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ADIGRAT UNIVERSITY

COLLEG OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

INTERNSHIP PROGRAM IN ALAMEDA TEXTILE FACTORY P.L.C


INTERN SHIP DURATI ON TIME FROM FEBRUARY 06/02/2017 UP TO JUNE
06/05/2017G.C
FINAL INTERNSHIP REPORT
PREPARED BY
1. Mamit G/michael Id no. 1000/06
2. Selamawit Hagos Id no. 1292/06
3. Teklay Brhane Id no.1426/06

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DECLARATION
We are fourth year chemical Engneering students that have undertaken our internship experience
in Alameda textile plc from a period of february 06/2017 to june 06/2017 under the guidance of
Mr. Brhane Tsegay (Academic Advisor) and Engineer Gebrehawerya G. (company advisors).
We certify that our work is original and compiled according to the internship report writing
guideline given by the University-Industry Linkage office of the Institute.

Acknowledgment
We would like to thank you for all that helps our to succeed our internship program starting
from ideal support up to financial support and to do our report in almeda textile plc. First of
all, we would like to say thanks to our GOD that helps our to finish this internship program
without any injury. Second and for most we would like to thank you to our academic advisor
Mr.Brhane Tsegay and campanyAdvisor Engineer Gebrehawerya G. who assists our by
giving ideal and different technical support until the end of the internship program. and also
to Engineer Goitom manger of the processing department that gives our different technical
& practical support, to head of project and utility & former Chemical engineering student at
adigrat university, to my families whom gives me financial and ideal support & to our
friends we would like to thank you for their contribution.

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Executive summary

Almeda is the textile company which found in central Tigray region near to Adwa town & it is
one of companies of endowment fund for rehabilitation of tigray. it starts with share of
180million birr capital investment & production in 1999 G.C.it produces variety products like
military & police wear, jeans,uniform,shirts etc. The company had local & global suppliers
(polyester supplied from Korea) & it exports 30% of its products to America & Europe & the rest
70 % is to local market. The company has100million sealing volume. Almeda contains six major
departments including the garment. When we see the technology of the machineries-they
originated from Switzerland, Italy, Germany & Japan with total investment of 94 milion USD.the
Company contains around 6000 workers under it. Due to different problems the production
capacity is not as the designed capacity of the machines the main problem is spare part shortage
(delay),aging,lack of awareness in workers,administrations problem etc…When different
techniques & models are used to solve these problems example EOQ model to solve the delay in
spare part ordering & give more attention to solve the problems of the bottle neck machineries
the department gets an improvement of 26,801.8 ETB PER day.

Generally from the internship program we get different constructive practices & knowledge’s
such as how to relate with staff, how we can be communicate to solve problems with related
workers, how we can be relate my theoretical knowledge to practical thing etc….

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Contents
Table of content

Declaration………..………………………………………………………………………………
iAcknowlegment…………………………………………………………………………………..i
iExecutive summary…………………………………………………………………………..…
iii

CHAPTER ONE...............................................................................................................................1

1. INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................1

1.1.BACK GROUND OF THE COMPANY................................................................................1

1.2. Objective Of The Company..................................................................................................2

1.3. CORE VALUES:...................................................................................................................3

1.4. Mission Of The Company.....................................................................................................3

1.5. Vision Of The Company.......................................................................................................3

1.6. Production Program..............................................................................................................3

1.7. Main customers or the end users of the company.................................................................4

1.8. Service units..........................................................................................................................5

1.9 The overall organizational structure of Almeda factory..............................................................5

CHAPTER TWO...............................................................................................................................6

2. DISCRIPTION OF OVERALL PROCESS OF THE PLANT.....................................................6

2.1. INTRODUCTION:...............................................................................................................6

2.2 DETAIL PROCESS DESCRIPTION OF EACH STEPS......................................................6

2.2.1 Raw materials & its apps.................................................................................................6

2.2.2. Raw material/fiber preparation:......................................................................................7

2.2.3 SPINNING......................................................................................................................7

2.2.4 WEAVING.....................................................................................................................11

2.2.5 WET PROCESSING.....................................................................................................13

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2.2.6 KNIITTING...................................................................................................................25

2.2.7 KNIT DYEING.............................................................................................................25

2. 2.8 INSPECTION..............................................................................................................26

2.2.9 DEFECTS OF SOME DEPARTMENTS......................................................................26

2.2.10 GARMENTING..........................................................................................................27

2.2.11 MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCE...................................................................28

2.2.12 WASTES AND IT’S TREATMENTS........................................................................30

CHAPTER THREE.........................................................................................................................36

3. OVERALL INTERNSHIP EXEPERIANCE.........................................................................36

3.1. INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................................36

3.2 Ways of getting in to the company.......................................................................................36

3.3 Working section....................................................................................................................36

3.3.1Work Flow Of Wet Processing.......................................................................................36

3.4. The work piece or work task...............................................................................................43

3.5. Procedure............................................................................................................................43

3.6. Goodsides............................................................................................................................43

3.7. Major challenges and measures taken to overcome the challenges....................................43

3.7.1. Major challenges..........................................................................................................43

3.7.2. Measures of Over Coming the Problems.....................................................................44

3.8. Experience gained In Terms Of Improving Practical Skill.................................................44

3.9. Experience gained in terms of improving inter personal communication..........................45

3.10. Experience Gained In Terms Of Improving Team Playing Skill......................................45

3.11. Experience Gained In Terms Of Improving Leadership...................................................45

3.12. Experiencegained in terms of understanding about work ethics.......................................45

3.13. Experience gained in terms of Entrepreneurship..............................................................46

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CHAPTER FOUR: PROJECT TITTLE…………………………………………………………47

4 MINIMIZATION OF PRINT PASTE WASTAGE IN ROTARY SCREEN PRINTING…….47

4.1 INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................47

4.2. Objective of the project......................................................................................................47

4.2.1. General objective:-.......................................................................................................47

4.2.2.Specific objective:-........................................................................................................47

4.3. Significance of the project..................................................................................................48

4.4 LITERATURE REVIEW....................................................................................................48

4.5.Problem of the statement......................................................................................................50

4.6. METHODOLOGY..............................................................................................................51

4.7. Solution for the problem………………………..……………………………………….51

4.8. Environmental impact analysis of printing……………...………………………………..51

4.9. Conclusion and Recommendation......................................................................................52

4.9.1.Conclusion.....................................................................................................................52

4.9.2. Recommendation…………………………………………………………………….52

Reference………………………………………………………………………………………..53

Abbreviation:……………………………………………………………………………………54

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List of figure

Figure 1.1. Almeda textile factory………………………………………………………………..1


Figure 1.2. Over all organizational structure of almeda………………………………………..…5
Figure 2.1. Main processing department…………………………………………………………..6

Figure 2.2. Flow diagram of spinning……………………………………………………………..8

Figure 2.3. Blow room…………………………………………………………………………….9

Figure 2.4.Yarn store………………………………………………………………………….....11

Figure 2.5.Flow diagram of weaving…………………………………………………………....13

Figure 2.6. Flow diagram of woven cotton store and synthetic fabrics………………………….15

Figure 2.7 Flow diagram of waste water………………………………………………………..32

Figure 3.1 Flow diagram of dyed fabric……..…………………………………………………..40

Figure 3.2 Flow diagram of white fabric……………………………………………………….41

Figure 4.1 Over come of waste covering plastic paper………………………………………..51

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List of table

Table 2.1.Spinning machines………...……………………………………………………………7

Table 2.3.List of chemicals and their application………………………………………………..34

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Abbreviation

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CHAPTER ONE

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1.BACK GROUND OF THE COMPANY.
Altex factory is found about 7km from Adwa town on the main road to Axum &233kms from
Mekele (Capital city of Tigray) and around 1006kms from A.A, the capital city of Ethiopia.
Almeda Textile Plc. is a non-governmental entity invested by EFFORT (Endowment Fund for
Rehabilitation of Tigray) which is the total investment of 94.22 million US Dollar & six
percent of total investment of Altex goes to all the brand new, the most advanced textile
equipment, which gives fully guarantee to quality & efficiency. Almeda textiles plc is a
vertically integrated mill which converts raw cotton/fiber to finished product (garment) which
create maximum value addition to its customers.

Figure1.1: Almeda textile factory

Almeda Textile plc. is located at the historical town of Adwa, 5Kms far away from Soloda

Mountain where the Italian troops were defeated by the Ethiopian heroes in 1888.

