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# THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY.

## One mark questions:

1) If a line makes angles 900, 1350 and 450 with the x, y and z axes respectively.
Find its direction cosines.
Solution:
Let  = 900,  = 135,  = 450
Let l, m, n are the direction cosines of a line
 l = cos  =cos 900 = 0
m=cos  = cos 1350 =   1 ,
2

## n = cos  = cos 450  1

2

2) If a line has direction ratio’s -18, 12, -4. Then what are its direction cosines.
Solution:
x = - 18 y = 12 z = -4

## r  x2  y 2  z 2   18  12   4  324 144 16  484  22

2 2 2

x 18 9
Direction cosines are l   
r 22 11
y 12 6
m   and
r 22 11
z 4 2
n  
r 22 11

## 3) Find the direction cosines of x, y and z axis.

Solution:
The x – axis makes angles 00, 900, 900 with the positive direction of
x, y and z – axis.
 Direction cosines of x – axis are cos 00, cos 900, cos 900 i.e. 1, 0, 0.
Similarly direction cosines of y axis are cos 900, cos 00, cos 900 i.e. 0, 1, 0
and direction cosines of z – axis are cos 900, cos 900, cos 00, i.e. 0, 0, 1

4) Find the direction cosines of a line which makes equal angles with the co-
ordinate axes.
Solution:
Let , ,  be the angles made by the line with the positive direction of x-axis,
y –axis and z – axis
Also  =  =  and cos2  + cos2  + cos2  = 1
 cos2  + cos2  + cos2  = 1
1 1
3 cos2 = 1  cos2  =  cos  = 
3 3
1 1 1
 The direction cosines are 
,  , 
3 3 3
5) Find the equation of the plane having intercept 3 on the y-axis and parallel to
ZOX plane
Solution:
Y – intercept = b = 3
Any plane parallel to ZOX is y = b
The equation of the plane is y = 3

## 6) Find the distance of the plane 2x – 3y + 4z - 6 = 0 from the origin.

Solution:
Consider 2x – 3y + 4z – 6 = 0
2x – 3y + 4z = 6 – (1)
The Direction ratios are (2, -3, 4) = (x1, y1, z1)
r  22   3  42  4  9  16  29
2

x1
The Direction cosines are l   2
r 29
m  1  3
y
r 29
z
n 1  4
r 29
Divide equation (1) by 29
 2 x 3 y y z  6
29 29 29 29
and is of the form lx + my + nz = d
6
 The distance of the plane from origin is  d 
29

7) Find the equation of the plane which makes intercepts 1, -1 and 2 on the x, y and
z axes respectively.
Solution:
a = x – intercept = 1, b = y – intercept = -1 and c = z – intercept = 2
The equation of the line is
x  y  z 1 i.e. x  y  z 1
a b c 1 1 2

8) Determine the direction cosines of the normal to the plane and the distance from
the origin is x + y + z = 1
Solution:
Consider x + y + z = 1 - (1)
Direction ratio’s of the plane are 1, 1, 1
 r  12 12 12  111  3  l 1 m 1 n 1
3 3 3
Divide equation (1) by 3 x  y  z  1
3 3 3 3
It is of the form lx + my + nz = p
 P = distance from origin = 1
3
9) Find the intercepts cut off by the plane 2x + y – z = 5
Solution:
Consider 2x + y – z = 5
2x  y  z  1 i.e. x  y  z 1
5 5 5 5/ 2 5  5
a = x– intercept = 5/2 b = y – intercept = 5 c = z – intercept = -5

## 10) Show that the planes 2x + y + 3z – 2 = 0 and x – 2y + 5 = 0 are perpendicular.

Solution:
Consider 2x + y + 3z - 2 = 0 i.e.  2x + y + 3z = 2
And x – 2y + 5 = 0 i.e. x – 2y + 0.z = - 5
The normals to the plane are
P1  2i  j  3k and P2  i  2 j
P1. P2  2 1 1 2  30  2  2  0  0
 The planes P1 and P2 are perpendicular

## 11) Show that the planes 2x – y + 3z – 1 = 0 and 2x – y + 3z + 3 = 0 are parallel.

Solution:
Consider 2x – y + 3z – 1 = 0 i.e. 2x – y + 3z = 1
And 2x – y + 3z + 3 = 0 i.e. 2x – y + 3z = -3
 The normals to the plane are
P1  2i  j  3k and P2  2i  j  3k

  1, 1  1  1 and 1  3  1
a1 2 b c

a1 2 b1 1 c2 3
a1 b1 c1
   1
a2 b2 c2
 The planes P1 and P2 are parallel.

