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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
KNF 3065

NAME : ELSIE JOEWEN ANAK KEN

MATRIC NUMBER : 55867

PROGRAMME : ELECTRONIC (TELECOMMUNICATION)


ENGINEERING

SESSION : 2018/2019

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
94300 KOTA SAMARAHAN
TABLE OF CONTENT

CONTENT PAGE
LIST OF FIGURES 3
LIST OF TABLES 5
ABSTRACT 6
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 7
INTRODUCTION 8
OBJECTIVES 9
1.0 COMPANY BACKGROUND
1.1 HISTORY AND BACKGROUND 10
1.2 LOGO 11
1.3 LOCATION 11
1.4 VISION, MISSION AND OBJECTIVES 12
1.5 ORGANISATION STRUCTURE 12
2.0 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SUMMARY
2.1 WORK SCOPE 13
2.2 TRAINING ATTACHMENT 14
3.0 WORKING EXPERIENCE
3.1 MAIN CONTROL ROOM 15
3.2 OUTSIDE BROADCAST 21
3.3 TV/FM TRANSMITTER 38
4.0 PROJECT - ARDUINO TEMPERATURE SENSOR
4.1 ABSTRACT, COMPONENTS AND OBJECTIVES 49
4.2 PROCEDURES AND RESULTS 55
4.3 PROBLEM ENCOUNTER 68
4.4 PROBLEM SOLVED 68
CONCLUSION 69
REFERENCE 70
APPENDIX 71

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LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE CONTENT
1 RTM Logo
2 Google Map of RTM Miri
3 RTM’s Organisation Structure
4 Main Control Room
5 Tuner
6 APT Connection
7 Orban
8 MOA Conty
9 On Air Flowchart
10 Basic Portable PA Setup
11 Telcom Modular Plugs (8P8C Round Solid)
12 Supercrimp
13 Wire Cutter
14 Network Cable Tester
15 New Network Cable
16 Wires Arrangement
17 Crimp Plug and Wire
18 Audio Cable Tester
19 Female and Male Audio Adapter
20 Audio Cable and Wire Cutter
21 Complete Soldering Tools
22 Separate Grey Sleeve
23 Solder Wires Accordingly
24 Cable Testing
25 Analog Mixer
26 Digital Mixer
27 Power Mixer
28 Studer On-Air 1000
29 The XB-14 (Allen & Health)
30 Tascam M-08
31 Behringer Eurodesk MX9000

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32 Transmitter Exciter
33 Transponder for TV1 & TV2
34 Automatic Changeover Unit
35 Cool Temperature
36 Video Camera
37 Press Conference at General Hospital Miri
38 Press Conference
39 Land Breaking Ceremony
40 Long Lama’s Bridge Opening Ceremony
41 Piasau Jaya’s Mosque
42 Haze Coverage
43 Operation of Fire Fighting
44 Press Conference
45 Career Carnival
46 Murder Case
47 Volunteerism by YSS-ASEAN
48 RTM’s Crew at SMK Marudi Mascot
49 Arduino Uno and USB Cable
50 Power Supply Cable
51 Male to Male Jumper Wires
52 Short-Length Breadboard
53 Long-Length Breadboard
54 10K Potentiometer
55 100K Thermistor
56 LCD Display
57 Pin Header
58 100KΩ Resistor
59 220Ω Resistor
60 Software’s Logo
61 Circuit Diagram
62 Step 1
63 Step 2
64 Step 3
65 Step 4

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66 Step 5
67 Step 6
68 Step 7
69 Step 8
70 Step 9
71 Step 10
72 Step 11
73 Step 12
74 Step 13
75 Step 14
76 Step 15
77 Step 16
78 Step 17
79 Potentiometer Connection
80 Result
81 Handover Project

LIST OF TABLES

TABLES CONTENT
1 Result for Monitoring of Audio and TVs
2 APT Connection Results
3 Monitoring of Kajang’s Frequency
4 Radio Programmes Schedule

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ABSTRACT

This report briefly describes about industrial training activities for the whole 10
weeks at RTM Miri. During the industrial training, I have been placed into engineering
department that contain 3 sub units. The first unit is known as Main Control Room
(MCR). This room is the play the most important role because it functions like a pulse for
this organization. This room are responsible in ensuring the radio programs are
successfully delivered in good quality and organized according to the schedule.

The second unit is known as Outside Broadcast (OB). OB is the unit that
responsible to organize a big program. In this unit, practical students were exposed to
PA systems such as audio equalizer/mixer. Besides, ways to handle the small electrical
stuff (repairing and testing) such as microphone cables were exposed. Indirectly, it
reminds me on my Engineering workshop course and able to apply that knowledge into
this unit. Students were also gaining knowledge and skills on creating a new Ethernet
cable

Lastly, the third unit is known as TV/FM transmitter unit. This unit exposed
practical students to recording and editing video skills. In this unit, students were also
exposed to the knowledge of the way transmitter perform it task. I have successfully
applied the knowledge that I had received from the studies that I had taken on
engineering course.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, I would like to thank God that I study well for 10 weeks of
period with RTM Miri. I would also like to give a huge thanks to Mr Zaidi Bin Bujang
(RTM Miri station manager) and Madam Norisda Bt. Ismail (office secretary) for giving
me an opportunity to learn and work as a practical student in RTM Miri for 10 weeks.

I also wish to acknowledge Madam Hamidah Bt. Abg Suut, Mr Syaffuan Zaini,
Mr Awang Zatia and Madam Nur Amirasari Bt. Rahman as my supervisor that have
been successfully delivered skills and taught important knowledge during the industrial
training. They have contributed a lot. I would also like to express my deepest gratitude
to all the officers, supervisors, leading hands, and operators for share their working
experiences, idea of works and guidance. Every staff lends their help especially during
any difficulties or problems encountered.

