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1.

SWINBURNE’S TEST

AIM: To pre-determine the efficiency of a D.C shunt machine by performing


Swinburne’s test.

APPARATUS:
ITEM RANGE NO. TYPE
Voltmeter 0-300V 1 DC
Ammeter 0-2A 1 DC
Ammeter 0-1A 1 DC
Rheostat 170Ω,1.4A 1
Tachometer 1
DC MACHINE 2 HP,230V,1500RPM 1 DC

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

NOTE:

1. Motor field rheostat should be in minimum position.


2. Armature rheostat should be in maximum position.
THEORY:
This test is to find out the efficiency of the machine. It is a simple indirect method in
which losses are determined separately and from their knowledge, efficiency at any
desired load can be predetermined. The only test needed is no-load test. This test
cannot be performed on DC series motor. The machine is run as a no load shunt motor
at rated speed and with a rated terminal voltage. However, this test is applicable to
those machines in which flux is practically constant.

In this method of testing no load losses are measured separately and eventually we
can determine the efficiency. The circuit connection for Swinburne’s test shown below.
The speed of the machine is adjusted to the rated speed with the help of shunt regulator
as shown in figure.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.

2. Run the machine as a motor at no-load.

3. Adjust the voltage applied to the armature to get rated voltage.

6. Adjust the field rheostat till the motor attains the rated speed.

7. Measure the field voltage and current.

8. Measure the armature resistance.

OBSERVATIONS:

SL. NO. VOLTAGE (V) Ia (A) If (A)


CALCULATIONS:

Calculation of Efficiency:

Let, I0 is the no load current (it can be measured by ammeter A1)


Ish is the shunt field current (it can be measured by ammeter A2)

Then, no load armature current =


Also let, V is the supply voltage. Therefore, No load power input = VI 0 watts.

In Swinburne’s test no load power input is only required to supply the losses. The
losses occur in the machine mainly are:
 Iron losses in the core
 Friction and windings losses
 Armature copper loss.
Since the no load mechanical output of the machine is zero in Swinburne’s test, the
no load input power is only used to supply the losses.

The value of armature copper loss =


Here, Ra is the armature resistance.

Now, no to get the constant losses we have to subtract the armature copper loss
from the no load power input.

Then,
After calculating the no load constant losses now we can determine the efficiency at
any load.

Let, I is the load current at which we have to calculate the efficiency of the machine.

Then, armature current (Ia) will be (I – Ish), when the machine is motoring.
And , when the machine is generating.
Calculation of Efficiency When the Machine is Motoring on Load:

Power input = VI

Armature copper loss,

Constant losses,

∴ Efficiency of the motor:

Calculation of Efficiency When the Machine is Generating on Load:

Power input = VI

Armature copper loss,

Constant losses,

∴ Efficiency of the generator:

CONCLUSION:

1. The power required to conduct the test is very less as compare to the direct
loading test.
2. Constant losses are calculated from this method are used to compute the
efficiency of a dc machine as a generator and as a motor without actually
loading it.
PRECAUTION:

1. Connection should be tight.


2. Reading should be taken carefully.
3. Don’t touch live wires.
4. The field rheostate should be kept at minimum resistance position.
5. There should be no-load at the time of starting the experiment.

QUESTIONS:

1. Which losses can be identify from Swinburne’s test ?


(a) No-load core loss
(b) Windage and friction loss
(c) No-load and windage and friction loss
(d) Stray load loss
2. While carrying out Swinburne test at rated armature voltage motor will run at
…………….
(a) speed equal to rated speed
(b) speed greater than rated speed
(c) speed less than greater speed
(d) can run anywhere
3. What is the purpose of performing retardation test after Swinburne’s test ?
(a) to find stray load loss
(b) to find variable losses
(c) to seperate out windage and friction losses
(d) to find shunt field loss
4. If field of dc shunt motor gets opened while the motor is running ?
(a) A speed of motor will be reduced
(b) Motor will attain dangerously high speed
(c) Armature current will draw
(d) Armature will oscillate about original speed as the mean speed
5. What are the advantages of Swinburne test ?
6. What are the disadvantages of Swinburne’s test ?