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Almeda Textile Plc. is standing proudly in the middle of beautiful mountainous area. There is
an airport capable of handling Small planes & fakers at Axum 17 kilometers from the mill
site. Apart from another alternative, the factory is directly linked with the main seaport of
Djibouti for import /export incidentals. In addition, the mill site is 236 km/ far from Aseb
seaport. Almeda Textile was established in 1994 as manufacturing wing of EFFORT Group
(Endowment Fund for Re-habilitation of Tigray),

The company starts its operation since October 1999 G.C. Altex is currently producing all
type of yarn, grey close of any type, finished fabrics ( dyed , printed and bleached) and both
woven and knit garments. It is also owned the more value adding process such as washing
and drying, printing, and embroidery.

Almeda Textile Share Company is a private company established in accordance with the
commercial code of Ethiopia with a share capital of 180,000,000 Birr. Almeda is one of
companies of the EFORT group (endowment Fund for Re-habilitation of Tigray) with an
objective to enhance the investment opportunities; it is the biggest textile manufacturing
company in the country. It has 100 million Birr sales volume. That is 70% sales volume in
local market and 30% sales volume in global market. Almeda is enjoying complete new
production lines imported Switzerland, Italy, Germany and Japan that take up a total
investment of 94 million USD. Employing expatriates to insure efficient, quality and low cost
of production availability of local cotton of top quality and the prevalence of well trained
and highly motivated employees.

1.2. Objective Of The Company


The company is established to accomplish the following business objectives

1. To produce threads, yarns and all kinds of cloths from cotton, polyester and cotton
and polyester mix at any ratio
2 . To produce clothing materials for personnel and house hold uses.

3. To engage in agricultural activities where becomes necessary for the realization of its

business.

4. To engage generally in any other trade necessary or conducive to the achievement of its
business.

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1.3. CORE VALUES:
1 Customer satisfaction

2 Reliability

3 Commitment to maximize owner’s value Good governance

1.4. Mission Of The Company


Generally the mission of the company includes:

1 To make profit by competing in the global market

2 To generate foreign exchange by increasing export

3 To create employment opportunities to the community

4 To have sustainable production capacity and contribute in the development of the

foreign and the country.

1.5. Vision Of The Company


Develop Almeda reference for Ethiopian Textile as and Garmenting industry and create the

conditioned that Almeda can become leader in the Ethiopian market in terms of export and

local market sales

1.6. Production Program


The spinning, weaving,& processing plants operate in three shifts daily ,working 8hrs per
day ,but the garment department works in two shifts daily working 8hrs per day

The factory is capable to produce the following items yearly

 Spinning = 7 million KGS (15,120 spindles &2400 rotors)


 Weaving (sheeting ,shirting ,twill ,canvas ,towels) =16 million meters
 Processing (Dyed &printed) =24 million meters
 Knitted fabrics =8.6 million pieces of basic
 Woven fabrics =4.4 million of basic t-shirts

Main products of Almeda textile plc

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Product is the outcome of a production process supplied to the public at large .it should be

delivered to the society in the required amount quantity and time as well as at reasonable
price. Almeda textile plc is capable to produce any variety of fabric; however, the product
mix ranges from Drill, Twill, poplin and Sheeting Terry towels to heavy duty canvas On the
garment side, knit fabric of various weighted as well as dyed fabric can be converted to value
added articles for which all the paraphernalia is present at the same location.

Typically Altex can be produced the following products as listed bellow

1 Trousers T-shirt

2 Bed sheet Uniform

3 Military/police Over all

4 Jeans Yarn

5 Gwen Gray fabric and dyed fabric,…etc.

6 Bed cover

1.7. Main customers or the end users of the company


Customers of one company’s play an important role in increasing the potential of the
company’s production capacity by balancing the demand and supply of the company. Almeda
have locally and globally these are customers.

Global customers

1 QC supply USA

2 Bern apparel USA

3 Edwards USA

4 Copper man Germany

Local customers

1 Guna, Tigray police, Amhara police , National defiance etc.

1.8. Service units:

There are different service units, among them boiler is the most one.

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Boilers are used to produce steam for:

1 Heat supply to the processes (scouring, sizing, dyeing, drying,…etc.)

2 Electric power generation

Steam can developed at lower pressure for industrial process.

1.9 The overall organizational structure of Almeda factory


GIP r o
End u
Ntc t i
Eeo n
Legal Advisor
Rr& t
Ane c
Lah n Secretary i
Mlc a l
AD G
NuM
AAdd
Gi Planning & product
t Finance Dep’t
Human Resource Dep’t
Eo
Rr Spinning Marketing Dep’t
G/service Dep’t
Weaving Dep’t
Supply Dep’t
Knitting Wet processing Almeda Training Center Dep’t
Branch Office
Knit dyeing Garment Department
System Development Dep’t
Engineering Dep’t

QC Department

Technique R&D Dep’t

Figure1.2: over all organizational structure of Almeda

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CHAPTER TWO

DISCRIPTION OF OVERALL PROCESS OF THE PLANT

2.1. INTRODUCTION:
Cotton & polyester are commonly used raw materials in Altex PLC; and can processed or
changed into finished product.

Raw materials
Spinning Dep’t Weaving Dep’t

Knitting Dep’t
Wet Processing Dep’t

Knit dyeing Dep’t

Finishing Dep’t

Inspection Dep’t

Garment Dep’t

Figure2.1: main processing department

2.2 DETAIL PROCESS DESCRIPTION OF EACH STEPS

2.2.1 Raw materials & its apps


Almeda textile factory uses water, LPG, furnace oil, chemicals, dyestuffs, auxiliaries, cotton
and polyester as raw material and other inputs for its production.

Cotton: cotton has a very good quality; low trash content and having excellent ginned
parameters are available abundantly in the country.

Polyester fibers are the most widely used synthetic fibers due to less expensive compared to
poly amide. PES is a good fiber regarding strength and abrasion resistance.

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These raw materials are supplied from different areas ;

1 Hiwot supplier found in Dansha

2 Middle awash found in awash Afar region

3 Omovallies found in Addis Ababa etc

2.2.2. Raw material/fiber preparation:


fibers are the smallest component of textile fibers & two main types of fibers are natural
&human made fibers. natural fibers are found in nature & sourced from plant(cellulose
based ) and animal(protein based).the most important natural fiber are cotton &wool and
manufactured are PES ,PA, acetate, …etc. manufactured fibers are made either from natural
polymers, synthetic polymers or inorganic material. Fibers can prepare or gather from;
cultivation area, animal, farming, wet & dry spinning & melt spinning.

2.2.3 SPINNING
Spinning is a process of manufacturing of yarns from fibers (grey, dyed & pure white) and it
has two lines open end and ring lines .spinning department use cotton from inland product
withstable length of more than 26 mm. In the ring line there are 15 ring frames which can
produce yarn of 18 to 60 of any blend polyester & cotton. In this open line, there are 11
machines and the capacity of the department is 17.5 tone of yarn.

s/n Type of machines Quantity Capacity

1 Open end machine 12 1224kg/hr

2 Roving/simplex machine 4 261kg/hr

3 Ring frame machine 15 176kg/hr

4 Yarn dyeing machine 2 900kg/hr

5 Reeling machine 8 11,564kg/hr

Table2.1: spinning machines

Raw materials Blow room

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A line B line

Card machines
Carding machies

1st pass draw frame


1st pass Draw
machines
framm’cs
2nd pass draw frame machines Uni lab machines
2nd pass draw frame
m’c
3rd pass draw frame machines
Comber machines Open end machines

Roving machines

Roving frame machines


Yarn store

Figure2.2: flow diagram of spinning

DESCRIPTION OF FLOW DIAGRAM

Blow room

1 Objectives of blow room:

1 To remove wastes like seed fragment, stems, stones, leaves and other impurities are
removed.

2 To mix two or more types of fibers in required ratio (mixing).

3 To feeding of opened and cleaned material in required quantity to the cards for
producing sliver.

4 To The reasons for blending of cotton of different origin are: price optimization and

quality improvement.

5 98% of the cleaning is performed in the blow room and carding

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Figure2.3: blow room

Unit clean: used to fiber opening and fiber cleaning

Unit mixer: used to mix in color.

Unit flex: used to increase fiber cleaning efficiency and flexibility.

Cop condenser: used to;

1 Fiber condensing or collecting

2 high nep formation

3 transferring in to the card

4 Carding 'A' line ring frame

Carding: used to;

1 removing of dust particles and short fiber

2 Produce carding silver

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Draw frame one: used to;

1 sliver uniformity, blending and parallelizing

2 dust removal

Lap former: used to change sliver in to flat shape and for easy transfer to comber

Comber machine: Comber machines are used for producing super quality yarn from cotton
fibers. Nep sand short fibers are removed and fibers are made parallel to each other.