Big thanks also towards my industrial training coordinator, Dr Tengku Mohd


Afendi Bin Zulcaffle for the guidance before, during and after the industrial training. I
would also deliver my thanks to my visiting lecturer that is Madam Shamsiah Bt.
Suhaili for her time and evaluation.

I would also like to express my greatest gratitude to my parents, industrial


training friends that are from UiTM, UTeM, UNIMAP, UNIMAS, Adtec and Politeknik
Mukah. Thank you too to my parents for their time and willing to send me every day
from home to RTM even it is far away. As for the friends I made, thank you for sharing
your knowledge.

Last but not least, thank you again for everyone that involved during the 10
weeks period of industrial training. I will cherish the knowledge and memories spent
with everyone in RTM Miri.

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INTRODUCTION

Industrial training program is prerequisite for students that pursue their study
at the Institute of Higher Learning (IPT). A successful Industrial training is essential for
the students to be eligible for the degree. The program planned to help the trainees to be
exposed to the working world and also allow them to implement the studies and the
things they have learned in university in the field they are exposed to. This shall also
enable the students to prepare themselves for future career endeavour.

Besides, the course provides exposure and experience to the students in terms of
technology development, effective communication, teamwork practices, policies,
procedures and regulations, professional perspective and reporting. This course will
build enthusiasm and proactive attitude among students and boost the confidence of the
trainee in solving problems and it can also increase creativity level.

My industrial training started on 12th June 2019 and ended on 23rd August 2019
which was about 10 weeks in order to complete my degree requirement. During my
industrial training, I was placed in three different units. I experience 1 month of
training for each units.

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OBJECTIVES

Industrial training is compulsory for all undergraduates of University Malaysia


Sarawak (UniMAS). In order to produce well-rounded graduated who possess technical
competence, critical thinking, communication skills, business skills adaptation, solution
analysing ability and adequate behavioural skills, UniMAS students must not only learn
theoretically but also gained the experiences by observation and take part in this
internship program. The objectives of this industrial training are as follow:

a) To develop skills in the application of theory to practical work situations.


b) To provide students the opportunity to test their interest in a particular career
before permanent commitments are made.
c) To expose students to real work environment experience gain knowledge in
writing report in technical works/projects.
d) To enhance the ability to improve students creativity skills and sharing ideas.
e) To build a good communication skill with group of workers and learn to apply
proper behaviour of corporate life in industrial sector.
f) To provide opportunities to work with industrial practitioners.
g) To acquaint UniMAS undergraduates with industry and its programmes.

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1.0: COMPANY BACKGROUND

1.1: HISTORY AND BACKGROUND

RTM Miri were built with the cost of RM2.8 Million, and has been launched by
Y.A.B Allahyarham Tun Abdul Razak, Malaysian Prime Minister on 2 September 1975.
The locations of RTM Miri is located on the hill and facing toward South China Sea. The
location is quietly strategic as it has the beautiful views of Miri City. By completing the
development of Marina Bay as Resort Area, it is indirectly brighten up the views, which
is also being a symbolic of the Miri City (Resort City).

RTM Miri building began to build in early year of 1972 and it was constructed
completely 2 years later. The installation works of the instruments are successfully
implemented according to the schedule. It was blessed to have an experienced staff
regarding the installations process. RTM Miri is the third stations after RTM Limbang
stations (1971).

This station has two separate building, which is broadcasting and transmitter.
The broadcasting building accommodates an office space for officers and administrative
staff/account, programme/reporter and engineering. It is also equipped with four studios,
a main control room, one room for library and an auditorium that can fill up 100
audiences. Also, it has a cabin, TV transmitter aerial tower, FM and other facilities.

Since a transmission of broadcast through a medium wave is no being longer


being used, so transmission station’s building is used as store to place old equipment.
RTM Miri consists of 60 staff. RTM Miri release the local broadcast 13 hours a day from
8.00 am until 9.00 pm in four language services that are known as Melayu, Mandarin,
Iban, and Kayan/Kenyah through Miri FM channel.

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1.2: LOGO

Figure 1: RTM Logo

1.3: LOCATION

The exact address and map to Jabatan Penyiaran Miri (RTM) is shown as below.
It is updated and accurate address for 2019.

Jabatan Penyiaran Sarawak


Jalan Temenggung Datuk Oyong Lawai Jau
98000 Miri, Sarawak

Figure 2: Google Map of RTM Miri

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1.4: VISION, MISSION AND OBJECTIVES

Vision:
a) Win the hearts and minds of the people through radio, TV and new media.

Missions:
a) Build informative society through radio, TV and new media.
b) To ensure that RTM is believed and becoming the top choice media.
c) To develop quality, creative and innovative content.
d) Utilize the development of broadcasting infrastructure for coverage that
extends with the latest technology.

Objectives:
a) Spread the information across various broadcast platforms.
b) Encourages the development of the country's creative content industry.
c) Support the Malaysian heritage and culture.
d) Expanding strategic partnerships and strategic collaborations locally and
abroad.

1.5: ORGANISATION STRUCTURE

Figure 3: RTM’s Organisation Structure

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2.0: INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SUMMARY

2.1: WORK SCOPE

During my industrial training at RTM Miri, I was placed in the Engineering


Department, where 3 different units are working below this department. The job scopes
for my industrial training are as follow:

1. Main Control Room (MCR)


a) Understanding the Main Control Room unit’s job scope and their routine in
monitoring the system, the quality of the radio received, quality of show
broadcasted by TV1 and TV2.
b) Backup server data every Monday.
c) Pumping of recorded programmes.
d) Controlling console to change local programme to be on air.

