia Aprci mrn iEI no'"
-0n exhibit.ion in t he Smithson ia n Institnt e. Messt'$. P nnll nnd i\finnc-
91

clear Juul nn nd.,·entm·oua trip throngh '\Vieconsin from the northern


"·iJds by dog-train immedintely preceding their successfnl efforts to get
t he copper fro in its ancient resting-place to · port at Ontonagon.
93

'l'HJ!; H'l'OR1 OF ,TORN TANNER1

DY Mils. ANO!& DlNGHA~f GILnlmT'

I nm more tha n plenRCcl 1o bring you m~· grP-ctinJ:{ t on ight, nnd I nm


more p lcnPc<l liccause I feel thnt I rcprcRcnt one of tho oldest a11cl best
fricnd11 of thiR Society, 111y h111:1 hnnd, Thomns D. Gilbert of Grnnd Rnpi 1la.
Ile ws.111 co111;tantly in nttcnclnn cc nnd felt very grcn.t i11tct·CRt in 1hia nnd
in our own Society or Gr:rnd Rl\pidR. 'l'he lost time we cnmo here to·
gethcr to n mcetinfi 1he Society seemed to be in a decli ne. Jt hnd not
been nhle to get the recog-nition from the Sta te tha t it hnd bopccl, nnd
m:my of the 11101-;t p1·0111inent nnd most active of ifH mmnbcra hn<l recently
diP.rl, anll mnny of the otheri; 11ionght tl1nt it w ould be the lnRt time they
would e\·er meet together, nn<l there wns n sadness ovt!I' the cutire meet·
ing. But I um pleasf!<l to find that it lins r evived nnd so mnny others
ha\·e bcro111e interested in it, nud that fillCh n la~e nmnucr nrc pre.c:cnt.
Rome m onths llljO I wna oskcd to prepare o historicnl paper for this
meeting, but I was u11nhle to do so 011 account of my henlth. I came
bcrc on very short notice with no expectntion of having anything to sny
:ind nm entirely unprepared. This incident I shall speak of was n. very
i·cmni·k 11hle i;tory of ihe oltl time Michigan. A tragedy 011 account of
the mnn ~· pecnlin r chnrncters who were connected with it. Mr. Peter
White asked rne to write the Rtory of Tanner. I did oo nn<l it cnn be
found in Ralph '\Villi111ns' woi·k on the Honorable Peter W hite, pnge
1ri n<' ty-two. I nm very g-lnd. Rinre I was born at ni l, t.hnt I wns born
in ~f khig-nn :rnd in thnt hii:;tori c pnrt of 1'fichig-an in the Upper ~enin·
1mln on the bnnki:: of the St. Mni·y'R River, one of the moRt ben.utiful
r ivC't'l'l in tho wol'ld. I nm glo<l that I wnR a. child of pioneers, not only
r>cople who wore frying- t.o help the white peopl<' of Amcricn, hnt nli::o
tryh1g to h<> n benefit to tl1e people who were hel'e \)Cfore uR, the dnrk
ll1C'll whoi;~ homcR we have taken; nnd that I w;ui n child of pioneers
wiio hnv~ {.(ircn their li\·ea to the h<?tterme11t of the~e p<>nple.
;I hnve oftrn wondered nt my · great interei-t in the pionc<'r and the
Til~inn, !m t it 1<u<ldenly Hee111Nl to come O\'er me nt the lnfrt mretiug of
t l d~ Soril'I,\' on hcnrint? on<' of the pape1~ rend, the O<'cult r enwn why
I ·'l\·aR f:o in torc~te<l and when the f:Jl(>nke r mentioned the Snult Rte.
Mnt~ie · nnd lhr. <>F>tuulii:lunent of the fi~t_.Jesuit Mii:;~ion, 1 hnppcned to
think thnt I wni:: born 011 nlrno~t thP i<lenticnl i:;pot '~·here hiRtor:inn~ nnd
th'i1sc who hnve looked into the mn.tter tell ns llfnrqnette nnd the ,Te<1nit ·
'Tolcl nt the nnnunl meeting, June 6, 1!)08. . .
'Seo Memoirs of tltc Soo, Vol. XXX, PP.· 623·633, this ee1·1oa. Mrs. Ollbert died
Nov. 7, l.910, o.t Grnnd Rnplde. cf. supra, memoir.
94

p1·iests had the ceretUony of whut ii; called ''plnuting the cross/' nnd
in the house where the treaty 3 wns mnde whero so many so narrowly
escaped massacre by the Indians. Some time ago I wns given a. tomn·
hawk thnt was found under tbe foundn tiou stones of the missiou house
which my father built. 'fhe tomnhnwk is of iron, rusty and old, l'lhow-
ing tllat it was buried 11 long time, long ~fore this missiou honse waf!
built been.use it was even under the foundation i:1ton~. My sistel' wne
born in the mis.qion house nnd '"re two were brought up over this tomn-
hawk.
St. Mary's River-, from Lnkc ITnron to J,nke R11p~rio1·,. i~ fnll of historir
interest. I know tho history of nhnOAt every spot from the source of
tho river to its month . l\fn.ny years ngo my mother and nn Tn<linn gh:l
whom she had brought np were wrecked near the montll ()f the river.
No lives were Jost. All the way up tlH~ river are spot..<J connected with
the Indians making atol"ies of ve1·y gl'cat interest indeed. As you rendt
Sa.nit Ste. Marie on the Aine1·icnn bnnk of the ri\'er ju~t below the olc1
Indian agency, stood a bc:rntiful old house which wns alwayi:. painted
white. It wa9 built under the old elma and wns n. n.10i:1t pictnre1'q11e
spot. This was t ho home of John Tauner,4 commou\y k11own as "Old
Tnnner." He wns born in Ohio, I <lo not rememhe1· ju!!t where. Ill' hnd
a very strange :mu terrible per~onnllty nnd wni:: the "lio~ie man'' to
children and a source of wony to nearly every one. He wn!' nn olcl lllan
when I was a. little girl. The Inllinni:; rnmc nn<l mni:;i:;nrrccl nil hi~ p<':ople
and the people in hiR tow11. Ris fninily were nil killed hut himi::elf.G
Re Rn.w the-rr take little ch ildrPn hy the f eet and dn$h thci t· brains out.
Ile was taken prisone1· :rnd carriecl to tho norfh nn<l brr111ght up nmn11i:r
the JndiAni:l. H'e hecnmc prnctirnl ly 0111' of them. nnd wn" known nfl the
"white Indian." lie matTiecl nn Tndinn woman. nncl hnd n lnrgc- fnmily.
He wns a ver,v 1·cm1H·knl>le mnn , and wai:1 really very i11tclli1?C'Ht. I <lo
not know much of hia history. In middle life he found out nh0l1t hi~
peopl~ nn<l went to Ohio where he found ont nil abont hi111::;P.lf. AftC'r
thnt ltP. became riuite well ed uC'ntcd. He was nl;;o very rcligiouF-. Iii;;
life wns written many yenr~ :1go. nn<l ii:; in the State lihr:1r:r hei·e in
this city. It did not give the !n iter pnrt of hi~ lift>. He came with hi~
'On Juno 16, 1820, Gov. Cass mndc n treaty wllh lhe Ch lppeway Ind Ions.
Schoo!crnet deacrlhce tho scone In his Normtive Journal of tlle Travels from De.
troit, north10est throuoh t11c Amerirnn /(l k.es in 1820, etc., and 11tates that tho
Indians were at Orat much opposed to tho t.renty, showing a threRtenlng nttltncle.
In Skctche& of 11 tottr of Die Lake.v , of the clinracter and cu.Hom3 of the Ohippeway
Ind.tans, etc.. by T. r~. McI<c:rney, J)Jl. l 83·4, he attributes llfr. Cuss' fin a l success
and the dlvert.1ng oC nn tndltrn att.ack 11po11 the Amerlc.nns, to the wise council
a.net Intervention of Mrs. Johnson, the In<\1nn wlfo or the Interpreter.
'See Sketch of John '.l'cinner, by Judr;e Joseph H. St~ere, Vol. XXIT, p. 246, this
series.
"Tanner's Life, A. Narrative of tltc C(lptivit11 and Arlventures of John T(lnncr
During Th£rty Years' Residence Am.Ong the Indians in the Interior of North
.America, prepared by E<lwln James. London, 1830.
95
Indian famih· to the Soo :llld s ettled ll1cr c before I wns born . H e wns
a ~inl1., with .a ~ery ,·iolenl t~mpcr whi ch he never controllc<l. Outside
of .t lrnt .he would have been a very in teresting man , but when enraged
he. was almost insane. J do not know whether his I nd ian wife left him
or. died, but hir; chi ld ren left him 1111 <1 he Jived nlone· in 1ltis li t tle houi:;e.
A'iter n wl{ilc he wns nnxiouR to marry a whi te w-0man. 0 H e h nd been
belo_,~, (we called it go ing "bclo,}·" nnd " above" whe n we wm1t sonth
ot n orth) and the people b"ecnmc interested in him a t Detr oit nnd recom-
men.d ed a widow there wu'osc nnme wns, I believe, Mrs. D11nr.nn, alth o u~h
I ain ' not certain. He prohably did not give rrny exhibition o f tC'mi>cr
while there, and i;he finnll v conRCnted t o many him nnd cnme bnck to
the Roo. He becnme .Vet\:
. cn1el to her' :m d wa nt ed her to li\'e ns bis
Indian ,dfe hnd done. Jn his viol ent r ngcs he b ad threa tened to kill
her and she became afraid of him nn d determined to lcnve him. At
that time it wns co nsiderc cl n t errible th ing to have n d ivorce, nn d s he
was nt a Joos to know what to do.
. Al)out this time ,John Tnnner went awny for a littl e t ime, nnd while
he_ _'!\·mi gone i::hc cnme to my fnth er1 of whom she thought n g roat d eal,
and he told her be could not advise her to leave her husband, bnt that
if he llnd threat E'ned her life he should n ot My nnythi ng about h er going.
He nnd many othc1·s bccnmc interested in her ca i:;e and n collection wna
tnken up and enough m on e;v wos ra iRcd to fiend her .nway w hile Mr.
Tanner was ou t of town. \Vhcn he cnme hnck nnd fonn d her gone be
wni;: in n terrible rn~e. He was r-cr:v nngry nt these people for helping
Ms wife to go nwn:v, anfl rletcrmined nt E<omr t ime or o ther t o kill every
one who had helped in any wa y to get h iR wi fe awny from hi m. He 'l'rent
to .D etroit to i::ee her. bu t 1;he rf'fn!':cd to com e back. T hiR wna before
m;v hirth.
R eni:y nnd .J am<>s SchO<llcrnft w ere br others. Henry. was then Indian
ngent nt the Roo. He wni:; cnllecl nt thnt time, " Uncle Snm'R pet." Mnrie
f'ch oolcraft wns the Riste r of Henry nnd J ames. a nd m nrri cd ,Judge John
Hu!bcrt, of nn old Detroi t famil y. The E-ev. Abel Bingbnm 1 w as my
fntllPJ'. An. (}ffi<'ez· of thP. United S tntes army. Majot" .Kingsbury, WM
cmi1n1nn<lnnt nt thn fort which conld be Roon from .my home.
The yeari:: went on. nnd this old m nn lived nlone in h iR h cantifnl pic-
tt1r~Rq11c o ld hom'IC' on the bnnk nf S t. Mary's Ri ver. R e had n g r ent
mony hmmtifu J idrnR, hnt hiF.1 nnger increnRP.d. J1e )ll'Hl Flpelll! Of rage
hut. wns nt tinw8 very rcnsona blc. For many ye:n~ he in te~re tcd for
m)· father wh o wm: n mii;i;ionnry. ond very a cxccll<>nt one. H e wns a
"Schoolrraft in his Thirty Year.! Witli tire Inrlfan 1'rlbes. p. 601, states thl\t
Tan ner went to D E>. t.rolt where h e heca me plen.sed with 11. c:o n ntr:v 1~lrl wh o wns
a chamherrnaicl 11.t T:Jen Woodwo rth'e hotel. They wer e mnrr lcrl nnd hncl one
ch ild and when s'he had lived with · him one year eho mnd c h«ir cecapc.
'Rev. Abel B ingham. See sketch, Vol. IT, pp. HG-167, this eerlea. Mr. Bingham
wrote a paper on Eai-111 Missions a.t the BatL lt Ste. Marie. which ls published In
Vol. XXVIII, p. 620. thfs series.
96
very sh'augc and in so111e way11 n uohle looking ninn. He wm; tall and
spare, wi th long white hair which he "·ore pa.rtccl fo the middle and
drawn back behi.nd his ears like n. womn.n's. Ee had n fierce eye, aud
his countenance was most forbidding. When he was not angry be was
very pleasant and gentlemanly. Be was Yery much like n wllite mnn~
excepting for this terribic temper.
After I became quite a girl I remember IJim. When he ~vas pleal.'lnnt
we wer~ interested in seeing him b\1t when angry, we were v.er;v much
afraid of him. He u~d to sit in his door at snnset. W11en iny sister
a.nd I were little nnd hnd to pnss his house, and saw Tnnne1· i;:i Uing on
his ·doorstep we took hold of hands nnd ran past the honse. Like nn
India.n, he nourished his feelin~ of revenge nud hatred. · Very often they
were obliged to s hut him up in jnil until he got over these spells. He
was however very lonely and o lJont two weelrn before the tragedy he
came. to ri1y father's houf<C and toltl father he could not endnre tllis life
any longer and that he must mnke some change. He mad~ n pr opoe:.i·
tion to father that he should come nnd live at the mission honse of which
father was in charge. He said lf he cou ld only eat at table with the
family he woulO i>tay in hh~ room nnd not disturb nu,vbody. Fn.ther
knC\Y what a tenibl0 thing his ternpet· wn$, nnd re fnscn to hnvc him.
He c11me down from the study, I remember. and passed through the
r:.itting room whrre 1\frs. Hulbert was s itting with. several othet· persons.
He was very nngr.v. but F>cemed only grieved nt fath er's refnsal. A hont.
two weeks nfter that ti me he be~nn to he very cra7.y, acting a~ he din
when he was in his frenzi es. Father went over to the garrison to talk
to Major Kingsbury about having 'l'annet· shut np in jnil. While he
wns talking to him nu or derly told him thnt Mr. James Schoolcrnft had
been Rhot by Tanner. Father wns the first one that arrived at the spot.
Mr ..James Schoolcraft was a sutler at t he garrison. He wa!'I ratJ1er n.
gay man nnd ve1·y hnndsome. Saturday was the 4th of Jnly, and he hod
gon·e over to the Canadin.n side to hnve n. good time with the officers on
thnt i:;1ide. I do not know at whnt time he got back to his home. He woa
sleeping off his good time on the Mondny nfter the 4th, and got np from
his bed in the nfternoon , put on his dressing sack and slippers, and took
n walk in his 1)0..'lntiful garden across what is now Porter avenne where
!1e had a vegetable garden. Jnst as he got to a clnmp of bushes in the
garden some one fired n shot which struck him in the heart. T here wns
n. irery great commotion. When father nnived upon looking · nbout the
1:>Jace he found a wail o! paper which he supposed was in the gnn. He
nnrolled it and found th is paper was pnrt of a mi~sion hymn book thnt
was used in the chapel. There wns very great excitement in town that
·afternoon. · This was Mr. Peter W1lite's first visit to this Lake Superior
· 1·egion. Re was n boy of fifteen, a. young roustabout looking for work.
' Everybody took guns to hunt Tanner, w ho was r. very skillful marks-
97

man. The men di dn't go vc1·y far in to the woods and didn-'t find T:rn-
ner. .From that cJny to thi s John 'fnnncr hns never be€n he:1rd of. The
tO\ni bunted for him knowing that he 1.wd threaten ed to kill every one
. who had helped to. get hi s wife away. Particularly did he
try to· kill
Henry Schoo1cra!t1 but be hnd gone n.wny and only his bro~l1er James
was at home. He said if he couldn't get Henry, he would get Jim.
Mr. Hulbert nnd wife had gone to Detroit for n vi!:it aud Mrs. ,fames
Rchoolcrnft had gone with thP.m. Be nJ1;0 threatened to kill father nnd'
Revera] other penw1iR who hnrl )'.!ivcn mo11cy toward gf'tting MrR. 'J':rnn<'J'
awny. ..
On Rnb1rclay night the Fonrth of July this little houio;c of Mr. 'fa1111er
wns hume'd to the ground. Whfm. the people wC'nt thrrc to try nnd put
out fhe fire tl1c.'' coul1'1 not get ncm· nR powder hntl been plar.ed nro1111d
it nnd every little whilr: it would <'Xplode. Some thon~ht i\h'. Tnm1er
was burne9 with his houf.lr:, but oftc.rwnrds when they looked they never
fonnd · nny part of hiin. It is tlionglit lie went a.way nn<l bid in the
WOOO!'I.
The.r hnd n guard around m,v fnthei"s houl'e for two months and nobody
went out .of the bonsc in the evening hccau~ they were afr-niil of .John
Tanner. Whotever happened, ,John 'rnnner did it. It wns called the "Tan-
'nei'- F.lt)mme,1:.'.'. A great many sforics nbont hiR hnving been £:ecn l1ere
and the!·c we1·e. told, nnd father who was much interested invei::tignted
nll these stories nnd 'n ever fomHl but one he· thought had nny claim to
trnth. It wnf! !'IUPPQF-Cd that he hud g-one to the north with which he
was familin.r. I wen t with a 1nnall pnrty e>f girls down to fkhoolnnft'A
home and Rnw him ::is he la.icl there. I wns old en011gh to know nll nhont
it oud· r en1embct· ·it well indeed. An offirer in the nrmy named Lient.
Tilden hnd had difficulty witll Mr. ,Jnntefl Rchoolcraft. :md hnd· h('('n
heard to say thnt "colcl lend woiild fix it." Nohod,r thought anything
nbm1t . it at t he time however. Lieut. Tilden while serving in the Mexi·
cnn 'Vnr hnd gotten in l'o i::o111e diffir.nlty nnc1 was conrtmnrtinlcu clnring
which .he wrote n letter to my fnther telling him J-hat dmiltg the comi·
martin.T be hn<l been clt:-irged with Rchoolcraft's murder in~tencl of 'l'nn-
ner. He nskC'd for a Jetter snying he hnd not done the deed, hut when
fai'her, wl].i:f was s11re thnt 'l'nnnrr had murdered Mr. Schot)Jcrn.f t, went
out with n lcUer for l'igners, there w:-is one mnn who snid he won ld not
Rign it ns he wnR afrai1l Tilden had <lone the deed. Rome foonght he
had F;C'nt two i;oldicrs out who did it. About a month nfter the mm-Oer
these two f:oldicrs- cnme in, and the hnrrel of one of the g-nns Wflf:I empty.
But what had become of Tanner?8 No one knew. Then they 1;11id thnt
'Tanner's family nlways hoped to: finf! him. There Is A. story of his brother
James finding Mm, told by EJli1.abeth T. Baird, Wisconsin Hist. Coils., Vol. XIV,
pp. 47-56.
98