Draw frame two: is the same with draw frame one but the only difference is in drafting.
Roving (speed) frame: In this sliver received from draw frame is drafted, twisted and
attenuated.
Ring frame: used to;

1 drafting the roving until the required fineness is achieved

2 Winding the twisted strand (yarn) for suitable for storage, transportation and further
processing.

Winding: the objective of cone winding is to wind the yarn from COPS to cones and
make a much longer length of yarn as per determined weight

Twister: used to;

1 Two or more parallel yarn from cheese are twisted and wound on the cone.

2 Producing good quality cones, which contain equal quantity of yarn.

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Figure 2.4: Yarn store

2.2.4 WEAVING
The process of manufacturing grey or finished fabric (other textile products) from yarn is
called weaving.Weaving can produce different variety of fabric by interlacing warp and weft
threads ranging from single plain to complex design of fabric, and its annual design
production capacity is million meters of fabric

The preparation of warp yarn for weaving involves sizing to improve weavability of yarn by
improving its strength & frictional properties.

In preparatory section there are machines named as direct warping, sectional warping, creel
and sizing machines. Yarn is fed directly in to a creel from yarn store.

1 Direct warping:- a simple process of converting yarns attached in a creel in to a


sizing beam; from this machine the beam is taken in to sizing for further process.

Rewinding is the process the remnant received from warping is rewound on a suitable
package.

1 Sizing

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Sizing is the process yarn already wound in the form of sheet in warping is coated with a
film of starch and combination of few other chemicals

Purpose of sizing is:

1 To increase weav ability and smoothness.

2 Strength of yarn is increased to some extent

3 To increase flexibility

4 Preventing friction and breakage on the loom

5 Sectional warping

Same process are direct warping but from weavers beam that is directly taken in to loom
machine found in the loom shed without sizing and commonly used to make terry and canvas.

Drawing in: in this process the sized or unsized warp sheet wound on weaver's beam, Or in
other word, the process in which we fill warp in heals and reeds according to the

construction and design of the fabric.

2 Loom

Looms are used to make fabric by interlacing the warp and weft yarns or final
manufacturing of gray fabrics takes place over here. In this section the warp and weft are
woven together at 900 to form gray factory. There are four types of looms in

Almeda plc. and they perform three primary and two secondary motion that is; shedding,
picking up, beating and take up and let off motions respectively

Weaving can produce different variety of;

1 Plain fabric(sheeting; shirting, rib stop,& canvas)

2 Twills(light to heavy twill & French twill)

3 Terry towel

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Yarn store Weaving room

Sectional warping

Direct warping
Rewarding

Rewarding
Drawing in

Size Loom

Woven fabric

Inspection

Wet process

Figure2.5: flow diagram of weaving

2.2.5 WET PROCESSING


Wet processing / woven processing is a process of producing quality product to satisfy the
requirement of with minimum cost of production. Textile processing gives color to textile
material. The color given to textile material by dyeing, bleaching & printing. The department
can produce up to 8,000,000meter per month, to the following products;

Different sheeting(dyed, bleached &printed)

1. 100% cotton twills(dyed &bleached)

2. Polyester cotton blend twills

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3. Military uniforms(plain &rib stop)

4. Different canvases

5. Different shirting’s(100% cotton & polyester cotton)…et

Wet processing can classify into 4 major classes; pretreatment, dyeing, printing& finishing.

i. PRE TREATMENT
Pretreatment is a process of preparing textile materials fabric yarn, woven …etc for
subsequent process of dyeing, printing & finishing, as the following sequence;

1 searing, roping ,brushing


2 singeing/desizing
3 souring/bleaching
4 mercerizing
5 drying/heat setting

Shearting: a mechanical process of cutting the extracting fibers by the help of sharp knives to
lean surface of the fabrics.

Brushing; is a process of removing external fluffs from the fabric to make suitable for
singeing.

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM OF WET PROCESSING

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Unfinished fabric

100% synthetics Cotton & cotton


blends

Desizing Singeing

Scouring Desizing

Bulking Bleaching

Mercerization

Printing Dyeing

Heat set synthetics


&blends

Mechanical
finishing
Chemical finishing

Finished fabric

Figure2.6:flow diagram of woven cotton& synthetic fabrics

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a. SINGEING AND DESIZING

A. Singeing: Is the process of removing protrude fibers by the means of burning by gas
flame in order to avoid protruding fibers, because protruding fibers have problem of
hindering further pretreatment on dyeing & printing.

Before the fabric is singed it must be brushed in order to stand the fibers perpendicularly with
the fabric.

Brushing; also use to erect protruding fibers on the fabric making them suitable to singeing.

The fabric is signed by using flame and the flame is formed from liquor petroleum gas (LPG)
with the addition of compressed air.

Flame is adjusted in both sides of the fabric to remove or burns protrude fibers. Note that the
flame must have normal color that is sky blue.

The purpose of removing these fibers

i. Appearance of fabric is smooth

ii. It is suitable for the next pretreatment processes

iii. clear dyed fabric is achieved.

Parameters of singeing

a. Flame intensity: the measurement of how much is the strength of flame on the

fabric. Most of the time it is constant in Almeda having the value of 11 bar.

b. Speed of machine: It is known that contact time of fabric is very important and

differs according weight of fabric because some light fabrics can be easily damaged by flame
if the speed is very slow.

According to speed of the machine ranges from 60 up to 90 meter per minute. After

singeing the fabric should be cooled, because it is very hot and can be damaged. So,

for this purpose there is cooling system by cold water cycling inside the guide roller near the
flame.

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Operational procedure : A grey fabric passes through the guide roller of rods with
brushing out, then the fabric passes over two singeing flames where singeing is carried out&
out of gas singeing the fabric passes through another two brushes, finally directed to desize.

B. Desizing:

Is the process of removing size material in order to avoid stiffness of the fabric and
difficulties in its treatment with different liquors used in finishing processed. Sizing is a
process of immersing yarn (especially warp) & have sizing chemicals which used to give the
yarn high tensile strength that enables the yarn to resist the tension . In desizing tank it
occurs break down of film like that covers the yarn that are added in the sizing equipment
that is break down of starch, because the fabric does not accept dye stuff. The method of
desizing of Altex is enzymatic method but this method has its own draw back.

Machines and their usage

1. Chemical bath (saturator): used to padding fabric to be desized in to desizing solution

2. Automatic level control: controls the level of desizing chemical.

3. Chemical preparing tanks: used to prepare chemicals & consists agitator & pump which
used to stir & pump the solution respectively.

4. Steam supplying line: supplies steam to the saturator bath, in order to boil the desizing
solution & regulate by automatically regulation valves.

5. Squeezer rollers: are two plastic covered rollers w/c used to squeeze the fabric after design
in order to remove the solution .

6. meters: control & adjust pressure of rollers &squeezer, temperature of chemical bath &
speed of the fabric.

Parameters of desizing

a. Temperature: is fundamental thing that accelerate chemical reaction. So padding

temperature of this process is about 80 degree centigrade.

b. Machine speed: this is arranged according to the heaviness of fabric; because the
interaction time between the solution and fabric is crucial thing in such a way that material

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shaving more weight needs slow speed so as the chemical will penetrate easily. Therefore, the
speed ranges from 60 up to 90 meter per minute.

c. Pick up: this is the measurement of chemical solution take up by the fabric and it is

mainly controlled by squeezing pressure after padding the fabric. Most of time pick up will
be adjusted to 80%.

d. PH of chemical solution: PH of desizing chemical should be in the optimum level,

otherwise chemicals in different PH posses different reactions.

e. Batching time: Batching time of desizing process ranges from 4 up to 8 hours.

b. SCOURING AND BLEACHING

1 Scouring: is the process of removal of waxes, fats, organic compounds, oils, grease,
crushed seed cottons etc by alkali treatment at high temperature. there are three major
processes in alkali scouring; saponification, emulsification &solvent extraction.
Saponification: converting of insoluble contaminable in to water soluble soap with
high temperature or 95-98o. Emulsification; a process of forcing to mix two
immiscible liquids like oil & water due to density difference or forming of stable
suspension.solvent extraction is a process of removal of mineral substances or reduce
water hardness, by reducing such as Ca, Fe, Mg w/c comes from the hard water &
during gathering of cotton from ground.

Main objectives of scouring:

1 To reduce amount of impurities from surface of fibers

2 To improve absorbency& quality of fabric

3 To obtain level & reproducible product

There are four types of scouring agents;

1 Alkali agents; NaOH, KOH, Naco3, NH4OH

2 Surfactant scouring; an ionic & non-ionic activators

3 Emulsion scouring &

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4 Solvent scouring.

2 Bleaching: is the process of removal of natural colored particles from surface of


textile fabric in order to be white. Or it is a process of decolorization by destroying
double bond with in conjugate system (chromospheres) to become white appearance
to fiber& smooth subsequent dying, printing & finishing processes.