2. Outside Broadcast (OB)


a) Study the jobs related in this unit. Mostly, this unit being involved in outside
program.
b) Make a new microphone cable.
c) Make a new Ethernet cable.
d) Study the ways of using and monitoring the mixer/equalizer.

3. FM/TV Transmitter (TX)


a) Write down the meter reading into daily record books and monitor the
performance of the transmitter including other related equipment.
b) Participate in repairing, common maintenance and the emergency works on the
devices/equipment.
c) Assist in news program and study how the teams are working in producing the
story for broadcasting.

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2.2: TRAINING ATTACHMENT

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3.0: WORKING EXPERIENCES

3.1: MAIN CONTROL ROOM (MCR)

MCR can be definable as control room, operation centre, or operation control


centre (OCC). Main function of this unit is to monitor and control a large facility/
physically dispersed service. The work scope of this unit is listed below:

a) To receive, distribute, and transmit the resources.


b) To begin and end the radio operation of Miri FM.
c) Ensure the program is operating well starting 8am to 9pm.
d) Ready the conty before any radio programmes.
e) Backup server data every Monday.

After almost 1 month training in this unit, there has daily tasks that must do. Such
as, pumping a programmes, changing jack manually onto the patch bay system due to
different broadcast programme is going to be on air (has schedule), and monitoring the
stations quality and record it into a book. Figure 4 below shows the main control room of
RTM.

Figure 4: Main Control Room

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RTM Miri monitor the frequency of radio programmes from Miri. If there is
listener complaining that the programmes are not clear, MCR staff will give the listener
frequency from Lambir tower. Therefore, it is important to know the frequency of all
radio stations. Below are the frequency from Miri and Lambir.

Miri Tower Frequency:


a) R1: Klasik Nasional FM (107.1MHz)
b) R2: Muzik FM (99.3MHz)
c) R3: Sarawak FM (100.3MHz)
d) R4: Traxx FM (104.5MHz)
e) R5: Ai FM (105.3MHz)
f) R6: Red FM (106.3MHz)
g) R7: Miri FM (98.00MHz)

Lambir Tower Frequency:


a) R1: Klasik Nasional FM (91.9MHz)
b) R2: Muzik FM (92.7MHz)
c) R3: Sarawak FM (88.1MHz)
d) R4: Traxx FM (88.9MHz)
e) R5: Ai FM (89.9MHz)
f) R6: Red FM (90.7MHz)
g) R7: Miri FM (95.7MHz)

Miri transmitter tower can only cover Miri area; meanwhile Lambir transmitter
tower can transmit frequency to the rural areas. It is important to monitor the audio
transmitted from Miri tower every hour to ensure the best quality delivered to listeners.

Figure 5: Tuner

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Figure 5 above shows a tuner. In MCR, tuner is used to monitor R1 to R7 audio quality.
It is needed to be checked every hour and wrote down in a book. TV1 & TV2 were just
monitored by usual television. Below is the example of results after checking of audio.

Table 1: Result for Monitoring of Audio and TVs

TV1 TV2
TIME R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 AUD VID AUD VID
0800 ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ MIXED ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
0900 ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ MIXED ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
1000 ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ MIXED ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
1100 ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ MIXED ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
1200 ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ MIXED ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
1300 ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ MIXED ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
1400 ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ MIXED ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
1500 ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ MIXED ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
1600 ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ MIXED ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
1700 ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ MIXED ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

Besides, it is also important to check APT machine connection every hour. APT
machine is to connect with Limbang, Bintulu and Kuching operators. It is used to share
programmes with these locations that have been mentioned. Figure below is the machine
and followed by the example of results after checking the connection.

Figure 6: APT Connection

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Table 2: APT Connection Results

TIME 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700
INPUT ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
OUTPUT ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
REMARK CONNECT OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK

If there is failure for APT connection, it simply means that Bintulu, Limbang and
Kuching station unable to receive programmes from Miri stations. In order to avoid any
machine failure MCR, the room temperature must be less than 21 degree Celsius. Orban
Audio Processor is also used in MCR. This machine is used to compress and process the
audio received from conty. This will result in best quality audio to be published on air.

Figure 7: Orban

Next, it is important to monitor audio from Kajang station too. To monitor


frequency from Kajang, it is required to use radio itself. Below are the examples of
result.

Type of receiver: Himalaya DRM


Type of aerial: Telescopic
S Carrier strength
I Interference
O Overall Readability

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Table 3: Monitoring of Kajang’s Frequency

TIME WEATHER S I O TIME WEATHER S I O


0800 HOT 0 0 0 0800 HOT 0 0 0
0900 “ 0 0 0 0900 “ 0 0 0
1000 “ 0 0 0 1000 “ 0 0 0
1100 “ ✔ ✔ ✔ 1100 “ 0 0 0
1200 “ 0 0 0 1200 “ 0 0 0
1300 “ 0 0 0 1300 “ 0 0 0
1400 “ 0 0 0 1400 “ 0 0 0
1500 “ ✔ ✔ ✔ 1500 “ 0 0 0
1600 “ ✔ ✔ ✔ 1600 “ 0 0 0
1700 “ ✔ ✔ ✔ 1700 “ 0 0 0
FREQUENCY: 11665 KHz (WAI FM) FREQUENCY: 9835 KHz (SARAWAK FM)

The other tasks perform in MCR is pumping of broadcast to Kuching station.


Pumping is the act of sending recorded programmes to other stations. The receiver
station will receive the recorded programmes directly without any delay. Task such as
backup server data every Monday were also performed.

Staff/engineers in MCR must stay focus and alert. Switching programmes at the
console must perform accurately and also in time. Therefore, RTM organization has
organize the programmes as below and must be followed.

