Sunteți pe pagina 1din 16

MARCH 2019

MARCH 2019 Supplement to Periodicals Publication Inside: Machine learning basics p4 Edge data gathering p10

Supplement to Periodicals Publication

Inside: Machine learning basics p4 Edge data gathering p10
Inside:
Machine learning basics p4
Edge data gathering p10
ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT
ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT
ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Rethink the organization’s structure Cyber-physical environments will change what managers do By

Rethink the organization’s structure

Cyber-physical environments will change what managers do

By Jonathan Gross

A
A

ccording to a 2019 white paper by the World Eco- nomic Forum (WEC) and

McKinsey & Co., manufacturers adopting Industry 4.0 can scale their businesses two ways:

• Though operational excellence and production system innova- tions; or

• By entering new markets.

This thesis is supported by other McKinsey research. According to a 2016 study, nearly 90 percent of surveyed companies believe that Industry 4.0 innovations would help them improve their competitive posi- tions and operational effectiveness. Eighty percent of U.S. companies think Industry 4.0 would allow new competitors from other industries to enter their markets.

What is Industry 4.0

The term “Industry 4.0”—or the Fourth Industrial Revolution—refers to self-optimizing cyber-physical industrial environments. In these environments, systems collect data, create analytical models, make deci- sions and optimize production. The result may shift the socioeconomic fabric much as did preceding indus- trial revolutions. The first industrial revolution, for

example, was born of innovations relating to steam power, leading to rapid factory development and as- sociated production efficiencies. This productivity gain supported growing consumerism, urbanization, educa- tion, employment and, in short, capitalism. The second industrial revolution

reflected widespread industrializa- tion driven by mass production, steel and iron works, electrification and widespread rail transport adoption.

These innovations lead to modern business management practices and integrated supply chains, increas- ing division of labor into skilled and unskilled categories, and for better or worse, widespread adoption of tariffs to protect national economies. The Third Industrial Revolution— the digital revolution—followed advances in semiconductor technolo- gies that enabled personal comput- ing, digital record keeping, cellular phone technologies and the internet. The result was interconnectedness, globalization and business models such as outsourcing and e-commerce. Building upon its predecessors, the latest, fourth revolutionary iteration is catalysed by cloud computing, the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), and Big Data. Cloud enables economical storage of large datasets. Analytics and artificial intelligence (AI) rapidly analyze those large datasets, uncover new relationships and surface new in- sights. Insights provide decision-mak-

ers with timely and relevant decision- supporting information, as well as optimized, connected operations.

Will jobs be destroyed?

The fear is understandable that robotic process automation will be a net destroyer of good manufacturing jobs. Leading experts suggest other- wise. According to the WEC Forum and McKinsey whitepaper, Industry 4.0 should be an “injector of human capital… transforming work to make it less repetitive, more interesting, diversified and productive.” Industry 4.0 is an opportunity to shift low-value tasks to systems and machines. It’s an opportunity to de- mocratize decision-making based on the availability of timely analysis. The following real-world scenario shows a company using self-optimiz- ing systems to improve its competi- tive positioning. The company’s primary product is a grain-based fuel. Through its bulk production process, the company produces various coproducts and by- products. Coproduct and by-product yield vary relative to primary product yield. And, all yield varies based on production parameters relating to speed, humidity, temperature, vibra- tion, weather conditions, system pressures and raw material grades, among others. To truly optimize for profit, produc - tion systems would need continuous adjustment. Without information

ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT
ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT
ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT technology and automation, continu- ous optimization wasn’t cost effec- tive. The incremental cost

technology and automation, continu- ous optimization wasn’t cost effec- tive. The incremental cost of staff would exceed the incremental margin benefits. We then modelled another sce- nario, one where software systems crunch the data and make micro- changes to production processing controls. The business case was supportive. While initial technology acquisition and implementation costs were high, subsequent costs to main- tain and optimize the system would be low, and certainly lower than the

annually recurring salary costs in the first scenario. The model demonstrated a pay- back within a few years, along with a significant return-on-investment over

a 10-year forecast period.

Pillars of Industry 4.0

The framers of Industry 4.0 had this type of scenario in mind when the concept was introduced in 2011.

Industry 4.0 was conceived as part of

a German government initiative to

counter threats to its manufacturing

industries by China and other low-cost producing nations. By computerizing manufacturing, Germany protects its position as a manufacturing power- house notwithstanding its high-wage labor environment. The authors proposed a frame- work based on smart, cyber-physical systems that connect equipment, software and people. The framework

is based on the following four pillars:

1. Interconnection. The systems

connect people, machines, sensors, devices and software through IIoT and allow communication among them.