12) Find the equation of the plane parallel to x – axis and passing through the origin.
Solution:
The direction ratio’s of x-axis is 1, 0, 0
The equation of the line through origin and parallel to x-axis
x0 y0 z 0 x y z
is   i.e.  
1 0 0 1 0 0

13) Find the vector equation of the straight line passing through (1.2.3) and
perpendicular to the plane r.  i  2 j  5k   9  0
Solution:
The required line passes through (1, 2, 3) and perpendicular to the plane
r. i  2 j  5k   9  0 is
r   i  2 j  3k     i  2 j  5k 
14) Find the equation of the plane passing through (a, b, c) and parallel to the plane
r.  i  j  k   2
Solution:
 
Consider r. i  j  k  2 x  y  z  2
Any plane parallel to the given plane is x + y + z = 
and is pass through (a, b, c) a+b+c=
Hence the equation of the plane parallel to the given plane is
x+y+z=a+b+c

15) Find the distance between the two planes 2x+3y+4z=4 and 4x+6y+8z= 12.
Solution:
Consider 2x + 3y + 4z = 4 - (1)
And 4x + 6y + 8z = 12
i.e. 2x + 3y + 4z – 6 = 0 - (2)

##  Distance from the point to the plane (2) =

2x  3 y  4z  6
22  32  42

 4  6  2  2
4  9 16 29 29

## Two mark questions:

1) Show that the points (2, 3, 4) (-1, -2, 1) and (5, 8, 7) are collinear.
Solution:
A = (2, 3, 4) B = (-1, -2, 1) and C = (5, 8, 7)
Direction ratio’s of the line joining A & B are, 2+1, 3+2, 4-1, i.e. 3, 5, 3
Direction ratio’s of the line joining B & C are -1-5, -2-8, 1-7, i.e. -6, -10, -6
 The direction ratio’s of AB & BC are proportional & B is the common point
of AB & BC
 The points A, B, C are collinear

2) Show that the line through the points (1, -1, 2) (3, 4, -2) is perpendicular to the
line through the points (0, 3, 2) and (3, 5, 6)
Solution:
Let A = (1, -1, 2) B = (3, 4, -2) C = (0, 3, 2) and D = (3, 5, 6)
Direction ratio’s of AB are, a1 = 3-1=2, b1 = 4- (-1) = 4+1=5 & C1 = -2-2 = -4
Direction ratio’s of CD are a2 = 3-0=3, b2 = 5-3=2, C2 = 6-2=4
Now a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 2 (3) + 5 (2) + (-4) 4
= 6+10 - 16 = 0
 AB is perpendicular to CD

3) Show that the line through the points (4, 7, 8) (2, 3, 4) is parallel to the line
through the points (-1, -2, 1) (1, 2, 5).
Solution:
Let A = (4, 7, 8) B = (2, 3, 4) C = (-1, -2, 1) D = (1, 2, 5)
Direction ratio’s of AB are a1 = 2 – 4 = -2, b1 = 3-7=-4, c1 = 4 – 8 = -4
Direction ratio’s of CD are a2 = 1- (-1) =1+1=2, b2 = 2-(-2) = 2+2=4, c2 = 5-1 =4
a1 2 b1 4 c1 4
   1,   1,   1
a2 2 b2 4 c2 2
a1 b1 c1
   Hence AB is parallel to CD
a2 b2 c2

## 4) The Cartesian equation of a line is

x  5  y  4  z  6 . Write its equation in
3 7 2
vector form.
Solution:
Consider
x 5  y  4  z 6
3 7 2
 a = (5, -4, 6) and b = (3, 7, 2) are the direction ratio’s
Vector equation of the line is r  ab
r   5i  4 j  6k     3i  7 j  2k 
   

