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Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior


Subject : Organization Behavior


Student’s name : NGUYEN DUC DUNG

ID : VN1001897
Date of completion : 24/06/2017


What motivates workers? Give examples of at least two companies using at least three
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior


The objective of this article is to explain the definitions and theories of motivation at
work, what factors can influence motivation and how to motivate employees to work
better. In parallel with these are examples of successful businesses using theories of
human resource management in practice, such as Kellogg and Virgin Media. Researchers
are also trying to come up with some ideas that businesses can use to improve their HR


Under the fierce competition of the market, the upward development of company
employees is the dream of any employer. However, “some kind of innate quality only a
gifted few possess, or is it something that’s brought out of everyday employees”
(Landrum 2015). In the other words, not all employees can grow and advance as expected
and only a handful of talented employees can do it themselves.

According to Jensen (2017) a motivated employee will work more responsibly and
effectively. Research also suggests that most employees retain their motivation only
within the first month and gradually decrease over time. To ensure that work is always
good, managers need to manage their employees and "motivate motivation" is one of
them. As a manager, a study of "motivation" and its consequences will really be needed.



In the concept of human resource management, motivation is one of the most important
definitions. It can be said that it is important because the motivation to work almost
entirely affects an employee's performance. More specifically, motivation can be
interpreted as the desire or expectation of an individual to perform his or her job
(Management Study Guide 2017). For example, the motivation of a musician to practice
is to go on stage; a scientist's motivation is to invent new inventions that are good for
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior

humanity. For a regular employee, the motivation is to learn, to be promoted, or simply to

raise money for a family. In other words, motivation is what drives people to take action
(Healthfield 2016).

Management Study Guide (2017) states that because of its importance, motivation has
become one of the top criteria of a business in recruiting personnel. Recruiting highly
motivated employees is a vital element of today's business. In fact, there are not many
born employees who have high motivation (Landrum 2015); therefore not only in
recruiting but companies are also increasingly concerned about creating and building the
motivation of employees at work. Teambuilding activities, welfare schemes for worker’s
family or even workplace accommodation are becoming more diversified and invested.

Research on "motivation" has been going on for decades and results out many theories
can be mentioned as Herzberg’s hygiene theory, McGregor Theory X and Theory Y and
the most famous of these are the Maslow’s need hierarchy theory. Also, the Hawthorne
Effect and the Expectancy Theory are considered to be an important and highly
applicable complementary theory.

How is a working environment without “motivation”?

Many businesses do not use tools and methods to motivate motivation, because they think
that just finding the right people for the job they are doing is more than enough. In other
words, they do not need external stimulus if they can find the right person on a bus (Doug
and Polly White 2015). However, the study by Nibusinessinfo (n.d.) points out that the
lack of motivational and motivating motivation environment will have major
consequences such as high staff turnover, low productivity, a poor workplace atmosphere
and a lot of employee grievances to deal with. Indeed, the study of Doug and Polly White
(2015) also found that, with the exception of innate workers who had a high motivation to
work, almost any other employee needed a motivation to work better and more
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior

The real causes for a lack of motivational work environment are monotonous work, lack
of praise individuals feeling ignored, a poor reward structure, little opportunity for
advancement (Nibusinessinfo n.d.). To be sure, boredom in the workplace is the most
immediate cause because of a repetition of a job or a job where the results appear to have
been set will lose the inspiration of the staff. Rewards and growth opportunities are also
things that really impress employees.

What motivates workers?

Positively, customer satisfaction determines the success of the company. Being a direct
connection with customers, it is certain that employee happiness is also a very important
part of the company and contributes greatly to the company's achievement. But what does
the employee really need to be happy, what motivated them to work in the best and most
effective way? What can managers do to motivate their employees? Do wages and
bonuses really help in all cases?