'l'ildenn hntl hil'cd these two meu to go into tho woods and shoot .James
Schoolcraft.
A very remnrlrnhlc thing hnppcned nhont a. month nfte1· this mm·der.
These two soldiers were on guard. A sentinel wns standing there nnd
the m en were 1>tnnding abon t when o. terrible thunder Btorm came up.
I think I have neve1· seen n. Rtcmn come up S-O qniclcly, nnd it proved
the most terrihle !lhowec eve1· witnei::Rc<l. I wne looking out of the
windo~· nn<l Anw n great r.ornmotion in th<' gm'T'ison. Tltrsc two soldie1'8
who hn<l hcc>n snppMed fo have l>cen hi1·cd to kill Jnmes SchooJcrnftr
were both strnrk with li:?htnin~ nnd ins1an tly killed. ·They were tnken
past my father's house with militn1-y honors to the ce111ete1-y. One thing
I rememl>e1•. they played the drad march on the way out and on the
way l>n.ck plnye<l " Y:mkec noodle." 'l'his of course mnde it impossible
to find out anything about the nrnrrler from these soldiers, but I don't
know how the conrtmartial rnme out.
A number of Y<'nt'S a:?o, nbont fort;v yenrs after the murdel', I "·as
vil'liting n t Mncki11nc, antl ca me acro8~ the olrlest dn nghtel' of John 'l'an-
ner. She wns n half-breed nnmed Illn11hn nnd lived to n very gt'(>nt n~e.
Rite told me a. very strang~ i;tory. She F'"aid i:he hnd hnrl n lettc>t' f1 ·c)lll
Mri::. Tildrn thnt it: wn~ het· hni::bancl who hnd Hhot ,Tnmci; School<'rnft.
But i:lte didn't wnn.t hct· to Rfl~' nnythin~ 111.>ont it until her hnRhnnrl ~·nR
dP.a.d. I didn't believe it. Rho hcrs;clf wns a. Romnn Catholic nnd hnd
8hown the letter te> the rn~hop nncl he hacl tolc1 her it had hettcr b<> de·
stroyed. He took care of it, nnd pnt it i11 the gi·nte. u~. Hnlbm·t, Mr~.
Schoolrrnft nnrl Mr. Peter White hn(l believed thnt ,Tnme!I Schookrnft
wns 1'hot h:r Tilden, bnt fn ther inv<>r::tigatcd the thini:r ver.v thoroughly.
and he did not think the thing possible. A. United States soldie1· wm1ld
not have had a leaf from a mission hymn book ns wadding for hiR ·gun,
and Mr. Tilden would not have known nbout Mr. Schoolcrnft slc-cping
ofi' his 4th of July celebration.
N~body knows who burned the house or who killed James Schoolcrnft.
99

:PETER WHI'.CE
na Man and as Citizen
1830....:._ll)OR
Hon. L<wi L. nnrhoue

l"etel' White or !'ct.er Quintar1i White, ui:; one annalist gives his name,
wnA born nt Home, Now York, October 31st, 1830. He died suddenly
in Detroit:, th(! 111or11lng of Juno 6th, 1908.
His gr:n1t1f11ih1 ~1· w11H 0a11tnin FU0.phr-n \Vhitc of Hnlli.tfon. 1\1?.w York.
of the Hc\·ol11tio11al'.r arn1y. 111• \\«IH in co11111HuHI of Fort Stanwix ••I'
l•'ort. Schuylet· OA it was usuu lly known, in 1771. It itt Mid on good
authority, that the fkst fla g henriog tile stars and stripes wns made
hy hiR wife and given fo the hrccze at that Fort, August 6th ot that
ycm·. His .grnndmother WM MarJ' Quin tard, of Hugcnot descent; from
her h~ received the no.me Quintard. rlnin Peter "White, however, enf-
ficcd for him .
His father was Dr. Stephen White. He was OM of the first vestry-
men or the Zion Protest-mt Episcopal Church of Home, N. Y., orgnnize<l.
in l~2r;, · and ret:er was hapti?.cd in that church in hiR early infancy.
HiR mother was IIariette 1'ubbs, of n highly respectable Rome family.
Rhr. died when l'eter was a small boy~not yet nine years of nge. and
the family with others, forming quite n colony, soon after left t11e home
a.t Rome and migrated to the then wilds of Green Bay, Wisconsin.
That Pelcr there attended school aoipe few years is vouched for, b\lt
he· seems to ban~ hecn discontented with the step-motherly home, and a ban·
doiiecl his father's house without leave when he was some thirteen or
fourteen J P-a rs ,of age; t hereafter he wns bis own mentor and master.
He first wcmt to :Mackinac Island, for a time doing any job that prc-
Rc11led itBelf ; hnt he finally . found employment in a store, where he re·
maincd for some yea.rs. Mackinac was a fur trading stati.on; thou·
sands of Indians came there for annuities or trade; there wns much
<lrnukenncss, great profanity, and the wide-open life. Such rude, early
nRRociations, so urnch 1:1l:rong drink and vile behavior in his environ·
mcnt must have been a terrible test, Jct he seems to have escaped with
mind and speech singularly · free frorn taint. He strayed nway from
Muckina.c to 'S ault St. Marie, following the copper excitement, o( that
1 00

time, ur nvmg a.t- llic Hault the \'c1·y llay thnt Ja.u1es Schoolcraft wae
murdel'cd there; nnd be used to tell witll t ragic interest of f'.eeiug the
body lying on the gl'oun<l where Schoolcrnft fell.
Petc1· at this time earnestly sought to al.lip and work his p;tSsagc to
the upper copper country on tbe schooner "Mcrcl.lant,11 but _wus refused,
as Rhe ha<l a full crew an<l mnny passengers. This rcfu~n I wns most
. fortuna tc fo r our frien<l, for the ship ~ank off Oron<l Islnnd :_i.nd nll
the pirn~engcrs a n<l crew were lost. Ile succccuctl however, a few dn·ys
later, in shipping on tile "Bela. Hul>b~ll'(J," which 1C1ailed regularly be-
tween the Snnlt 01· Mnclciuac and Detroit. After sevcrnl trips she ·wn~
wrecked, !Jut no lives were lost. While wor~iug his wny with others of
the crew from th is wreck to Detroit, nt Dny City Peter fell from a pile
of lumber into the bold of the Rchopncr and broke his a rm. The nnu
was unskillfully set an~ cared for, and swelled so l>aclly that when h~
arrived in Detroit it was thought necessary by i1hysiciane· to ampu-
tate it. 'l.'he prepa1·ations were ull mnclc to that end when Dr. Pitcher
happened in, disuaded the· physicians from the operation, and by car&
ful attention saved t he orm. Mr. White conlcl never cease from grati·
fude to Dr. Pitcher for tlrnt good Jeft arm-saying that he wns indebted
to t he good doctor for the integrity of h is corporo~ity.
For awhile he wllR employed in n. store in Detroit and then entere~l
the service of Capta in Canfieia , U. S. A. who was build~ng a light·bouse
at Waugoshance. Ile attractetl the Captain's attention by writing num-
erously the Capta in's name in a lnrge rouud baud in the sand on the
shore, probably after the manner Mr. White was accustomed in n-fter
years to write hie own name. When it was noti ced that Peter could
write so well, and was also quick and reliable, he was appointed to
assist the clerk ns tiwe-kecpe1· of all the JUen on the work. There
b.eing diITerent classes o! employees, masons, cnrpenters, l>lncksmi_the, ns
well as commou day-laborers, this service became of importance. So
thoroughly and well dill reter do the business tbnt at the end of the
season he was paid $70 fo r his work ns 01·iginally intended, and another
~70 as time-kecpel'. Thie early incident of hia life gives us an insight
into the characteristic versatility and industry which marked him for
one or Fortune's fnvoritcs. He wn.s honest, in<lefntigable nnd capable,
He was lnte to becl, enrly to rise nnd never i<lle.
Io t he early spring of 184!> with n ·party unucr tlJe leadership .ot
Robert J . Grnveraet, Peter yet under nineteen, again set sai l from Macki·
nae Islnnd for the iron country above the. Sno il: T~n days instead of twelve
hours; as "-'as expected, with a wreck, rescue and repair ad interim, or
1 Ol

rather inter viani-, brought the p arty to t he Su111l. A la1'ge ?.fackiuac·


hargc which had been crow1lcd up the rapids was used fro m t here, and
aflcr eight days Railiug, i·owiug, poliug and towing, tlw party witll t heir
rcmni niug scant provis ions nrrivcd a t the place whel'e uow is situated
the C ity of Marquette. Tllere was then hut one liuilding in the whole.
neighborh ood, The Cedar Douse, occupied by the lntlian, Charles Ilag-
wam . 'l'his place was afterwards to be Peter's lifelong home. Be was
to share its fortunes and prosperity and as well its strenuous t imes
and adversities ; for in its l1istory , like other townR it hnd its b ooms,
fires and finan cial distrN•Rcs.
The next day after its arrival the party p1·occc<lctl on foot to tllc iron
hills wl1cre now is Ishpeming, each man cnrryiug bis knapsack contain·
ing bis belong ings an~ bis sha re of the food. l'etcr tn1dgeu through
the woods cnrr.ving his bm·den with the others. The party took and
kept possession of all 1.be iron bills or mountaini; west of the J ackson
mine, then known or suspected of containing iron, u11til t he 10th of
.Tnly. In the meantime tiic•y prospected for iron, denuded t he hilltops
and marked tbeir poasess ioot.1 which were aftc1·wardA known as the
Clevel and mines. They then returned to the shore and began to chop
·u ic trcc1:1 aocl to clear the groun d-to "locate" the future town. So Mr.
Whit"c was present at the birth of Marquette, which was at first called
Worccatcr, but the name was afterwards changed in honor of t he Fren ch
millsion a r y to Marquette.
11\ 1850 he took charge for the Ma rquette Iron Company of its gen-
eral trading-store. The p ost-office was kept in the rear and Peter offi-
~ia ted as clerk. As the Government had made no provision for t he
mail service in the winter nod the little colony was leff without newfl
from the outside· worl_d , a puri:;e wns pledged and Peter White volnn·
teered with the a id of his two h'nsted Indinn fri ends to carry the mail.
The firs( trip they t oted the ma il on their backs to µnd from I/Anse
where connection was made with mails passing nliove nnd helow. Af-
tP.rwnr1l e dogs nod sledges were employed. Re mnde nine of tl1ese t ripR
tha t winter. nut the p1mic pledged never materialized, nod P eter re-
ceived only $3 for all this service; after he had once promised, he kepi
bis word for the t'P.neon, pay or no pay. As :i. youth be wne by nature
ot frnil constitution; but to'thcse journeys requiring much bnrd labor.
pri vntion and fati gue, in the open air. in rain and Rhine and sevP-re
~old , Mr. White attributed the e1.11rdy <'O nstitution which Rerved him well
·tor so many years.
In 18152 evidently through some confusion or oiistake as to location.
1 02

Ml·. W llitc was made postrnnstcr of "Carp Ri,·er" which immediately


ad joined J\!Hrquette. l'rohnhly because. of llis popularit y he ooo u nft~l"
bcgau to receive nearly a ll t he mai l fo r the whole l'cgion at the Mar-
quette Company's Store, and gradually the i\far qnetle post-office went
out of business, the postmn~tcr resigned nnd 1\Ir. \\!ilitc was transferred
to Mn1·quette and contiuuetl p ost- mm~tcr for twC'lve yc:trR. Io 1853 the
:Mnrqurlte Iron Company failctl, nnd Mr. 1Vhite wns transferred t o tile
Clcvclanll Company with which he r·emnincd unti l the next yenr, wbcn
be rcsi gucd bis position nncl opened a store on his ow·u nccol1nt, soon
after nrlJ in g the insurance h111Jinc1Js, nn<'l later on rea l estate nn<l banking.
Life nt this outpost of civili7.ntiou wns n busy norl a ve ry iute l'csting
one, and Ur. White enjoyed his full share of it. WHh rnre powers of
description he wa s accustomed to narrate many amusing, interesting and
instructive incirlents. For in1_1tnnce, during the first ae:i1:1011 of operatiag,
the company worked several dnys to drain the waler from n mqrsh into·
Lake Superior, and when the drnio was opened the wnter Oowed from
the Lake into the marsh O\•crflowing, nnd for the ti me destroying, nll
the hny lond they bad sought to improve. Again, at nnothcr time, they
spent scvcm l days buildin g a dock, w hich 11 gentle sea one night wafted
into the dim and distant nowhere. If the j,oke was on h i111, personnll.Y,
Mr. White seemed to enjoy telling it even more than if it were on some
one elRe. though I doubt if be atopped to think of him11elf if the joke
was a good one.
It was while he was in Grnveroet's employ, nnd probably dUl'iug bis
first year in tlle upper country that be was Elent on n mission of con-
si<ler nblc rlelicacy to E11cnnnbn. Two Chippewa Indinns nccompan ie11
him. With provisions for the jonrney on their backs t hey wended their
way over lnud through the m1broken forest, follow ing the blnz.ed trn il as
on ly nu Indian, or an Indian trn incd white man conic!. Seven dnys
through tbe wilderness with two gent le anvagea ! ! Huf tbe Indians
were nlwnys gentle with Peter, for he was nhvays gentle with them.
He told them many and endless stories in their o wn tongue, which he
learned to s~nk as fluently as they, nod he knew al l the different din lects.
He wns familiar with all t heir manners aod customs. Re sympathized
with th<.>m thoronghly, anil could think their thonghts even before they
did. I luwe seen him d:in~e their different da nces with the accompany-
ing cl.ianta. The poses were perfect nnd the monotonous music carried
me bnck t o th.c duya, or the nights, when I.·saw t he enmc d~n1ces around
the camp flres at the Sault. Re took g reat pri de anr~ p leasure in his
kno wledge of Indian life nod lore.
10 3