5) Find the distance of the point (2, 3, -5) from the plane r   i  2 j  2k   9
Solution:
 
Consider r. i  2 j  2k  9 and a  2i  3 j  5k

and N  i  2 j  2k and d  9
a.N  2 1  3 2   5  2  2  6 10  18

N  12  22   2  1 4  4  9  3
2

a.N  d
Distance of a point from the plane = d =  18  9  9  3
N 3 3

6) Find the equation of the plane passing through the line of intersection of the
plane x + y + z = 6 and 2x + 3y + 4z – 5 = 0 and the point (1, 1, 1)
Solution:
Consider x + y + z = 6  x + y + z -6 = 0 and 2x + 3y + 4z – 5 = 0
The equation of the plane passing through the intersection of the two planes
is x + y + z – 6 +  (2x + 3y + 4z – 5) = 0 and is pass through (1, 1, 1)
 1 + 1 + 1 – 6 +  (2+3+4-5) = 0
- 3 + 4 = 0  4 = 3 =¾
3
The equation is (x + y + z – 6) + (2x + 3y + 4z – 5) = 0 (multiply by 4)
4
4x + 4y + 4z – 24 + 3 (2x + 3y + 4z – 5) = 0
4x + 4y + 4z – 24 + 6x + 9y + 12z – 15 = 0
10x + 13y + 16z – 39 = 0
7) Derive the direction cosine of a line passing through two points.
Solution:
Let l, m, n be the direction cosines of a line PQ and the line PQ makes , 
and  with positive directions of x, y and z axes respectively. Draw the
perpendiculars from P and Q to xy – plane to meet at R & S and draw PN
perpendicular to QS.
From the le PNQ, PQN ˆ 
QN ON  OQ Z2  Z1
 cos  
 
PQ PQ PQ
x x y y
Similarly cos  2 1 and cos   2 1
PQ PQ
Where PQ   x2  x1    y2  y1    z2  z1 
2 2 2

## 8) The Cartesian equation of a line is

x 3  y 5  z  6
2 4 2
Find the vector equation of the line
Solution:
Consider
x 3  y 5  z  6
2 4 2
x   3 y  5 z   6
  
2 4 2
 x1 = -3 y1 = 5 z1 = -6 and a = 2 b = 4 and c = 2
 a   x1, y1, z1    3, 5,  6
b   a, b, c    2, 4, 2 are direction ratio’s
 The vector equation of a line is r  a   b
r   3i  5 j  6k     2i  4 j  2k 

9) Find the vector equation of the plane which is at a distance of 7 units from the
origin and normal to the vector 3i + 5j – 6k
Solution:

and n  32  52   6  9  25  36  70
2
let n  3i  5 j  6k
n 3i  5 j  6k  3 5 6 
and nˆ    i j k
n 70  70 70 70 

##  The equation of the plane r .nˆ  d and d  7

 3 5 6 
 r. i j k7
 70 70 70 
10) Find the distance of the point (3, -2, 1) from the plane 2x – y + 2z + 3 = 0
Solution:
Consider 2x – y + 2z + 3 = 0

## ax1  by1  cz1  d 2  3   1 2   2 1  3

 d 
a 2  b2  c 2 22   1  22
2

6  2  2  3 13
 
4 1 4 3

## Three mark questions

1) Find the vector and Cartesian equations of the line that passes through the
points (3, -2, -5) and (3, -2, 6)
Solution:
Let A = (3, -2, -5) B = (3, -2, 6)
Direction ratio’s of AB are, a = 3 – 3 = 0
b = -2 – (-2) = - 2+2 = 0
c = 6 – (-5) = 6 + 5 = 11
 b  ai  bj  ck  0.i  0. j 11k  11k and a  3,  2,  5 = 3i – 2j – 5k
 Vector equation of a line passing through two points is r  a   b
r  3i  2 j  5k   11k 
x  x1 y  y1 z  z1
Cartesian equation of a line is  
a b c
x  3 y   2 z   5 x 3 y  2 z 5
  i.e.  
0 0 11 0 0 11