According to Gorman (2014) money, status, interests, or communication networks are

factors that motivate employees. But that is not enough. Tinypulse's survey showed a
more expected result since it was taken from more than 200,000 employees from many
cultures (Gorman 2014). Below are the factors that are voted the most by this survey:

Peer motivation (Camaraderie)

As stated by Landrum (2015), in-depth employee surveys have shown that relationship
among colleagues is the factor that employees appreciate the most in encouraging their
motivation at work. Indeed, it can be said that co-workers are the ones who have a direct
impact on one's attitude because they have to interact with each other every day, talk to
each other for hours, and share the same goal to move forward in a certain job. There is
an undeniable fact that working time together at work is even more than the time spent at
home with his/her spouse. Square Up (2017) and TINY's survey share the view that up to
20% of employees feel motivated at work when their "Camaraderie" are really good. In
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior

another way, collective motivation can also be considered a motivating force in the

Actually, managing this factor is not an easy thing for managers. The manager must be
skillful in promoting the dynamics of a whole team not just an individual; just a
shortcoming of any stage can have a negative effect on the team. Not only that, internal
communication among individuals in the team is also a thing that should be taken care of
by the managers. One of the important things is not to let the employees to split into
factions but not let them feel isolated. Loneliness in the workplace itself is the most
frightening thing that can kill the motivation of an employee (Landrum 2015).

Intrinsic to do a good job

This inner element is mentioned because it is so simple to ask an employee what

motivates you to work, simply just because they like it. Studies seem to have ignored this
factor and focused more on finding a way for "managers to motivate employees".
However, it is difficult to control the "likes" of employees because each person has
different personality, especially for large companies with hundreds, thousands of
personnel, the control of individual psychology is impossible.

Nevertheless, the creation of corporate culture along with reasonable remuneration will
gradually bring individuals together to form a unified community. Clearly managing a
community with hundreds of individuals will be easier than managing every single
individuals with the amount of hundreds. It is important to organize the community well,
bring happiness to the community as well as individual to have a comfortable psyche and
high motivation when working. The TinyHR study states that “Professional happiness
encourages 3 times more recognition” (Gorman 2014) and that is the most obvious
assertion about the importance of creating happiness for employees.

Feeling encouraged, recognized and having a real impact

Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior

Commonly, an employee who has worked hard on the job expects a leader's performance
record. This recognition is sometimes accompanied by a reward or not, but recognition of
this achievement is one of the three factors most employees consider to drive them the
most (Landrum 2015). This can be explained by the fact that being recognized always
gives people a sense of self-confidence that they are doing the right thing.

However, according to Augustine (n.d.) it should be clearly noted to managers that

individual and collective recognition is completely different. The equation of
achievement between an individual and a team would be the biggest mistake for any
manager because that is two completely different things. For example, if a salesman sells
a large quantity of goods and pulls the sales of the whole team up, it would be unfair to
reward all members equally. Fairness is needed, especially in a team. However, in this
case, that sales man should be rewarded higher than his peers for his efforts. Of course,
the result of the team must also have the contributions of others whether less or more. So
it would not be fair to just reward him even if he did not try, the whole team could not
finish the goal and all did not have a bonus. Managers should definitely weigh individual
contributions and have a sensible distribution to harmonize all members and avoid
internal contradictions.

Recognition among staff levels should also be taken into consideration, as often
experienced staff expects to be valued and appraised higher than newbie. The staffs
themselves always think that they should be better treated than new people because of
their dedication for a long time. (Augustine n.d.). For example, in compliment for the
same job for both new and experienced employees, the same rewards can have a negative
effect on both sides because experienced staff will often be dissatisfied with the thing
meanwhile the new employees will likely arise complacency. Of course, in some cases,
new employees will feel better treated and therefore more dedicated. However, rewarding
them lower than experienced employees will not be too controversial, but they can
skillfully tell them to try harder and stick with the company for better treatment.
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior

Recognition comes not just from a formal document or meeting that can also be
expressed in everyday communication (Augustine n.d.). This may have more meaningful
to motivate employees because they receive it daily, hourly, and in every job and will
always be excited about it. Not only that, but it is also important for employees to know
how their importance to the team is. Of course, when one realizes his/her importance,
each employee will put their own responsibilities on the job and effort for it. This would
be even more meaningful if the fact proves that not just superiors, colleagues but also
customers appreciate the dedication of the employee. Definitely, other employees will
also look in and take that as a motivator for themselves.

However, it would be a double-edged sword if employees were praised and recognized

too much, especially when they felt they were too important to the company. Self-
complacency, self-arrogance are the first manifestations that can have a negative impact
on the collective. Followed by subjective attitude in work and despise colleague inferior
to himself/herself. To limit this, Augustine (n.d.) suggests that give the employee a
recognition accompanied by a challenge. This will make employees feel that they are not
yet at their peak and will therefore continue to try instead of smug.

Growing professionally

If other factors are used to promote the development of employees, having a bright future
is what keeps them from staying with the company. Obviously, every individual has his
or her own life goals, so a commitment to sustainable, professional, promising
development will be a motivation for employees to work harder and stick to a longer term
with higher contribution to the development of the company.