2. Information transparency.

Data collected through interconnec- tion must be available to operators for decision-making.

2

| MARCH 2019

IIoT For Engineers

3. Technical assistance. The intent

is twofold: a) to shift low-value tasks from people to cyber-physical systems,

and b) for systems to arm personnel with analyses and information for timely, effective decisions.

4. Decentralized decisions. Sys-

tems make decisions and take actions autonomously.

In one common approach to In- dustry 4.0 adoption, many consulting and advisory firms advocate a proof- of-concept approach where a quick win demonstrating value incentivizes teams to expand Industry 4.0 to other functional areas. This approach assumes that an implementing company is either testing with a non-strategic initiative, such as energy management, or that it otherwise has a well-built founda- tion. If the underlying data, process and technology architecture is strong, it makes sense to test a closed cyber- physical loop. In contrast, if a com- pany foundation is shaky, a proof-of- concept is probably premature. In our case example, the fuel com- pany didn’t have a strong foundation. Its data was inaccurate, its processes manual and inefficient. Its systems didn’t meet its needs. As a result, the company’s cyber environ- ment is incapable of mirroring its physical environment, let alone opti- mizing it. The company needs to first build a strong foundation by:

n Architecting an environment

that spans enterprise resources

planning, manufacturing execu- tion system and distributed control system environments with the IIoT,

business intelligence and Big Data warehousing;

n Properly implementing those solu- tions; and

n Assuring that the cyber-world mir- rors the physical world through system adoption and disciplined business processing.

Once it builds this foundation, the

company can wade into a strategy- driving Industry 4.0 proof-of-concept project.

Concluding thoughts

We’ve discussed new revenue streams, elevated employee respon- sibilities and system architectures. It’s about how your company’s people do their work. How can Big Data sets turn into new revenue streams? How can front-line workers turn into front-line decision-makers? Who will manage and maintain the data and systems? Who will assure system integrity and security? Organization models that worked well in the past won’t work in future. They weren’t meant to support Industry 4.0 concepts. The benefits Industry 4.0 offers can’t be achieved without rethinking an organization’s structure. Making changes to organizational structures and embedded cultures can be exceedingly difficult. Changes must be well-timed. Don’t create new roles for data science or anticipate new revenue streams before the underlying processes and systems are in place. Take a holistic approach that links organizational changes to business processes and technology systems. That way, the right systems will be

doing the right work. More important, the right people will be doing the right work with the right systems. IIoT

Jonathan Gross is a managing director at Pemeco Consulting. He leads the firm’s digital transforma-

tion assessment and vendor selection practice areas.

www. controleng.com /IIoT

You probably already use Tadiran batteries, but just don’t know it!

already use Tadiran batteries, but just don’t know it! If you have a smart automatic water,

If you have a smart automatic water, gas, electricity, or heat meter in your home.

If you have an electronic toll collection transponder, tire inflation sensor, or emergency E-CALL system in your car.

If you have a GPS tracking device on your trailer, container, or cargo.

If you have wireless sensors, controls, or monitors in your factories and plants.

If you use electronics with real-time clock or memory back-up in your office.

with real-time clock or memory back-up in your office. If you have never heard of Tadiran

If you have never heard of Tadiran Batteries, it is only because you have never had a problem with our products powering your products.

Take no chances. Take Tadiran batteries that last a lifetime.

no chances. Take Tadiran batteries that last a lifetime. * Tadiran LiSOCL2 batteries feature the lowest

* Tadiran LiSOCL2 batteries feature the lowest annual self-discharge rate of any competitive battery, less than 1% per year, enabling these batteries to operate over 40 years depending on device operating usage. However, this is not an expressed or implied warranty, as each application di ers in terms of annual energy consumption and/or operating environment.

PROVEN

40

YEAR

OPERATING

LIFE *

Tadiran Batteries 2001 Marcus Ave. Suite 125E Lake Success, NY 11042

1-800-537-1368

516-621-4980

www.tadiranbat.com

AnAlytics, MAchine leArning, And Ai
AnAlytics, MAchine leArning, And Ai
AnAlytics, MAchine leArning, And Ai

AI isn’t all magic

Software uses real-time data to draw real-world conclusions

By Kevin McClusky

data to draw real-world conclusions By Kevin McClusky consumer space; the industrial world has caught the

consumer space; the industrial world has caught the fever as well. Look at the many recent headlines in major industrial publications. This will be with us for a while. In fact, it will be pervasive. So, you might as well get to know about it. We’ll cover some machine learning and AI basics, how companies are us- ing the technologies and their promise for the future. In addition, we’ll look at some practical details and steps for implementing applications.

