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Why do you think that cells divide?

Do you think that cell division is only exclusive to

The Cell Cycle

 The length of time the cell cycle takes depends on the

type of cell. Usually the more specialized the cell the less
likely it is to divide.

 Red blood cells are replaced at a rate of 2-3


 Nerve cells usually never divide, they enter G0

 Cells follow definite stages of growth, duplication,

and division known collectively as the cell cycle.

 Stages of Cell Cycle:

Gap 1 (G1) Synthesis (S)  G2  Mitosis  Cytokinesis.

* The cell cycle has four main stages.

• The cell cycle is a regular pattern of growth, DNA replication,
and cell division.
Growth and Development

 Cell division is associated with growth and


 Life begins with only one cell from fusion of the

parent’s sex cells then cells begin to grow, divide, and

 Without growth and development, cells will not be

able to serve its purpose
Cell Replacement

 It occurs when old cells in the body die and new cells

 Very important in the regeneration of damaged tissues

or wound healing.
Asexual Reproduction

 Is the production of offspring from a single parent

without the involvement of gametes.

 The offspring is genetically identical with each other

and to the single parent.
 Occurs mostly in unicellular organisms such as
protists and bacteria.

 Binary fission – a process that duplicates the genetic

material, or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and then divides
into two parts (cytokinesis), with each new organism
receiving one copy of DNA.
The Chromosomes

 DNA, a double-stranded molecule, is tightly coiled in

an organized structure called chromosomes.

 It is simply a long, continuous thread of DNA

wounded together by DNA-associated proteins, referred as

 Humans have 46 chrosomes. Chromosomes determines the

genetic fixity among organisms.

 are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic

cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into
structural units called nucleosomes. They are the chief
protein components of chromatin, acting as spools
around which DNA winds, and playing a role in gene

* Mitosis and cytokinesis produce two genetically identical

daughter cells.

• Interphase prepares the cell to divide.

• During interphase, the DNA is duplicated.

The Cell Cycle: Interphase

When a cell is not dividing it is said to be in interphase:

(Interphase- 75% of cell life cycle)

 G1: Gap 1 (pre-synthetic stage)

- still young
- rapid growth
- cell increase in size
- the organelles double
- proteins are produced
- cells are recovering from
an earlier cell division and are
synthesizing components cell
growth and DNA synthesis
- cells that are not dividing
remain this stage throughout
their life

Gap 1 (G1 phase)

 Is the first part of the cell cycle wherein the cell

carries out its normal metabolic functions.

 Example:

– WBCs will mature and perform its function in

defending the body from opportunistic diseases.

– Lung cells facilitates gas exchange among RBCs

while RBCs deliver Oxygen and CO2 into and away
from the cells of the body.

Gap 1 (G1 phase)

 Cells are specialized based on their structures and

 During this phase, cells also increase their size, as
their organelles increase in number.

 In terms of this duration, cells spends most of their life

cycle in this phase though the length differs among cell

 Cells can’t grow beyond its limited size due to the

ratio of the cell surface with its volume.
The Cell Cycle: Interphase

• S: Synthesis, replication of chromatids happens, DNA

replication occurs, chromatids form another set of
chromatids and attaches to them called sister chromatids.

Synthesis (S phase)

 Is the 2nd part of the cell cycle where cells make a

copy of its genetic material in the form of nuclear DNA.

 During this phase, the cell spends considerable amount

of time and energy to make its own copies of its

 Each chromosome contains one DNA molecule that is

copied with enough accuracy through DNA Replication

Synthesis (S phase)

 This ensures that the daughter cells receive exact

copies of the parent’s genetic material during cell division.

 During replication, the 2 strands of each DNA

molecule unzip and separate then each strand is used as
template to form a new and complimentary DNA strand.

 Once this process is done, the nucleus now contains

two complete and identical sets of DNA molecule.

Synthesis (S phase)

 Aside from the DNA, the cell also produces a copy of

protein complex called microtubules that will later help the
cell organize its contents.

 After completion, the cell continues to grow then

prepares for cell division.