By improving the level and skills of employees, the company will demonstrate to them
the role of the company in their personal development (Burrage n.d.). These training
programs not only contribute to raising awareness but also a place to exchange, exchange
and share experiences and knowledge among employees. Programs that are thoroughly
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior

invested will be very impressive to employees because of the company's thoughtfulness

as well as the excitement of practicing what they have learned right at their workplace.

Also, being promoted in the company is what employees expect. Because at that time,
their ability was really recognized, their role became more important. In addition,
employees should be aware of the company's beliefs when sending them to train. Surely,
there are not any company goes to train employees with the hope they will stay the same
in their place.

Even so, the choice of employees for development is one thing that should be considered
carefully because maybe that employee is not capable, or worse, leaving the company
after being trained. A long-term commitment is necessary for each employee to receive
training, but the company also needs to have clearer strategies and visions, even reformed
to fit the situation because the staff was at a higher level.

Meeting client/customer needs

Customer satisfaction is sometimes the most accurate measure of performance. Today,

managers are gradually considering this as a guiding principle for their business. The
same for employees, satisfying customer needs is that they have done an excellent job
and they also satisfy themselves that way. In fact, this is very valuable in promoting or
restricting motivation. For examples, a bank teller who does not advise clients on the
package that the bank is providing will feel uncomfortable and very likely to make the
mistake of receiving the next guest. Mistakes can be just service attitude, can also just
continue to fail to persuade customers but may also be wrong information or wrong
account transfer. Whether the fault is big or small, it is unacceptable. It can be seen that
the working status of employees is greatly influenced by whether or not they serve the

Actually 'satisfying customer needs' is very important for employees, especially the staff
directly caring customers. Therefore, managers should be cleverly subdivided so that
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior

employees can have a sense of accomplishment more often and therefore more excited at
work (Pozin 2017).

Money and Benefit

Money has always been considered the most important factor in every job because it is
the goal that people go to work. Belcher (n.d.) states that “Money is a motivator to not
only go above and beyond, but maintain an increased level of productivity”. Actually, if
you use the money to motivate, the staff will effortlessly achieve outstanding results. The
reason is that money is the most realistic measure and the most obvious reward for every
job. Current reality has changed; money is important but not too much influence on the
motivation of today's employees.

According to Doug and Polly White (2015), most people will try their best if they
perceive a fair reward. Obviously, there is no reason for them to try if they do a good job
without rewarding, and vice versa if they do not finish the task. The reward is sometimes
money, sometimes a promotion, sometimes a physical thing or simply a vacation or some
encouragement in front of the whole team. But the most important thing is that they must
feel that they have been recognized - as analyzed above.

Moreover, the benefits that an employee expects from company also include the essential
needs of work and life. For example, a package of health insurance for the whole family
of employees is great that anyone would like to have. This is not just health insurance but
also shows the company's concern in the individual's family. Such a company will always
have the great gratitude and contribution of employees in return for sure. In addition, the
benefits can be a creative workplace, a good rest and eating regimen, teambuilding trips
or simply the pride of working for a caliber business.

It can be said that money or benefits will all contribute to increased motivation and
excitement for employees. However, the use of those elements is exactly a problem that
needs to be answered to suit the conditions and circumstances of each business. The fact
is, many businesses abuse money and the benefits to motivate employees to receive
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior

bitterness when employees are always demanding the benefit of being "motivated"
(Belcher n.d.). This can lead to increased business costs or even bribery in the company.

Positive supervisor/management

If co-workers are the same people who share the job, the managers play the role of
guiding and assisting employees in their work. Relations with superiors are also one of
the factors that greatly influence the motivation of employees. Actually, managers are
those who can control the factors that can motivate employees because they have the
ability to create work environments, cultures, connections and control them (Healtfield
2017). The friendliness, harmony and fun of the managers will create a good feeling for
all employees.

Square Up (2017) claims that the top reason for employees to flee is bad management. In
fact, a bad manager will not be able to keep up with the value of the company and can not
operate the system as it deserves. Bad managers often do not mind others, they just want
to run their own way of doing things. They may be "bossy" people who either have
inferior expertise or simply do not understand the culture of the business they are
operating. Obviously, the vision of the business is shrinking, the benefits of the
employees are threatened and the criteria of corporate culture will be seriously affected.