Table 4: Radio Programmes Schedule

0600-0900 0900- 1200- 1500- 1700- 1800-0000


1200 1500 1700 1800
MONDAY RELAY LOCAL LOCAL KAYAN KENYAH RELAY
WAI FM (SWITCH & LOCAL LOCAL WAI FM
KUCHING MOA) KAYAN KUCHING
TUESDAY RELAY LOCAL LOCAL KAYAN KENYAH RELAY
WAI FM (SWITCH & LOCAL LOCAL WAI FM
KUCHING MOA) KAYAN KUCHING
WEDNESDAY RELAY LOCAL LOCAL KAYAN KENYAH RELAY

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WAI FM (SWITCH & LOCAL LOCAL WAI FM
KUCHING MOA) KAYAN KUCHING
THURSDAY RELAY LOCAL & LOCAL KAYAN KENYAH RELAY
WAI FM INFO & LOCAL LOCAL WAI FM
KUCHING XPRESI KAYAN KUCHING
(SWITCH
MOA)
FRIDAY RELAY LOCAL LOCAL KAYAN KENYAH RELAY
WAI FM (SWITCH & LOCAL LOCAL WAI FM
KUCHING MOA) KAYAN KUCHING
SATURDAY RELAY LOCAL LOCAL KAYAN KENYAH RELAY
WAI FM (SWITCH & LOCAL LOCAL WAI FM
KUCHING MOA) KAYAN KUCHING
SUNDAY RELAY LOCAL LOCAL KAYAN KENYAH RELAY
WAI FM (SWITCH & LOCAL LOCAL WAI FM
KUCHING MOA) KAYAN KUCHING

There are two conty in RTM which is Main on Air (MOA) and Standby conty.
These conty needs to be prepared and ready for the DJ later on. Every morning before
9.00AM, switch on the lights, air-conditioner and computers in the conty. The rest items
will be handled by DJ of the programme. Figure below is one of the conty in RTM.

Figure 8: MOA Conty

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Lastly, shown below is the process to be on air to be done between DJ in the conty
and staff in MCR. Figure shows the process flow of the programme before it release to
audiences. The DJ will firstly organize the program and do the pumping in the MCR.
The programme usually pumps to RTM Kuching. After the entire programme met the
specific requirements, the programme is ready to be release to the audience through the
RTM transmitter.

Figure 9: On Air Flowchart

3.2: OUTSIDE BROADCAST (OB)

After one month in MCR unit, I was moved to Outside Broadcast (OB) unit.
Mostly, this unit is working on the outside program. The crews of one program are
depends on how big or how many audiences will be attend. Means, if the program are
big, probably the space use is large. The possibility of using more audio equipment is
higher. Unfortunately, there was no outside events or programmes during my one month
training in OB unit.

However, the supervisor gives a lot of knowledge by giving tasks. The first task
giving by my supervisor is to identify the audio equipment used in PA system. A “Public
Address” system is anything that amplifies sound so more people can hear it. It is an
electronic sound amplification and distribution system with a microphone, amplifier and
loudspeakers, used to allow a person to address a large public. As example, the
announcements of departing and arriving of trains at a large and noisy air and rail
terminals. The term is also used for systems which may additionally have a mixing
console, and amplifiers and loudspeakers suitable for music as well as speech, used to
reinforce a sound source, recorded music or a person giving a speech, and distributing
the sound throughout a venue or building.

Simple PA systems are often used in small venues such as school auditoriums,
churches, and small bars. PA systems with many speakers are widely used to make

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announcements in public, institutional and commercial buildings and locations. Intercom
systems, installed in many buildings, have microphones in many rooms allowing the
occupants to respond to announcements. A few things that affect choices for a PA system
include:

a) The kind of music or speech being played.


b) How loud it needs to play?
c) The space where it’s being used.
d) How portable it needs to be?
e) Who is running the system?
f) Desired sound quality and durability.
g) Cost.

Most basic systems these days include several different parts such as:

a) One or more microphones.


b) One or more speakers.
c) A “mixer” that allows the user to control the volume, tone and balance of different
voices or instruments.
d) An amplifier (built into the mixer, built into the speakers, or purchased
separately).
e) Stands to hold the speakers and microphones at appropriate height and angles.

These are the basic terminology of PA system:

a) Amplifier - The part of the system that amplifies the sound. May be purchased
independently (with a separate mixer) or can be purchased as an integrated unit
(a powered mixer).
b) Channels - 'Input' channels usually relate to those items coming into the
amplifier/mixer (microphones, or other equipment which needs to be amplified or
mixed). 'Output' channels usually relate to those items leaving the
amplifier/mixer (speakers/monitors etc.)
c) Delay - An electronic circuit or effects unit - purpose being to delay the audio
signal for a specific period of time.

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d) Equalizer - Equipment used to alter specific frequencies of the sound, thus having
a precise overall effect on the sound heard from the speakers. This equipment is
commonly integrated into an amplifier or mixer, and is now seldom used as a
stand-alone unit.
e) Fader - Another name for an audio level control. Usually refers to a straight-line
slider rather than a rotary control.
f) Jack - Commonly used term to refer to an 'input/output' socket.
g) Level - Another word for signal voltage, (volume, strength or power.)
h) Line-In (Input/Return) - This is where a signal enters the amplifier/mixer.
i) Line-Out (Output/Send) - This is where a signal leaves the amplifier/mixer.
j) Master Volume - Microphone volumes and backing track levels can be controlled
independently via the input channels, however the master volume is used to
increase or decrease the sound of the overall performance (microphone and
instruments simultaneously.)
k) Mixer - This is the piece of equipment which enables you to control various
settings such as the volume of individual microphones/instruments, pan, bass,
midrange and treble. There may also be on-board effects such as reverb, chorus,
delay, echo etc. Many mixers are referred to as having 6, 8, 12, channels etc. This
relates to the number of different microphones or instruments that can be
connected to the mixer. E.g. three connected microphones would use 3 channels
(or lines) of the available 8 on an eight channel mixer. A powered mixer is an
integrated unit that can combine amplifier, equalizer, mixing deck and effects.
l) Monitors - Additional speakers commonly placed in front of the
vocalist/instrumentalist, enabling them to clearly hear their own
sound/performance.
m) Pan - This refers to controls on the mixer used to adjust the amount of volume
sent between left and right speakers. Although very useful when sound from a
left or right speaker may be hindered or obtrusive, many people usually leave the
panning knobs central.
n) Phantom Power - A system providing power for condenser microphones from the
mixer. Most quality microphones are designed to use +48 VDC phantom power.
o) Return - A mixer line input dedicated to the task of returning sound from effects
devices such as reverb units, echo units etc.