Ai’s advent

Analytics traditionally is the realm of statisticians. Before computers were commonplace in industry, ana- lysts worked with pencil and paper. Analytics today is a general term denoting data science. Finding a point

along a simple line, for example, generally falls under the category of standard data analyt- ics. The line is thought of as a “regression.” Finding the point along the line is a “regression analysis.” Performing simple regression analyses is commonplace. Machine learning can be thought of as

a subset of AI, though the two terms often

are used interchange- ably. Machine learning

is the statistical side of

AI, which also includes

W elcome to the amazing world of data science!

Okay, for those math ma- jors out there, your ears perked up. Perhaps everyone else groaned. Stick with me! This isn’t all about the numbers. We’re about to explore one of the most exciting emerging technologies out there. We’ll break it down to help you get started. Sound good? Let’s dig in. You’ve probably heard about the promise of machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI). These two technology concepts have caught the world’s attention. Self-driving cars? Human-like robots? Devices that know your schedule before even you do? Their promise isn’t limited to the

before even you do? Their promise isn’t limited to the Figure 1: Parts can be categorized

Figure 1: Parts can be categorized using color, but what if the relevant parameters are too many to be displayed using traditional visualization techniques? All graphics courtesy:

inductive Automation

4

| MARCH 2019

IIoT For Engineers

cognitive computing and modeling. The boundaries of each category can be blurry. Another way to characterize AI would be as computer code that uses real-world data to draw conclusions. These conclusions can be acted upon automatically, if a system is set up that way, to make decisions. Then more information can be fed into the system and more

decisions can be made. This descrip- tion of AI reflects popular culture’s perception of AI as something that mirrors human thought. We take information in, come to conclusions, and make decisions. Thus, human thought often can be expressed in the form of ”if, then” and other type propositions. In an analogous manner, AI is instantiated

in any of several types of algorithms.

It’s useful to categorize the algo- rithms into groups based on function.

A few of the larger groupings are

described below.

Algorithmic categories

This is where things start getting interesting. Let’s break down some major categories of machine learning algorithms.

Clustering Some algorithms “group” things together. This is best illustrated with

an example. Let’s say a part is be- ing produced. A quality assurance department or in-line measurement system will associate two measure-

ments with the part: width and height. This data is used to generate

www. controleng.com /IIoT

IEEE 802.16s – A standard built SPECIFICALLY for Mission Critical Internet of Things (MC-IoT) communications.

IEEE 802.16s – A standard built SPECIFICALLY for Mission Critical Internet of Things (MC-IoT) communications.

Summary: Most oil & gas companies do not have access to enough Radio Frequency (RF)
Summary:
Most oil & gas companies do not have access to enough
Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum to deploy standard
technologies, such as LTE or IEEE 802.16, the two most
common wireless technologies for their mission critical
data communications networks. Standards such as LTE,
were designed for the consumer industry, not mission
critical industries meaning oil & gas companies are forced
to install proprietary communications networks, putting
them at risk if the manufacturer goes out of business or
discontinues their product line.
In the fall of 2017, a narrower channel standard technology was
ratified and published by the IEEE. IEEE 802.16s was a grass roots effort
launched because mission critical entities were looking for a standard
technology that could be used in the narrow channel bands they have
access to.
Public broad-
band wireless
technologies are
evolving towards
higher speeds
and smaller cell
sizes and are
focused on
consumer
applications.
The public Internet of Things (IoT) services such as NB-LTE are being
deployed with a focus on consumer market applications and are not
well suited for mission critical IoT applications.
The IEEE 802.16s standard is designed for the mission critical private
broadband wireless market. It provides multimegabit throughput using
relatively narrow channel sizes and long distances to minimize spectrum
acquisition and network infrastructure cost.
brian.monahan@ondas.com
and network infrastructure cost. brian.monahan@ondas.com Challenge: Most oil & gas companies do not have access
and network infrastructure cost. brian.monahan@ondas.com Challenge: Most oil & gas companies do not have access

Challenge:

Most oil & gas companies do not have access to broadband spectrum that can support standard technologies such as LTE and IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) leaving only proprietary solutions to deploy private communications networks for their mission critical communications networks.

