Sunteți pe pagina 1din 7

Laboratory Manual


Cascade Refrigeration
System Trainer

Operating Instructions for Cascade Refrigeration
System Trainer


To calculate Coefficient of Performance for Cascade

Refrigeration System Trainer


Cascade Refrigeration System Trainer, Thermometers.

A cascade system is a multistage application in which two
separate refrigerant systems are interconnected in such a
manner that one provides the means of heat rejection
(condenser) for the other. The lower system may, therefore
operate at much lower temperature. Cascade system has
the additional feature, over compound systems of
permitting the use of different refrigerants in each cycle of
the cascade.

All the components of cascade system are mounted on the
powder coated fabricated stand.The cascade system is
divided in the three parts: High side, Intermediate stage
and Low side.The cascade system consist of hermetically
sealed compressors, shell and coil type condenser, de-
super-heater, water flow cut-out, expansion device,
expansion chamber, cascade condenser, oil-Separator, and
low-side evaporator. The refrigerant used on the high side
is R -404a, and the refrigerant used on the low side is R-
23.On the high side a hermetically sealed compressor, shell
and coil type condenser, drier/filter, flow meter, expansion
device, and cascade condenser are connected to each other.
On the low side a hermetically sealed compressor, oil
Separator, De-super heater, cascade condenser,
drier/filter, expansion device, low side evaporator,
expansion chamber, cooling fan are connected with each
Other gadgets include separate pressure gauges for
compressor inlet and outlets pressures, HP/LP cutout for
safety, Cooling thermostats in the cascade condenser and
low side evaporators. separate energy-meters for
compressor and heater; A dimmerstat for controlling input

of the heater; Flow meter for refrigerant flow; Digital
temperature indicator displays temperatures at various
locations as per the selection viz. temperature before and
after compression and before and after expansion.

Initially, when the compressor is started, the refrigerant is
compressed at high pressure, and then it enters into the
shell and coil type condenser, where the flowing water
absorbs all the heat. Then it enters into the drier/filter,
flow meter and it goes into the expansion device where its
expansion takes place and pressure drops. Then it enters
into the cascade condenser where it takes heat from the
low side refrigerant (R-23)

In the low side system compressor discharges refrigerant at

high pressure, then it enters into the oil separator where
compressor oil gets separated from the refrigerant. Then
refrigerant goes into de-super heater where its heat gets
absorbed by flowing water, then it goes into cascade
condenser (i.e., high side evaporator) where its heat is
rejected and it becomes in liquid form. After passing
through drier /filter, expansion device it goes into low side

evaporator where it absorbs heat from chamber. It converts
into low-pressure vapour state. Then it goes into the

1) Place machine in horizontal position surrounded by
adequate ventilation. The machine must have at least
2.0 meters clearances from all sides.
2) Provide power supply of 230 VAC, 50Hz, 1 Ph. With
suitable earthing.
3) Put ON main switch; Compressor ON of high side.
4) Check suction & discharge pressures, check energy-
meter reading.
5) Allow the unit to run for 15-20 minutes to bring down
the temperature of after expansion (temperature no.3
on temperature scanner) in the range -10 to –150 C.
6) After attaining the required temperature after
expansion, put ON compressor for Low side.
7) Again allow the unit to run for 1½ - 2 hours to bring
down the temperature of cascade temperature (i.e.
temperature for low side on thermostat) to –400 C.
8) Take all the readings (temp. at various points and
pressures, energy meter reading etc.) as per the

observation table for LOW SIDE SYSTEM and HIGH
9) Repeat the same procedure if needed.

PART1: HIGH SIDE SYSTEM Refrigerant: R-404a

PART2: LOW SIDE SYSTEM Refrigerant: R-23

Refrigeration effect at low side = Compressor work at low side



Refrigeration effect on high side N2 = Condenser heat rejection on low side

= Compressor work on low side +

refrigeration effect on low side

Compressor work on high side W2 = V X A


COP = N 2 / W2