Bleaching of fabrics may be:

1 Normal bleaching (half bleach):is chemical bleaching of textile mostly used for
dyeing &printing with oxidative or reductive agents. Oxidizing agent like hydrogen
per oxide are responsible for the process.

Oxidative agents of bleaching: H2O2, Sodium hypo chloride, NaClO3, O3…etc.

Reductive agents: SO2, derivative of salfonic acid (H2SO4), NaS2O3 …etc.

2 Optical brightening bleaching (full bleach): is physical bleaching of textile fabric by


H2O2, optical brightening agents, stabilizer, wetting agent, caustic soda & acetic
acid.H2O2 bleaching is the most common & widely used bleaching agent to remove
coloring materials from surface of fabric & is weak acid w/c ionized H 2O to form
hydrogen &per hydroxyl ion(HOO-) w/c is active bleaching agent.

Recipes of bleaching are: H2O2, NaOH, stabilizer, wetting & sequestering agent.

Stabilizer: used to control decomposition of H2O2 in to H+& HOO-; e.g. Sodium silicate.
Na2SiO4 is most commonly used & effective stabilizer of H2O2.

Sequestering agents are positively charged ions that used to minimize H 2O hardness by
removing mineral compounds.

In both scour and bleaching acetic acid is added at the end of the process to neutralize
NaOHif the fabric does not need mercerization. Combined process of scouring/bleaching is
economical process of textile treatment.

The chemicals that are added in both scouring and bleaching are H 2O2, NaOH, Stabilizer,
Wetting &sequestering agent, optical brightening (optional), acetic acid and steam.

Parameters of combined scouring and bleaching

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a) Pick up: the machine does not squeeze after impregnation of chemical solution then the
fabric picks about 80%-120% on the weight of fabric because it moves freely.

b) Temperature: temperature to scour and bleach of fabric should be 95 degree

centigrade for steamer and for the washing purpose is not less than 90 degree centigrade.

c) PH: PH of scouring and bleaching process ranges from 9.5 up to 11 because at this

temperature active oxygen works properly.

d) Speed of machine: it is indicated in the above indirectly but normally the speed of

the machine is 60 meter per minute.

e) Steaming time: is the time in which the fabric stays for chemical reaction. the fabric

should stay 25 minute in the steamer otherwise below this temperature no sufficient

bleaching and above this there will be deterioration of fabric.

c. MERCERIZATION

Mercerization is a preparation process which is only applicable to cellulose fibers (cotton).

Mercerization has the following objectives:

1 To increase lustrity

2 To make more stronger

3 To create greater capacity to accept dye.

4 To make fabric soft handle and more extensible.

5 To remove immature fibers and create shine.

Parameters of mercerization

a) Temperature: temperature of the impregnation caustic bath is at room temperature,

but washing temperature is 90Ocentigrade

b) Speed of machine is 40 meter per minute.

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ii. DYEING

Dyeing is the process of coloring textile materials by immersing them in an aqueous solution
of dye liquor. Normally the dye liquor consists of dye, water and auxiliary to improve the
effectiveness of dyeing, heat is usually applied to the dye liquor. Dyeing machines w/c
available in Almeda factory are; Jigger, Thermo sol (pad dry fix), Cold pad batch…etc.
Thermo sol &cold pad batch dyeing are mostly used.

Dyeing is performed in different methods:

a) Exhaust dyeing or batch dyeing: most of the time this process is used for dyeing of knit
fabrics, but in some cases it is also used for woven fabrics. For this method we use different
machines; like jigger, sclaves or high temperature dyeing machines etc. Despite of less
production, Jiggers are not only used for dyeing but also for desizing, scouring, bleaching or
wet chemical finishing.

b) Semi continuous dyeing: There are different types of semi continuous machines, among
these one is cold pad batch.

Advantage of using cold pad batch machine

1 Reduce energy consumption

2 The process is not complex

3 Better leveling of dye stuff

4 Dark shades are achieved easily

Process parameters for cold pad batch

i. PH: this is about 11

ii. Dyeing temperature: padding as well as batching time is room temperature.

iii. Speed of machine: this differs according the heaviness of fabric for example Canvas

fabric run at maximum of 25 meter per minute and light fabrics run at speed of 50 meter per
minute.

iv. Batching time: Is different for different type of dyes most of the time it is 12 hours

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but in special case the time will be extended to24 hours.

v. Pick up: Average value pick up of dye stuff and chemicals by fabric is 70%.

Dye stuff and alkali solutions must be prepared in separate bathes but mixed during

process. The reason if we mixed them together there will be hydrolysis of dyes so the dye
stuff becomes less functional.

C. Continuous dyeing: is the process of dyeing and fixation at the same time. Among

These machines, one is thermo sol machine.In this machine most of the time we process
cotton, poly ester and blend of poly ester and cotton fabrics by: cold pad batch for cotton and
Pad- dry- fix (thermo sol) for cotton, poly ester and blend of these.

Parameters of pad- dry- fix (thermo sol):

i. Padding temperature: Room temperature is the padding time.

ii. Drying: the fabric is dried in two stages; one removing 70% of the water by infrared the
second is drying the fabric inside drying chamber at 140 degree centigrade.

iii. fixation time: this is the dwelling time inside the fixation chamber to react the dye with
fiber. Fabrics can dyed in two ways for blend of poly ester and cotton:

1. One bath dyeing: dyes for cotton and for poly ester are mixed together and the

fabric is padded in this solution; and recipe for one bath dyeing are:

 Disperse dye
 Dispersing agent- for dispersing of dyes
 Anti-migratory: to prevent migration of dye stuff during drying
 Soda ash: to bring alkalinity of the dye solution and to facilitate reaction.
1 Urea: to maintain moisture content of cotton during high temperature treatment.

2.Two bath dyeing method: polyester fibers are dyed first in thermo sol machine then washed
to remove unfixed disperse dyes and cotton part is dyed in cold pad batch machine. Mostly
this is used for dark shades that cannot be achieved by one bath method.

2.2.5.1.4. WASHING MACHINE

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Washing machine is used to remove caustic after mercerization and un fixed dyes of dyed
fabrics. The washing may be:

a) Reduction washing: just by adding acetic acid or sodium hydrosulfite we are going to

decrease shade variation.

b) Normal washing: by adding hard water, detergent and sequestering (chelating) agent.

Parameters of washing

a) Temperature: not less than 90 degree centigrade

b) Speed: 35 up to 40 meter per minute

c) Squeezing pressure: if the pressure is high it removes more water from the fabric.

Drying machine

Drying can be do by steam or circulating hot air in drying equipment.

3 Process parameters of washing are speed and temperature.

2.2.5.3 PRINTING

Printing is another type of coloration has been described as dying as localized, pattern
design. There are different types of printing textile materials these are:

1 Screen printing

2 Roller printing

3 Heat transfer printing

Among the above, screen printing is most widely used and now a day's applicable In

Almeda. The screen is prepared according the design, needed for the purpose.

The essential ingredients for printing paste are:

a) Thickener: is used for thickening of paste or to increase viscosity of paste.

b) Binder or Fixer: to fix the pigment with fabric.

c) Urea: used for uniform solubilizing.

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d) Ammonia: to make the fabric flexible

e) Librenton: To prevent the pigment from passing to the inner side.

f) Anti foaming agent: to prevent foam.

g) Fixing agent (cross linker): to increase fixation and to increase rubbing, washing

and cleaning fastness. And the combination called paste.

2.2.5.4. FINAL FINISHING

Finishing is completing of fabric with different machines.

Stenter machine

This machine works two things; physical and chemical finish.

1 Some of chemical finish are:

1 Soft finish:- making the fabric good soft handle.

2 Resin finish:- the fabric will become stiff and hard.

3 Anti microbial finish:- the will have resistance to external microorganisms.

4 Repellent finish:- having the tendency of water impermeable


2. Some of physical finish are:

1 Drying:- removing water from the fabric.

2 widening:- adjusting width of the fabric from 155 cm to 160 cm.

3 Tint finish:- padding or dyeing the ground of the fabric after printing.

2 Mechanical finish:

1 Calendaring:- shining effect of fabric to have silky appearance by pressing the fabric
between metal and textile rollers at high pressure.

2 Raising:- to raise fibers from the fabric so as to have furry feeling for human being.

3 Sanforizing:- one of the mechanical finish to give fabric softness ,shines and
permanent Shrinkage and do by steam. Sanforizing mainly used for cotton fabrics
because they have tendency to shrink after washing.

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Generally mechanical finishes are mechanism of giving aesthetic appearance to the fabric
mechanically.