Solution:

A grass roots effort was formed

to revise IEEE 802.16 to fit into smaller channel sizes – 100 kHz to 1.25 MHz providing a standard communications technology that

can be used in spectrum bands oil

& gas companies have access to.

Result:

Critical industry Companies have successfully deployed communications networks for their mission critical data using the standard eliminating this risk.

AnAlytics, MAchine leArning, And Ai
AnAlytics, MAchine leArning, And Ai

a chart. Based on how the equipment works, parts would generally fall into groups, for example, with slimmer parts to the left and taller parts to the top (see Figure1). Colors can be used to make clear the categorization scheme. If you’re an Excel wizard you could generate the graph yourself, plotting new parts to the chart as they come through. Clustering becomes more power- ful as more information is added to the schema. Let’s say information is added about rejected units. It turns out the blue group represents almost 80 percent of rejects, whereas a green group represents around 20 percent. Now you’re on to something! But why stop there? Let’s say we start collecting length as well. Imagine plotting in three dimensions. The blue, black and green figures might all be close to you or far away from you. Advanced graphing programs do this, so it’s possible to continue to manually input and group information. Group- ing is improved, showing 85 percent of rejects in the blue group. At this point, if clustering is done with a machine learning algorithm,

it performs the categorization, but merely automates something that can be done manually. Then why is machine learning the better option?

A fourth dimension

Well, what if another dimension is wanted? Perhaps conductivity is a parameter of some significance, or a humidity reading, or an anodization current. But a 3D graph can have only three dimensions. On the other hand, use of a ma- chine learning algorithm means four, five, six or even 100 dimensions can be graphed. The clustering algorithm graphs each part based on its attributes, identifying those close to each other as groups. Once this is done it is easier to see what attributes, or what combinations of attributes, are most likely to lead to rejects. This means additional refinement to the groups can be done automatically, based on the additional attributes, and it’s possible the blue group cold be refined enough to predict 95 or 99 percent of rejects. Insight is improved significantly as to which as-built prod- ucts most likely are to be in need of rework. The option exists to pull them from production before unnecessary steps are taken, saving both time and money.

Decision trees The thought exper- iment just described suggests some of the possibilities inherent in these techniques. Let’s briefly look at some others. Decision trees are another conceptually

look at some others. Decision trees are another conceptually Figure 2: Decision trees begin with a

Figure 2: Decision trees begin with a few simple elements but can be used to predict outcomes of highly complex processes.

6

| MARCH 2019

IIoT For Engineers

simple technique with big implica- tions. We build decision trees all

the time in our daily lives to answer questions like: How’s the traffic? What’s the weather like? Should I call my mother today? (See Figure 2.) Having an algorithm build one for us

is a simple task. Start by identifying

the data that describes a process, as

well information about the results. The algorithm generated as a result builds a tree that maps the predicted outcomes. It runs through numerous possibilities (perhaps thousands or more) to come up with a tree that is as accurate as can be.

Models and training

Other important analytic concepts include modeling and training. Train- ing occurs when process data is fed into a machine learning algorithm such that a model is generated, allowing good and bad process ex- amples to be identified. Imagine someone sitting down with

a pen and writing out a decision tree.

Then they write another, and another, until they have a pile of them. After that, the best decision tree can be identified, and the others thrown away. That final decision tree would be the model. For the clustering algo- rithms, the model would just be called

a “clustering model” or “the model.” In other words, using the optimal decision tree, for example, a set of data can be used to derive a predic- tion based on the process flow. To go back to the prior example, the first statement might be, “if the width is less than 23.5, then xxx,” and the second statement could be, “if the height is more than 43.3, then xxx.” The machine learning algorithm cre- ates the questions to get to the best answers it can. Decision trees have a lot of utility in predictive maintenance applications.

www. controleng.com /IIoT

| PC11-48USA |

Meet the smallest Industrial PC from Beckhoff.

PC11-48USA | Meet the smallest Industrial PC from Beckhoff. The ultra-compact C6015 IPC for automation and

The ultra-compact C6015 IPC for automation and IoT.