lfo nl!'lo spokt~ li'l'cnch·Uauadian nud lndiun-Frcoch will.i nccu rncy uuu
flu cutl.v. I ntlcc11 t he French thought hi m truly Fl·e11ch, auu that he hu<l
h'nuslated bis name from Pierre le Diane to rcter White. He knt"IV
legends withou t number, and tlrn lore of the forests, of tbe mines uud
of t he grcnt lakct:t. . For est u.nimnls and birds, thei r habits and their
•1iffe1·eut degrees of in.t clligen ce, a nd the fishes and their likings, bubitn.ts.
and times of movement were his careful stu dy. I n all t hese things not
to be gotten from hook" hut from the Indians, from the woodsmen, from·
the acn.mcu, a nd from peraonnl obscnation he was n learned man. Ilis
nnnativcs were a lways i nteresting ancl gcnerul l.r gave one a fa ir a nd
tTne insight into the life nod times of the early frontier settlements.
That Rfcrn li fe, with nil its jocularity and bonhomie made .its mark on
l\ir. White.
Ile was rugged in phyi:;iquc and rugged io llis idens of politics, morals
n.n tl religion ; nt t he same tiine lie was nlinble uod moat genial -not
domineering or exacting,- not in the least-u nless some matter of prin-
ciple or prop riety was at stake. No mntter how rough the crowd with
which he wna compelled to associate, he seemed able to acquit himself
bcseemingly an d to .their liking without descentling from his own proper
level or i ncur r ing on the pnrt o! his coµipnnions nny suspicion that
he assumed to be above t hem'. It was thus that I tllought of him na I
a:\\v him during the tu_r bulent: . time of the Chicago D~mocratic Oooven·
tion in 18V6.
I think be t ook much pr ide in his past, in the iuciuents which mnde
·up' his 'life ; nn d well he might, for they were continunlly to hie credit
and were made mucl1 of by his friends and conternpornr ica. H e w as
a pnrt of t he history of the State; anl1 that !eel him to be an enthusiastic
student of t he State und National histor y, o.nd so a very ardent member
o! the Amer ican Historical A&eociation. He used to sound its p raises
and importa nre on nll occasions. One of his hm1f>cl 101U who knew him
intimately for many years said t<;>.. me, "Yon kuow l.Jow <lcnrly he loved
to be made much or nnd noticed;. a n d what an iunoceut pricle he took,
in wh at be nccomplished." This is true but there wns no boastfulness
about it. Ile assumed t hat an:x- tither mnn would have done t he s nme
under the s nme circumstances. T.o him it was only the good fortu ne
of opportunity t hat led bim to·do and to be w hat be <lid o.nd was. ·The
i ncident s them.selves were interesting and iruportaut and especially to
him who ho.d li ved them; and he never s topped to think that often be
Tepreaented h imself, ns i.ndt--eu he was, the ma,qna pews. But I doubt if
anyone could possibly think of him as egotistic, 0 1• exaggerating the
part lie pluyct.l in auy mn.ttel'. And then there was so nrncb good nn·
ture in e~erything be said nnd did. ·
' Nothing del ighted him ao much as to give plcnsurc-rcal intelligcut
pleasure-to bis friends: so ho took delight in showfog ally cl.ianre uc·
quaintnnr.e visiting Marquette the bcnutiful Presque hilc Pnrk, 1he
c1·cation nn<l tJw maintenance of which for JCnl'S was 1l11c to bis l'X·
ertions and generosity. So, the "Whi!.e P nblic Library'' was/ lnrgely i f
not entirely bis donation, nod he took a kindl'c1I pri1le in thnt. 1'11c
Marquette Normn.l Schol owed its existence Jar~cly to his vigorous ad·
vocacy of it, an1l the Sci~nce Ilall of lhnt iustitution bccn uee of hii-:
generosity in connection with it was nnmecl aftet• him . He had been n
member of the Marquette school bon.rd for fifty.five years or more, and
so the schools, nnd the High School cspecin.lly, were mutters of his
continual concern, and thcil· prospc>rity his delight. Probably from hi~
early life at Mackinac Ialnn1l he took greater vride and iutcrest {hnn
he otherwise would in the Mackinac Island rark, and in the fnct also that
he had been president of tbe park bonrd from its organization. Shol'tl,,·
before his dea th he contracted for n beautiful stntue of Pere MnrqucttP
for Mackinac Island as a gift.
He did not seek office, but. official duties of one kind nod another wen'
continually thrust ~pon him. One time before he was of lega l ngc to
hold office, he went fishing and when he returned to J\fo r<J 11ette he fo u nd
himself elected Cot1nty Clerk nod Register of Deeds. ffo ti·ied to de·
cline but was compelled to serve as his education and busines~ e:qierienc·p
especially fitted him for the duties of \hose offices. Without notire he
was appointed pos tmaster, und at first refused as be "hadn't done n n~·
thing and did not wo.nt any fuss with the Government." hut he wai>
prevailed upon to accept, and, as he snid, continued in office twelve yenrfl.
From the Wild Cnt times of 1837 on, o. very subatnntinl dream of a n
unimpeded waterway liad floated through the minds nod imnginntiona o f
men interested in the mining o.nd mercant ile prosperity or the upper
lakes country. The Rlate hud a utho1·ized u survey n11cl nppropriatc11
$25,000 toward the constrllction of a s h ip ennui nround the S ault Rn pidfl.
The matter bad been presented to Oongrcas several times, hut it woa uot·
until 1852 that the subject waa really underAtood nnd cori!lidr.red l\C.·
cording to its magnitude ond its merits. In Augm1t of that .ren 1• CongreAR
granted to the State of Michigan 750,000 ncrca <>f land lo be selcc tc <l
from lands not yet offered for sale fot• the purpose of nilling in 1'11<'
construction of the canal. It was to be commenced within three ;venrA
and· finished within ten, nnd it was required that it Ahoul!l be 100 feet
l 05

wi ~e, twelve feet deep, with lo<fks sixty feet wide and at least two
4u11clred anu fifty fee t long.
'fhe genern l management of t he mnt1cl' before Congr ess was in tlw
lia11 u~ of. Jobn .Burt, IJut a commi ttee of !he most powerful and inllucntinl
meu o! the upper penin sula, of wbom Mr. ·white was one, spent tl.Je
AC:ISOI'\ in Wa shington u·1·ging their project, and they forced it to n euc-
ce~sfu l conclui,;ion. At once ther eafter the State pairned an act authoriz-
iug the Governor to appoint n commission to contract for the co11st ruc-
tio11 o f the cana I and other bu sines~ connected therewith. A corpol'tl·
t ion was formP.d uocler tbe lnw s of the State of New York, co1111,1o~e<I
or ca11italists wllo bid for the contract and, under tlle d irection of Mr.
C harleA T. Harvey the work was begun June 4th, 18G3. Two thom111ni:l
uum wrre pnt to work, and in Jess than two years, instead of the ten
allow<>d, tbe canal was flnii:;he<l-considernbly larger in every way thnn
was required by the oct of Congress. 'l'he lrou Monntnin Rouu from
blarrp1cl tc aoon ·followed the construction of the Sault Ca nal, ond thus
wafl opened to the world the gren.t iron nod copper mines nn<l the gen·
ernl me r cantile trallic of the new nort hwest. In both of the~ mnguifi·
cent projects Mr. White constantly naaisted with bis helpfu l enthn·
slasm nnd advice when. from lack of capital he could not otherwise aid.
1t was in 1853 that rete t· White & Company commenced a bnnking
business. The firm con ti nned nnti l 18G3 when it was organized into
the Fir1:1t Nntional Bank of Mnrqnette, with Peter \Vhite as Coshi er.
This pos ition he belil until 18Ci!l when he became its President, and so
...
cou t iuued until his deat h. It was not nil sur.ahine in this bUf~iness for
in h ard times the bank lost money like everybody else-large sums o f
moncy-hnt comage .and good management carried it through all i ts
~rises.
· Jn 185G Mr. Whit e helped to organize St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal
.Ctnirch, au<l waA one of its flrst vestrymen. B.e took no active part in
all b1.·n nchcR of its work-superintendent of its SuncJay Schoo l for yenrs
-nnrl was its principal benefactor to the date of his death. For mnny
yea r s h~ waa its lay deputy to the general convention. From 1873 on
be Flh'o>e ye::ir after year t o have the Upper Peninsula organized into an
independent diocese, nod finally succcerlcd in 1895, raising and con-
tributing largely personally to'lvnrrl providing the r eqnisite endowment
funo.
O ne who knew him in ch'1rcb matte rs better of lnte years, perhaps
t hnn ony other man, said of him recently that "wore1hip, dnty, senti ment,
faith, ki n<ll inP.ss. plenRure, bnAinesfl, were nil woven together in bis'
106

·make-up. With ~ beart·tender as n womnn's where .sympathy for o thers


was called for, be was a stern, strong, exacting man when he only was
in issue."
In 1857 he was appointed Ilegister of the Lantl Office 1.Jy P resident
Buchaonn and shortly nfter he was mnde Collector of the Port. It
was in connection with these Inst offices tbnt be thought it incumbent
upon ltim to study law-not so mucll t~r the purpose of practicing in
the courts, where the conteutions ot ·parties must be con ducted with
strict regard for the rules and technicalities of procedure, as fo1• the
purpose of comprehending the rights of those witll whom he bnd to
deal, and to see tllat no slip ot his should get them into trouble. Ile
wanted to know law and equity; and lie tllougb t tbnt the principlet'I
~pon which law was founded would be a safe guide for him in all
his dealings and would help him to just estimates ot other men's mo-
tives and nets. He was afterwards admitted to practice before t11e
United States Supreme Court, nod later on fol'med the lnw partnership
ot White. & Maynard whi ch continued in practice fol' ten years. Ilecauee
<?f the entire confidence placed in his integrity as much per haps aR
because ot reliance on his legal erudition, be was appointed special
maoter in chancery in the Pewabic Copper Co. case, in which after the
court bad confirmed his findings in the intricate matter which came
before him, he sold the assets ot the company for nearly three+qunrte1·s
of tt million dollars.
Tbe same year 1857, he .was elected to the State Legislnture. He
went !rom Marquette on snoW5hoes as far as Eecannbn-stnge from
there to Fon du Lac, and from there to Lnnaing,-a journey Of fifteen
days, which is now a journey of tlftei?n hours or eo. The service of
perhaps more importance than any other at this session was the lorntion
ot the public lands granted by Congress In connection with the Bault
Onunl, o.nd Mr. White looked out well for the interests ot hie part of
the State. ·
For years there had been n feeling in the upper and lower peninsulnR
that the two should be united by rai1 as well as by wa ter. When naviga-
tion was closed in the Fnll, all communication was· practica lly closed
until Spring, except by way of Green Day, Milwaakee and Chicago.
This roundabout way h~rt tlle pride of the State and tended t o alienate
trade and friend,l,y relations between the two parts of it. Detroit capital·
iate were ready· with the money to baild o. railroad from Mackinac to
' lUnrquette providing the proper aid could be procured, a nd the upper
penins ula people were ready to support ·a land granf by the Sta te, as
1'17

il was apparent thn t orlly by a r11 ;lr0:1ll through t.ltc wil tkrr••.'.si,i IJiug
hetwccn St. Jgna<'e and ill nrq11ette t'.o\ll1l i ha t country liC' 1111ii t np nnd
rendel'cd habitnl>lP. All tlii11gs co usidtT<'il, it wn~ lhonght br.s t to have
the u11per pcnirnrnl:t cha111pio11 the ra 1113e1 and it wnB dctrr mi11cd io
·8cnd Mr. \ Vhitc, then t\ De111ocrat, to ihc State 8c11a! c . In 1875 he was
elected unanimously a JHl for the especial purpoi:ie o f prncurint; th1~ de·
~ire!l Jnnd grant. TJn,ler his rna11n gc111r.nt ihe rn e:unirc w:rn ~arricd
throngh RnccCRHfnllJ. '!'here were 11111ny other 111:ittc•1·~ of i111portancc
hcfor~ +he IP.gif'latnre 0f thnt yenr in rr.(.!artl to •::l1id1 he rcnr1.c rc1l clli·
cient Renice.
Re was an nhlr anc1 :1nlcnt advocate of t he tlc111a11ds of tl1e Univernity
presented to tl1c legi$!laturc, and to him certainly more 111~1! tc1 any
other mcm her arc we indebted for t he i:;ever a l approprin t ions ~· 3te<l tlin t
year for the establisl!Jneul of the Ilomcopnthic De partment, thongh he
was no homeopa thisr, for the e~tabliB.Jiment of the eng inc(_!ri n1:. Mining
and Architectural Dcpnrtineots, for t he U nivc•·~ ; 1 ~ Hos1J iti~ 1 . l\lld for
::1. water supply for 1h~ Un iversit y. H e chnmp i c:;;1 ~ (1 t hem all. It wna
at this ~~SRi o11 also, ;~! ll] with Mr. ':'.'h ile's vote t i1nt Judge o~!"isti ancy
'\V:tf< elected to the li'·: it,:·t\ $! 11f PR Srn:t tc .
:Mr. 'White hnd a rc111nrkablc fond of jolly go1"'·?111 111rc nncl h~· utilized
it. ou many nn occasiol! when H0tnC 111en~mr0 in wl.: r. :1 he wns pnrticularly
interested wns at stakt' De told n Ht ory, repeated poetry, c•'r:1 dtuH..-ed
an Indian dance, an•l frequently th us nut·nq:ncd ·~ gooil i-ioli<l nrgument
-but when arg1.1111cn1. '.•.-nR t he l1c"1 weapon to 11sc, though !!•'.'t a man
gifted with cloqncncc, lw. couhl pnt his poin1s,-n11<1 they were gcnernlly
Rtrong points,-forcihly nn<l well. He w1\.s alway~ l'cady with the
"Wreck of the .Tnles La Plante" O!:' F>omc French or ludinn t'ltory thnt
ca.ptivntcd hi~ hcnrera, nnd m11tle it d'ifl\cnlt to c1isa~rcc with whnt be
advocnte1l or cler;1retl. l think .i: 11111st inscribe h8re the '"Wr eck of' the
.Inles I...a Plontc" for nothing eltte-- no d escription-cn u so wcH briug
to the rnind of t hose who h::wc henrd him repent it, 011e pl~r<iing phase
of :Mr. White, UFJ doec; Hiia l"rcnch rh,:.•me.

"Twns 011.P dark i1ight 0n J,ac. St. Clnit',


De wind she blow, blow, blow,
\Yhen d<' r.rcw of <le wood·Bcow .Tnlea Ln P lan te,
Got scnrefl nn rm1 below.
108

2.
For 1lc wind she blow like hurricnne,
nimP. by sbc blow Rome more,
Wh<!n clc scow hust up on T,ac. St. Olnil'
T'ree acre from de shore.

3.
, De Cap' walk clc font deck..
She wnlk t11e hind deck too.
She ca.lied de crew up from de hold.
She ca lle<1 de cook also.

~.

De cook hie na me was Rosa.


Was come from Montreal,
Was chambermaid on lumber barge,
On dat big La Chine Canal.

5.
De wind she blow from de nor' east, wesf,
De sou' win<l she blow too,
When 'itosn say Oh! Captain
Whatever sbnll I do?

6.
De Cap she trow de bank,
But still dnt scow she drif,
The crew she cant ~et on the' sliore,
Because she lose de skiff.

7.
De uight w:1s dark like one black cut,
De waves rolled high and fast,
When de Captain she took Rosa,
And lashed him to de mast.

8.
Den de Cnp pu t on de life preserve
An' jumped into de Lac,
An' said Good Ilyc, my Rosa dear,
I go drown for your sak'.
109 .

9.
Next morning very early
About lrnlf past two, t ' rce, four,
De Captain, de crew nnd de wood:scow
Lay corpses on dat shore.

10.
Now nil good wood·scow sn.ilor mans
Take ·warning by dat storm,
And go marry one nice French girl,
And live on one nice fann.

11.
Den de wind she blow like hurricane,
And suppose she blow some more,
. You wont get drowned on Lac. St. Clair,
.. So long yon stop on shore."