2.2.6 KNIITTING
A process of converting yarn in to fabric by interloping the threads together, using knitting
needles and is in put for knit dyeing for further process. it has four sections; reeling & yarn
store, knitting product, fabric store &fabric inspection. Individual driven needles of knitting
used to produce weft knits and subdivide in to circular knitting machine w/c produce knit
fabric &flatbed knitting machine w/c produce collar or calf. with production capacity of 6.5
m/day. Cotton, polyester, propylene, dyestuff are common raw materials of knitting
department.

2.2.7 KNIT DYEING


Dyeing process is carried out with help of chemicals and dyes. In this department, Input is
received from circular knitting, then process a grey fabric according to customer’s
requirement, through scouring, dyeing, squeeze& treat with chemical , finally compact & sent
to garment. In knit processing there are different types of products with production capacity
of 4.5 tons/day.

Knit dyeing machines which available in Altex factory are;

1 Sclavos machines: used to scouring, bleaching , dyeing & washing and its parameters
are detergent, time , water ,dyestuff , temperature , PH and chemicals like NaOH.

2 Squeezer machine: removes 60-70 % of water from knit fabric.

3 Drying: removes the rest (30-40%) of water from the knit fabric & make it dry.

4 Compactor; avoids shrinkage &adjust width of the fabric by compact & stabilize
dimension to measure GSM & width adjustment. Process parameter of this machine is
temperature, steam & oil.

Necessary materials of knit dyeing are;

5 Hydrogen Per oxide is the most used textile bleaching agent to increase whiteness of a
fabric.

6 Stabilizer: control the decomposition of H2O2& alkaline conditions.

7 Caustic soda: removes impurities from cotton fabric.

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8 Wetting agent: stables to electrolytes, alkali facilitate& penetration of the fabric
during padding.

9 Anti-crease; prevent creases on the fabric.

10 Salts: increase uptake of dyes by the fibers

11 Soda ash: used to fixation at textile dyeing industry.

12 Acetic acid (CH3COOH): used to neutralization and add at last.

2. 2.8 INSPECTION
Inspection is a final process, which insure quality standard and measurement of finished
goods with in tolerance laid down in the customers’ specification. Or It checks whether
defects are present or not, and gives grade to the fabric with some machines.

Dolling machine: prepares gray fabrics to the next inspection machine.

Folding machine: folds the finished fabric.

2.2.9 DEFECTS OF SOME DEPARTMENTS


There are some types of defects which occur in spinning, weaving & woven processing.

SPINNING DEFECTS

1 Bad weft: If the weft yarn is less strength so the weft yarn forms like Zigzag

2 Uneven yarn count: is difference between yarn count

WEAVING DEFECTS

1 Temple mark: is over stress or tension so that the fabric becomes tear.

1 Miss pick: Absence of weft yarn

2 Miss end: Absence of warp yarn

3 Lint ball: if the loom machine's waste is not properly cleaned the fluffs are weaved
with the fabric and they form ball shape.

PROCESSING DEFECTS

1 Width variation; create due to improper setting of stenter machine clip.

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1 Stain: if the fabric is becoming in contact with grease during batching time.

2 Color contamination: if the dye tanker is not wash properly the previous and the
current dye creates contamination.

3 Spot: is observed in thermo sol and stenter machine due to droplets on fabric.

4 Shade variation: it is raised due to temperature fluctuation or by other.

5 Crossing; distortion or shifting down of weft yarn in some angle.

6 Crease: is the major defect and its origin is most of time in scouring and bleaching.

7 Screen blockage: this is the problem of printing machine; when the screens are
blocked or closed by fine fluffs. And also mixation of fabric, design unfit and face
change of fabric are printing defects.

2.2.10 GARMENTING
Garment produces different types of wearing apparels for local & international markets.
Product types w/c are produced in Almeda garmenting factory are;

1 Basic &Palo t-shirt, singlet& mock neck from knitting


2 Military uniform, caps
3 Work wear (over coat, jacket, pant)
4 Classical & jeans shirts
5 Different types of trouser (causal, classical, jeans)
6 Home textiles (bed sheet & cover, pillow… etc.
7 Health care items (patient gown, over coat, scrub …etc.

2.2.11 MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCE


A mass balance involves determining the amount of chemical entering and leaving an
operation.

1. Material balance of sizing machine

In put operation out put

Input=output, since there is no reaction and takes place at steady state.

A given yarn is warping on 8 beams with:

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Total No of ends= 4000,

Total weight of yarn (input) = 1500kg

Total length of yarn = 12100m, Is to be sized, after sizing the total weight of the yarn is
increased by 8% and the total length is increased by one percent.

Balance on weight

Number of cones = Number of end /Number of beams

Number of cones = 4000 ends/8 beams = 500 cones

Since the total weight of the output yarn is increased by 8%;

Total weight of output = 1500kg +8% x 1500kg

Total weight of output=1620kg

The total weight increased after sizing is; 1620kg-1500kg=120kg

Balance on length

Total length of output=12100m+1%*12100m

Total length of output=12221m

The total length increased after size is12221-12100=121m

2. Boiler energy Balance

Mass steam

Q product
boiler

M.H2O Mass of waste

Temperature and pressure are constant with time or at steady state accumulation is zero and
also Energy generation and consumption is zero since there is no chemical reaction, so;
Energy out=energy in

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Q=A*U*(T2_T1)=mass steam*(h steam2 _h steam1)=m*cp(t2_t1)

Input data’s

Actual steam production per month =159971.32kg

Actual oil (furnace oil) consumption per month= 12000 Litter

Actual working hours per month= 504hrs

Mass of water evaporated per hour = 159971.32 kg/504hr = 317.4kg/hr

Specific fuel consumption per hour = 12000L/504hr = 23.80952L/hr

Boiler pressure= 10bar (setting pressure)

To calculate the heat required to produce the needed amount of steam, from 85oc

to 179.91oc saturated steam at boiler pressure of 10 bar,Where 179.91 is steam temperature


and 85 is water in let temperatureandalso

hfg = 2015.3kj/kg at 10 bar from saturated steam table,

Cpw = 4.2kJ/kg.oc,

mw=19223.14kg/hr

Q= m*cp *(t2_t1)

Q = 7670034.38Kj/hr

Where mw = mass flow rate of water

Cpw= specific heat of water

Hfg = enthalpy of evaporation

The selected fuel for boiler has a lower heating value (LHV) of 18500 BTU/LB or
43030.87kj/kg, The amount of fuel needed to supply the required heat needed to convert the
cold water in to saturated steam is calculated as the following;

Fuel required = heat required / LHV = Q/LHV

Fuel required=Q/LHV= (7670034.38Kj/hr/43030.8689kj/kg) =178.2449kg/hr

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Fuel required=178.2449kg/hr

Specific energy consumption = specific fuel consumption * colorific value

Specific energy consumption=23.80982L/hr*43030.8689KJ/Kg

Where, SFC – specific fuel consumption = 23.80982 L/hr, 1 KJ/kg = 0.430 BTU/LB So, LCV
= (18500/0.430) KJ/Kg = 43030.8689 KJ/kg

2.2.12 WASTES AND IT’S TREATMENTS


Major wastes of the textile industries are effluents or wastewater, emissions and solid waste.

1. Air emissions: the textile industry emits a variety of air pollutants, especially from wet
processes, such as resin coating, printing, dyeing, …etc. and from dry processes such as
cotton dust and fiber particulates.

Main source of air emissions in textile industry are:

1 Cotton dust and fiber particulates which generates from dry process. Cotton dust
contains bacteria, fungi, pesticides, soil, vegetable matter,…etc.

2 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from solvent used in scouring, urea from
printing,

3 NO2, SO2and CO resulting from sizing of natural cellulose fabrics.

4 Hydro carbons and ammonia emitted from printing process,…etc

2. Waste water treatment

The amount of waste water varies widely depending on the type of process operated at the
mill. Various toxic chemicals such as completing agents, sizing, softening, finishing
agents wetting agents, dyes and many other additives are used in wet processing which are
washing, scouring, bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, finishing etc. Main pollutants from
dyeing and finishing units include high suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand
(COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), color, acidity, basicity and other pollutants.

The main sources of waste water in ALTEX are:

1) Sanitary sewage and

2) Industrial waste (especially from knit dyeing & wet processing).

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sanitary swage is a waste which comes from toilet, shower …etc

industrial swage (waste) is waste which releases from wet processing, dyeing, knit dyeing …
etc and affect the environment.