The ultra-compact C6015 IPC for automation and IoT. 40 mm 82 mm 2018 HONORABLE MENTION www.beckhoff.us/C6015
40 mm
40 mm
The ultra-compact C6015 IPC for automation and IoT. 40 mm 82 mm 2018 HONORABLE MENTION www.beckhoff.us/C6015
82 mm
82 mm
2018 HONORABLE MENTION
2018
HONORABLE
MENTION

www.beckhoff.us/C6015

With the ultra-compact C6015 Industrial PC, Beckhoff has again expanded the application possibilities of PC-based control. Wherever space or cost limitations previously prevented the use of a PC-based control solution, this new IPC generation offers an excellent price-to-per- formance ratio in an extremely compact housing. With up to 4 CPU cores, low weight and unprecedented installation flexibility, the C6015 is universally applicable in automation, visualization and communication tasks. It is also ideal for use as an IoT gateway.

Processor: Intel ® Atom™, 1, 2 or 4 cores ® Atom™, 1, 2 or 4 cores

Interfaces: 2 Ethernet, 1 DisplayPort, 2 USBgateway. Processor: Intel ® Atom™, 1, 2 or 4 cores Main memory: up to 4 GB

Main memory: up to 4 GB DDR3L RAM1, 2 or 4 cores Interfaces: 2 Ethernet, 1 DisplayPort, 2 USB Housing: Die-cast aluminum-zinc alloy

Housing: Die-cast aluminum-zinc alloy1 DisplayPort, 2 USB Main memory: up to 4 GB DDR3L RAM Dimensions (W x H

Dimensions (W x H x D): 82 x 82 x 40 mmup to 4 GB DDR3L RAM Housing: Die-cast aluminum-zinc alloy Flexible installation via rear or side

aluminum-zinc alloy Dimensions (W x H x D): 82 x 82 x 40 mm Flexible installation
aluminum-zinc alloy Dimensions (W x H x D): 82 x 82 x 40 mm Flexible installation

Flexible installation via rear or side panel mounting, or on DIN rail.

alloy Dimensions (W x H x D): 82 x 82 x 40 mm Flexible installation via
AnAlytics, MAchine leArning, And Ai
AnAlytics, MAchine leArning, And Ai

As already mentioned, regression analysis can be simple. It can be complex when it comes to machine learning algorithms.

Regression analysis Again, the basics of regression analysis can be illustrated by its use to find a point on a line. To draw a line, first decide what kind of line to draw. Is it a curve? Is it a straight line? Does it have many curves? If plotting it in an x-y plane (two dimensions), this is simple to do. Machine learning shines when it is applied to complex data and many dimensions. Drawing 100 dimen- sions by hand would never be practi- cal, but an algorithm can handle that with ease, and can find the best fitting regression with ease, if one exists. Regression analysis can be very useful in process tuning and pro- duction forecasting. Not all data is

appropriate for regression analysis (e.g., data that is clustered), but it can be great for items that have re- lationships where one factor affects other factors.

Deep learning Perhaps you’ve heard of neural networks? Do you know what they are? I have a secret for you: no one does. Okay, that’s not entirely true. But it’s mostly true. Let me explain. Neural networks are models that contain thousands or millions of nodes, which are small blocks of computer code, each of which can take input and produce output. Neu- ral networks are so-called because they are meant to model how neu- rons work in our brains. Some con- nections between nodes are stronger and some are weaker, just like the neurons in our brains.

Get some hands-on experience

For neural networks, the algo- rithms don’t just configure the nodes. They build them. They can build models with millions of nodes to process data. As a neural network digests data, it morphs and changes until it does a fairly good job at predicting outcomes or providing categorizations. It can be trained to do just about anything. It could take recent sensor readings and produce a probability of a problem arising. Or it could evaluate a set of 1s and 0s to determine whether it portrays a cat. All these millions of nodes somehow “understand” the image. It’s just simple math for each node, but somehow the arrangement and weights of the nodes allow for drawing conclusions. This is why I say no one really un- derstands them. Ask a data scientist to explain neural networks, and he or

H ow does anyone get started with machine learning or artificial intelligence proj-

ects? Here’s a few things to think about beforehand.

1. Identify a problem. Start by

picking a process, area, or tech- nique to improve. Find some-

thing with a strong need where machine learning or AI seem like they could help.

2. Gather data. The more data

the better. Thousands or millions of data points help train a model to be as good as possible. Make sure to use quality data. Bad data can easily throw off algo- rithms. Data pre-processing and cleaning is almost always one key to success.

3. Brush up on statistics.

(Or find someone who’s an expert.) Understand sampling techniques and causation versus correlation. Having a sense of the quality of the results helps avoid false starts.