The episode of "iron mouey" i n the lllining country of the upper penin·
sula was one ·Of great interest. The mines and other corporations be-
cause of the lack of n .circulating · medium w~re · compelled to iesue
drafts in payment !or labor and mater-ials, and this habit of issuing drafts
resulted in providing a local a nd private ·currency somewhat in the form
of paper money which passed from · hand to hand, the same as bank
bills. It began during the hard times of 1857 and continued in cir-
··cnla.tiion until 1872 or 1874. The United· States law passed in 1864 pro-
vided for a· tax of ten per cent npon a ny nse of any paper money, other
than National Bank bills paid ont. It was estimated by the United
States agent or the Treasury that over one hundred million of this
money bad been, by use nnd renewed use, liable to pay a tax of over ten
inillions of dollars. To the informer wa.s to be paid one-half of the
sums in which the users or ·issuers of this money could . be mulcted.
Mr. White in connection with bis ba nking business; it was charged·
by the Government agent, bnd paid out at least twelve hundred thousand
dollars; and it was estimated that a . number of the large corporations
were liable to pny as tax, hundreds of thousands of dollars each. Every
banker, mining corporation and business man in Northern Michigan
was in financial peril. Mr. Whitt; procured letters from the most prom·
inent. a nd influential men of the State to Senator Chandler a nd ~thers
in Washington; also from the Governors o ~ :Michigan, Wisconsin, Il1i·
11 0

n ois, Ohio, r cnn1:1ylvauia, Connr.ct icnt, Massachuset ts a nd New Yol'k to


t heir Senators and H.epresentn.tives. Sena tor Clrnndlel.' drafted a l'Clid
measure which was simullancously introuuced in both housrs of Cougress,
and under his all powcrfu l iniluence ·the relief seemed imminent, wlien
suddenly he withdrew his suppor t. His party had g~ne l>ack on him in
Michigan a~d he wouM 1rnlk in his tent. But he had gone too far in
his a dvocacy of the. justness of tbe measure for bis defection to over··
throw the good work he had done.
Ui;idei- the combination of forces which Mr. White brougllt together
the Senator was routed foot, horse and dragoons. The bill for relief was
passed the last day of the session, in fact t he Senate clock waa turned
back twice to allow the vote to l.Je taken. The President signed the bill
two flou rs after the right of Cougress t o net had rea lly expired.
But the trouble was not at an end for Mr. Whi te, as a complaint had
been lodged ngainst him and others in tile United Sta tes Circuit Court
in Detroit, and they were compelled to stand t rial. The two judgeR
before whom the cnse was brought were Judge Emmons of the Cjrcuit
Court and Judge Drown of the District Court. Mr. W h ite was the
first and principal witnesG. The case continued for t hree days when
the Court, on the questio;:i whcthe~ the United States had made out
a case disagr·eed, a.pd it was therc!1pon certified to the supreme Court
of the United States. When it came up for henring t here, after 'hear-
i ng t he Attorney-Ge~eral, it was dismissed. Th is was a long, nrcluous
and expensive contest. :r..rr. ·white bore t he brun t of it and received no
d irect recognition cf his services from the others interested, but he ·waA
satisfied witll the fric!ldly relationships which grew ont of it and the
assistance given him by tlte mining corporations in get ting together his
mining exhibit when be wM the World's Fair Commissioner in 1893.
Upon this subject of "Iron :Money" Mr. White wrote a very interesting
pnper for the Pioneer and Ristoricnl Society which is 'to be found in
Vol. XXXV of its collections and resr.arches.
In 1879 and 1880 M-r. White traveled in Europe with his family. u111.l
in 1881 he interested himself for n. time in establishing n. social cluh
and clubhouse, one of the pleasures of wlJich was weekly snowshoeing
parties in winter' which were generally led by Mr. White.
In 1886 Mr. White took a great intcre·~t in t he clccp wa terways pro-
ject for the Great Lakc3 then he forc Congress a nd be made a telling ar·
gumen t in favor of au appropriation for tllat p urpose. For a long time
before tbnt he had had the project in mind to secure for Marquette the
appropriation of Preeq:i~ fok-r.xt:cpt ti.le small por tion used for li~ht·
11.1

house purposes-for n pnrk, and whil e in Washington thnt winter he


took occasion to bri ng it forward. It was a valiant contest, and be
w~ged it alone to start with, a s tbe upper peniusuln congressman hn<l no
fnith that it could succeed.
· Senn tor rainier whom he had known for 111 a 11y years ably support('d
him. One by one he won frienclR for the project, an d came home bring-
ing with him a copy of the net he had procured, granting the pnrk .to
the city on condition of it.a ncccptnncc nod the expenditure of the amount
of money neceMnry lo n1nke it available. On objection hcing made in
the City Council to the cost, J\fr. White volunteered to meet the conditions
himself. He huilt n ron<lwny to the park at a cost of some $30,000, nnd
for the improvement and mnintennnce of the park for fi ve years be de·
voted ia5,000 more. The park and the plenanre drive to it, over a mile
across an unrcclaimed stretch of ground coat not only the money but
much of Mr. White's t ime nnd study with a lnntlscape garclncr for some
ye.ars; but it 'wns n la.hor of Jove which he performed moRt cheerfully.
In a recent description of M:trqnctte I finrl this mention of Presque Isle,
"It is a most lovely spot toclny nnd bas an extensive and well kept Zoo;
its effect together with the driveway, bas been to make the whole city
M Marquette a park.'.' Thia work was . undoubtedly oue of the most ad-
v.antngeous lnbora performed by Mr. Wh.ite for his beloved city, and
his memory will be kl'pt green on account of it by its . npp~ciative citi-
zens for generations to. come. ·
In 1893 Mr. White wns appointed a 1uember of the World's Fair
Commissipn and devoted himself with his nccustomed zenl and faith-
fulness to. the service of the State in connection with it. Re was par-
ticularly interested in and responsible for the mining exhibit which
w.as. the . finest of all for copper and iron. Tbough still claiming to be
a .de11iocrat-a Cleveland Democrnt~for he bnd bolted the Democratic
ticket in 18!)G and HJOO,-Mr. White was elected n member of the Iloard
of Regents of tlle University in the Spring in 1!103. The honor came to
..him unsought and une:xpecte<l. It is rem.emhererl, however, that at a
lit11e lnnche0n n.t the D etroit Club shortly before the death of Regent
Cocker, Mr. White remarked cnsnally, and to compliment others present,
.that he would rather be Regent of the Un.iverElity than 'Governor of the
.~Hate. But t he Pxpr cssion of the wiFth. I n111 eoofident was the only
move be made to obtain the office. It wai:; thonght good politics by
,those who led the Republican party at that .time, to :iclopt the sug·
. gestion, and for the good of the Un iversity to have the Upper Peninsula
represented on the Ro.arcl by n prominent citizen who .had hrok~o away
11 2

from the Democ1·atic pa1·ty whcu i he s i Iver cr nzc dl'ove it· down to p<'t"- .
dition. The University ncve1· hnd a n101·c devoted lover oud 11e1·vn.11t
on t he B~rd t han he. N ot only :were his time ond best t hou ghtfi nt
its ·command, but his pu rse was always open, nod with free-hand he
.gave more tllan any ot hrr t o eve1·y cnll or suggestion. He look <'S·
pccial interest in the> Jibrnry, tile hospitnls, thr. gymnasim11R nnd ·in
fa ct every different hranch of learning· or exercise conn!'drd wit h t bl!
instit ution. A.aide from regulnr attenqance u pon the mr<·t i11g11 of t h<'
boar d of regcntf! he freq uently spent dn.ys nt n time in w111·k 1·n nm•ct1~1 l
directly and indirectly with the Univer11ity. He f'Sfablii<lw1l Rrhol n1·-
sbips and su stained t hem year a f ter year u ntil hiR <lcnth; :111 11 80 fn r HR
he had opportunit y he saw t o it t hat no wor t hy stn<lent w nR <'ompellr.cl
t o · leave for lack of fun ds. H e especia lly insisted tbn.t tlw yo11111! wouu>n
students should be tren.te!l as fairly and hnve every a!l\'1111 I n~ nn<l en·
couragement given the young 111en. Naturally hiR i1lr11:-1 \ ) f• equ ity
and fai r dealing turned his mind in that direction. but. more t han t hat,
he used t o say that when you educa t e the mother :incl pnt her ri~h t .
you educate all her children and put t hem right.
It was aftctt some years of patient, quiet labor on tire pa rt of Mr.
White that in March; 1!305 Congress appropriated $10,0llO. ancl in .Mny
the ·sta te of Michigan n.ppropriated $15,000 for tbe purpo1>e of au itnhly
celebrating the semi-centennial of the opening of the Sault <'ana l. F rom
the inception of this project to its final successful terruinnt ion Mr. W hite
devoted to it his well-known vigor an<l. naaiduity. He besiegccl cong 1-c1:1~­
men and a ll the friends of congressmen . One by o ne. and by twoll', he
t old them that this great ·waterway belonged to the ·Nation ; t hat the
P.rodu cts which passP.d throngb it went t o the uttermost parts of t he
.ear th; that t he opening of the Canal hncl been of t he largest benefi t
t o the whole United States of any s ingle happening in its commer cinl
o r industr ial h istory ; tl.lat every state in the TTnion bnrl lx>cn henefHNl
hy it. F lour, he said, goes from Duluth, uy wny of the Conni to l1iVl'I'·
pool; Michigan copper; the finest mined, ~a sold nil over the world nf te.r
pasain~ t hrough t he cannl; it is the con necting link that joi m1 the up1wt•
country to the rest of the world. ·
'When t he r.urrent see111('d <l<'Aperately against him arnl his project
he nttc111lr.1l n 1li nuc·r . whid1 it ii< ~11~pc>clc>11 h" /!:l\' t'. to wl1if'fi l\'PI'~ in-
vited certain AoullcR~ !'0111~ 1\°1111 ~rC'111rd lo h0. 11gai11!it the meaRnrt>. He
told his French r::to 1·i£'~. 1·1·1wate>ll ".Jules La Plante," interject ing t he
importnnce of the cnonl, the mngn i t u<le of the traffic which pnsse<l
through it, the growt h of t he Northwest, dependent upon it for the Inst
11 3

fi f ty years; tha.t i t was an internnlionnl highway next in importance


to the Panama Canul; that the n!"tion and the world tihouhl know of
itF.1 importance; that a palt ry $10,000 to ai~ t he Stnte in thus a iding
the nntion would be seed well planted which would bring a bountiful
haneat. S uccess crowned h is e fforts~ the ruoney was voted. The State
Le~i slature followed the lead o f Congress with an nppropriatioo of
$15,QOO. Peter White wns npp ointetl on the Commisflion and elected
itfl P resident. The neighboring Statei< and Canada were invited to join.
and A ugust 2nd and 3rd , 1!)05 ~ere des ignated as 1·hc date. 'l'l.le cele-
bration was not on ly a loca l but a succesflful nntional C\'ent. The.papers
p repa r ed and t he speeches guve roucb Yaluu.bli! hiAtoricnl nnd Atntistical
information.
Mr. Wh ite p repared the hi storical add ress. I lll\ll~t quote a sentence
or t wo froru him. "The i r on industry is the k<'J to the commercial
supremacy of t he world: Before tho Canal we 'were dependent on the
B r itish Isles. Now we can tmdersell !he wor ld. The Cunn.l made Pitta·
burg the great city it is today; it rnadc cheap rails ancl railways pos-
si ble; it made cheap tools, cbenp wire, an d bas fenced the woodless
prairieR; it baa made cheap implements of all kindR. It bas aent our
riflc1:11 shovels, h ammern, r eapers, bridges a.nd rails over the world.
K itchE>ncr went to Khartum wit h t he freight of this C1tnal. No English
Company would agree t o fm ni sh the Alham br idge ncc•l!saary for his
a dvance in less than eighteen mon thR. An American contractor set it
up in t hree months. Carnegie huilds libraries and rcwnr<l~ heroic vi rtue
wi t h the fruits of a. busiuess impossible without the cnnnl. The coal
of t he South returns by the Canal to temper our winterR and to drive
our engines. Population is the child of the cnnnl ; industry is another,
comfort a nother; education and philanthropy twins of the canal ; agri-
cul tur e, mnnnfactnres, tran spor tation, worl<l intcrcou rflc, commercial
s upremacy the offering of the cana l. T he canu.1 has rc(lnccd the price
of steel rails fro m $150 a too· to $2<i, and occasiona lly even leas. King
Iron used to r eign from nn English throne, now his t hrone is in Am·
ericn. ·we nre now the · g~eat creditor na tion, and ns snrh bnve the
grea test poE!Aible inB.uence in t he pence of the worlO."
And he presented a tab le' showing the flt<>a<l:r gl'owth of the iron
i odnst ry in this country since the opening of the can al; und that in
1!)01, t he year before t he cana l celebrntion , this cou ntry prodncod quite
double t he number of tons prodnr.e<l by England-the United State~
lfi,497 .033 to . E ngland 8,5G2,G58 nnu that t he gross tone of ore shippen
through t he can~l were 21,822,839. T hr ough t he St. Mary's R iv('r now
114

flows a. commerce in t he seven months of the open season over three


. times as· great ns that t hrough the Sue7i Canal in the twelve mont hs of
the year.
Mt'. White was always a. great lover. of tltc S t a l e of .Michigan and
seemed . continually to bave on hand some project in w hich tl.le ~ tate
a t large, or some part of it, or public institution i u it, w~s particularly
interesteu. For some time before his death he had devoted both t ime
and money to the rect ification of the boundary line be tween Michigan
ancl Wisconsin. The original sur veyors of the bounda ry line because
of indolence, ·carelessness, or the difficulty in survey ing t he "bead waters"
of t he M<'ntreal River to Island Lake, bad deprived the State of Michi-
gan of a large a nd very valuable tract of land. Mr. W hite caused a
resurvey of this boundary to be made at his own expense and hlld demon·
strated thereby the equity of t he claim of the Stn.to to t his tract, and he
wns diligently engaged in mnki ng t he case to compel its surrenqer.
The la.st Constitutional Convention of Michiga n a.dopted Mr. White's
views in regard to the owners hip of th~s t ract of land nnd wrote in the
Constitution the boundary line between Mich igan a nd Wisconsin ac·
cordingly. It is to be hoped that the State will not. fnil by reason of
Mr. White's death to enfo rce, if possible, its claim.
It was, in 1857 that Mr. W hite ma r ried Ellen S. H ewitt, a daughter
of D r. Morgan L. Hewitt, who coming from Ollio bad ~ i d ed at Mar·
qnctte many years. Then bega n t ha t long-continued, domest ic life wh ich,
while it brought to him so many a nd tender r efini ng inQnences and so
ml1ch happiuess, had also in its dispensation so many bitter disappoint.,
ruwts and deep griefs. His house nnd home nssociations were of the
most c:ijoya ble imaginable. .Mrs. White was a moat charming womnn,
highly esteemed by a large nEiaocintion of friend s n.t borne and abroad,
and in every way to the desire of her husband n moat competent and
aG:ablc belpmeet. The child ren \Vere bright, stud iously inclined, genial,
respectful and gave high promises of lives delightful, useful and God
fearing; huf illness came a t tacking one after another until at last in
his old age, but one daughter, living in Washingt on, Mrs. Shiras,' re-
mained. · • ·
This story of domestic losses and how Mr. White rmatnined them seems
more inspiring even tha n the tale of bis active a chievements. neren.ve-
ments were repeated ngain nnd again. His children died one after
anotl:er,-a.o only son remnin ing, t hat son, budded into glowing youth
and then died. The only daughter remain ing a t home, Mrs. Jopling, (I
quote from ~ letter from a friend, ) "grown to s plend id womanhood, the
115

fl ower of the comm u ni{·y , t he co111pnnion o f his ng<', t he 11ro11 of h i~ ,\P.·


clining years'' she, foo, died, witl.ioul warn ing a n<l a wn.'' f"Om home.
Finally the companion of nearly fif ty :rear s of t he plca surei- nn<l Rtr uggles
nnd sorrows of his life, died. Therc ' wns no bi t ter compl:ii11ing ; cYen
t11en he was cnlm a ncl Rcrene un tl apparently cheel'fnl. H iR conso lo.tion
1:rcroed to be l'Cclouhleu eITor tfl for t he p ublic-g ood nnd for t he person;1 l
1·<'licf of th e 1:1ull'c ring a nd a ffii ctcil ones who came in his w'ny.
One stanifa r il hy which to judge the quality nn d qua ntity of a man'R
liter a ry loves ancl longings is io note what he r et ains o f hi~ ren.d in~
1Lnd study. By this mea su re it mu st be a dmitt ed that Mr. W h ite wnR
hy nature aa well na culture, n great Jover of the good th i n ~~ o f litern· ·
tore. Jn ea r ly youth he committed to memory nn cl he wonhl ofte n r e·
pent parts o f 11ntriotic Rpccchcs of P at r ick H e nry, of W:u1h i 11 ~to n's Fn t~"
w.ell Address, of Dnniel W ebster. nnd g ems of poetr y, t he Deserted Vil·
lage, selectionR from T homas Moore, Milton, S h nkeRp<?nr e, n.nd lie w ou ld
break out with Rome psn1m or extended port ion ot' the E piscopal service
on befitting occnaiona. Nor d id he cease memoriz ing such things when
in Int er clays b usiness woulcJ seem t o d eman d his entire a t tention. He
knew in t he Rnrnc way Lincoln's Gett ysburg o·a arcAR, poe11111 ot K i plin!!~
Drummond antl other lotter day nnthors . . A110U1er criterion l.Jy whir.b to .
estimate a man's literacy cu lture ie t he librnr,v of.. his chof'leu book11.
Aside from the several generous d onn tionR which M r . White mn<lr. to t he
W hite P ublic J, ibrary he st ill retnined in severnl r ooms in hh< hon!IC,
n very large an<l carefull y !lelectc<l collection of hooks-not hooks which
one· will find i n a moder n booki:ihop, but a ·choice selection. man y of
them stan<lnrcl nnd clni.:s ic, which ind icated that for year R lie had l.JcC'n
f\ddi cted t o rnmmaging for rar e copies such a s on ly ·n b ibliopltih• wonl<l
hnve h ad ~he good 1;;eni>e or wisdom to search for nnd sPlr..rt. 1'1o1'f'·
over he wns ncl<licted t o first ed itions nn rl fine bi n ding~ . H f> ·wns w<'ll
acquainted and on tcrm1:1 of int imocy with promi·ncnt men tht'OUE?h nil
t he latter yea rs of bis life-scholars, statesmen, authors and polit ic ians.
Dur ing both the ndmi nist r ntions o f Pre1.1id en t Clcveln.tHl, he wnR entN··
tained frequently nt the W hit e House a nd otherwhere.s in Wn!ihin!!ton,
and was welcomed by Presid ent McKinley and President Roosevt>lt .
. Socinlly nn<l o.s a boat Mr. W hite wa s n prince. Every f:lll he I.inti
nt his wilderncf!a cnntp n goo<'lly compnny of.congenial son ls who at,. . of
hiR feast, drnnk o.f bis cider a ncl other g ood <lrinlrn, hunted hia guru<'
nnrl t ram ped his wilderness t r act over to theii• h earts con te nt nod t o
hiR eqnnl happiness. Of the party were OongrcsR11U\n Sl1ira11 and Mr.
•Topli ng. ltiR llOn·in·lnwR, the Oampbells, the Ru RR~lls . Cottrell, Mather,
116