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p) Phone Plug/Jack - Commonly found on consumer audio equipment. One of the
most inexpensive connection types - use alternatives if available on your
equipment.
q) XLR Connector - Three-pin connector used in audio for transmitting a balanced
signal (microphones) - also referred to as a Cannon connector.

Figure 10: Basic Portable PA Setup

Figure above shows a basic setup for PA system. The easiest way to remember
and understand the setup, is to remember that anything traveling from the direction of
microphone into the mixer should generally be plugged into the inputs of the mixer,
whilst anything traveling out from the mixer (to the speakers/monitors etc.), should
generally be plugged into the output. Always remember the amplifier/mixer as the
central piece of equipment, and you shouldn't go far wrong.

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a) Firstly, make sure all plugs are removed from sockets and power is off.
b) Plug the end of the microphone cord into the input socket of the mixer (input line
1 of the mixer could be used). There may be two alternative input jacks - a
standard jack plug or XLR connection. Many corded microphones have the XLR
type connection; however either of these connections will suffice for a basic setup.
c) Plug one end of the speaker cable into the output socket of the mixer/amplifier.
The speaker outputs are frequently found at the back of a mixer.
d) Plug the other end of the speaker cable into the input socket on the rear of the
speaker.
e) Repeat steps 3 and 4 with the speaker cable for the additional speaker.
f) Plug the amplifier/mixer into the mains.
g) Switch on.

Other activities were also performed such as making a new network cable. After
making the new network cable, it is required to check the functionality of the wire. The
images below are the items needed to make an network cable.

Figure 11: Telcom Modular Plugs (8P8C Round Solid)

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Figure 12: Supercrimp

Figure 13: Wire Cutter

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Figure 14: Network Cable Tester

Figure 15: New Network Cable

All items in figures above are needed in order to make a new network cable.
Procedures to make it are as below.

Procedure:

a) Remove outside layer of cable using cutter as in figure 13.


b) Arrange small wires inside as figure 16 below.

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Figure 16: Wires Arrangement

c) After arranging, cut little top of the wires to make the length equal to each other.
d) Place the arranged wires to the modular plug as in figure 11 to the supercrimp as
in figure 12. Press hard the supercrimp to lock the modular plug to the wires.
Result of this step should be as figure below.

Figure 17: Crimp Plugs to Wire

e) Lastly, plug in the finished network cable into the network cable tester that is
shown in figure 14 for cable testing. If the LED lights one by one from pin number
1 to 8, it is successfully done.

In OB unit, I also experience making audio cable. Figure below are equipment used
to make an audio cable.

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Figure 18: Audio Cable Tester

Figure 19: Female and Male Audio Adapter

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Figure 20: Audio Cable and Wire Cutter

Figure 21: Complete Soldering Tools

Follow steps below to make an audio cable.

a) Open outside layer of audio cable using cutter.


b) Separate the sleeve from wire as figure below.

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Figure 22: Separate Grey Sleeve

c) Apply to both female and male adapter. Grey sleeve solder to pin 1, white wire to
pin 2 and red wire to pin 3. Solder each wire to pin accordingly as figure below.

Figure 23: Solder Wires Accordingly

d) After done installing male and female adapter. Plug in to audio cable tester to
test the cable. If LED lights up as figure below, it is successfully connected.

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Figure 24: Cable Testing

Last but not least, information about mixers/equaliser was also learnt in the OB
unit. Mixers are items of equipment that arrange multiple input audio signals in a
suitable balance, and they adjust tone quality so that the output audio is easy for the
audience to listen to. There are many types and models of mixer. Below are type and
explanations of each mixer.

Type of mixer:

a) Analog Mixer

Figure 25: Analog Mixer

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Analog mixers adjust the volume and tone of input audio signals. Most of the control
knobs and faders are arranged on the top panel, so it is easy to understand the signal
flow and what state the audio is in. Operating analog mixers is normally an intuitive
process.

b) Digital Mixer

Figure 26: Digital Mixer

Digital mixers processes input audio signals and adjust their volume and tone
using digital signal processing technology. Various kinds of tone control that would be
impossible using analog equipment can be applied using digital processing. Digital
mixers can store the positions of faders and knobs, and recall these positions in an
instant. The faders and knobs perform various functions, so the unit itself remains
compact, even if the number of channels increases. Generally a digital mixer will require
more experience to set up effectively, but will offer far greater functionality than an
analog mixer.

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c) Power Mixer

Figure 27: Power Mixer

Powered mixers are analog mixers with built-in power amplifiers. For this reason,
sound can be played with the mixer directly connected to speakers. In cases where the
same equipment is always connected, powered mixers can be used by simply turning the
power on, so operation is simplified and convenient.

d) Studer On-Air 1000

Figure 28: Studer On-Air 1000

The Studer On Air 1000 brings reliable digital technology and the proven Touch-
n-Action operating concept of the Studer On Air 2000 to a lower-priced segment of the
market.