Therefore, it is important to select managers, team leaders and train them because they
will directly influence the motivation of employees now and later.

Believe in the company/product

Pozin (2015) recognize that demonstrating to employees what they are doing will
contribute to future success is very important in motivating and creating trust. This belief
gives the employee a sense that they are doing something meaningful and motivates them
to achieve their goals (Lavinsky 2012).

Certainly no employee would want to work without trust in the product itself. For
example, a garment factory worker would not be interested in knowing if the shirt she
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior

sews would not sell to any store. Or an Intel worker in the i3 chip chain when the market
has begun selling i9 chips. More specifically, a sales person would not be able to sell soap
brew if he did not really understand and trust his own product.

Also, there will be no incentive for employees if the company's future, more specifically
the financial situation is not really bright. Two years ago, the rumors about the closure of
the Canon factory in Hanoi discouraged many employees, after which more than 1,000
workers left their jobs and switched to Samsung. Even if it's just rumors, it shows that
trusting employees in the product or the company itself is very important in motivating
employees to work.


Indeed, despite decades of research, the nature of the problem is in response to the
question "what motivates the employee?" is extremely simple. It just “Employees Are
Motivated By Being Involved” (Landrum 2015). In the 2015 study, Landrum pointed out
the difference in thought between employees and managers as below table:

What Employees Want What Managers Think Employees Want

Appreciation of work done Good wages

Feeling of being in on things Job security

Sympathetic help with personal problems Promotion

It can be said that this difference creates a gap that is rarely shared among the classes in
the company. For instance, while leaders often think employees are concerned about
finances, the truth is not so. Employees are more concerned about their appreciation and
recognition for the work and achievement they have gained. Managers are somewhat
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior

subjective and neglected in finding out what their employees really want. They forgot
they used to be employees, even now they are still employees of senior manager and what
they really expect of their superiors. A sharing and empathy is needed here so that both
sides can speak out their views and desires and find out a better solution because they all
have the same goal of having a good job and a favorable business results.

Nibusinessinfo (n.d.) has outlined a number of ways that can motivate motivation in the
workplace as:
 Varied and interesting work - perhaps giving the opportunity to travel

 Demonstration of trust – delegating key tasks can empower employees and

stimulate innovation

 High-quality training and development - e.g. encouragement to study for

professional qualifications

 An 'open door' culture in which managers are approachable

 Consistent and genuine leadership

 Helping them to feel part of a team - giving them a sense of belonging and loyalty
to the other team members

 Respect for a good work-life balance - e.g. offering the opportunity for flexible

 Fairness at work, including promoting equality and diversity

 Proactive and regular communication

 Regular appraisal and positive feedback - restating business objectives and

recognizing your staff's contribution

 Requests for feedback, either in person or via staff surveys, on how employees feel
about their roles, the support they get, and improvements to the business
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior


Kellogg case study of “Building a better workplace through motivation”

Kellogg is the world's leading cereal producer with a history of more than 100 years and
is present in more than 180 countries. To achieve this, Kellogg has had to maintain a huge
network of employees including production, marketing, finance, and so on. To maintain
such a human system is difficult, motivating it even harder. Kellogg did this well by using
Taylor, Maslow, Mayo and Herzberg's theories in the HR management.

First, the Maslow theory, Kellogg had well applied these like explain below:

Physiological needs – Competitive salary is provided. This salary basically meets the
basic needs of employees. Basic utility packages are also provided such as childcare,
insurance, etc. as part of employee benefits and that is part of motivating work.

Safety needs – Safe working environment is Kellogg's criteria. They require employees to
adhere to rules and interpretations of reality. In addition, diverse work models also give
employees more options to balance their lives.

Social needs – Weekly group activities give employees a sense of belonging and
intimacy. It is also an informal channel for all staffing systems. The approach to openness
and positive rewards is exactly what Kellogg has done so well.

Self-actualization – Opportunities and challenges are something that is not lacking in

Kellogg because leaders always encourage and empower employees.

Next, in order to apply Mayo's theory, Kellogg maintains two-way conversations and
group meetings. Teamwork is also a way to make the most of your employees' creativity.