Duncan, and Afr. Hruuuuond, the 11lontl'ea l poet and n uthCll', \\·ho W WI
his friend for mnuy yenrs. Dr. Drum111ond once snid of l\lr. \Vhitc
when Ile was not present, "Strong in his gcutleness, wise in his ai mplicity,
practical in bis enthusiasm, pioneer iu q u nge of pfoneers, the lllan \Vhom
the children on the street know only as Peter White, stnnda t oday, it
seems to me, the very highest idea l of that civilivation of which tile Am·
erican people are so proud. Wilen such m en build the foun clntions, ensy
it is to raise tile super-structure; and the trail Peter White has cut
through life is blessed by acts of privnte charity nnd deeds of public
devotion tllat will serve ns a guide to those who follow in t he footsteps
of a truly great, nnd above all, good man."
At his house the latclrntring wns always out; and indeed the door
was ajar to the .needy even wider thnn to bis opulent friends. . He quite
supported many ot the Indians who lingered in the neigllborhood of
Marquette. Be felt tilat they had not been treated fair l:Y, end ·was re·
joiced when he could, in some measure, from his own bounty liriuidate the
debt that the white men owed to his copper·colored bro ther. It Ile
heard that ·al,ly o.cqunintnnce in straightened circumstances was ill, es-
pecially if ill in a hospital, he seemed unable to· resist the temptation
to visit the sufferer and give him good cheer wi th such substantial n~­
sistance as occasion suggested.
He was deferential to men be d~med superior to himself in wisdom or
in authority, especially in authority in the Church. To the mos t in·
fluential and exalted in the land however, he was no more courteous
than to the blind and helpless Kaw-b'aw-gnm who was entirely dependent
upon him for food, clothing and shelter. He was more atten tive to others
than to himself. ·He saw that Charles ho.d every comfort an d content·
ment-a ticket to the concert, or piny, or lecture. He boug ht him a
paper when he bought one for himself-so he mnde a multitude ot
friends, so be kept them,-eo he left them when he died.
He was deeply and multifariously engaged-offir.i a lly engaged-in
~any kinda of business, president, director, of banking nnd numerous ·
other corporations with large responsibilities, but he wns never hurried,
worried or weary. He delighted to be busy, bu t he bad his "business so
organized that most of the details were cored for by othera, a nd he left
a free agent, ton large degree, to devote his beat thought to pu blic affairs
and to the private affairs of others in perplexity or wnnt. He hnd a
• correspondence, and when nothing e leie particularly de-
large personal
manded his attention, he wrote letters. Wherever he hap pened to be at
a hotel, at a bank desk, if be could find pen, i nk and pa.per he wro.te-
117 ..
friendl .y notes, u worll of checrJ .sympathy ·~r nc1vice, frequentiy_
.. . .· . ~cloe.ing
_,
a new fresh bank bill signcrl with his rotund signature. He
'wae~ cver
btJBJ~DOt wautiog-but givi~g. : l.(~~ ,did ·W~nt,. it Wll8 SOID:e kindness
to be rendel'ed io some one else. So to his last days. .
The..(!troke :w.btch finally laid him low -~ad.· ~en fo_r years
anticipated
by his. ·physi~i.an.s. Tlley' hn.d. '.wfµ'~id··~im; ~~t h~ p~rsµe~ :the. even te~or
of hie ways as it fn the full flush ond vigor of .young1 manhood. "The
of . . th e ia~t_ hy
0

weak bcnrt his boc:ly wns clom'i nated to ' . . strong


.. ' the ' . heart
of .hi~ couragcou!1 soul." . . . .
· in cori<;lusion
. .
I .can

find
.
. no ~ord11 so tr~thf~Ii:v
. ·.
·a~tl
.
·
c ~~ch1ely
~fl... .
to . por·
trny Mr. White to you ns thooo uacd by his friend,, Diebop Willin~!J
of Marquette wl10 knew him hetter for years ~nd appreciated hil,ll p'l;'olr
ably mo_r~ juRtl'y t_h an cou ld nny other mnn. , H~ snye, ."~far:quette is
reeognized by every visitor who stays Jong enoug~ "to
know' it, n.s quite
alone·among American and middle western small towns. Aside from the
natural beauty it p<mscases1 n large responsibility for nll its other clu~rm
wi.Jl be found t o be his, (Peter White's) either by gift, precept, or ex-
umple. The park wmi bis idea, and t hough from the United States
Government, on ly nfter long labor by him. The cemetery is bis, the
mos.t beautifnl in the Rtnte. Without him there probably .would have
been no stone Churches <>f such beauty. His example bas helped in
street and school, in t own and. ehade t ree, in fountain and statue. He
was not tbe benefactor famed for a specialty. Hie disposition led him
naturally to grant A. fnvor when asked, to suggest a benefit before asked.
So that to inqTiirc, ''What did be do to be gratefully remembered!"
would be best a.newt-reel, "1s there anything he! did not do?" .
And all t his came because he regarded the child, the companion, the
· associate, the school, the Church, the · State, the country, with the
eyes of loving interest.
Though he loved Mnrquettc he never forgot Mackinac where be dawned
into young manhood, Green·'Bny where be was a child, Rome, N. Y. where
he wna born. nc kept these traditions alive by visits, letters, gitta of
public and private charity. · . ;
Wben a Cfltnlogue of n man's influential works is made. up, it can
usually be written v~ry briefly. But P eter White's life cannot be writ-
ten" without the i·eeord of
1. The foun ding of an enormous industry.
2. The development nnd embellishment of a n1pdel city.
3. The found ation of a parish nntl ti diocese.
_ -~! The orgnni?.ntion of n libr~ry and l\ hospitRl.
ll 6

5. The perfecting of' on ecluc11tio11nl Rystem.


6. Legislation of far reaching importance in
(a) the land grnnt for the Upper Peninsula R. R. 11yatem.
( b) the relief of the issuers of " iron money."
( c) the park systc111 of :Marquette. .
( d) t he Sault cclcbra.tion a nd the Chicago World's Fair.
7. A lifetime of gratuitous public service.
8. And with all this, and small ear ly advnn tage, the attainment of
a high degree of lite_rary culture.
9. Success in four professions, banker, lawyez:, merchant, publicist.
He was one of whom we were all proud to say: "Thie is my countr~·­
ma n ! He is my friendlf"
Peter White:
" He was a man, take him for all in nll, I shall· not look upon · his like
again."
·;.·.

THE F.InST 111AN OF MARQUETTE.

SKETCHES 011' HON. PETER WHITI!:.

IrllOM THI!: J\IAlllNl'l llEVJP:W1 CLKVf<;J.ANll1 OHIO•

. Th~ i ..nke S~perior region, in a commercial sense, is only fifty years


.old. Thi.a is nn incontestable but stupenoous fact. lt brings its entire
dev.elopmen,t within the life of our subject und is the very circumstance
)vhich give~ . to h.ie .career its magnificent setting. No other man has
moved so continually upon such a. 1:1tage. It ..is simply Titanic.
I
f,F:l!'T IIOME EAllLY.

Dornat Rome, Oneida county, New York, October 31, 1830, Peter
White, at tlw age of nine, removed with his parents to Green Bay, Wie.,
where he attended school until he was fifteen, when, attracted by the
' tales <?f the· grcnt copper dil'lcovel'ies in the upper peninsuln of Michi-
gnn, J1e 8t.n!fed out to make his own way in the 'vorld. Peter at first
went to ?IIackinnc. It :wna jnst when the copper excitement was at its
height nnd the imagination of Peter was. grea.tiy inflamed by ·it. In a
little while he leftfor :tJu~ Bault in the hope of ·reaching the promised
lnn•l. * * ~ He endeavored to obtain passage ·on the steamer Mer-
chant for · the copper country, but they would not let llim work his
p~asage, nnd ns be had no money he could not go. Peter returned to
Mndtinac Jslnnd n.nfl from t11crc Aet out for Detroit on the schooner
Bela Rttbbard, .plying between Detroit and Sault Ste. Mnl"ie. After
nhout hnlf n dozen trips tl1e schooner capsized off Thunder Bay Island.
Fortunately no one was d~owned. The crew ·managed to reach the
- -~s~nhd,_nnd__were taken to Bay City in the propel1er OMcago.
120

REMElhllllllll!DD A. GOOD . FR.IEND.

While going aboard the steamer one dark night Peter fell into one of
the · bolds and broke his arm. Wbeu. he reached Detroit the injured
member bad swollen friglltfully, and n physician to n·bom he was tnken
at once decided that amputation was n~cessnry. The doctor invited
a number of fellow surgeons and students to witness the operntion-.1
Just as the opcrnting surgeon was about to srkct his instruments, there
entered the room a surgeon whose reputation, already ·wide, ~as soon
to become nat~onnl. H is narue :wns Zina Pitcher. After exa.mining
the arm, Dr. Pitcher ;:i.uvisc<l t hat the oper<.ition be delayed for n few
days. He then took charge of the case, nnd the result ,~·ns that although
Peter White carried his arm in splints for four months, it wns saved
to him. At the death of I>r. P itcher a stibscriptic>U pa.per was circulated
fn Detroit for the purpose of rn.ising funds to erect n monninent over
his grave. When t ile petition fell under the eye of Petel' White he
promptly subscribed, but owing to the poor mnil facilities. of the time
his contribution did not reach Dctroi_t until the _subscription account"
was closed. But P eter Wh~ tes' money wns devoted to a more tender
nnd beautiful purpose-the planting of flowers each succeeding ycnr
npon ·the grave of·. the good doctor who- had rescued him · from tlte un·
feeling surgeons who had been too r eady to amputate his arm. The
next year of Peter White's eventful life was passed as n. clerk in the
store of Freeman & Dro., on Je!Ierson avenue, nud the next two years
at Mackinac Island, where he was employed in the summer time in "the
light-house service and in the wiuter t ime as a clerk. .

PION!'AEitS AT womc.
When Robert ·J. Grn.vN·net, who was one of the pioneen in the develop-
ment or the region, a nd a man of indomitable energy and perseverance,
_appeared upon the island in search •of men to develop the iron mines
of Lnke Superior, retec White W0.8. urged to join the expedition. Ile
was then . hut e ighteen yea.rs of nge. The voyage was one of peril
and har<lahip, in which the winter elements and the scarcity of pro·
visions figin·ecl. 'rhc t rnmp to the iron hills was n long rt.nd weary one.
- -·--· - - - --
•Mr. Wh.it-0 stoppcu ~t this timo nt tho old Wnle.'l H~tel, Dct.roit. He tells n grue.some
6tory of liemg brought into n 1·oom nod st.rnppcd t-0 a. t.nble. No a.nesthetica were then
~no'7'n or used, so he Wl\8 c,~mpo)lr:d to wnt,ch t.he 11h:'or i;cvcn doct.ors file in nnd ·line up
hke oea.rers nt a.. funernJ ., lho sight nnd sound of t.he eurg~on11 whett.ing their knive11 pre-
pnra.tory- to .cu~tmg off his nnn wn~ no~ very plcuslint. . But bis gratitude to Dr. PitChcr
_ _ for savmg bis limb we.a very touching.
"
. The couo try was jo.gged, broken and mountainous, uensely' wood<:>d and
thick wi lit underhrnah, wit h ou ly n il'C<:' hlazetl ltc>rc nut! tlH•1·c hy the
1ndions to guide t he way. Peter was tire<l when be dropped IJis pnck.
G~;wernet. ~et Peter to work clearing brush. Thus he denuded the ore
..of .its .covering anu p repared the way for those immense shipments
which bn.ve since s wung the pendulum of tl1e world's manufacture o!
iron and steel west of the AlleglJanies. It is n eedless to any thnt ~et<>r
could .n ot foresee th e r esult of his handiwork. Re did not know that
h e waa ma.king bistory.
: With the coming of machinery nncl mechnuics everyone was excitecl
and buoynnt. All were aei7.ed by the same tbonght- 11te found ing ot
a ~rent city. Peter White hnd the distinction of l.ICing the first to fell
a tree on the s ite of the p rospective great city, nnu his action was fol·
.l owed by ot her enthusiastic spirits. Methods were p rh nitivc indectl.
lloil<'.r s were plugged nnd thrown overboard, n.uu the other machinery
for ~he mines 'v:.1R lnnde<l into n barge. Cattle nnd hori:es · were in·
vnrinllly pitched O\·erboard to swim ashore. Passengers nnd perishable
, . freight were laudccl in s mall boats.
Jifennwhile Gravcraet went t·o Milwaukee nnd recruited n number of
Hei·rnnnEi, t:omc IriAh n 11d n few Fren ch to dcrnlop Hie mines. Rhip·fev<>r
broke 011.t on the little schooner Fur Trad.er, on which they -were (:.'lrrie<l .
. It 1.Jciug the grcn t c:holern year t ile di sea8e wnR mistaken for thn.t dre:ulc<l
visi1ntion, and wl1 cn the schooner anired and the Hews spl'call of ber
t ra:;it· voyage, d11ring which many of t he sick men lino died, tllcre was
n. st:nnpelle among t he I ndiana, who ueserted the count ry nl:! fast ns
their cnnocs could cnrry t hem. Dr. Ilogera, who a.Herwnrd gninl!tl great
. dii>tilH~t ion in liis profession in Ob icago, abandoned the nx for the bed·
side of the n.lllicted. He soon came down with the fever himself, nn<l
then Peter White wns pressed into service in the rude hospitn.l tbnt
Imel h<'eu eonF1trncteu. . Peter was ntlvised to bathe the pntients con·
slantl? iu colrl water, nn<l he .faithfully co.rrieo. out his instructions,
wilh the result t hnt the majority of the little colony were soon restored
to health, nntl the Intlinns cuutionsly put the noses of their canoes
ngniuat the ·bcad1 in Iron Boy ngoin.

ret<'l''s next job waf.I filling the first steam boiler ever set np in the
J>rninF!ul a. lie was installed ns fircmun and enginet'<' nud only left this
place to enter the machine shop to become a mechanic. The people of
122

the settlement were subjected to a goo<l dcn l of hardship nnd pl'irntion


during the winter. Graveraet, whose clrenm was to mnke the pcu inanla
an industrial empire, was greatly attached to P eter Whi tc, for they
had a common facility of langunge. Gravernet, whose mother " 'na a
half-breed Indian, spoke French, German, English nnd several Indian
dialects. Peter White s poke several lnngu.n ges also, a gift wholly native,
for" his mind wna practically undisciplined. The Ohippcwns liked Peter
because he could tell them stories in their O!VD lnngunge. It wns even
said that he hncl a greater hold upon the Indians than Gra\·ernet. One
day be sent Peter upon a mission or some delicacy to Escnnabn. This
mennt o. t rip overland ncross i.he peuinsula-n. mere nothing uownun.rs,
but a. considera ble under taking through o. continuous forest fOL' a boy
of eighte<!n. Two Chippewns volunteered to accow pn ny Peter. This
is one· of the chief recollections of the mnn's li fe, which is not i::nq1riE1iog
since it wns the first trip he ever unclcrtook throni;h the wil1lcrncsei on
foot. They cnrried their provisions on t heir bncka. 'fhe In<linna were
of incalculable n id to P eter in· following the trail. When one tree is
blazed the Indian seems to know by instinct where to look f or the next
blaze, and so the t rail wns followed wit h rensonnble nccurac.r. There
is n otlling more monotonous, however, t hnu following n trnil, either
oo horseback or qn foot. On the fom1:h day Peter lJegnn to <lespnir.
T he woods seemed endless. On the seventh day he came to Escnnnba,
then known a.s Flat Rock.

PETl!lR W HITE AS A MAIL et.nn11m.