4. Have domain knowledge. (Or

find someone who does.) Know- ing the process or techniques are critical to knowing if results are reasonable. Data scientists are great, but simply unleashing one on some data won’t get good results.

5. Create the model. This can

be with any machine learning software that exists. Modern supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems have some popular machine learning

algorithms built in. Numerous cloud offerings and platforms include these type algorithms as options.

6. Deploy the model. Often

models can be run next to machines or on premise, even if built on the cloud or using other tools. Find the best way to run the model for the organization. If part of a critical process, run- ning it on the premises is ideal.

7. Monitor for success. If success

can’t be measured, no one will know it exists. Have prior process data available to compare to the latest. If the model needs refine- ment, go back to step five. Keep in mind that sometimes trying several models or combining a few delivers the best results.

8

| MARCH 2019

IIoT For Engineers

www. controleng.com /IIoT

Figure 3: Neural networks can be schematized to be roughly analogous to how a brain

Figure 3: Neural networks can be schematized to be roughly analogous to how a brain works.

she will be able to explain the math. Ask that same data scientist to explain how it can recognize Fluffy amidst those bytes, and the word “magic” may arise in the explanation. As impressive as neural networks are, they present a conundrum in the industrial space. If an algorithm tells you to do something, do you do it? If it’s a decision tree, or a regression, or a clustering model dispensing advice, it’s possible to trace how the conclusion was derived. But with a neural network, there’s no possibility of under- standing the “reasoning” of the system. It just gives an answer, that can be believed or not. If the decisions might lead to downtime or production bottlenecks it may be asked why anyone should take the word of a fortune teller’s crystal ball with black magic inside.

The future is here

The world is changing. AI and machine learning are here to stay, and the tech industry is fully on board. The technol- ogy has proven its value, and adopting companies see them- selves pulling ahead of the pack. AI isn’t the answer to every problem, but when applied well, it can make a large differ- ence in a short amount of time. Go out there, have some fun and build some models! You’ll be glad you did. IIoT

Kevin McClusky is co-director of sales engineering at Inductive Automation. McClusky is an expert in the field of industrial automation software integration. His work includes oversight, creation and support of numerous HMI, SCADA, MES and IIoT projects.

IIoT For Engineers

MARCH 2019 | 9

Wi-Fi Friendly Enclosures Fibox WiFi friendly polycarbonate enclosures are manufactured with a radio-transparent
Wi-Fi Friendly
Enclosures
Fibox WiFi friendly polycarbonate
enclosures are manufactured with
a radio-transparent thermoplastic.
This offers free transmission of
radio waves eliminating the need
for an external antenna to connect
the device.
• Non-corrosive
• Impact resistant
• ULUL listed, Rated NEMA 4X& 6P
• UV resistant
• Formed In Place PUR gasket
Fibox’s lightweight polycarbonate
enclosures are easily modified,
with holes, cut-outs, and receses.
Make Difficult EASY
Learn more at Fiboxusa.com
410.760.9696
www.fiboxusa.com
Flow Control
Flow Control

Extend edge data gathering with multivariable instruments

Measure multiple variables to deliver data-rich IIoT applications

By Conner Oberle

to deliver data-rich IIoT applications By Conner Oberle A little recognized benefit of advanced process instru-

A little recognized benefit of advanced process instru-

mentation is its ability to of- ten measure more than one variable. For example, a pressure transmitter may provide a temperature read- ing. This is not the case with every type instrument, as some have more capabilities than others. The simpler the instrument, such as those used to measure temperature, the fewer variables. On the other hand, complex instruments such as differential pres- sure (DP) flowmeters often measure or infer multiple process variables. These secondary, tertiary or greater variables result from a variety of sources. Some are provided simply for compensa-

tion of the primary measurement. For

example, many sensors used to mea- sure pressure (piezoresistive, capacitive and others) require compensation for temperature, so the transmitter must include an internal temperature sen- sor as the adjustment factor.

In other situations, including a

different type of sensor extends the capability and versatility of an instru- ment. Let’s look at these and other scenarios and examine capturing additional information in an Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) context.

Strictly compensatory

As mentioned, sensing elements can be influenced by operating conditions. For example, a piezoresistive sensor used in a pressure instrument delivers a different signal for a 100-pounds per square inch (psi) reading at 10 degrees C than it will at 80 de- grees C. The transmitter must have an internal sen- sor to determine the pressure sensor’s temperature so the read-

ing can be adjusted appropriately.