Screen /scraper Equalization

Waste collection bas in Pump station

Hydrasive
Pump station HCl/NaOH

(NH4)2HPO4 Al2(SO4)3 Neutralization

Air
Precipitation/coagulation
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flocculation
Biological tank/aeration tank
ionic poly electrolyte

Primary sedimentation

Swage sludge Swage sludge

clarification
Pump station Pump house

Sludge thikening
disinfection

Pump station
drainage

Sludge dehydration

Figure2.7: Flow diagram of wastewater

2.2.12.2.2 DESCRIPTION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT

1. SCREENING: is a mechanical process that separate particles on the basis of size.

Screening is the first unit operation in waste water treatment system it uses physical barrier
for removal mechanism and Objectives of screening are:

1 To remove coarse (large solids such as sticks, plastics, fabrics etc.)

2 To protect pumps and other mechanical equipment from damage.

3 To improve over all treatment process reliability and effectiveness.

2. EQUALIZATION: Equalization tanks are large basins that collect and store the waste
water.

Objectives of equalization tanks are:

1 To prevent high concentration of toxic materials from entering the biological


treatment plant.

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2 To equalize temperature throughout the basin.

3 To provide continuous feed to biological systems over period

4 To help adequate PH control or to minimize the chemical requirements.

Mixing usually ensures adequate equalization and prevents settle able solids

from depositing in the tank.

3. HYDRASIVE: It is a machine that is used to remove fine materials that has been passed
from the screening.

4. NEUTRALIZATION: Waste from textile industries is rarely PH neutral so the PH in the


treatment process should be adjusted to PH 6-8.

Usually sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is used to neutralize acidic wastes or hydro chloric acid
(HCl) to neutralize alkaline wastes, depending on the normal PH of the equalized effluent.

5 COAGULATION and FLOCCULATION


Coagulation: is used to remove waste materials in suspended or colloidal form; colloids are
particles over a size range of 0.1-1 nm. Coagulation is destabilization ofthese colloids by
neutralizing the forces that keep them apart so that they can agglomerate (come together).

Flocculation: small particles form large aggregates. Flocculation during waste water
treatment divided suspended solids in to larger particles to efficient and rapid settling.
Coagulation and flocculation units are designed to reduce the pollution load by removing
total suspended solids (TSS) and reducing BOD5 and COD (since some of the
suspended solids are organic chemicals and have BOD and COD).

6.PRIMARY SEDIMENTATION:

After coagulation and flocculation the waste water is sent to sedimentation unit to
remove any remaining suspended solids from liquid using force of gravity.

The flocks formed in flocculation are large enough to be removed by gravitational


settling, also known as sedimentation .This is achieved in a tank referred to as the
sedimentation tank ,settling tank or clarifier.

7. SECONDARY TREATMENT (aeration tank): the objective of secondary or biological


treatment of industrial waste water is to reduce the concentration of organic and inorganic
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compounds. These microorganisms use components of the effluent as their food and
break down to less complex and less hazardous compounds thus, decreasing the BOD and
COD.

No Name of chemical Chem. Formula Application of the chemicals

1 Alum AL2(SO4)3.18H2o To precipitate the suspended solid

2 Ferric sulfate Fe2(so4)3 To precipitate the suspended solid

3 DAP (NH4)2HPO4 As food for microorganism

4 Sulfuric acid H2SO4 OR HCL For neutralization if the waste water is basic

5 Caustic soda NaOH For neutralization of waste characteristics of acidic

Table2. 2: lists of chemicals and their application

CHAPTER THREE
3. OVERALL INTERNSHIP EXEPERIANCE

3.1. INTRODUCTION
The main objective of internship program is to develop practical skills of students related to
academic knowledge, so we get many advantages from the internship; like improving
practical skills, upgrading theoretical knowledge, interpersonal Communication , improving
team work, understanding work ethics relative to issues , improving leadership and
entrepreneurship skills.

3.2 Ways of getting in to the company


we got in to the company through the following way: we have sent internship request to
different company, from these Almeda textile factories accept our internship request & gave

34
our acceptance, then we have informed to our faculty or chemical department office. Finally
the department gave our a form to start internship work& we start the internship program.

3.3 Working section


we have been working in wet processing, wet processing has different categories, and there
are pretreatment, colorization (dyeing and printing) and finishing.

3.3.1Work Flow Of Wet Processing


Wet processing in textile involves different process steps. The main processes
in wet processing are: pretreatment, colorization (dyeing & printing), and
finishing. Wet processing is one of the major energy consuming stages due to
the use of thermal energy for steam and heat.

3.3.1.1Pretreatment

Pretreatment of textile consists several steps and is important for removal of natural
impurities. Pretreatment is also important in order to improve the properties of fiber and to
increase the quality of downstream processes such as dyeing, printing. Typical pretreatment
processes are described in the following subsections.

Singeing

Singeing is done to smooth surface for high-quality of cotton cloth and for polyester to
prevent pilling & the process is executed by passing the fabric quickly over a gas flame
which burns of fibers that stick out. After the fabric has been passed over the gas flame, the
fabric is put in to quench bath to cool the fabric. The quench bath often contains a solution for
desizing and singeing can therefore be combined with desizing. The process can be used for
both yarn and fabrics and is most for cotton, cotton/PA and cotton/PES blends. Singeing is
especially important if the fabric should be printed, since that requires a smooth surface. The
main environmental problems related to singeing are dust and volatile organic compounds
(VOC) during the process.

Operational procedure

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A grey fabric passes through the guide roller of rods with brushing out, then the fabric passes
over two singeing flames where singeing is carried out& out of gas singeing the fabric passes
through another two brushes, finally directed to desizing.

Desizing

Desizing is used to remove size from fibers and often used as pretreatment process for woven
fabrics that are produced from cotton or cotton blends. There are several different desizing
techniques depending on which type of sizing agent that should removed. Enzymatic desizing
is the most used technique for removal of starch-based sizes. It is common in the industry to
minimize the number of process steps in pretreatment. One opportunity to combine desizing
and bleaching is to use oxidative desizing where the fabric is placed in a bath containing
hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide(NaOH), stabilizers and complexing agents. However,
oxidative desizing is difficult to control, which means that the cellulose can damaged in the
process. Manufactured fibers contain water-soluble sizes, which are removed with hot water
and sodium carbonate in industrial washing machine.

Operational procedures

The singed fabric enters to saturator bath the same speed as singing process & the desizing
chemicals filled to saturator &boils up to 95-100o centigrade, after immersing in the chemical
bath, the fabric directed to pass through coated plastic squeezing m/cs w/c operates at 2.5-30
bar of pressure , lastly the squeezed fabric is rolled in the batch with the help of batching
rollers and washed , sometimes 100% polyester or very light cloth pass to desize (from
singe), at this condition flame is off.

Scouring

Scouring is a cleaning process to extract natural impurities (i.e. waxes, oils, pectin, proteins,
and metal salts). The process is used for cotton and their blends as well as for other natural
fibers. During the process the fibers are treated with hot alkali and usually alkali treatment
consists NaOH. Besides NaOH, surfactants and complexing agents are used in the process.
Scouring involves use of large amounts of water, high energy requirement and wastewater
containing NaOH and leads to high chemical oxygen demand (COD) load due to the removal
of organic impurities.

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Bleaching

Bleaching improves whiteness, absorbency etc of the fabric and remove impurities and
natural coloring compounds from the fabric. Only natural fibers require bleaching, since
synthetic fibers can manufactured to be transparent. Cotton is often bleached with hydrogen
peroxide and such bleaching with hydrogen peroxide requires alkaline conditions and
stabilizes (sodium silicate) to control the reaction. A rinsing step is also required in order to
remove residuals of NaOH that used as bleaching agent.

Mercerization

Mercerizing is used for cotton in order to increase the tensile strength and the luster of fabric.
An improvement of dye uptake can also accomplished with mercerizing and the consumption
of dye stuff can be reduced by 30-50%. During mercerizing the fabric is treated with a
solution containing NaOH and the fabric is usually held under tension during the treatment.
The concentration of sodium hydro oxide varies between 20-30%, however the main
environmental concern with mercerizing is the NaOH residual.

The process is performed in the following process steps: first padding of the textile with
NaOH, next drafting of the textile, then washing and finally, acidifying and rinsing.
Mercerizing also done NaOH without tension of the fabric.

The process is carried out in 20-30oc with 145-190 g NaOH per liter of water. Mercerizing
can be performed on yarn, woven or knitted fabrics.

3.3.1.2 DYEING

Dyeing is the process where color is applied to the textile material. The process is usually
executed in water but, other methods can be used well, like solventand molten metal dyeing.
Dyestuff, chemicals (e.g. salts and acids) and auxiliaries (e.g. surfactants and dispersing
agents) are used in dyeing of textiles. The process accounts of dyestuff, chemicals and
auxiliaries depend on the fiber and the quality required. Dyeing can be performed in batch
and continuous/semi-continuous process depending on cost, availability of equipment and the
dyes. Both batch and continuous dyeing processes involve the following steps: first
preparation of the dye, next dyeing, after dyeing fixation and finally washing and drying.
Several pollutants are related to dyeing of textile. both the dyestuff and chemicals used during

37
dyeing process, cleaning and maintenance of the equipment contribute to the environment
impact with consuming 5% water and causes 7% biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) in a
finishing process for cotton.