The first part of the secon<l installment of tile sketch is devoted to


the tragic phases of p ioneering nod to the content ions that Ol'O~e he·
tween vnrious i nterested claimnnts to the mineral propertiC's. 'l'he fa111e
of. Luke Sl.tlJCrior iron wns bcg·inning to sprend nnd wns nttl'ncting
practieal iron-makers from rcnnsylvania. nod Ohio. 'fhey bl 011gl1 t Ulen
0

-.nnd horses w ith them, a nd the nnturn l population of i)farqnctte was


swelled to n. considerable extent. The winter closed in wit hout 011y
provision for tbc delivery of mails on the pnd of the goveru ment. Every
man at Marquette hncl left either n ·mother or ,,,.ifc Ol' childrC'.u behind.
After a month or more ltnd gone by without n. mnil tile popnln t ion be·
came restless. A council w as called i n t lte Mnt·quctte Iron Co.'s store
. to consider tlle mail question. Severn! s ubstant ial amns wel'e offered
by the various compnnies townrd the esto blishnient_of n mail sel'vke nod
Peter White, whose eyes had been standing out like snncers nt the
123
mentloo of the big snms of money, voluntecrell to hr.1·omc t he mail
cardrr.
. fle WLHI laughed at because of his yout h nnc1 appnreut physical in-
a bili ty to stand the hnrdship that snch n. job cnta.ilml. White, n power·
fnl, hro1td-ahonldereu mlln, nowadays, was at tha.t time n s lender chap.
Be wns fllll-beardecJ, however, an<l looked more than his age. Ilia dress
was picturee:q ne. He woro a red flannel shirt over his llickory shirt,
s ummer nnd w.inter, and in the winter t i me wore moccasins large enoi1gh
to nccon11norlate two or three pairs of stockings. 'rhie wos the usual
ga 1·h of t he p ion eer.
White was persistent in his application for tbe pos ition , nod he was
given the opportunity t o show what he could do. He got two Indians
t o go with him. Hundreds of letters were writtcu by the men when
they learned that Peter was going to carry the mnil. The w hole town
saw him off. Tb~ mail was very lleavy, and whnt with tlle provisions,
which nlao bad .to be c:trl'ied, made a staggering load for his back. The
mail wa& fal<cn to L'Anse, where other carriers were met. Peter estab·
lished · a stntion where be might meet the carriers in the woods. It
was nfl p l'imitive as it well could be, l'cter hanging the mnil-bng to the
limb of n. tree 'vhere 'the relay · might get it. Ou the second trip he
securccl n dog elc<l and a team of dogs to cnse his hmden. The sled
was 1.la t like n. toboggan and the dogs were mongrel:;, stout c m:a capable
of rnnking between fou r and fi ve miles an hour. Tbey had to be .fed at
Rhor t intervn Is to keep their temper :rnd spirits at nor mul pitch. They
becmue wildl:r excited nt the scent of wolves ·~md wel'C almost nnmannge·
able upon such occasions. The mail was securely i:;trnpned to the sled.
reter trnYeling alongside of it on snowshoes, controlling the lea.ding
dog hy n string rein n.n<l using a staff to stop the slcigu by pushing it
into t he snow. Ee made nine of these trips during the winter, nnd they
furni sh tLle hnsc for m:my of the legends of tlle upper peninsula. The
l~rc of tbc French-Canadian, in particular, is fuil of stories of' Peter
and his Ioclinns and his ·dog sleds. ·
1'he .intrepid young mail-carrier never received a cent of .pay for his
sen·ices, tliough one man, who bad pledged $3, t endered the amount,
which White refused to accept, telling him tha.t be clidu't want him to
stnnd . t he whole expense of the nine trips.

m;ri:c•.rfJO ·ro OIJ"FICFJ WIIILEJ ADSIDN"l',

The aumlller of 1851 was a period of woeful stagnation in the district,


and ~here being nothing doin~, Peter Wbjt e went t\Rlting. When be
124

returned he found thnt :the county of Marquette had been organized


and that he had be<!n elected county clerk a nd register of deeds. The
appointment of clerk carried with it membership in
tlic school board,
and he was elected treasurer of that body, an oflice which Ile has held
continuously since. Marquette had previously been attached to Hough-
. ton county, the coun ty seat of which was Eagle River. One of P eter's
thrilling experiences had been a trip to EQgle River, on foot and alone,
to get the county clerk's certificate to ri. lot of legal documents. This
intrepid young mo.n, who seerus to have been born williout fear, went
first to L'Anse, then v.cro13s the ice to Port:ige Entry, then up tlle river
and ov~r · rortage Luke and across the portage to Eagle River.
. .
AN l!JY& TO B USINESS •

..When lie was rcarly to return the inhnbitnnts insisted upon f6tin g
him, and for nine <lnys he was the s9cinl lion of the hour. Hi!t rehn·u
trip was n. very adventurous one. Peter ·white wns nfterwnrd mnde
postm ~ster of Cnrp River, the i:iame by which tbe mining settlement
wa~ known. 'l 'he name wns t\fterw:ud formally chnnged to tllnt of Mn1··
quette. The narrative goes on to tell of the gradual development of
the mines nnd the growing importance of llie country. iteamvllile
Peter White was doing n lot of thinking. He saw the gradual unfolding
of the in<lnstrinl pn.uoramu, nu<l he began to pcrcciYc opportunities for
maki~g money on· his own account. He first opened a store. He con-
ducted it with profit, but sold out when he saw a better opening in tlle
insurance business. Then he begun the business of banking i~ a sioall
wny. * * • Among the property purchased from the old :Marquette
Iron company by the Cleveland company was sixty-four ncres of land in
:Marquette, and in 1855 the company turned t he manngeruent of this
estate over to reter White. This got the young man into the ren.1 estn.te
business head over heels, in which he hna continued ever since with
marked euccess, for Marquette is practically built upon land which
~eter White hos sold. a

. '
A F'RONTllCRS'htAN IN THtD LEGISLATURE•.

The legis.Jnture of 1857 was to distribute the lands granted by congress


nod it was .of vita I importance that o. person famili:tr wit h the situ a ti on
in every detail should represent :Marquette in the assembly. The result
was ·that Peter Whjte ran · ·for llie legislature. Peter's .a.ppenrance nt
Lansing created n. sensation. It took him fifteen days to get there. He
macle ihe journey on snowshoes from Marquette t o Escanaba, took the
stage to ] ' on<l du r,nc nnd walked ~he rest of the way to Lansing. Every-
one waa on the qtti vive at Lansing for the r epresentative from Mar-
q uette, for they realized the almost insurmountable obstacles which
stood in hia wny. Peter was .heartily cheered as he took his sent nmong
them. Something of his reputntion bad preceded l Lim nnd he nhvnys
hnd an nudience in the committee room cager to listen to the story of
l~is experiences in the trackless north. There was much wrangling over
the diatl'ibution of the grant antl Peter quickly observed t lrnt w ith tbe
lobbyists out of the way the rcprescntn.tivca conl1l rcnrlily dispn.tch iu
· an honorablr. manner the businef!s for which they had. gathered. He
nuule a speech in which he pointed out the unwnrrnntcd iuterforence
of t11ose who were aerving no great constructive interest a nd 'vho cl ill
not liavc tlie <levclopment of the State at llenrt, and declared they
were "thick ns autumnal leaves whicll strew the brooks in YaJlomln·osa,';
a simile so apt nnd so sonorous as to cstnbliah a reputat ion for erudition
instantly. They di{l not know that Peter the evening previous had
bE>gged n learned friend to furnish him some quotation tllat wo\lld :fit
t11e particular point he wished to score. Peter did good work in tlle
legiflintnre nncl the grant was carefully distributed. Ile walked back
to Marquette and it wns twenty years before he npin served the people
in a legislative capacity.
When tile civil war broke out Peter Wliite organi7,ctl a company t o
go to the front and was elected its captain. At tliis stage Marquette
protested. It felt that it needed· him more than the war r equit'ed his·
services nncl he was persua.ded not to ·go. In 1SG3 Pet er White incor-
porated his bank into a national ba.nk, calling it the F irst Nntional
Bnnk of Mnrqncttc. In 1868 the town of Marquette was burned to the
gromu1, but Peter White's house on the Ridge was not n part of the
en tnstrophe.
Since thoAe early <lays Peter 'White has come to be tlie very embodiment
of the spirit of the counti:y ·in which he lives. As the t own grew he was
re<'ognir.ed clearly and unmistakably as the first man in Marquette. As
banker, real estate ogent aud capita.list he wna invariably consulted
·when nny new enterprise was started i n the town. If it was worthy he
encouraged it by a pe1·sonal investment, and by this policy he both miide
and lost money.
126

i>F.T1m wanir.'s >toNUM.lliN't'.

P eter W hite's monumcu t is 1•i·esque Isle. 'l'his is a trnct of lnn d, ·


<le~sely wooded, 328 ncrcs iu e:ttcut, and is, as its name signifies "a lmost
nn island." I t lies a little to t he wes t of Mnrquctte barbm.·. It llns n i•ock·
bound shore which lcu<ls itself to rugged and pictm·ceque ell'ect s. R.cc.·og·
n izing its naturnl ndnptnl>i lity as a pnl'k, Mr . \v·11ite, l'eceiving no en-
couragement from the pc11inaula's congressmau, who was of t ile opiniou
that as the light-house IJonr<l hnving established a station on Prc~que
Isle, that isl.an<l ,vas forever de<li<.'a ted, as far ns the bo:u·d wall cm1-
cerued; to thnt .. purpose, went to W a.shingtou. '1'hel'e he m<~t his olcl·
time friend, Senator P ahuer, who iutl'oduced him t o otller eeuntors.
The pers onality and recor d of tile man f r om Mm·quette had its in1l11C"nce
upon them, and the bill givin~ Presque Isle to the city of M11:rquette fo1·
park purposes ' '11.S ·pnssed at one~. · reter '\Vhite got the p1·~sideut to
sign it and he returneu to Marquette with n draft of it in his pocket.
The bill contained the uaturn.l proyision that tlle pn1·k wus to be ac('eptefl
by the council of Marquette and mniu taincd by t he city. An _ohstruc·
tionist in th~ council raised t he point t hnt the p:.u k "wot~ld benefit ouly
tile rich nnd tha t the citi?;cns of Mn.1·qnctte woultl be fol'ever sa1ldiell
witll the expense ?.f kecpiug t he driveways in condition for t hose \\'ho
rode in curringcs."· '£lieu Mr. White showed him how mistakeu he was
by offering to peL·sonnlly pay t he most of its improvement a nd mniute-
nance during the nex t five years. Thia represented n figu re of nbont
$65,000. The park was accepted instantly, as soon ns ~fr. White's
intentions were ma.de kuowu.

A GR.AND cnAnACTEll.

A review of tllis man 's life would be a. review of the biRtory of the
peninsula of Michigan. llis life com'pnsscs all that is modern in the
history of thnt pl'incely territory-the r ichest in n. minera l eeu11e t hat
bas ever been discO\·erecl. 'l'h o11gh he belongs iu t he U nited S tates
'Senate o.s n fi ne type of American citi7.en, we will le:wc !Jim nt his camp,
sitting before a crackling fi re of wood nnd telling stories t o n little
circle of companions'. De has lived nn ltpriglit life nnd he ·views the
past w ith satisfact ion 11nd the future without concem .
"The wa.y to r iches is through hard work nnd t h1·ift," he said.
It if! n ot nh\'.&1JS the piouel.'r wh o 1n·ospcr11~ lrut this piopccr w1•esfotl
n fol'tun c from lhc frontier a n<l ia putting it to honornblc use. Tltere
:we inim mcrnblc }('gends rom·crning Lim. Some t h ink that he it! French·
Cannclian .nnd t hnt his n a me is P icn-c. le Blanc; s ome thiuk he is au
Indian an<l that hie rcn I nnme is Shoh-wau-wny; nnd some beli.eve thnt
be is the · l'einrarnntiou of Pere Mnrqudte. But he is a. simple America~
gentlcll1an, RCYeuty-one yea rs olc.l, nod sturdy oe nn oak. -·
l

t 'llOM 'I'IIB DE'fllt)l'.t' SUNO.\ y 11111'1·; l'tmss, REM'. 24, 1005.


llown to Wnl!llington gors Pf'te1· "'hite. One ' trm1k ; one c1r~88 suit;
,·one ohjcd. :Mr. l'ctcr White nppenrs in Secrcl nry Taft's office.
"Good morn it~g, ~fr. 'J'llft; I rim Peter White."
"~it «lown, :\lr. P et<>r 'Vhite."
"Mr. 'fnft, I cnme to collect ' 50,000 tor our celebration."
"lfy <lear lfr. White-"
"i::ir, I may any it is a. nntional, nny, an internntion1tl incident. 'Vill
you kiucUy J~ro\•i<l~ r t>gimcnta of soldiers to give color to the gny scene?
81.'(·rctory Morton of the navy will doubtless lonn us tile. natiorin.1 . r:ihillB
of war."
".Noth iug is too goocl for you, Mr. Peter White: I know ymt ' of ol<l.
lhtu.'·~ mnny ;rears ngo ~· ou were apeefal mnHtcr in clmncery in tl1e cele·
hmfrd l'cwnhic case. Those 1·nscn1ly directors, who wished to sell the
Jll'OJIC'l'ty to 1hcmt1cl\'cfl for i50,000 P.Cttle<l with you for f710,000. ll()W
~·on fought Cot· RC\'CU Jong ycnra. Ancl is clcnr Don M. Dickinson with
. JOH in your Ship Cnnnl scmii·ccntcnninl? Listen, will this Jetter s uffice?
If not. I ,.,.ill mnke it Btrong~r. (:Mr. Secretary rcn<111) : ·•lfy dcnr Mr.
~cr rc1nry Mor.ton-l'hiR will introduce you to Mr. Pete1· White of, ?t1nr·
qncHc. If you <loti't lmow l'eter Wllite, it is t ime yon did: He i& the
'who.Jc 1hin~ up in :Northern Michigan. He is a Demoemt- jrist to be
peculiar-bnt he r uns t he. Ilepul>lican null other orgnni1,atioua, too. Ile
is t rying to get up n <'Clc>bratj on of the fiftieth birthdny of the Sn.ult
Ste. :Mnrie cnnnl. He was in nt the birth antl wnnts to. bn.ve the ceJebrn-
tion \vorthy of the greatneBS of t hnt institution. Ile thinks that the
mn·y line £tome of its vei;sclR in that ncighborhoou, which could be .used
to ndtt· to the general fel'tivitics. I bespeak for him the nttention. which
tlle occnflion des('rves. Very sincerely yours, \V. B. Taft.'"
"My <lenr Mr. Taft, I nm more than clelightccl. 11
.. !'The pleasure is wholly my own, my de1tr Mr. Peter White."
128

llm. Pl'l'l'Jm WHl t' l'l, 'l'Ul!J D1PLOlll.\'l'.

At 12 mi<lnight, the last n ight of the session, ;\h'. Petet· White's


private h i 11 to take from the cmengt'1H:y fnn<l the s nm of .$ 10,000 l>cen111e
.n lnw. P eter 'Vhite \~:ts u p :1 n<l doing-oh, well,,JOU know that! There
had been n. little dinner, yon scc-:l\fr. Peter \Yh ite, nli usunl, lin<l c.nr'-
ricd off the honol's. "The 'V1·ctk of the Jnlie Plante" hntl ln· ou~ht the
linppy resu lt. 8pPakC'l' Cnunon, ~euator Ilunows nncl Cong1·cssmnn
Hemenway (iwon io be n i::enator) <lrank rctcr White's wine ond listened
to l'etcr \Vl1it c's tlroll stories.
· Diplomn1·.r is Mr. \Vhilc'R spcl'ialty. And it is diplomacy that now
takes ·~fr. Peter White to O.rstcr Uny. Briskly be enters the presidentinl
.office.s, only to be stoppell by 1\ll otliciaI in charge.
"It is impossible to sec the presi<lentJ"
"Dut I have letters from Mr. Secretary Taft, Mt'. Secretai;y Morton,
Sena to1• Alger! '
"It is no use," he replies, fi t·mly.
"llut I came 1,500 miles. It will be 1,500 miles back ngnin-in all
3,000 miles to see the president. I om 11ere for the Sault Ste. l\{nl'ie
celebration."
"The presh1ent won't sec you."
"Young man, this is a matter that concerns the whole nntion. I " 'ill
not opeu my business w ith yo n. It is for the pres ident's cnl's nloue."
"It matters not. The president w ill not see you, will have uothing
to do with you, or your business."
Two great tea rs roll down Peter White's checks. "Tl1e!JP. team, sir,
nre not tcnrii of anger !" thunders Mr. Peter 'Vhite. "I can scarcely
restrain myRelf. I dernnn<l thnt something he done. I i·ctnrn to New
York; but you, l\fr. ARsistnnt Recretary, shnll henr from me ngnin, I
promise you that!'

~IR. r wn:u W HITE'S GRF:ATEST T lll U11r£'11.

At 12 midnight ri tclegm 111 comes to Mr. White's New Yol'k hotel.