12 3 4 4 12 3 3 4 12
2) Show that three lines with direction cosine , , ; , , ; , ,
13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13
are mutually perpendicular.
Solution:
L1, L2, L3 are three lines.
 12 3 4 
The direction cosine of the line L1   , , 
  l1, m1, n1 
 13 13 13 
 4 12
3
Direction cosines of the line L2      l2 , m2 , n2 
, ,
 13 13 13 
 3 4 12 
Direction cosines of the line L3   , ,    l3 , m3 , n3 
 13 13 13 
12  4   3  12   4  3  48  36 12
 l1 l2  m1m2  n1n2       0
13  13   13 
 13   13  13  169
 L1 is perpendicular to L2
4  3  12  4  3  12  12  48  36 48  48
 l2 l3  m2m3  n2n3  .   .   0
13  13  13  13  13  13  169 169
 L2 is perpendicular to L3
3  12   4  3  12  4  36 12  48 48  48
 l3 l1  m3m1  n3n1  .     0
13  13   13  
 13  13  13  169 169
 L3 is perpendicular to L1
Hence the three lines are mutually perpendicular

## 3) Find the angle between the pair of lines r  3i  5 j  k   i  j  k and 

r  7i  4k    2i  2 j  2k 
Solution:

Consider r  3i  5 j  k   i  j  k   b1  i  j  k
r  7i  4k    2i  2 j  2k   b2  2i  2 j  2k
 b1.b2  1 2   1 2   1 2   2  2  2  6
b1  12  12  12  3 b2  4  4  4  12  2 3

b1.b2 6 6 6
 cos      1  cos00
b1 b2 2 3. 3 2  3 6
   00

4) Find the equation of the line which passes through the point (1, 2, 3) and is
parallel to the vector 3i + 2j – 2k, both in vector form and Cartesian form.
Solution:
Let a  1, 2, 3  i  2 j  3k and b  3i  2 j  2k
The vector equation of the line is r  a   b
 r  i  2 j  3k    3i  2 j  2k 
Let r be the position vector of the point and r  xi  yj  zk
 xi  yj  zk  i  2 j  3k    3i  2 j  2k 
 i  2 j  3k  3 i  2 j  2k
 1 3  i   2  2  j  3  2  k
 x  1  3 2  2  y and z  3  2
x 1  3 2  y  2 z  3  2
x 1 y2 z 3
   
3 2 2
x 1 y  2 z  3
   is the equation of the line in Cartesian form.
3 2 2
5) Find the distance between parallel lines r  i  2 j  4k   2i  3 j  6k and  
r  3i  3 j  5k    2i  3 j  6k 
Solution:
Consider r  i  2 j  4k    2i  3 j  6k 
And r  3i  3 j  5k    2i  3 j  6k 
 a1  i  2 j  4k b1  2i  3 j  6k
and a2  3i  3 j  5k b2  2i  3 j  6k
 b1  b2  The lines are parallel
 b  b1  b2  2i  3 j  6k and b  22  32  62
 a2  a1  2i  j 10k  4  9  36  49  7
i j k
  
b  a 2  a1  2 3 6  i  3  6  j  2 12  k  2  6  9i 14 j  4k
2 1 1

b  a2  a1    9   4   4
2 2 2
 81 196  16  293

##  Distance between parallel lines = d =

b  a 2  a1  293
b 7

x  3 y 1 z  3
6) Find the angle between the pair of lines  
3 5 4
x 1 y  4 z  5
and  
1 1 2
Solution:
x  3 y 1 z  3
Consider    1  Direction ratios of b1   3, 5, 4 
3 5 4
x 1 y  4 z  5
and     2 Direction ratio ' s of b2  1, 1, 2 
1 1 2
b1.b2  3 1  5 1  4  2   3  5  8  16

b1  32  52  42  9  25  16  50  25  2  5 2

b 2  12  12  22  1  1  4  6

b1.b 2 16 16 16 16 8
 cos       
b1 b 2 5 2 6 5 12 5 4  3 5  2 3 5 3

 8 
   cos 1  
5 3
7) Find the shortest distance between the lines
x 1 y 1 z 1 x 3 y 5 z 7
  and  
7 6 1 1 2 1
Solution:
x 1 y 1 z 1 x 3 y 5 z 7
Consider   and  
7 6 1 1 2 1
x   1 y   1 z   1
i.e.    a 2  3i  5 j  7k
7 6 1
 a1  i  j  k b2  i  2 j  k
b1  7i  6 j  k
a2  a1  3i  5 j  7k  i  j  k  4i  6 j  8k
i j k
b1  b 2  7 6 1  i  6  2   j  7  1  k  14  6 
1 2 1
 4i  6 j  8k