Batch dyeing

In batch dyeing an amount of fabric is put in a dyeing machine containing dye and
auxiliaries. The colorant is absorbed to the fiber and the fixation is increased with chemicals
and controlled temperature. After the dyeing process, the dye bath is drained and the textile
material is washed and dried.

Continuous dyeing

In continuous dyeing the dye solution applied by impregnation system. The most common
process for continuous dyeing of textiles are continuous feeding of textiles in to a dip with
dye. After the dip, the textile material is fed through rollers that control the uptake of dye.
Finally, heat and chemicals are used for fixation of the dye and the textile material is then
washed and dried.

3.3.1.3 PRINTING

Dyeing is preferred for adding color and simple patterns, while printing is used for more
complex patterns. Another difference between printing and dyeing is that printing involves
adding pattern to the surface where as dyeing is process that includes penetration of the
fabric. Printing process involves the use of color,oftenin the form of paste and followed by
drying and steaming in order to fix the color in to the fabric. A washing step and an additional
drying step are also needed except for when pigment dye is used in the printing process. The
main environmental impact from printing of textiles is due to wastewater from washing as
well as cleaning of equipment. Similar to dyeing, printing causes high amounts of pollutants
as well as high BOD and COD load. There are several techniques for printing of textiles, but
the most common are: roller printing, rotary screen printing and heat transfer printing. Roller
printing is a quite inexpensive fast method and has been an important method for a long time.

38
The most used printing method is rotary screen printing, which accounts for almost half of
the all printing and is performed with metal foil, so called screens in cylinder form. The
printing paste is placed in the center and pushed through the screens using electrostatic
power. Transfer printing is mainly used for fabrics made from polyester and the pattern in
transfer printing is created by applying heat to a paper, which transfers the pattern from the
paper to the fabric.

3.3.1.4 FINISHING

Finishing can be mechanical, thermal chemical processes to change properties related to


visual effects or certain characteristics of the textile depending on the end–use of the product.
Chemical finishing processes are of the higher environmental concern than mechanical due to
the higher pollution potential

Generally the procedural work flow of wet processing looks like the following; first a grey
fabric comes from weaving department leading to singeing machine in order to smooth by
burning the protruding fibers from the surface of the fabric with flame. Then it leads in to
desizing to be size or reduce the size of fabric by adding some desizing agents, next it leads
to scouring & bleaching to remove waxes, oils, colors…etc & to increase whiteness of fabric,
after that enters to mercerization to increase luster, softness etc. next that to dyeing , in dyeing
there are two types of dyeing machine , these are cold pad batch dyeing & thermo sol
dyeing ,so cotton enters to cold pad batch & the polyester cotton part to thermo sol, washing;
after dyeing , the fabric should be wash to remove unfixed dyes and other impurities. Then
proceed to printing in order to add color at designed surface of fabric. Finally leads to
finishing, in finishing the fabric is proceed to finishing department. in finishing there are
chemical & mechanical finish in stenter machine w/c used to wide wise & adjust the length
and send to garment.

Flow Diagram Of Dyed Fabric

Singeing
&desizing

Continuous scouring &


bleaching

washing

drying

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mercerizing

dyeing printing

Stenter

Sanforizin

Inspection &

packing delivery

Figure 3.1:flow diagram of dyed fabric

Flow diagram of white fabric

Singeing &de-
sizing
z

Continuous scouring &


bleaching

Re-bleaching

washing

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drying

mercerizing

Stenter
finishing

Sanforizing

Inspection & rolling

packing delivery

Figure 3.2: flow diagram of white fabric

3.4. The work piece or work task


The work task I execute is:

1 Visiting the overall company’s department or section.

2 Understanding the process of the department, such as processing , knit dyeing


,spinning, weaving, WWT… etc

3 Asking operators & head departments to understand process of the work.

3.5. Procedure
we have used different procedures in performing our work task:

First we visited overall of the company, next we started practices of some laboratory, after we
did laboratory; on shade variation during dyeing, on reactive & dispersesdyes, checking

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colors …etc, so, we could try to observe& understand overall machines & processes of wet
process.

3.6. Good sides


Good sides that we have been performing in our work task ; almost we spend a good time of
performing our work task, b/c we understand the theoretical concept related to practical view
in operation of machines & laboratory. However there are some problems (challenges ).

3.7. Major challenges and measures taken to overcome the challenges


During the time of performing my work task in the company, there were good and bad

things that we have seen from the company& company workers which encourage our to act
strategically to find out the problem of the solutions.

3.7.1. Major challenges


At the first, there is announcement problem that means our don’t know to whom we ask to
get required information from the company. Or we were confuse depending on which
department we concentrate/focus and what we should be understand from the related
department of chemical engineering as a chemical engineering student.

2nd there are some staffs that are not volunteer to give enough information about the company
or about the process they do or operate. e.g. SUPPLY staff is not willing to give full
information about the chemicals that are used in every section.

3rd they have not enough time to give information due to load of their work.

4rthEven though there is library, it has not recent and enough data about the factory's machine
and how they are working.

Due to all of the above problems, we have faced to many challenges and since we don’t get
enough data and we cannot understand the operations of the process, starting from theory up
to practical or theory with related practice. as a result we cannot do good work, so we take
some measures to over come or solve this problem.

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3.7.2. Measures of Over Coming the Problems

we have taken the following measures to solve the challenges or problems that we have faced
during the internship program:
1 we try to solve the problems by informing my problems to human resource manager
and to our company advisor about our confusion and about those who are not
voluntary to give information or data as they can, and

2 by smooth relation with machine operators, shift leaders, production head,…etc. or


with all workers of the company and with our friends by interacting with them
through communication.

3.8. Experience gained In Terms Of Improving Practical Skill


Problem solving approaches and procedure in solving practical problems like waste water
treatment operation. Practical skills that we have gained from the internship program depend
on:

1 Operating of some machines by visiting (observing) them directly & asking operators
at the time of working or when the machines are running. And our try to understand
operational work of the machines like spinning, weaving, wet processing, knitting,
garmenting …etc.

And also we improve our practical skills in laboratory in the following way or
item:

2 On how the color be uniform during the process of dyeing depending on shade
variation

3 On washing, depending on steps of washing & agents adding to washing process

4 On reactive dyes and disperse dyes

5 On auxiliaries …etc

3.9. Experience gained in terms of improving inter personal communication


we improve our interpersonal communication to understand our work task and to express
our idea freely.

Through personal communication we learnt from operators, shift leaders and production
heads by asking them to approach my work.

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3.10. Experience Gained In Terms Of Improving Team Playing Skill

We improve team playing skill from the internship in order to understand & do our
work task, together with our friends taking responsibility in group and role of
individual as group member. Having good team playing work, team work is better than
individual work to solve any obstacles which face throughout the live.
So, we gained so many experiences related to different problems.

3.11. Experience Gained In Terms Of Improving Leadership


we have gained some practices depending on:

1 How we Organize and lead group members

2 How to negotiate when workers fight to each other

3 How to organize workers and allocate for different tasks and duty

Generally, we understand how members of different society can lead.

3.12. Experiencegained in terms of understanding about work ethics


The experience we have gained in terms of work ethics is:

1 Knowing and following proper work ethics related to types of work in order
to do correct work.

2 Loyalty for the work

3 Hard working

4 Punctuality

5. Wearing uniform and safety cloth …etc.

3.13. Experience gained in terms of Entrepreneurship


As a chemical engineering and entrepreneur, knowing the condition of factory on how

it is going on, departmental sections and types of available technologies ,used in the

Factory helps to identify required in the current market level. In addition at the time of

Internship we know the steps and mechanisms they used in the factory based on: To run my
any task with plan and to ward to the targeted one.

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Generally from the internship program we get different constructive practices & knowledge’s
such as how to relate with staff, how we can be communicate to solve problems with related
workers, how I can be relate my theoretical knowledge to practical thing,… etc.

CHAPTER FOUR: PROJECT TITTLE

4 MINIMIZATION OF PRINT PASTE WASTAGE IN ROTARY SCREEN


PRINTING
4.1 INTRODUCTION
Printing is another type of coloration has been described as dyeing in localized, patterned
design textile printing utilizes the same principle of specific dye classes having select fiber
affinities and the general fastness characteristics apply equally to Printing as to dyeing. Dyes
or pigments are used in dyeing are usually in water bath solution. When the same dyes or

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pigments are used for printing, they are must be thickened with gums to prevent from
following of the print design.