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Studier’s patented Touch-n-Action graphical user interface makes the Studer On
Air 1000 unique in its class. Mixer settings can be personalized and stored for each
operator. Management of user access rights reduces the risk of human error during
production and live transmission. The Studer On Air 1000 is available in two different
versions, one for predominantly analog environments, the other for predominantly
digital environments. The mixer is equipped with 10 channel faders and 2 master faders
which retain the most important operating elements and adjacent readouts.

The mixer’s standard features are impressive and include a comprehensive


monitoring section, 2 analog inserts, a serial interface, GPIO, and more. Professional
integration into a radio automation system therefore is an easy task. In addition to a
mains input, the console is fitted with a separate socket for 24 V DC, which can be used
together with the mains.

e) The XB-14 (Allen & Health)

Figure 29: The XB-14 (Allen & Health)

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XB-142 offers a host of specialized broadcast features that normally come at a
much higher price, including telephone communication (Telco) channels, mic channel ON
switch sensing, stereo channel start/cue outputs for playback device control, automatic
muting of speaker outputs and much more.

XB-142 incorporates new features and styling based on feedback from the many
broadcasters who have built their operations around the original XB-14. With a wealth
of routing options, dual stereo channels for up to 7 stereo sources, and the addition of a
dedicated Audition bus, enhanced microphone preamps and stereo channel gain range,
XB-142 satisfies the demands of small radio and internet broadcasters as well as larger
studios with multiple rooms. XB-142 is a highly flexible solution if there are no less than
27 logic I/O for remote control and 15 configuration switches.

f) Tascam M-08

Figure 30: Tascam M-08

TASCAM M-08 is designed for live recording, public address, audio visual suites
and all other situations where the combination of small size, high quality audio and
rugged constructions is required. M-08 includes such features:

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i. 4 mono inputs plus 4 stereo inputs.
ii. 2 band EQ on all mono and stereo channel.
iii. 2 dedicated AUX sends. (ONE is PRE and other is POST).
iv. Mute on each input channel.
v. PFL.
vi. Dedicated 2 track input.
vii. 60mm linear master fader.
viii. 4 MONO Effect Returns.
ix. 4XLR MIC inputs.
x. Channel insert on every MONO inputs.
xi. TRS balanced and RCA unbalanced stereo outputs.
xii. Stereo and AUX buss sub inputs.
xiii. Phantom power supply.
xiv. Optional Rackmount ear “RM-08”.

g) Behringer Eurodesk Mx9000

Figure 31: Behringer Eurodesk Mx9000

The Behringer Eurodesk MX9000 delivers the inputs, channels and routing
capability synonymous with analog consoles at more than triple the cost. A guaranteed
work-horse for recording and live sound reinforcement, the MX9000 delivers 24 input
channels and 24 in-line channels for returning multi track recorders, monitor mixers,
keyboard instruments and much more.

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The standard input channels provide balanced line and microphone inputs, the
in-line channels feature balanced line inputs only.
8-subgroups enable multiple input channels to be routed to multi track recorders,
monitors, etc. Inserts on all input channels, subgroups and main outputs provide routing
to external signal processors. All input channels feature a dedicated 4-band EQ;
dedicated 2-band EQ sections are located on all in-line channels. Overall the MX9000
proves to be a cost effective solution for engineers who require maximum routing and
signal quality on a budget.

3.3: TV/FM TRANSMITTER

The last unit I have been attached to was TV/FM Transmitter unit. The work
scope for this unit is:

a) Take video of any outside events for news (TV1) broadcasting.


b) Editing of video for visuals/cutaways and SOT (sound on tape).
c) Check transmitter cabin once a week.
d) Check transmitter antenna license once in every month.

For once in a week routine, recording of readings for TV/FM transmitters in the
transmitter cabin was done. The figure below will show the broadcast equipment that
contain in the cabin.

Figure 32: Transmitter Exciter

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At the heart of all FM transmission systems is the FM exciter. In broadcasting
and telecommunication, the part which contains the oscillator, modulator, and
sometimes audio processor, is called the "exciter". Most transmitters use the heterodyne
principle, so they also have frequency conversion units. Confusingly, the high-power
amplifier which the exciter then feeds into is often called the "transmitter" by broadcast
engineers. The final output is given as transmitter power output (TPO), although this is
not what most stations are rated by.

Effective radiated power (ERP) is used when calculating station coverage, even
for most non-broadcast stations. It is the TPO, minus any attenuation or radiated loss in
the line to the antenna, multiplied by the gain (magnification) which the antenna
provides toward the horizon. This antenna gain is important, because achieving a
desired signal strength without it would result in an enormous electric utility bill for the
transmitter, and a prohibitively expensive transmitter. For most large stations in the
VHF- and UHF-range, the transmitter power is no more than 20% of the ERP.

For VLF, LF, MF and HF the ERP is typically not determined separately. In most
cases the transmission power found in lists of transmitters is the value for the output of
the transmitter. This is only correct for omnidirectional aerials with a length of a quarter
wavelengths or shorter. For other aerial types there are gain factors, which can reach
values until 50 for shortwave directional beams in the direction of maximum beam
intensity.

Figure 33: Transponder for TV1 & TV2

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A transponder is a wireless communications, monitoring, or control device that
picks up and automatically responds to an incoming signal. In a communications
satellite, a satellite transponder receives signals over a range of uplink frequencies
usually from a satellite ground station, amplifies them, and re-transmits them on a
different set of downlink frequencies to receivers on Earth, often without changing the
content of the received signal or signals.