## b1  b2   4   6    8  16  36  64  116

2 2 2

 Shortest distance = d 
b  b  . a
1 2 2  a1   16  36  64
b1  b 2 116

116
  116  4  29  2 29
116

8) Find the equation of the planes passing through three points (1, 1, 0)
(1, 2, 1) and (-2, 2, -1)
Solution:
Let a = (1, 1, 0) b = (1, 2, 1) and c = (-2, 2, -1) and r  xi  yj  zk
r  a   x  1 i   y  1 j   z  0  k
AB  b  a   0, 1, 1 and AC  c  a   3, 1,  1

## The vector equation of the plane is  r  a  .  AB  AC   0

x 1 y 1 z
0 1 1 0
3 1 1
(x-1) (-1-1) – (y-1) (0+3) + z (0 + 3) = 0
-2(x-1) -3 (y-1) + 3z = 0
-2x + 2 – 3y + 3 + 3z = 0
-2x – 3y + 3z + 5 = 0
2x + 3y - 3z - 5 = 0
 2x + 3y – 3z = 5 is the equation of the plane
9) Find the angle between the pair of lines given by r  3i  2 j  4k    i  2 j  2k 
and r  5i  2 j    3i  2 j  6k  .
Solution: b1  i  2 j  2k b2  3i  2 j  6k

b1.b 2 3  4  12 19  19 
 cos       cos 1  
b1 b 2 9 49 21  21 
10) Prove that if a plane has intercepts a, b, c and is at a distance of p units from the
1 1 1 1
origin then    2
a2 b2 c2 p
Solution:
Let a, b, c, are the intercepts of the plane
x y z
And the equation is   1  1
a b c
 P = The distance of the plane (1) from (0, 0, 0)

0  0  0 1 1 1
P  
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
   2 2  
a 2 b2 c 2 2
a b c a 2 b2 c2
1 1 1 1 1
P2   2 2 2 2
1 1 1 p a b c
 
a 2 b2 c 2

## Five mark questions:

1) Derive the equation of the line in space passing through a point and parallel to a
vector, both in the vector form and Cartesian form.
Solution:

## Let a be the position vector of the given point A. w.r. to

the origin O of the rectangular co-ordinate system. Let l
be the line which passes through the point A and is
parallel to the given vector b . Let r be the position
vector of an arbitrary point P on the line. Then AP is
parallel to b .
i.e. AP   b where  is a real number
OP  OA   b
r a  b
 r  a   b is the vector equation of the line
Let A = (x1, y1, z1) be the co-ordinates of the given point and the direction ratio’s of the
line are a, b, c.
Let P = (x, y, z) be the co-ordinate of any point
Then r  xi  yj  zk and a  x1i  y1 j  z1k and b  ai  bj  ck and r  a  b
xi + yj + zk = (x1i + y1j + z1k) +  (ai + bj + ck)
= x1i + y1j + z1k +  ai + bj + ck
= (x1 + a) i + (y1 + b) j + (z1 + c) k
Equating the coefficients of i, j and k we get
x = x1 + a y = y1 + b and z = z1 + c
these are the parametric equations of a line
 x – x1 = a y – y1 = b and z – z1 = c
x  x1 y  y1 z  z1
   
a b c
x  x1 y  y1 z  z1
   . This is the Cartesian equation of the line.
a b c
2) Derive the equation of a line in space passing through two given points both
invector form and Cartesian form.
Solution:

## Let a & b & r are the position vectors of the two

points A (x1, y1, z1) is (x2, y2, z2) and p (x, y, z)
respectively.

AP  OP  OA  r  a and AB  OB  OA  b  a

## If the point p lien on the line AB if and only if

AP and AB are collinear.

##  AP   AB i.e. r a ba  

  
r  a   b  a is the vector equation of the line passing through two points.