Print paste is the composed of pigment and paste which is used to printing of fabric. Printing
is localized coloration in the form of design only a certain area of the substrate gets colored
based on design requirement. Printing is a process of imparting a color to the selected area of
the fabric print paste is pumped in to the screen through flexible pipe.

In almeda textile plc. Campany wastage of print paste is series problem. Our project is
concerned over come this wastage by covering waste is happen on screen. Printed textiles are
being developed for various products and are found on clothing for men, women and children
- e.g. on blouses, shirts, skirts, kurtas, dupattas, dresses, ties, scarves, inner wear and night
wear. Prints are also used at our homes on curtains, upholstery, wallpaper, bed sheets,
cushions, towels, tablecloths, and napkins. In today’s scenario, print are not limited to Textile
surfaces only, but they are also visible on other non - textiles products too.

4.2. Objective of the project

4.2.1. General objective:-

Minimization of print paste waste in rotary screen printing machine.


Production of attractive of design with defines boundaries made by aesthetic arrangement of
motive in one or more colors.

4.2.2.Specific objective:-
 To reduce chemical waste

 To reduce water pollution

 To improve the profit of the company

4.3. Significance of the project

The Company and the customer by cost

minimization. That is for the company by reducing the cost of chemicals which spent during
purchasing and for the customer to balancing of buying cost.

-The company understands how to plan the way of processing and helps to rearrange future
plan.
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-Increase number of customers and more profitable for the company

4.4 LITERATURE REVIEW


Fabric printing is an art form essentially a decorative pattern or design that is applied to
constructed fabric.

Printing is the process of applying color to fabric in a definite pattern or design. In properly
printed fabric the color is bonded with a fiber, so as to resist washing and friction. Textile
printing is related to dyeing but where as in dyeing proper the whole fabric is uniformly
covered with one color. In printing one or more colors are applied to in a certain part only and
sharply defined pattern. Colorant used in printing contains dyes thickened to prevent the color
from spreading by capillary attraction beyond the limits of pattern or design.

 Printing paste is a viscose paste which is made from pigment, thickener, binder, fixing
agent and many of chemical and its help to make desire different color and shape
design on the land of any kind of fabric or cloth.

Methods of Printing

1.Block printing: Block printing is the oldest form of printing where-in a wooden block
with a raised pattern on the surface is dipped into the printing colorant and then pressed
down on to fabric to achieve design on the fabric. In Block printing, the pattern is
generated by repeating the process of block application on the fabric. For a design of four
colours, four separate blocks are developed.

2. Roller Printig in this method can be called machine center part of block printing,
engraved copper cylinder or rollers are used in place of hand carved blocks.the required
designs are engraved on the surface,leaving dye in the engared sections.

Advantege

 large quantity of fabric can be produced using this method of printing.

Disadvantege

 not economical for short run of fabric.


 set up cost of roller,engraving and printing machine is high.

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3.screen printing this style of printing is popular. because of wider scope for

achieving desired results .in this technique ,the printing paste passes through afine
fabric stretched on a wooden or metal frame.
Advantege

 due to flexibility of achieving the desired result


 provide flexibility in setting varied repeat sizes
Disadvantege

 Diffcult to achieve fine line designs


 screen clogging is a common issue
 not advised for large production quantity
A textile pigment print system includes the following parameters

Pigment:-A pigment colorant is a colored organic substrate that is not readily soluble in most
common solvents and imparts coloration to textile substrates only when incorporated with an
adequate binder system

Binder:-A pigment is the latex polymer resin that forms at three dimensional films on the
surface of the fiber. This film contains the dispersion of textile pigment and will act to adhere
the pigment to the surface.

Thickener:-is a high molecular weight prominent which is makes the printing paste perfect
deep and adhesive as it can thick with fabric. This thickener makes strong bond with fiber and
pigments, as a result the print never wipe by high temperature and rubbing.

Emulsifier:-printing paste makes from the powder of pigment or dye stuff. Solvent play the
role to opposition to coagulate the molecule in to the dye stuff.

Fixing agent:-To fix the color into the fibre permanently

Amount of paste chemical for 1000kg paste preparation (binder, thickner, fixing agent and
emulsifier is 100kg, 16kg, 5kg and 5kg respectively). For french mattress fabric. Also amount
of chemicals for 1000kg paste preparation (binder, thickner, fixing agent and emulsifier is
60kg, 16kg,5kg and5kg respectively). For flat bed sheet fabric.

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4.5 Problem of the statement
In Almeda Textile PLC. company wastage of print paste in printing is the main problem. The
reason of this waste is coming from:- operator carelessness. The operator works in printing
department without covering the screen, give more allowance to screen due to the problem of
guider, the operator prepared print paste considering length of fabric and type of fabric, for
mans cannot give enough training to the operator and less supervision to the operators .

4.6. METHODOLOGY
Method of data collection

Our data which are used to work our project is collected in to two ways.

 primary data collection system

 secondary data collection system

Under primary data collection system method are collected the data:-

o by observation of the process

o by working as operator

Orally from:-

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 the chemist

 purchasing head

 the operator

 the section head

Under the secondary data collection system method are collected the data:-

o by searching from the internet

o by referring from the document in chemical store room

4.7. Solution for the problem


Our Project is overcome wastage of printing paste by covering the remaining part of screen
using plastic paper that means the length design on screen is 1.80meter .the fabric width is
1.40meter for French twill mattress and 1.45 flat bed sheet by giving 0.05m allowance from
each width of design screen cover the other part of design screen 0.2m from both side.

Fig.1.over come of waste by covering plastic paper

4.8 Environmental Impact analysis of printing

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It transpires from the discussions in the previous section that there are many sus- tainability
issues in the current printing operations in the textile industry. It is highly chemical-intensive,
a number of eco-unfriendly and non-biodegradable products are being used in these
operations, and a large amount of these chemicals remains unused at the end of operations
which gets discharged along with the process water as effluent. The toxic non-biodegradable
chemicals used in chemical processing are difficult to remove from wastewaters and may
require tertiary and further treatments, and a failure to do so results in environmental
contamination. As most of the textile wet processing operations are now located in
developing or less developed countries where most of the processing is carried out by small-
scale units, which lack the resources to adopt modern expensive technology for proper
treatment of this effluent, it is being discharged into the environment without sufficient
treatment to make it harmless. This has resulted in large-scale environmental damage in the
area around these units.

4.9. Conclusion and Recommendation

4.9.1.Conclusion
Our project is to overcome waste of pigment for different width of fabric and different type
design that means French twill mattress and flatbed sheet .we can calculate waste pigment by
knowing of length of screen roller, width of fabric and length of fabric to be print.
Generally we conclude from that project in the factory gets more waste of pigment. This may
cause more problems in the company as well as in our country economy.

Pigment is composed from binder, thickner, emulsifier, fixing agent, dye stuff and water.
Therefore pigment waste means wastage of all components that are listed in the above .this
may cause reduce quality, cost loosing, environmental pollution, reduce production and
reduce competition. Our project overcomes this problem by covering remaining part of
screen roller from fabric width. By using plastic paper

4.9.2 Recommendation
In today world market place is hold by competition less production is produced by the
problem of quality of product. This problem is the real based on competitive way of
production by good processing. To bring the company in position to good process or produce
high production. Additionally concentrate on specialized process .The following points are
recommended

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Instead of giving more allowance in screen to print a fabric mentaine guide roller

Prepare pigment considering width of fabric rather than length of fabric and design of fabric

The management, Forman’s and operator may have good relationship in their action and
share information about their work, cost of chemical may avoid waste of pigment

During joining of two fabrics in printing unraveled of yarn from main fabric this yarn wind
on to screen at this time cover the required design on screen. This problem is affect quality of
design if the operator is sewing properly removed the problem

During printing of short length of fabric there is wastage of pigment in the pipe and screen
during washing print long length of fabric at time

Reference
1.Mr. Praveen D,Narajan, printing process and machineries
2.Spinning manual
3. Wet processing manual
4. weaving manual
5. Waste water treatment
6. www.vetiver.org/SA-phytoremediation.pdf
7. www.vetiver.com/PRVN-wastewater-bul.pdf
8. www.fao.org/gap/database/gap/files/495-vetiver.pdf
9. ALMEDA TEXTILE factory back ground

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Abbreviation:
ALTEX......................................ALMEDA Textile
DB&G.......................................DUPTY and GENERAL MANAGER
ATC...........................................ALMEDA TRAINING CENTER
EFFORT…………………..ENDOWMENT FUND FOR REHABILITATION OF TIGRAY
PLC……………………………….privat limited company
HR…………………………………HUMAN RESOURCE
QC………………………………….QUALITY CONTROL
GLM………………………………………gram linear meter
GSM……………………………………….. gram squre meter
Dp…………………………………………..dosing pump

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