A communications satellite’s channels are called transponders because each is a


separate transceiver or repeater. With digital video data compression and multiplexing,
several video and audio channels may travel through a single transponder on a single
wideband carrier. Original analog video only has one channel per transponder, with
subcarriers for audio and automatic transmission identification service (ATIS).

Non-multiplexed radio stations can also travel in single channel per carrier
(SCPC) mode, with multiple carriers (analog or digital) per transponder. This allows
each station to transmit directly to the satellite, rather than paying for a whole
transponder, or using landlines to send it to an earth station for multiplexing with other
stations.

Figure 34: Automatic Changeover Unit

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Figure 34 shows an Automatic Changeover Unit. An Automatic Changeover Unit
is an electrical switch that switches a load between two sources. Some transfer switches
are manual, in that an operator affects the transfer by throwing a switch, while others
are automatic and trigger when they sense one of the sources has lost or gained power. It
is often installed where a backup generator is located, so that the generator may provide
temporary electrical power if the utility source fails.

Figure 35: Cool Temperature

In addition, the staffs need to ensure the reading of temperature inside the cabin
must between 20ºc to 29ºc. High temperature may lead to broadcast interruption and
equipment breakdown.

Other than that, I was taught how to use a video camera for taking videos during
any events or programmes. Figure below are the video camera that is currently used by
RTM’s engineers.

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Figure 36: Video Camera

It is important to click on the auto-white balance (AWB) button on the video


camera. But before that, it is needed to zoom onto any white surface. After turning on
AWB, turn on the iris to automatic mode. It will help to adjust the brightness
automatically. Below are the lists of programmes/events and figures that I have joined
during training in this unit.

Event:

a) Visitation from Malaysia’s Ministry of Health to the General Hospital including


press conference.

Figure 37: Press Conference at General Hospital Miri

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b) Press conference about Mulu Land’s rights.

Figure 38: Press Conference

c) Land breaking ceremony at Batu Niah by the Deputy Chief Minister of Sarawak.

Figure 39: Land Breaking Ceremony

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d) Opening ceremony of Long Lama’s new bridge by Chief Minister of Sarawak.

Figure 40: Long Lama's Bridge Opening Ceremony

e) Eid al-Adha at Piasau’s Mosque

Figure 41: Piasau Jaya's Mosque

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f) Press conference about Miri city haze coverage.

Figure 42: Haze Coverage

g) Fire fighting operation.

Figure 43: Operation of Fire Fighting

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h) Fire fighting press conference.

Figure 44: Press Conference

i) Malaysia career carnival 2019.

Figure 45: Career Carnival

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j) Press conference at police station.

Figure 46: Murder Case

k) YSS-Asean Volunteers at Beluru’s long house.

Figure 47: Volunteerism by YSS-ASEAN

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l) Chemistry Carnival at SMK Marudi.

Figure 48: RTM's Crew at SMK Marudi Mascot

These are only the events I have joined upon one month in TV/FM transmitter
unit. Other non-related training activities I have joined is Gawai-Raya RTM 2019. After
every video shooting, an editing must be done. Editing of video is using the “Final Cut
Pro X” software at Mac computer. The edited videos are later sent to visual editor at
Kuching through Google Drive or VNGS (Video Network Gathering System). Google
drive is through g-mail and VNGS is similar to pumping. When video is roll over through
VNGS, Kuching RTM’s staff will directly receive it. VNGS method is less time
consuming.

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4.0: PROJECT – ARDUINO TEMPERATURE SENSOR

4.1: ABSTRACT, COMPONENTS AND OBJECTIVES

ABSTRACT

As a part in this industrial training, students were required to propose and create
a project for the company. Project must be related to the company. For RTM, I have
chosen Arduino Temperature Sensor as a part of my project. The reason I chose this
project is because the transmitter cabin, main control room and radio conty must be kept
in certain temperature (above 20 degree Celsius). This is because the server and
machines in these rooms will be able to shut down or malfunction due to hot
temperature. The successful created project was placed in transmitter cabin as requested
by trainee’s supervisor.

Arduino Temperature Sensor is a sensor to sense the surrounding temperature


continuously from time to time. It uses thermometer as the sensor and then display the
temperature readings on the Arduino LCD display screen. Arduino Uno also plays as
important role in this project because coding for the temperature sensor is required so
that the sensor and LCD display screen connected and function.

This project was shared with two other students/trainees from UNIMAS as we
are in the same batch of industrial training. These two students are Michelle Yong and
Mimie ak Rantai from PKEK. We give each other parts for the project as advised by our
industrial coordinator. Michelle was assigned for coding, Mimie was assigned for circuit
diagrams and I was assigned to install electronic parts together following the circuit
diagram done by Mimie.

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COMPONENTS

a. Arduino Uno and USB cable.

Figure 49: Arduino Uno and USB Cable

b. Arduino Uno’s power supply.

Figure 50: Power Supply Cable

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c. Breadboard’s jumper wires (male to male).

Figure 51: Male to Male Jumper Wires

d. Two breadboards.

Figure 52: Short-Length Breadboard

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Figure 53: Long-Length Breadboard

e. 10K potentiometer.

Figure 54: 10K Potentiometer

f. 100K thermistor.

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Figure 55: 100K Thermistor

g. 16-pin LCD display.

Figure 56: LCD Display

h. 16-pin header (male).

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Figure 57: Pin Header

i. 1 x 100KΩ resistor.

Figure 58: 100KΩ Resistor

j. 1 x 220Ω resistor.

Figure 59: 220Ω Resistor

Page | 54
k. Arduino IDE software.

Figure 60: Software's Logo

OBJECTIVES:

a. To develop a useful project for RTM.


b. To detect the temperature of the surroundings
c. To display temperature on LCD after the detection of the surrounding
temperature.