Figure 1: Some DP flowmeters add a sensor for measuring process fluid temperature. All graphics courtesy: Emerson Automation Solutions

10

| MARCH 2019

IIoT For Engineers

A clever engineer may realize

there is a provision for capturing the temperature reading. But how can this be realized in practice? First, the instrument maker must provide the compensatory reading for the pres-

sure sensor itself, so the temperature sensor is located to capture that value, but this temperature may not reflect the process. It can in some situations, but the pressure sensor may also be some distance from the process fluid and effectively insulated. The temper-

ature reading may simply monitor the transmitter housing interior. Anyone using the temperature reading must understand where it comes from and what it represents.

Intentionally variable

In some situations, instruments are intended to provide a range of infor- mation, and therefore one or multiple sensors are inserted into the process media to attain the highest degree of accuracy. Let’s examine a specific example. DP flowmeters are the most com- mon technology for flow measure- ment. The concept is simple: when an obstruction (the primary element) is placed in the path of a fluid flow, there will be a pressure drop propor- tional to the volume of fluid moving through the primary element. A DP transmitter measures the pressure drop, and its electronics convert the pressure drop into a flow reading. This

is the primary variable from the trans- mitter, but what other measurements are possible? Multivariable transmitters have additional sensors within a single transmitter. An additional pressure

www. controleng.com /IIoT

Figure 2: Using direct readings from a DP flowmeter combined with known process fluid and

Figure 2: Using direct readings from a DP flowmeter combined with known process fluid and configuration characteristics, it is possible to calculate a range of values, including mass flow.

sensor is located within the trans- mitter module to measure the line pressure. Instead of simply knowing

that the differential pressure is 3 psi, this additional measurement allows the pressure on the primary element’s upstream and downstream sides to be known. Additionally, multivariable transmit- ters can take readings from tem- perature sensors. These valid process readings can be used as individual values, without need for separate pressure or temperature transmitters on the same line. Calculating flow only requires knowing the differential pressure. This may be enough, but oftentimes

a flow measurement point requires

full compensation of more than 25

parameters, including density, viscosity and discharge coefficient. Critical to compensating for these parameters

is temperature. Getting accurate

process temperature readings requires

a temperature sensor in the right location (Figure 1), which under most circumstances means another process penetration. A DP flowmeter assembly can incorporate the temperature sen- sor as part of its installation, ensuring an accurate reading for a reliable mass flow measurement.

Having known characteristics

When it is possible to measure DP, line pressure and fluid temperature, these three values can be combined with measurements fed into the trans- mitter’s configuration (Figure 2). If plant personnel provide the fluid type, primary element configuration and line size to the transmitter, a range of process measurements can be calcu- lated, such as:

• Mass flow

• Volumetric flow

• Energy flow, and

• Totalized flow.

These measurements can be gener- ated by one instrument with one primary output. If such a sophisticated instrument is installed in a convention- al analog I/O environment, the opera- tors will get one variable—flow—and that’s it. An engineer watching the transmitter’s local display may see an indication of what is really going on inside. It will step from variable to variable, showing the flow value, DP reading, temperature and perhaps line pressures depending on how the transmitter has been configured. This represents a missed opportunity.

Capturing supplemental data

A technician trying to interface with existing process instruments in most environments has a challenge. Field instruments communicating with a

distributed control system (DCS) via

conventional 4-20 mA analog loops

do not interface easily with IIoT net-

working protocols. It may be possible

Flow Control
Flow Control
Flow Control although this situation is improving. A second solution, al- most as easy as a
Flow Control although this situation is improving. A second solution, al- most as easy as a

although this situation is improving. A second solution, al- most as easy as a fieldbus, depending on the DCS, is using HART-enabled I/O. If the DCS is less than 10 years old, it may be equipped with smart I/O able to read HART infor- mation superimposed on the conventional 4-20 mA signal. This HART signal can be detected and decoded by the host system, revealing ad- ditional data sent by the instrument. If the plant is progressive and this type of I/O is in use, extracting the extra data is similar to

a fieldbus system, although the bandwidth available with

HART is lower, so information will not flow as quickly. Unfortunately, however, even some new DCS platforms do not include HART-enabled I/O. If neither fieldbus or Hart are available, possible solutions become more complicated. Some plants overcome the limitations of conventional I/O by adding HART multiplex- ers. A single device captures HART data from a group of instruments, scanning through them in sequence. Band- width limitations make it a slow process, unsuitable for monitoring fast-changing variables.

