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Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

26. White travelling back to his residence in the car, Dr. Pathak was caught up in a

thunderstorm. It became very dark. He stopped driving the car and waited for thunderstorm to stop. Suddenly he noticed a child walking alone on the road. He asked the boy to come inside the car till the thunderstorm stopped. Dr. Pathak dropped the boy at his residence. The body insisted that Dr. Pathak should meet his parents. The parents expressed their gratitude to Dr. Pathak for his concern for safety of the child. Answer the following questions based on the above information:

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Why is it safer to sit inside a car during a thunderstorm?
Which two values are displayed by Dr. Pathak in his action?
Which values are reflected in parents' response to Dr. Pathak?
Give an example of similar action on your part in the past from everyday
life.
Ans.
(a)
It is safer to be inside a car during thunderstorm because the car acts like a
Faraday cage. The metal in the car will shield you from any external
electric fields and thus prevent the lightning from traveling within the car.
(b)
Awareness and Humanity
(c)
Gratitude and obliged
(d)
I once came across to a situation where a puppy was struck in the middle
of a busy road during rain and was not able go cross due to heavy flow, so
I quickly rushed and helped him.
Note: For this part students must share their own experience.
27.
(a)
State the working principle of a potentiometer. With the help of the circuit
diagram, explain how a potentiometer is used to compare the emf's of two
primary cells. Obtain the required expression used for comparing the emfs.
(b)
Write two possible causes for one sided deflection in a potentiometer
experiment.
OR
 (a) State Kirchhoff's rules for an electric network. Using Kirchhoff's rules, obtain the balance condition in terms of the resistances of four arms of Wheatstone bridge. (b) In the meterbridge experimental set up, shown in the figure, the null point ‘D’ is obtained at a distance of 40 cm from end A of the meterbridge wire. If a resistance of 10 is connected in series with R 1 , null point is obtained at AD = 60 cm. Calculate the values of R 1 and R 2 . Ans. (a) Working principle of Potentiometer:

Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

When a constant current is passed through a wire of uniform area of cross- section, the potential drop across any portion of the wire is directly proportional to the length of that portion.

Applications of Potentiometer for comparing emf’s of two cells:

The following Figure shows an application of the potentiometer to compare the emf of two cells of emf E 1 and E 2

E 1 , E 2 are the emf of the two cells.
1, 2, 3 form a two way key.
When 1 and 3 are connected, E 1 is connected to the galvanometer (G).
Jokey is moved to N 1 , which is at a distance l 1 from A, to find the
balancing length.
Applying loop rule to AN 1 G31A,
Φ l 1 + 0 − E 1 = 0
(1)
Where, Φ is the potential drop per unit length
Similarly, for E 2 balanced against l 2 (AN 2 ),
Φ l 2 + 0 −E 2 = 0
(2)

From equations (1) and (2),

E

1

E

2

l l

1

2

(3)

Thus we can compare the emf’s of any two sources. Generally, one of the cells is chosen as a standard cell whose emf is known to a high degree of accuracy. The emf of the other cell is then calculated from Eq. (3).

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 (b) (i) The emf of the cell connected in main circuit may not be more than the emf of the primary cells whose emfs are to be compared. (ii) The positive ends of all cells are not connected to the same end of the wire.

OR

(a)

Kirchhoff’s First Law − Junction Rule

The algebraic sum of the currents meeting at a point in an electrical circuit is
always zero.
Let the currents be I 1 , I 2 I 3 , and I 4
Convention:
Current towards the junction − positive
Current away from the junction − negative
I 3 + (− I 1 ) + (− I 2 ) + (− I 4 ) = 0
Kirchhoff’s Second Law − Loop Rule
In a closed loop, the algebraic sum of the emfs is equal to the algebraic sum of the
products of the resistances and current flowing through them.

Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

For closed part BACB, E 1 − E 2 = I 1 R 1 + I 2 R 2 − I 3 R 3
For closed part CADC, E 2 = I 3 R 3 + I 4 R 4 + I 5 R 5
Wheatstone Bridge:
The Wheatstone Bridge is an arrangement of four resistances as shown in the
following figure

R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , and R 4 are the four resistances.

Galvanometer (G) has a current I g flowing through it at balanced condition,

I g = 0

Applying junction rule at B,

I 2 = I 4

Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

Applying junction rule at D,

I 1 = I 3

Applying loop rule to closed loop ADBA,

Applying loop rule to closed loop CBDC,
From equations (1) and (2),
This is the required balanced condition of Wheatstone Bridge.
(b) Considering both the situations and writing them in the form of equations
Let R' be the resistance per unit length of the potential meter wire,

Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

28.
(a)
Derive the expression for the torque on a rectangular current carrying loop
suspended in a uniform magnetic field.
(b)
A proton and a deuteron having equal momenta enter in a region of a
uniform magnetic field at right angle to the direction of a the field. Depict
their trajectories in the field.
OR
(a)
A small compass needle of magnetic moment ‘m’ is free to turn about an
axis perpendicular to the direction of uniform magnetic field ‘B’. The
moment of inertia of the needle about the axis is ‘I’. The needle is slightly
disturbed from its stable position and then released. Prove that it executes
simple harmonic motion. Hence deduce the expression for its time period.
(b)
A compass needle, free to turn in a vertical plane orients itself with its axis
vertical at a certain place on the earth. Find out the values of (i) horizontal
component of earth's magnetic field and (ii) angle of dip at the place.

Ans.

(a)

Consider a rectangular loop ABCD carrying current I.

Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

Case I - The rectangular loop is placed such that the uniform magnetic
field B is in the plane of loop.
No force is exerted by the magnetic field on the arms AD and BC.
Magnetic field exerts a force F 1 on arm AB.
∴F 1 = IbB
Magnetic field exerts a force F 2 on arm CD.
∴F 2 = IbB = F 1
Net force on the loop is zero.
The torque on the loop rotates the loop in anti-clockwise direction.

Torque, τ =

Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

= I(ab)B

τ = BIA

If there are ‘n’ such turns the torque will be nIAB

where, b → Breadth of the rectangular coil

a → Length of the rectangular coil
A = ab → Area of the coil
Case II - Plane of the loop is not along the magnetic field, but makes angle
with it.
Angle between the field and the normal is θ.
Forces on BC and DA are equal and opposite and they cancel each other
as they are collinear.
Force on AB is F 1 and force on CD is F 2 .
F 1 = F 2 = IbB
Magnitude of torque on the loop as in the figure:

Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

(b) We know, Lorentz force, F = Bqv sinθ
where θ = angle between velocity of particle and magnetic field
= 90 o
So, Lorentz force, F = Bqv
Thus the particles will move in circular path.
mv
2
mv
Bqv
 
r
r
Bq
Let m p = mass of proton, m d = mass of deuteron, v p = velocity of proton and
v d = velocity of deuteron
The charge of proton and deuteron are equal.
Given that m p v p = m d v d
m
p v
p
r

1
p
Bq
m
d v
d

2
r d
Bq
As
 
1 and
2 are equal, so r
r
r
p
d
Thus, the trajectory of both the particles will be same.

Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

Or,
The torque on the needle is = m × B
In magnitude  = mB sin
Here  is restoring torque and  is the angle between m and B.
d 2
I
 
mB
sin
Therefore, in equilibrium
dt
2
Negative sign with mB sin implies that restoring torque is in opposition to
deflecting torque. For small values of in radians, we approximate sin =  and
d 2
I

mB
get
dt
2
d
2  mB

Or,
dt
2 I
This represents a simple harmonic motion. The square of the angular frequency is
I
T  2
 2 = mB/J and the time period is,
mB
(b)
(i) As, Horizontal component of earth’s magnetic field, B H = B cosδ

Putting δ = 90 0

B H = 0

(ii) For a compass needle align vertical at a certain place, angle of dip,

δ = 90 0 .

Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

29.
(a)
Draw a ray diagram showing the image formation by a compound
microscope. Hence obtained expression for total magnification when the
image is formed at infinity.
(b)
Distinguish between myopia and hypermetropia. Show diagrammatically
how these defects can be corrected.
OR
(a)
(b)
State Huygen's principle. Using this principle draw a diagram to show
how a plane wave front incident at the interface of the two media gets
refracted when it propagates from a rarer to a denser medium. Hence
verify Snell's law of refraction.
When monochromatic light travels from a rarer to a denser medium,
explain the following, giving reasons:
(i)
Is the frequency of reflected and refracted light same as the frequency
of incident light?
(ii)
Does the decrease in speed imply a reduction in the energy carried by
Ans.
(a)
light wave?
A compound microscope consists of two convex lenses co-axially
separated by some distance. The lens nearer to the object is called the
objective. The lens through which the final image is viewed is called the
eyepiece.

Magnifying power, when final image is at infinity:

The magnification produced by the compound microscope is the product of the magnifications produced by the eyepiece and objective.

Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

Where, M e and M 0 are the magnifying powers of the eyepiece and objective respectively.

If u 0 is the distance of the object from the objective and v 0 is the distance

of the image from the objective, then the magnifying power of the

objective is

M

0

h'

h

L

f

0

   

Using, tan   

h

f

0

    

h'

L

    

Where, h, h' are object and image heights respectively and f 0 is the focal length of the objective.

L is the tube length i.e. the distance between the second focal point of the
objective and the first focal point of the eyepiece.
D
M
When the final image is at infinity,
e
f
e
L
D
M
M
M
Magnifying power of compound microscope,
0
e
f 0
f
e
(b)
 Nearsightedness or Myopia − A person suffering from myopia can see
only nearby objects clearly, but cannot see the objects beyond a certain
distance clearly.
Myopic eye:

Correction − In order to correct the eye for this defect, a concave lens of suitable focal length is placed close to the eye so that the parallel ray of light from an object at infinity after refraction through the lens appears to come from the far point of the myopic eye.

Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

Farsightedness or Hypermetropia − A person suffering from hypermetropia can see distant objects clearly, but cannot see nearby objects.

Hypermetropic eye:

Correction − To correct this defect, a convex lens of suitable focal length
is placed close to the eye so that the rays of light from an object placed at
the point N after refraction through the lens appear to come from the near
point
of the hypermetropic eye.
OR
(a) Huygens’ Principle:
 Each point on the primary wave front acts as a source of secondary
wavelets, sending out disturbance in all directions in a similar manner
as the original source of light does.
 The new position of the wave front at any instant (called secondary
wave front) is the envelope of the secondary wavelets at that instant.
Refraction On The Basis Of Wave Theory

Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

 Consider any point Q on the incident wave front.
 Suppose when disturbance from point P on incident wave front reaches
point on the refracted wave front, the disturbance from point Q
reaches Q' on the refracting surface XY.
 Since represents the refracted wave front, the time taken by light
to travel from a point on incident wave front to the corresponding
point on refracted wave front should always be the same. Now, time
QK
KQ
'
t
( i
)
taken by light to go from Q to Q' will be
c 
In right-angled ΔAQK, ∠QAK = i
∴ QK = AK sin i … (ii)
Q P K  r and KQ  KP
'
'
'
'
In right-angled ΔP'Q'K,
sinr …. (iii)
Substituting (ii) and (iii) in equation (i),

The rays from different points on the incident wave front will take the same time to reach the corresponding points on the refracted wave front

Class XII_Delhi_Physics_Set-2

i.e., t given by equation (iv) is independent of AK. It will happen so,

if sin c

i

sin

r

0

 

sin sin

r i

  c 

sin sin

r i

This is the Snell’s law for refraction of light.

(b)

i.

The frequency of reflected and refracted light remains same as the frequency of incident light because frequency only depends on the source of light. Since the frequency remains same, hence there is no reduction in energy.

ii.