The Cell Cycle: Interphase

• G2: Gap 2 (post synthetic stage)

- final preparation of the


- cell prepare for cell


- cells are making sure all

the DNA was replicated


- a little more growth

- the chromosomes start

to undergo


- becoming tightly coiled

Centrioles replicate and

one centriole moves to

each pole.

Gap 2 (G2 phase)

 During this phase, cells continue to carry out their

normal functions and also undergo further growth.

 This stage contains a critical checkpoint before

transitioning to the next stage. The cells make sure that
everything is in order, including growing to its correct size
and duplicating DNA without damage.
Mitosis involves the division of the nucleus into two
genetically identical nuclei.

– Has four parts, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase,

and Telophase.

 During this stage, the hereditary material of the parent

cell is given to the daughter cells.

 This leads to the formation of two daughter cells

containing the identical genetic materials.


 The goal of mitosis is to distribute the identical

set of genetic instructions, that is, one copy of each
chromosome to the two daughter cells

 it is logical for DNA replication to occur before

mitosis begins.

 During this stage, the cell’s nuclear membrane

disintegrates, while the DNA condenses, forming two

 Basically divides the cytoplasm of the cell.

 Begins during telophase and continues after the

nuclei have formed in the daughter cells.

 Centrioles move to each pole of the cell

 Chromosomes appears like long threads

 Nucleolus becomes less distinct

 Nuclear membrane is still visible

 Formation of asters


 Centrioles nearly at opposite sides of the nucleus

 Nuclear membrane slowly disintegrates

 Chromosomes move toward the equator

 Nucleolus is no longer visible


 Nuclear membrane has completely disappeared

 Formation of the metaphase plate

 Centromere of chromosome is attached to a spindle

fibril at the equator

 Centrioles are at the opposite ends of the poles


 Sister chromatids separate and begin moving toward

opposite poles of the cell

 Sister chromatids start to move toward the poles,

seemingly being pulled by the thread or fibers

 Migration of chromosomes to their respective poles

 Cytokinesis begins

 Beginning of slight cleavage furrow formation

Formation of new nuclear membrane
Deepening of cleavage furrow and cells finally divide into 2
Reappearance of nucleolus
Replication of centrioles
Cytokinesis is almost complete

Rate of Cell Division

Regulation of Cell Cycle

 External Factors

– Come from outside of the cell that are in forms of

messages from nearby cells or from remote parts of the
organism’s body.

– Physical and Chemical factors help regulate the cell

– When a cell touches another cell, it stops dividing – a
phenomenon called contact inhibition.

– Cells that would only grow if surface is available and

stop dividing when detached from favorable conditions
– a phenomenon called anchorage dependent.
Regulation of Cell Cycle

– This means that cells have receptors in their cell

membrane and also found on neighboring cells that bind
them together and causing cell’s cytoplasm to form
structures that can block the signals, thus, stopping the
continuous division.

– Chemical signals released by the cell such as growth

factors provide instructions for other cells to grow.
Regulation of Cell Cycle

– In summary, cell growth and division occur in

response to different growth factors present in cells.

 Internal Factors

– Can also bind receptors that will later on trigger

internal factors.

– these come from inside the cell that include several

types of molecules in its cytoplasm such as kinases and
Regulation of Cell Cycle

 Apoptosis

– Human cells appear to be programmed to undergo

many cell divisions and then die.

– This orderly programmed cell death is called

apoptosis, which is different from unintentional cell
death caused by mechanical injury or infection among
cells. (Initiated by either mitochondria or lysosome)

– It is the body’s way to get rid of a cell struck at a cell

cycle checkpoint or in irreparable condition to eliminate
cells that are no longer functioning as when WBCs have
done their part in destroying invaders.

– This process is needed by the body to ensure proper

cell functioning.
Apoptosis Vs. Necrosis.

 Apoptosis is a programmed cell death that is initiated

by cells when they lack any incoming survival signal in a
form of trophic factors or when they detect extensive DNA
damage in their own nucleus, while Necrosis occurs when
cells die accidentally due to, say, trauma (ex. Spider bites, or
lack of nutrient supply in patients suffering from diabetes)
Major steps of apoptosis:

 Cell shrinks

 Cell fragments

 Cytoskeleton collapses

 Nuclear envelope disassembles

 Cells release apoptotic bodies