Simplicity of wireless

Absent one of the sophisticated I/O approaches just mentioned, adding a WirelessHART adapter (or using

a native WirelessHART transmitter) is arguably the best

interface to get process data, whether simple or multi-

variable, into an IIoT environment. The adapter (Figure 3) mounts on a transmitter housing and can send data to a WirelessHART gateway without disrupting the established wired connection to the host system. Since WirelessHART

is digital, the gateway can convert it to Ethernet or other

protocol such as Modbus RTU. Most HART-enabled instru- ments can be configured to prioritize variables as needed. Using WirelessHART solves both multivariable capture and analog-to-IIoT conversion problems, allowing users to maximize the versatility of instrumentation and technology networking capabilities, even in a legacy environment. The result is an installation easily accessible using leading IIoT technologies and protocols. IIoT

Connor Oberle is a global pressure product manager for Emerson Automation Solutions in Shakopee, Minn. responsible for Rosemount multivariable transmitters. He holds a BS in mechanical engineering from the University of North Dakota.

12

| MARCH 2019

IIoT For Engineers

www. controleng.com /IIoT

Figure 3: A WirelessHART adapter mounts on a transmitter housing and sends data via the larger WirelessHART network. Wired connections need not be disturbed.

to access a specific instrument through the DCS or historian connected to it. However, if the DCS’s I/O infrastructure is more than a few years old, it may be limited to plain analog loops. So how does a multivariable instrument, such as the DP flowmeter, send its extra data to a host system? The easiest answer is via a digital process fieldbus protocol, such as FOUNDATION Fieldbus. Proto- cols can send enormous amounts of information easily, at least in terms of data volumes created by field instruments, which by IT standards is still pretty low. A DP flowmeter can send one, two or more variables via the fieldbus signal, and the host system can handle all the data and informa- tion. Reaching into the host system using IIoT protocols such as EtherNet/IP should be manageable and straightfor- ward. However, plants using fieldbus I/O are still a minority,

such as EtherNet/IP should be manageable and straightfor- ward. However, plants using fieldbus I/O are still
113GHZ + HEARTBEAT+ YOUR WAVELENGTH MINDSET
113GHZ
+
HEARTBEAT+
YOUR WAVELENGTH
MINDSET

Imagine your devices had their own pulse. They would tell you how healthy they were and what you could do to improve the performance of your process. Heartbeat Technology™ breathes life into your devices. It provides you with diagnostics, verifies performance and monitors process data to support optimization and predictive maintenance strategies. Our engineers listen carefully to you and understand your Mindset . It is their job to find the best fitting products with Heartbeat Technology to deliver increased operational availability for your plant.

deliver increased operational availability for your plant. Find out more about the Heartbeat Technology on
deliver increased operational availability for your plant. Find out more about the Heartbeat Technology on
deliver increased operational availability for your plant. Find out more about the Heartbeat Technology on
deliver increased operational availability for your plant. Find out more about the Heartbeat Technology on

Find out more about the Heartbeat Technology on www.yourlevelexperts.com/heartbeat

availability for your plant. Find out more about the Heartbeat Technology on www.yourlevelexperts.com/heartbeat
availability for your plant. Find out more about the Heartbeat Technology on www.yourlevelexperts.com/heartbeat

SECURITY BUILT-IN

MOVE SECURELY INTO

THE CLOUD

SECURITY BUILT-IN MOVE SECURELY INTO THE CLOUD WAGO Cloud Microsoft Amazon Web Azure Services IBM BLUEMIX
WAGO Cloud Microsoft Amazon Web Azure Services IBM BLUEMIX Other Cloud Services
WAGO Cloud
Microsoft
Amazon Web
Azure
Services
IBM
BLUEMIX
Other Cloud
Services
IIoT READY
IIoT
READY

Direct Field to Cloud Connection with the PFC Series Controllers

IIoT-ready with native MQTT and TLS encryption

Built-in VPN and Firewall for increased network security

Simplify data routing and reduce latency

Interface with existing controls via onboard fieldbus gateways

www.wago.us/pfccloud

data routing and reduce latency • Interface with existing controls via onboard fieldbus gateways www.wago.us/pfccloud
data routing and reduce latency • Interface with existing controls via onboard fieldbus gateways www.wago.us/pfccloud