Herzberg felt that satisfied employees would be productive employees. Herzberg's theory
is sometimes called the two-factor theory. These factors are hygiene factors and
motivators. For examples, Kellogg's has developed a number of motivating factors. These
are designed to ensure that Kellogg’s is perceived as a good place to work and a desirable
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior

employer of choice.Motivators within the Kellogg's company reflect the different

personal aspirations of staff. The working environment provides the opportunity to move
forward and take on responsibilities. There is clear recognition and reward for

Virgin Media case study of “Motivating and engaging employees for better business”

Virgin Media had become the UK’s biggest privately built network although only
involved in the media market over the past 10 years. The success of the company is
largely due to the correctness of personnel orientation and utilization

As a technology company, however, Virgin Media has paid great attention to motivated
employees because in their view these employees will create happy customers and that is
the vital element of the company. Slogan ‘Great people, connected to delighted
customers, connected to great business results’ is the most obvious of this. Company
executives believe that each of their employees is a sailor on the boat to success and
provides opportunities for employees to understand as well as become an important part
of the journey. Indeed, not just the slogan, these statements have eaten into the blood of
the Virgin Media members: “Being Virgin Media means we don't just want to be proud of
what we do, we also want to love how we do it’. Staff satisfaction has created their
loyalty to Virgin Media. Obviously, the principle ‘It is impossible to win the loyalty of
customers without first winning the loyalty of employees’ is right. Based on the Abraham
Maslow theory of 1943 and the history of Virgin Media (Virgin Media case study), it can
be seen that Virgin Media has step by step fulfilled the steps in this diagram. Despite this
controversial theory, Virgin Media has demonstrated that they have the basis for
successful application of this theory to their practice.

Virgin Media staff surveys are ongoing every year using the theories such as Taylor’s
scientific management, Herzberg's two-factor theory and Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Such a positive attitude, the Virgin Media board will not hesitate to change and apply new
theories to the reality of the business.
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior


Indeed, employee satisfaction has always benefited the company in terms of both image
and finances. Good employees with high motivation will always ensure the business is in
the most abundant state of both quantity and quality. Therefore, keeping a smile on the
employee's face and minimizing employee quitting is a big challenge for managers. Not
all managers do it well, and that is why managers should read, understand the theories
and their applicability as well as "experience with staff" for the best management and
operation methods. This is vital in the growth of any morden business.
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior


Chart 1: Top the list of motivating factors (Square Up 2017)

Chart 2: What motivates you to exel and go the extra mile at your organization
(Gorman 2014)
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior


Augustine, A n.d., ‘4 Simple Ways to Make Your Employees Feel Valued’, The Muse,
viewed 23rd June 2017, from <

Belcher, LM n.d., ‘The advantages of using money to motivate employees’, Chron,

viewed 24th June 2017, from <

Burrage, M n.d., ‘5 things that motivate your employees more than money’, Hays
Recruiting Expert Worldwide, viewed 23rd June 2017, from

Doug and Polly White 2015, ‘Money Is Nice, But It's Not Enough to Motivate
Employees’, Entrepreneur, 23rd June 2015, viewed 23rd June 2017, from

Gorman, C 2014, ‘Motivating Employees Takes Culture, Peer Recognition, Going the
Extra Mile’, Talent Management and HR, 19th November 2014, viewed 21st June 2017,
from <

Healthfield, S.M 2016, ‘How Does an Employer Encourage Motivation?’, The Balance,
26th August 2016, viewed 19th June 2017, from <

Jensen, A 2017, ‘5 Ways to Create a Motivating Work Environment’, Andrew Jensen, 28th
March 2017, viewed 24th June 2017, from <
Individual Assignment Subject: Organization Behavior

Kellogg case study n.d., ‘Building a better workplace through motivation’, Business Case
Studies, viewed 22nd June 2017, from

Landrum, S 2015, ‘What truly motivates employees’, Talent Culture, 7th August 2015,
viewed 20th June, 2017, from <

Lavinsky, D 2012, ‘The Employee-Motivation Checklist’, Fast Company, 13 th November

2012, viewed 20th June 2017, from <

Management Study Guide 2017, Importance of Motivation in Human Resource

Development (HRD), Management Study Guide, viewed 20th June 2017, from

Nibusinessinfo n.d. , ‘Lead and motivate your staff’, viewed 24 th June 2017, from

Pozin, I 2015, ‘14 Highly Effective Ways to Motivate Employees’, Inc, 17th November
2015, viewed 21st June 2017, from <

Square Up 2017, Top the list of motivating factors, Square Up UK, viewed 18th June
2017, from <>.

Virgin Media case study n.d., ‘Motivating and engaging employees for better business’,
Business Case Studies, viewed 22nd June 2017, from