Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
26. White travelling back to his residence in the car, Dr. Pathak was caught up in a
thunderstorm. It became very dark. He stopped driving the car and waited for thunderstorm to stop. Suddenly he noticed a child walking alone on the road. He asked the boy to come inside the car till the thunderstorm stopped. Dr. Pathak dropped the boy at his residence. The body insisted that Dr. Pathak should meet his parents. The parents expressed their gratitude to Dr. Pathak for his concern for safety of the child. Answer the following questions based on the above information:
(a) 
State Kirchhoff's rules for an electric network. Using Kirchhoff's rules, obtain the balance condition in terms of the resistances of four arms of Wheatstone bridge. 

(b) 
In the meterbridge experimental set up, shown in the figure, the null point ‘D’ is obtained at a distance of 40 cm from end A of the meterbridge wire. If a resistance of 10 is connected in series with R _{1} , null point is obtained at AD = 60 cm. Calculate the values of R _{1} and R _{2} . 

Ans. 
(a) 
Working principle of Potentiometer: 
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
When a constant current is passed through a wire of uniform area of cross section, the potential drop across any portion of the wire is directly proportional to the length of that portion.
Applications of Potentiometer for comparing emf’s of two cells:
The following Figure shows an application of the potentiometer to compare the emf of two cells of emf E _{1} and E _{2}
From equations (1) and (2),
E
1
E
2
l l
1
2
(3)
Thus we can compare the emf’s of any two sources. Generally, one of the cells is chosen as a standard cell whose emf is known to a high degree of accuracy. The emf of the other cell is then calculated from Eq. (3).
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
(b) 
(i) 
The emf of the cell connected in main circuit may not be more than the emf of the primary cells whose emfs are to be compared. 
(ii) 
The positive ends of all cells are not connected to the same end of the wire. 
OR
(a)
Kirchhoff’s First Law − Junction Rule
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
R _{1} , R _{2} , R _{3} , and R _{4} are the four resistances.
Galvanometer (G) has a current I _{g} flowing through it at balanced condition,
I _{g} = 0
Applying junction rule at B,
∴ I _{2} = I _{4}
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
Applying junction rule at D,
∴ I _{1} = I _{3}
Applying loop rule to closed loop ADBA,
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
Ans.
(a)
Consider a rectangular loop ABCD carrying current I.
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
Torque, τ =
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
= I(ab)B
τ = BIA
If there are ‘n’ such turns the torque will be nIAB
where, b → Breadth of the rectangular coil
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
Putting δ = 90 ^{0}
B _{H} = 0
(ii) For a compass needle align vertical at a certain place, angle of dip,
δ = 90 ^{0} .
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
Magnifying power, when final image is at infinity:
The magnification produced by the compound microscope is the product of the magnifications produced by the eyepiece and objective.
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
Where, M _{e} and M _{0} are the magnifying powers of the eyepiece and objective respectively.
If u _{0} is the distance of the object from the objective and v _{0} is the distance
of the image from the objective, then the magnifying power of the
objective is
M
0
h'
h
L
f
0
Using, tan
h
f
0
h'
L
Where, h, h' are object and image heights respectively and f _{0} is the focal length of the objective.
Correction − In order to correct the eye for this defect, a concave lens of suitable focal length is placed close to the eye so that the parallel ray of light from an object at infinity after refraction through the lens appears to come from the far point of the myopic eye.
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
Farsightedness or Hypermetropia − A person suffering from hypermetropia can see distant objects clearly, but cannot see nearby objects.
Hypermetropic eye:
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
The rays from different points on the incident wave front will take the same time to reach the corresponding points on the refracted wave front
Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set2
i.e., t given by equation (iv) is independent of AK. It will happen so,
_{i}_{f} sin c
i
sin
r
0
sin sin
r i
c
sin sin
r i
This is the Snell’s law for refraction of light.
(b)
i.
The frequency of reflected and refracted light remains same as the frequency of incident light because frequency only depends on the source of light. Since the frequency remains same, hence there is no reduction in energy.
Mult mai mult decât documente.
Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.
Anulați oricând.