4.2: PROCEDURES AND RESULTS

a. Connect according figure 61 below.

Figure 61: Circuit Diagrams

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b. Connect USB to Arduino and laptop. After connecting the circuit above, input the
coding below to Arduino IDE software to output the temperature readings to the
serial monitor.

int ThermistorPin = 0;
int Vo;
float R1 = 10000;
float logR2, R2, T;
float c1 = 1.009249522e-03, c2 = 2.378405444e-04, c3 = 2.019202697e-07;

void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
}

void loop() {

Vo = analogRead(ThermistorPin);
R2 = R1 * (1023.0 / (float)Vo - 1.0);
logR2 = log(R2);
T = (1.0 / (c1 + c2*logR2 + c3*logR2*logR2*logR2));
T = T - 273.15;
//T = (T * 9.0)/ 5.0 + 32.0;

Serial.print("Temperature: ");
Serial.print(T);
Serial.println(" F");

delay(500);
}

c. Solder 16 pin headers to the LCD screen display. Then place it onto the long
breadboard.
d. Follow the following figures below to place the jumper wires to allocated pins.

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Figure 62: Step 1

Figure 63: Step 2

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Figure 64: Step 3

Figure 65: Step 4

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Figure 66: Step 5

Figure 67: Step 6

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Figure 68: Step 7

Figure 69: Step 8

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Figure 70: Step 9

Figure 71: Step 10

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Figure 72: Step 11

Figure 73: Step 12

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Figure 74: Step 13

Figure 75: Step 14

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Figure 76: Step 15

Figure 77: Step 16

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Figure 78: Step 17

e. After following steps in figures above, input the following codes into the Arduino
IDE software.

#include <LiquidCrystal.h>

int ThermistorPin = 0;
int Vo;
float R1 = 10000;
float logR2, R2, T;
float c1 = 1.009249522e-03, c2 = 2.378405444e-04, c3 = 2.019202697e-07;

LiquidCrystal lcd(12, 11, 5, 4, 3, 2);

void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
}

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void loop() {

Vo = analogRead(ThermistorPin);
R2 = R1 * (1023.0 / (float)Vo - 1.0);
logR2 = log(R2);
T = (1.0 / (c1 + c2*logR2 + c3*logR2*logR2*logR2));
T = T - 273.15;
T = (T * 9.0)/ 5.0 + 32.0;

lcd.print("Temp = ");
lcd.print(T);
lcd.print(" F");

delay(500);
lcd.clear();
}

f. For potentiometer connections follow below. Potentiometer is use as LCD screen


contrast.

Figure 79: Potentiometer Connection

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g. Results at the end are as below. Temperature of the surrounding is being
displayed at the LCD screen.

Figure 80: Result

h. Circuit was placed nicely onto cardboard. We handover the project to RTM Miri
station manager.

Figure 81: Handover Project

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4.3: PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED

a. Hard to find electronic supplier/store in Miri.


b. The shop assistant does not understand what I asked for. I requested for 220Ω
resistor but instead gave me 220KΩ and said it is just the same. Looking for
100KΩ resistor but gave capacitor instead.
c. Temperature given in negative.

4.4: PROBLEM SOLVED

a. Order electronic parts online.


b. Figured out that resistors are not placed correctly. Placed resistor at the right
place and positive readings was obtained.

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CONCLUSION

First and foremost, I have gained so much valuable experiences and knowledge
on commencing my industrial training in the period of 10 weeks with RTM Miri. I am
able to implement on what I had learned in the university in this organization during
industrial training. Apart from that, during the industrial training period, I was able to
establish a good relationship and communication among the RTM staffs and other
industrial trainees.

I believe that these experiences will be platform for me to face real job nature in
the future and I will be able to adapt myself in the real working environment. Even
though I have successfully completed the industrial training, I feel that there is still
more for me to achieve and study. Hence, by revelations that I achieved, I will use with
decently possible to face future job nature that I will go thorough later.

In my opinion, industrial training is a very important to be carried out for all


students in university. This is because this industrial training will give exposure and
work experiences undeceives to students on the job carried out and ways to overcome
problems faced in job. I also believe with this knowledge and skills learnt would be great
encouragement to students to finish up and complement natural continuity job to
achieve self-goals, family, society and country.

Lastly, I hope that this industrial training will be carried on in the future in order
to ensure that a student able to improve their weakness as well as apply all the theory
and subjects learnt in university into real application at working place.

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REFERENCE

a. MIRIfm - Utama. (2019). Retrieved 4 September 2019, from


http://mirifm.rtm.gov.my/
b. McAllister, M. (2019). The Audio Mixer: Key Features & Functions - Produce Like
A Pro. Retrieved 4 September 2019, from https://producelikeapro.com/blog/audio-
mixer-key-features-functions/
c. FM transmitter (personal device). (2019). Retrieved 4 September 2019, from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FM_transmitter_(personal_device)
d. Broadcast transmitter. (2019). Retrieved 4 September 2019, from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadcast_transmitter
e. Orban (audio processing). (2019). Retrieved 4 September 2019, from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orban_(audio_processing)
f. Arduino Uno. (2019). Retrieved 4 September 2019, from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arduino_Uno
g. Basics, C. (2019). Make an Arduino Temperature Sensor (Thermistor Tutorial).
Retrieved 4 September 2019, from http://www.circuitbasics.com/arduino-
thermistor-temperature-sensor-tutorial/
h. Arduino - Software. (2019). Retrieved 4 September 2019, from
https://www.arduino.cc/en/main/software

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APPENDIX

SUPPORT LETTER

Page | 71
COVER LETTER

Page | 72
OFFER LETTER FROM RTM MIRI

Page | 73
PLACEMENT FORM

Page | 74
CERTIFICATE FROM RTM

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