## Let r  xi  yj  zk , a  x1i  y1 j  z1k b  x2i  y2 j  z2k & r  a   b  a  

xi  yj  2k  x1i  y1 j  z1k    x2  x1  i   y2  y1  j   z2  z1  k 
  x1    x2  x1   i   y1    y2  y1   j   z1    z2  z1   k
 x  x1    x2  x1  , y  y1    y2  y1  & z  z1    z2  z1 
x  x1    x2  x1  y  y1    y2  y1  z  z1    z2  z1 
x  x1 y  y1 z  z1
   
x2  x1 y2  y1 z2  z1

x  x1 y  y1 z  z1
   is the Cartesian equation of the line passing through
x2  x1 y2  y1 z2  z1
two points.

3) Derive the shortest distance between two skew lines both in vector form and
Cartesian form.
Proof:

## Let l1 and l2 be the skew lines

Let r  a1   b1 and r  a2   b2 be the skew lines. Let s and T are any two points
on l1 and l2 with position vectors a1 and a 2 respectively.
Then the magnitude of the shortest distance is equal to the projection of ST along the
direction of a line.
If PQ is the shortest distance between the lines l1 and l2 then it is perpendicular to
both b1 and b2 and n̂ is the unit vector along PQ .
b1  b 2
 nˆ  let  be the angle between ST and PQ
b1  b 2

PQ . ST
Then PQ  ST cos  and cos   but PQ  d and ST  a2  a1
PQ ST

cos  

d nˆ a 2  a1 
d . ST

 ST cos  
b  b  a
1 2 2  a1 
b1  b 2

b  b  a
1 2 2  a1 
b1  b 2

## is the Shortest distance of skew lines in vector form.

x  x1 y  y1 z  z1 x  x2 y  y2 z  z2
Let l1 :   and l2    be the equations of two
a1 b1 c1 a2 b2 c2
skew lines in Cartesian form.
The shortest distance between two skew lines is
x2  x1 y2  y1 z2  z1

d where   a1 b1 c1
 b1c2  b2c1    c1a2  c2a1    a1b2  a2b1 
2 2 2
a2 b2 c2

4) Derive the equation of the plane in normal form both in the vector form and
Cartesian form.
Solution:

## Consider a plane whose perpendicular distance from the origin is d. If ON is the

normal from the origin to the plane and n̂ is the unit normal vector ON
Then ON  d .nˆ
Let P be any point on the plane then NP is perpendicular to ON
 NP.ON  0  1
Let r be the position vector of the point P
Then NP  OP  ON  r  d .nˆ
From equation (1)  r  d .nˆ  .d .nˆ  0 But d  0

 
 r  d .nˆ nˆ  0

##  r.nˆ  d . nˆ .nˆ  0 But nˆ.nˆ  1.1  1

 r.nˆ  d  0
 r.nˆ  d is the equation of the plane vector form
Let l, m, n be the direction cosines of n̂
Then n̂  li  mj  nk and OP  r xi  yj  zk
 r.nˆ  d
 xi  yj  zk  . li  mj  nk   d
Therefore lx + my + nz = d is the Cartesian equation of the plane in normal form

5) Derive the condition for the coplanarity of two lines in space both in the vector
form and Cartesian form.
Solution:
Let the given lines be r  a1  b1 and r  a2  b2   2
The line (1) passes through the point A with the position vector a1 and parallel to b1
and the line (2) passes through the point B with the position vector a 2 and parallel to
b2
Thus AB  B  A  a2  a1
The given lines are coplanar if and only if AB is perpendicular to b1  b2
i.e. AB.  b1  b2   0

a 2  
 a1 . b1  b2  0 is condition for the coplanarity of two lines in vector form.

Let A = (x1, y1, z1) and B = (x2, y2, z2) be the co-ordinates of the points A and B
respectively. Let a1, b1, c1 and a2, b2, c2 be the direction ratio’s of b1 and b2
respectively.
Then AB  B  A   x2  x1  i   y2  y1  j   z2  z1  k
b1  a1i  b1 j  c1k and b2  a2i  b2 j  c2k
 The given lines are coplanar if AB.  b1  b2   0
x2  x1 y2  y1 z2  z1
a1 b1 c1  0
a2 b2 c2
is condition for coplanarity of two lines in cartestion form.