"The prcai<lent will i::ec yon tomorrow, at 3 p. m., if you cnre
. . to come .
Signed, Assistant Sec retnr3·.11
P eter \Vh ite notes tha t " if you cnre to come."
"l\fr. Peter Wllite?" blan<l!J asks the guard at the president's gate.
·"Mr. Peter White?" politely inquires still nnother eervnnt, at the
129

presi<len t's dooL·; "you n re expected. '£Im president is busy, but will
see you in twenty minutes."
· lUr. I'eter \'\Tiiite is now in the president's library. From his pocket
·· he tnk~s a sp~ccl.1-the semi-centennial speech-and slips out certain
pages, for n. special 'p urpose-a. special purpose, mark you that. Bouud-
ing into the room comes Mr. President. .
"Mr. Peter \Vhitc, of Marquette~ Make yourself at home, Mr. 'White !11
'"l'his is a proud moment for me, Mr. President. I have come ·1,-t>O{)
miles to see you."
"I know nil about you, Mr. ·white; your fame bas, you see, preceded
you."
"Mr. President, I came lrnre to invite you to the fifticlh birthday ceic-
bration of the f:ianlt Str.. J\lnrie s hip-cnn:il. 'Ve wnn t 1'o mnke it n
national-I may sny, nn international cpiooclc, uncl nak your presence:
Mr. Prcsi<lent. Would you kindly read from pnges five to eight, '!ifr.
llresident ?" (handing over MS.) "It will take J'OU j1rnt one minute
to ·i-eafl each sheet, or thr0e minut0s iu oil. I have tim0d the thing
cnrefnlJy. I know how prechrnfi your time ia, Mr. Presitlcnt. It tt>lls
:\'Ou of the wonders of the cnnn I. In 18!>5, tonnage 700,000; in 1!)05,
tomioge 18,000,000! Suez cnnal, in twelve montlla, G,000,000 tone; Sault.
Ste. Marie, in "'ix months, 36,000,000 tons!"
.Mr. President sits back and reads. "Al.l, good!" he comments, with
spir~t. "It is astonishing, Mr. Wllit e. By tlte way, where is poge one
of yQur speech?"
l\ll'; .Peter White for once loses his diplomatic aplomb. "neally, Mr.
President, my little effort- you have no time."
, ~'011, let me go through it from end to end. · It interests me."
-f'You flatter . me, -ll~r. President."
"Not nt nlJ; I wish to read every word of your address."
"I protest, '1\Ir. Presideut-"
Mr. President. is ripping 911' poge after page.
"Thia is excellent! Good ! V cry good, indeed!"
lfr. Peter YVhite sits there, na helpless na a scl10olboy. Years ngo
Peter White went to n half-breed Indian school on Mackinac faland,
under Capt. Gage. And now behold how the whirligig of time makes nll
1hings even. 'l'he president of the Unitecl States is reading with satis-
faction the manuscript of the self-educated poor boy from the hnlf-breed
Indian school. Is it not fine? Is such · n dramatic moment possible
nnywhere except in a republic? No. caste, no station-the best ma.n
wins!
130

"Very rS'ood, ,·ery good, l\Ir. \Vhite," . concludes the Presiclent. "And
now, Mr. White, to be frunk, I must tell you thnt I cnnnot go. There
nre grn.ve reasons, Mr. \\'hite; some of them reasons of state."
Aud Mr. President leans oYer nncl whispers something in, Mr. Peter
White's enr. Think of it -the confidante of presidents!
· "In thnt case, J\lr. rrcsitlent, yo11 nrc entirely right in not going. But.
it is to he a grcnt occn~io11 1 s ir. It will become histol'ic, like the opening
of the Eric canal. That wns before yom· time, Mr. President. All
nations sent ships to New York h:'ll'bor. What a ficet it was. At Inst
the moment c:u11c to a1l111it the wnte1·s. Just fnr enough nvnrt to he
seen, ~he one hy t!Je other, the guards were posted, t.>nch canyiug ;~ reel
Oag. 1'he s ignal comes; ouc stroke up, another down, of the Ung-so l
It takes four hours, Mr. rrcsiUcnt, to finsh the gl:-111 tidings frOIU All1any
to Buffalo. 1~nu touny it c::iu be clone in tile twinkling of :m eye. Ilow
'times cliuuge,. Mr. rresiuent ! Auel n. ship from tltc l\fcditcnanenn
brought n. bnrrel of water, holy water, I may say, f1·0111 the River Jol'dan.
It was emptied into the canal, to give religious significance, ns it were.
Dut the Sault Ste. Marie canal is grcntc1·, greater far. '.fhc rniutl cannot
grasp the prodigious commercial valne of the canal. The imagination
fails. Stcnmera from I.>ulutl.t will bring 40,000 people to see you, Mr.
Presi<len t-"

Mil. I'ETl-:ll WAITE nEDF:ElllS UIMSELF.

Thus <li1l T'ct<:>r 'iVhilc 1nnkc the gl'cntest ol'ntion of his life; quietly,
with distinguif:tilecl rcHc1·1·r, i11 the prel!i1le11t'a lihrnry. Oh, thnt silvery·
tongm'u r eter White of :'i£nnp1ettc ! Deftly switrhing the coni:crsation,
Mr. rctcr \\'hite l><:>gan, <juilc nnturnll.r, to tell n few French-Canaclian
hnl>itnnt stol'ie~. It wnR, na it wcr<'1 the fine <kssc1't, after the substan
tinl tlinn<'r. rctc1· While hns rnuisheu, nnd in his stead thc1·e set, in
the p1·cRi1lC'ntinl ma nf'inn. the ron;:;h b:1l'k1'woo1ls111nn, Jollnnie Courtcnu,
in riYcr boots, nil etmldctl with holJ·nails, coa 1·se, l'ed woolen shirt, luru·
· b<!r-jack's k11ittctl hootl; lounging lttziJ~: before the president-and
~ohnnie Courtenu's unanl twno:;, i::ometiines mellow, sometimes sharp,
alwa!s absnn..l, cnusetl the i1rcsitlent's eyes to roll with delight.

On wan unrk ni~ht on Lac Btc Pierre,


De win' Elite blow, blow, blow
~n' de ('l'e\V of lle woo1l scow Julie Plnntc
Got acur't, an' run below:
1 31

For <le win' she blow, Jak liun·jcnue,


liimeb_y i;hc blow SOJllC lllOL'C
An' de 1>cow bus up on Lite St . . Pierre
Wan nrpcnt from de shore.

PP:TEU W fl l1'E IN 'IH E lllON H l LLS.

Up in the north woo1ls is P<'ter White's cnmp. Willinm llco1·y D1'u1i1-


mond, who dedicate<l hiR uook, ".Johnn ie Go111·t(':111,'' to Pct<'l' 'Ylli1e,
nlwnyA gocA there in .Tannnrs., witlt other choire f'pirit8, io ;..:l't :L flhot nt
a deer. lier<', Peter "'hite 1·cncws hiR youth; hccornt•s l><'l c1· \\'hitc 1hc
COtffCIW de boi.'I, iA no longCI' uankc1·, 111illio1111il'<! or politidnn. hut Peter
'\Yh i te, linck woodHmnn. f'm:h i 11g 'l'i mc's dork h:wk wa nl Ji ftJ .r~11·a,
l'eter W hite finds himself ngnin n rc<l·lte:ulcll hoy, ju~t out of the hnlf·
breed Jn~lin n school, starting for t he "iron hills," with his forty-pound
pnck. These nre some of the talcs toltl by the campfire:
"We were i n po~aession of iron mountain~ wcHt of the Jnrki;on nnd
W<'re fighting mo!lqnitoca by night., bl:tC'k fli es by dny. A. R Ilnrlow
nncl E<l Clarke, or '\Vot·ces1cr, .Mn8~., lctl the pnrty. At Oll('C we bcgnn
dcnring the site of the present city of llrnrquet.lc. We called it Wor·
ccster, in honor of Mr. Harlow's 11ntiYe cily.
"It wns the JNll' of cholC'rn. 'l'h<' schooner 1"1ir 'l'rculcr cnmc in with
a sick mnn and another mnn dead. The l'cport sprcnu thnt it was .
<'hOll'rn. There were nhout JOO Jncli::rns tlu~rc at 1he t ime, nnd all of
them got into 1hcir rn11oe:-1 n11<l p:1tl1llcd :l\\'3."· nr. Ho~Cl'S tolcl llS it
wns not cholera, hut sh i p·ft•rl'r. ::-.Iany of the sett lcr!'; "·en: taken, and
in turn evt'rybo<ly hntl to act ns a um·e:e. I was drivin~ an ox-team, nud
hoped to get the cbo lcrn, thinking it woulo be a l'Clicf fl'oltl the hnnl
work. I hn<l no such luck. l.\Jy turn cn111c to I.Jc n n111·1;c. The doctoi·
w:it1 _taken <lown with the others, nnd I hncl to pl11y <lod·or. I tltrcw
aw:t.r the me1lici11cs nud hcg:rn J)nt.hing nnd l'lllihing 1l1c pati ents. M;v
ti·c:itmcn t wni; i:;11cccs1<(11J, bn t Dr. Hogl'rR, wlro couhl not ncconnt fol' it,
said: 'If I told the fool whnt to give, hc'<l surcl.r have killed us ull.'
'"l'he first money I made wns n job filling a hoiler, hy hand. It wna
nn old. loco1notivc bojlcr, nnd later wni:; placccl on the fiitlc-whccler Fo(J!I·
I was ofT<>.l'cd fiH.r <'Cnl!'l n. clay to uring water from the lake, in n pail.
I forget how· mnny thnusn111l pnil~ there were, hut it too!c me th:·ee flnya,
nod .they paid me ~l.!30. I lhen hirc(l out ns the engineer nnd fircm!\11.
At thnt ·time I knew nothing nbont mnchinel'y, nnd the woo(lcr is that
I did .not blow up the whole cnmp.''
132

r1n1m WHITE [,08ES TH~ TllAIJ,.

"We were, you see, far from civilization. '£he Indian rnnnc1· Jimmicn
· used to make long trips ou his Rnow-shoes, as courc11t· cl.e bois, nftel'
the mail. I think they pnid him $1.0 ~ h'ip. I l'emcmbel' n run I once
made. myself in the dea<l of winter, to Eagle River. Kcli:ie.Y wotlldn't°
let me go home till he ha cl en tcrtnined me for two weeki:i. Thel'e wns
Dr. Clnrkc and John and Geol'ge Senter, nm 1\IOl'l'iBon a1ul ll man 11nme1l
Hil'l. . 'l'hcy ·1oade'1 me down with agates and Sp\!CllllCllB of sih·er Ol'l', and
to cnp the climnx made me pick out the oest suit in Scutcl"s store. I
·cmue' ~tway feeling very p1·oud. Just nR I wns le:wing the boys told me
to· t':ike n fn1·ewell pl'esent, nnythiug in tl~e store, and I took two cnns
<ll ' covc oysters. I ' thonght how delighted 1he folks at home wonltl· be
to· eat oysters. I started on snow-shoes, but n t the PortnA'e co1intr,,· got
\·cry sick witll suow-shoc sickness, or what the li'reuch (':tll 'm"l cfo
racket! I was laid up for three tlays ::uul bcgnn ngaiu. I hnd to cover
nhout sixteen mil~~ to the mission. It wos about twenty-two ln~low,
nnd I · wns followiI.1g a blind trail. At last I snw some tracks nnd 1n·etty
soon I saw S-Oruc more_. They were just the size nu<l shape of the trncks
made by mt own snow-shocs. I had been walking in circles nil that
day, and now the stm was going down and I didn't know where I was.
I lurd a few matches, managed to find a dead cedar, which I set a~re.
I then cut some· Lin.Isam boughs and 1lug n hole iu the snow, which was
five feet deep, :iutl made my camp fo1· tile night. I thawed out the
oysters and broke all tile blades of my new congress kuifc trying ~o
open tlle cnn. Next <lny I \\;\lkcd for a long time to find the trail, and
along ;
·about
•f t !I
three o'clock met an Indian wlto ltatl been sent out to look
for me.. I tell you I was glad to rcacll home."
A.n<l"ti1~se nntl scores of Miler all.ventures, in enllless succession, filled
Pete~ \vbite's life in ti.le early days. 'l'ben came n period of miafortuue.
The Jackson ruining company "wen' bus' nil .to pieces," nud enterprise
languished in the iron hills.

l'E'rEn WIII"l'E AND THE DOG sr,1m.

The winter closed without any provision for 11iail. Tbe lnRt Jetter~
a.nd ' papers were rec<'ivcd in October, and aftel· -that the set tl<' r~ wem
lost in the rleep Rnows unti I the late apriug, :'·lie~ the Sf'l'Vicr. wna re·
sumed. :Many hnd wi-res and children at cif:her . dis t:111t points; nnd
nnn1111lly chafed under the idea thnt uo· news could he had till late in
133

the following spriug. Peter White preimred his long sled 'like n. tobog·
gan, put o~ his snow-shoes, and hitching up his mongt·el curs stnrted
through the snow-clad forests. The dogs made about four miles an
hour. Occasionally the howling of wolves, n ea r by, made the dog-team
unmanageable. French-Canadian p oetry is filled . with many tales of
Peter White with the dog-t~am .

He' neares, place for fetch <le mail was over by Green Bay
A porta~e l>e<'g nn' purt:r tongh for m ~n built <le wi<le way.
He got a slecl an' four-five tlog, an' tie becm up a. pack
'l'o carry mail to <lat Green lhy, t wo l.wndcr mile an' back.
-·nc dog is good for long portngc wc11 not too f ull an' fat
Peter wnz mos' <le wisest mnn, an' sure wns on to dn t
He stnrt hce's dog ver' hungry close ou de peep of day,
llut carry meat in much plentee, to feed <lem on de way.

Soon, along ti1e route, over the monntais, Peter's dogs became n. mat-
ter of tnlk; especially th e women had much to say about tlw cruel way
in which he stan-ed his dogs.

"8he:s bnd mnn s11re," de femme nil sn~·, "J•eep dog so poor nn' rn.w
Ile Ettnrv'. de dog wat Jiull de sleigh, " he hn.v' no Rtl'ength to clrn.w."
\ Vhen he come back in week tree-four, dey scole heem bnck bee's face
De femme, 81.Je's hnt lleem yet; he wish he ne,·are see de p lar.e.
• qi · .

The t<rnndn I of the Jean clogs spreads en' rywherc. The pries t llc.:ns
of it. Spring ro1nes ngniu ; ~~~l·i~eter is sorting out mai l in t he postoffice.
' · 1n ·
Kapolcon Conrtenu is expectinl"'
·I ~
n letter; none comes fo r him; he inRists
on hadng one, nml P<'tcr ·whi te hi h:1 him n hl ow in the eye. Then
Conrtcnu repent s ihe Rrandni nbont the dog sled nn d promises to make
it warm for P eter 'White.

"I know bad tin~ 1iout you. hy gnr, :yon mee-ser-able hog
You nm de dog sled mnil. mni foi. you starYe :rou stn.rve cle -dog!
De femme hecs know it nll, J ees sn ir ; we know; de cure he know
.A.ti' I'm going to tell in one more day, our Un cle Sam, a lso,
You hnv' no hienveillance, no ])eart, more ns de log
You mos' batldcs' man i\Iarquettc ;- lmd man, bnh, what starve de dog."
l 3!f

SIGNS HIS OWti MONEY.

Peter White's signnture is characteristic. F. E. Spinner nud.. T. W.


Olcott, two great national bankers, ue·r e1· wrote. with the origiunlHy of
Peter 'Vhlte. Olcott's signo.ture looked like two goose eggs, F::pi11i1tfr's
like a rail fence. W hite's name is the tnllest, boldest. most striking.
lie 11as si1;11ed hia na111e npon uiillions of bnuk bills. The~· tell i11n11,,·
stories nbout the White signnturc. Ucc.c;1tly in o. Kew York hot('I )Jr.
\VlLite, the modern Monte Cristo, wishing to settle his account, l>ori·o"-·ecl
n. pen fr?m tbe clerk, and sticking his hand iu the big inside pocket of
his vest, brought out ·n. h:uulful of fresh greenbacks, to whkh he arlde1l
his signature. "I btwc nlwnys the satisfaction of 1.mndling . new money,"
said Peter White.

Tlte ·following poem by i.\lr. Walter S. Russel on "J,e Diane's Signa-


ture" is here given.

Can mak' rnn o~ <le Stn.te w'rrcver you plens',


. . Tak' bn.ten11 1 .~9 r go pns' Mar11ue'tte,
.J{ip going nn' 'go till de bn.d place freeze,
Go t 'ousnnd mile nn' kip go ret.
Ma frien' it's a fack," you "·ill never fin',
In book, de bes' of litenitnre,
Any "sig/' so beeg, fol' it fill ten Jin',
BeP Pierre Le Diane Grnn<l Sigonhn·e.

Don' mnk.' no rnnttct· on w'nt pngc is writ',


If you get on hces curve so swell,
Mos' evrywan t'ink it was clenn out of sight,
An he work it to beat dc--well
About ns monche ns u u Bunquier' dare;
• Boat.
•Handsome.
• Banl:er.
135

1"01· da.t "sig'' iR uo p'tit miniature.


Oh it end <le hlootl, un it rnific ue hair,
Feroce1 I,icrrc Le lllnnc Grand Sigontnre.

"W'cn un nai~ Dnnquicr iR mnk' l'n.rgcµt$ lent,


You s'posc lie go )cf' (lisconut slip,
. .An writ' ont UN':! "eig'' for lc>!':s ten per cent,
nesid' hr\\"' COIJ:1f, ju hCCS t:,•Tip. .
Not monche, me 1knr fl'i cn', he tnk grand bccg slice,
And he buy mnhog' furniture.
Some tim' he even tnk' tlc discount twice
J\faurni8' Pierre IA.' fllnnc Grnod Sigontnrc.

·Da.'t "sig" fool tlc>R In1li:rn when he'e still gart•on,•


.Au'. hccs <log, dcy wns . tryiu' cat,
· De ll)in1low it ens' on de snow below,
For . ~e flour ish grnn1l t1<!cm surely meet,
For sucli' ns un llonnctte .homme0 would ccrire,' .
Or one at Jens' w'it some culture
Jnstcnu of n conrricr n-vec no fcnr,
J\InJin• Pierre I...e Diane Gn1od fiignnhH'e.

Oh ii.·s wic1~ nn' it's high ·and got plnintee. dash,


;it you P.cc it on tail cl'uu drnf',
•I
Mn~·hce' jns' ns good nnd better d'an cash
For by gar' it nioe' mnk' me ln.f',
But now l tell yon, n11' I tell you encore,
Dnt "sig" so Ink' rci.;'lnr French gesture
Is t'''ice more bcHcr <l'nn for t ja 11nc d' 01·0
Ilon10 Pierre I..c· Blonc Grnnd ·Signnture.
1 Fir.rce.
•Tn1e.
•Gold.
• Jt:ld.
•Hoy.
• Hune11t. Man.
'Shrewd.
•Write.
• HArd Yellow Gold.
II Good.


, ,.-
1 ~6

I'ETEll WHl'l'Pl AS A :MYTH.

Wh<'n a mnn becomes !\ mytb ·he is n grent .m:m, indeed. :~fo~t men
hn:ve to die to l>c cn:noniz~d; u'ot so Peter Wlti°te. In writing ahout the
renl Peter 'Vhite it is nlRo necessary to wl'itc about n. fabled Mr'. White~
The two nl'e foscparnblc. 'l'hc mythological l'ct<'r White is immortal.
Some 1;ny he ia nlrcady 400 yeni·s old. The i·eal P<.>ter White, hard·h<.>ndell
and shrew1l, strongly resembles the · lnte Bl'itish stntesman, .R{>bert
Art1rnl' Cecil, J.-0'C(l Sn1iBbury. Peter l\.11itc is n. big mnn. . Othcr~·ise
lie nm·<.'r conld hrcome n myth. An<l the poor hoJ who once 't\"<.'nt to ~he
half-brcc<l Indian school on l\f:\('kinnc I1:1lmul hns .lived to bec.o me n
regent of Michigan, university. It shows the strn.iu. Ile mjght hm·e re·
mnined a bnckwoodaman, hnr<l-ri<ling, deep-drinking, like his 4.'0Dl·
pnnions; hnt he hall a strenk . . .9f nmbition. He kept his eye on the mnin
chance. Peter White saw th~. dJ:'f!gs of rough life in the pioneer country.
The wonder is that be rose nbovc his snrron11dit1gs. 'Vb i te · ifl, for n
fact, a singul;i~
, • • •, ,
COJJ1binatiou
t
of the Chnun('cy M. Depew clement of
sociability nnd ••I
! I
.the
11
Cecil Rhodes spirit of the pioneet· ond tlte empire·

builder. No . JVOnuer fables nrc tol<l about him. In the enrJy days
Frenchmen in the Upper Conntl'y b~lieved. no tked good .\lnle~~ Pet<'r
YVhitc's nnme app~,.n.red on it three times-as notnry, ngnin na rcgistct·,
antl l:u~tly ns a wituess. To the hnbitnnt .Petel' White cau do :m,Ything;
he entertains the gho~t of FntheI" Mn rquettc, nnd the two ta I~ o\·er
thingH. Peter \Vhitc, the • I
myth, il'! uni11ue. Nor 1locs the folk-lore O\'Cl"·
look t he Peter 'Vhitc,; v.1111("lt~ a concodion ni:1 powerful ae the li11uor
oITeretl by Ilcmy Uudson'R 11H•11 fo H.ir1 Va n Winkle. Peter White
n lone hm1 the i::crrct. It take11 n. week to mnke the punch. Pere l\.lnr·
quettc oucc fell under the inOoence of this Pct~r White pui;lch . Once
tnate<l, he coul(ln't stop; the wo1·ld spun nroun<l l*e u. top; the fl hatle
of !'ere )lnrquette hnd g1~n t d iilku Ity iu getting .bnck to his cnnoe
befoi·e cock-crow.

rE'l'ER Wlll'l'fl A)CONO Fn!ENDS.

rc>tei· White, the eocinl friend, is plnying the role in wbirh he' wil.l
longes t lie remembered. At the dinner party he becomes n. fashionable
berm, nn nriitlocrnt among nris loc1·nte. Sm:h is the ver£1ntilit.r of ·hi~ .
gcni11s-cow·c1ff clc bois at111 cpir.m·N111 dcrntcc; bnl'k£1\yoo1lA111nn· nµ<l
conunrrcinl volnptnnry. Peter 'Vliite is a wckomo gm·!lt when the
choicest wi.ucs or the Frentl1 chatennx nre S<.'l'\'Cd. Let 118 look for n ltu~t
happy glimpse nt Peter White, under the evening lnmps, amidst jo,·iul
1 37

colllpany, ·the life of the di11ne1· party. 'f he clergy, men of- the world,
club chnps, find Peter \\"J1ite :t congenial companion. Young nnd pretty
liellcs adore Peter White, ndd t<• his social victories .
. ~'.~Jnmes, t!Je ·:Peter Wllite punch," says the 11ost os the hea<l waiter
l'omeFJ in· with a Rilver howl. The punch consists of slices of tr<;>picn.1
frnitFJ, .fm:imming in . Ilnrguurly made smooth with .l:lrnoic:a .1·um• . By
wu;v of. "n · backbone," cognnc has been added. \Yllile the _glns~ee nre.
u11li!t.ed, the host propoi;es:
"1-.etel' White, the friend of I 1erc Marquette a nd hero of 400. yen rs
ago."
'!'he I 1eter White punch ia so slnooth thnt c\·en the old hclldfl desire
nnother bum1icr; and P eter " ' hitc, nmidat mm·murs of d eligllt, proceeds
to 1·ecite the dialect ver.ses, "'l'he Cure of Calumette."
r ei1inps some guest, in the follo~ing words of Moi se St. Pierre pre·
:,., , , ••1 1 • •

&<'lits. ~fr. " ' hite with s ome token of respect and eRtccm.
• r· . I 1 ·, •

Ff)l>Rnrc mebl;:i;·y cl~n' clo l'ight, 1o sen' prcs'sen' to P ctnre 'Y' ite,
Of <-o'rs' he's 111au''l:\,~' '1icar<l good deal, hut. jus' de 1mm' I hal\\'l1re feel
Dat w'en you try to'
lbl igc n man, 'tis bes' furs t'ing to onncrRtnn'
'Yedtlcr dat man wccl ":elcom' you, cen w'nt you any or try to <lo.
An' so-but den, oh <lcar, JJenfnnt!-I of'en he_a rd of Pierre Le ·nlnnc;
He's kin' of man who'll hn lwnys greet de .poores' pursou h'ou <le street,.
An' eo ma frien', I don' feel frade, to spick wit dis bccg nee o' spade,·
Nor h'nm I" fnr<le he'll fi n' <>et hnrtl, to tak.' dis' toheu of regnrd
From wnn' ·~·ho ki1ows hcem but een nam', but t'inks he's "W'ite man''
'j ue ·s.~m'. de
So, Pierre Le B lnuc, or· Petnre '\'Fite, for sure you'll geev me great
delight,
Bcf you'll a ccep' dis lcetle cnne, dis pnper knif', wit n ice h'onk grnin,.
An' lnR' of h'all, die gavel, too, w1icll I 'nv' mnd' express for ~1 on.
Dey enc·h wan formed- now, 'a iuit dat queer-formed part of <lat h'ole
pioneer,
Dnt etcnmcu de lake-I j us' forget-I tink 'tween here an' b.'ole Mnr·
qncttc, . .
For aure da.t's bonder yea r ogo, you's hct·e tlat tnm', so ~-ou }llllR'.know;
For l' nv heard, you're purty h'ole, tree hon der yeal'e so l'\'e· been tole,
Excuse to me, ior spick of h'nge, dough da.t's de gnrmin' of de
ange,
An'· wnn I know you wear jus' right, for peop' ll'all say dn.t, Petar.e
W'itc.
H'am yours yern truln. MotSI~ ST. r11mitE.·
138

Mii. Wlll'fl>'B l'llllf,JC womc.


'\Ve cqu not doRe this skckh of one of 1hc ~1·1•11h'!:!t o f ~f.id ai~an's
pioneel's w ithout l't'f<'J.'<'JH'C lo i::omc of his i;ervk t•R. O ne o f the most
beautiful edifices , in ·Marquette is th<.> chapel c:rcdrtl of brown Rtonc,
wh ich n1Jjoins "Rt. l'nnl'i; c ;llht!clrnl. Tt w:tR hn ilt h,r l'l!tcr " ' hite in
m~mory of hiR i::on .Moq!:m. ThiR 1·h:111cl .whid1 iR known nR thr ?lfo1~rn
rm;m 1orin.l t•h:qwl. haR 111'\l'<'I' 11e<·11 <'01tl!r.rr:1t<.'d, nR. it is 1hr"wiRh of. ~~eh.•r
" 'hite th nt it Rho11J1l hr t\\':tilnhle n.t tl'll ti111N1 f01' the m~e o f t11c gnilcl!':
for ent<'rtni 11111r.11IR. hoih 11111 ~ i<'n l aiul 1l rn111nti<'. Mr. " :hitc iR .nn Bpii::-
copali1111 hut Jae hui:; ni;:~iRh•1l every 1'111n·<·h in Mn1·1111cHe. Ile wns -in-
stronwuhll. too, in fo11111li11~ AL T,11kc'11 ho~pitnJ. .
Jri JS!):l Peter "'hit.e w:rn appoiutc1l 011(' ot the 'Vorl1l'a l<'air 1·011uniR·
aion.er~, nud 1o his c~ 11crg-.r is <i nc the-extrnor<linn1·y 111i11 i u~ exhibit th~t
l\fichignn 111:\flc nt t he fa ir. Toll!i 0f mctnl "·ere i.l'n n s p~H'lt~d. t o the fair
nn<J thcl'c was 1'<'111·oclnl'l'1l on t of tlic matcrinl slrnta flltowi11g the forma·
tion of the mi11<'ral dc)lo~i tR in the em·th.
'\Vhen the state of 'Yis<'oni-in plnce1l n marhlc 1:1l:if11c to Faf·h<'i: i'\Ja1·-
qoettc _i n t he rot1111cln of 1'he ca pitol nt ' ·Vnshingtoni A . K Ardia111hen11.
president. of the F>t. ,J(.:ii1 -Haptistc sor.i<.!tJ, s u ~~Nitcc l to Pl'trr Whit.•~
thnt 'it would be lif:ling- 1.o h:n·c a l.n·onzc rl'pfka 111lll1c fol' the c·i~· of
Marquette. 1111'. \"\·' hit<' hrnrtil.v npprovc1l of it nn1l 11n1lcr took 1·Jic Jahor
of g<!tt ing llu~ ner1'~~11·y i.ulif.ir• t·i p tio11!l. 'l'hc sla t11c was 1111 \•ei lt!<l n t ;'l[ar:
·qucttei July l r;, JS!17. with a p proprin h:~ ccre111011icR, Hon. Do u )\(. Hiekin-
son ma.kin~ tlu~ principal RpN•1·h. J~atC?r I'P.tcr Wh ite p ut nu oil paint-
ing of l'>on )f. l>iddns on in tlt t' 1·ourt OOllSe Of tit<? ('O\lll {J in 1h<? lljlJlCl'
peninsula n:rn1ed affcr Mr. Dicki nson.
A.s n mmnhcr of th<? Rtatc 1,ih1·n1·y Hom·d of Co111mifisi onc1·e llfr. "'hitc
r en<lel'ed 1m<:h \'ahlllhlc an1l prncticnl. RC?t'vice thnt il n i111lnenr1i iR 1'till
felt in this im)'101't:111t work of the fit:itc. Conl<l hifi expcri<•nN•. hnn~
been giveu to -this dc11art111cn f· for n lon~m· time, l\(ichignn wo11l1l h:wc
come ve1·y near to, if she tlitl not l<'a<l n il oth<'r atHl 1•H, in th iR g1·cntcst
ot e<l11C'utiou:tl wor k. 'l'hcw y hns liltlc or no 11l11ce in Mr. \Vhitc'a
cnrnc nlum, l.>Ut d ccilR which tell Hie story of pract ir.n l. wi~ rfforts,
and t he JilJrar!eR aca ttcrc:1l t hr oughout t he S tnte, spenk fo r hifl labor
in t h is c:1 ui;c.
Since 1871>, almos t from il H i11r.cption 1 Peter · Wh it e hnR bern cloi;cl;v
connected with the F.itnU: l'i oncer atHl llistoric'nl S ot'icty. F o\' yenrn
he Ima bceu an l1onorc1l n1e111hr.1· of i.hc historica l co mmilt<'e, n11'1 sev-
eral . v.a luobl~ nrtide.s from hi'J lrnsy pen have been 1wintcd onr eol- in
139

· lccliom~. To him the Soci<'!('' OWN! u g reat. d<.'h t for his sel'\'ice~:, so quietly
1·<'n1kretl, to secm·e t he i;urnl! a pp r opl'iat ions g iven bj t he State where·
hy th is work l1m~ been kcp\ up C\'Cn i n suc!h a modeRt n nu econoinicnl
munner. ':\'e ·can not nfl'ortl to looae such men, nai<l none .~an posli11>1y
re1llncc them. 'Ye would be glnd to r eckon his yenr a uy 400 to come,
inr~t~o d of t he myth ir.n l 400 pn8t. '' ·.
The Unh1e.1·sity of ?ilichi~m1 conferreu t he <legrcc of JJr,: l'f on him i~1
1900. He w1m .. clectc<l ·n regent of t he :UnivcrFJity in l!l02. ·rrc hna ni·
:n•nya. .hcen a ·.ve1•y strong an(] influential fact.or in the <'aliR·e· o! Nlnen-
·tion, nut1 in l1i~ -own ·city hnR Rcn·cd in th!! h11mhlc cnpacit.r' '-dr n -mcm·
. bcr of the s chool·bonPd, longer Hum any otbr.r citb:en of 1'Cichigau.
Ne\"Cl' ha\•ing Juul the or1,01·ttmiti<>A of a hig-h·Rc!hool cdm·sd ion, he "trie1l
to fun1isl\ ptllcrs <>hances for 111e111nl improvernent, uud stai'tctl n pub-
lic "lilmU')' in )lnrqnctte ns cnl'lj" os 1872. This bus g-1•own nntil a tlno
Rtruc1 Ul't~, known as the Peter ·white lil.trnry, was ded icated in Septem-
ber, l!Hl-!. In this buihlin~ the citizens of :Ma1·quc:tte hnve placed n
marble hnst of th~ found er. He hns been a noted benefac·tor to the
Rrltooli;, giving a thousand dollal's tl. year to the nrt <lcpn.rtmcnt of tltc
normal sr.j.iool, and in recogn ition of this fnct oue of the hnlls iB na med
"in his honor.
In 189!) he wns appoiu ted one of the Mackinac IRlnud State Park
CommisRion, a nd to his i;cn ·iccs a ntl. entlrnsinsm many of the imprO\'C·
mcntR al'e due, I a lmost tl'nnsformiug tllis beautiful spot.
To h im ·11101·e thnn to. nny other · man can be attributed the succei;sful
telchmtion of the Soo r ana l nuaiversury spoken of io the beginning
of this article.
nut all the hus i oes~ nn<l philanthropic t riumphs he has nchicved, the
scores of friends proud to r,,•Teet and welcome him nU OYcr the country .
cou!ll not stay the gr<>at s ol'row thn t ca me to him 11a t he gatP. ·whkh
swings on noif\elesf'.! hingcf! closed years ngo on t he lol'IR of ltis five chil-
dren, mu1 recently on tl1e wife who ma<.Je hie the iclcal home for so many
yca1's. Hhe wns t he daughter of Dr. :Morgan J ... Hewitt who rnovcd to
Mnrqucttc in 181,3. Their beautiful home, situatc<l in one of the lovc-
lieRt llpots on the shores of J.;ukc Supei·ior, is 11ow brolwn, nud . only, a
retrc>nt fo1· him .
.A hron;r,e atntnc of him hns been proposed for his chilll, Presque Isle
Pnrk, nnd in the near fotnre tl..tia tribute w ill no doubt be rn.ii>cd. In
the mcnn timc fr om all sides and from all classes come testimonial s to
his ability, his tact, hia wonderful persistency und :faith fulness, ilis
m~ny acts of beneficial chnrity,· and public spir it which baa brought him
140

iulo close touch willl a l1 t l.ie intcrcal:A that h n.\·c bad fo1· thcil' aim the
hcttc!1'ment o~ Michigan. D r . 11. o. Potfot• W l'ot~ t hat ' ' H atl t here b1!<'n
no l'cic\· '\rh.itc there wo11ltl lt:wc hc1~11 . 110 up1ier peuint!nla.J' Dl'.
l:h'\m1 m111uJ, oi Mon tl'c:l l, givNJ 1.h iH •!ulog.r 01i ld11 life-long friend:
" Stronl! in liis ge11tlenl:'r-a-1, \'i.-iSC iu hit:; 14illl[tHdly, prn.c:tlC.'\l in uia ~mth;18·
fa1i111, pion('Cl' in tin age or pio11cers. t he uiaa whom chilurcu on the
~ trcet k now only l\ 1.4 rel.er Whi tt?, tit:uulH totla)'• it seems to me, tlle
\ N'Y highest iclenl of t h:1t civililmliou of which ih~ 'A.me1·icnn Jl<lOple
0

.a rc eo proud. ~Vhcn such men build die fom11l atio11a, c:is,r it js to i-ni11e
1he su pc1'Rt\'n<.!t.111·n, a nd the trn H Petet• . Wbito haa cut through · lifo iR
blct!scd by ucts of pr frn tc cl_ln!·il.y nud occds of pul>lic de,·otion thn.t ""ill
s~rvc ns tl. guide to thOAO wh<> follow in the footsteps of a t niijr great,
nud abov.e nll, good mnn.'' ·

,A
... 3i

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