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Why do you think that cells divide?

Do you think that cell division is only exclusive to


eukaryotes?
The Cell Cycle

 The length of time the cell cycle takes depends on the


type of cell. Usually the more specialized the cell the less
likely it is to divide.

 Red blood cells are replaced at a rate of 2-3


million/sec

 Nerve cells usually never divide, they enter G0

 Cells follow definite stages of growth, duplication,


and division known collectively as the cell cycle.

 Stages of Cell Cycle:

Gap 1 (G1) Synthesis (S)  G2  Mitosis  Cytokinesis.

* The cell cycle has four main stages.


• The cell cycle is a regular pattern of growth, DNA replication,
and cell division.
Growth and Development

 Cell division is associated with growth and


development

 Life begins with only one cell from fusion of the


parent’s sex cells then cells begin to grow, divide, and
develop.

 Without growth and development, cells will not be


able to serve its purpose
Cell Replacement

 It occurs when old cells in the body die and new cells
form.

 Very important in the regeneration of damaged tissues


or wound healing.
Asexual Reproduction

 Is the production of offspring from a single parent


without the involvement of gametes.

 The offspring is genetically identical with each other


and to the single parent.
 Occurs mostly in unicellular organisms such as
protists and bacteria.

 Binary fission – a process that duplicates the genetic


material, or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and then divides
into two parts (cytokinesis), with each new organism
receiving one copy of DNA.
The Chromosomes

 DNA, a double-stranded molecule, is tightly coiled in


an organized structure called chromosomes.

 It is simply a long, continuous thread of DNA


wounded together by DNA-associated proteins, referred as
histones.

 Humans have 46 chrosomes. Chromosomes determines the


genetic fixity among organisms.
HISTONES

 are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic


cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into
structural units called nucleosomes. They are the chief
protein components of chromatin, acting as spools
around which DNA winds, and playing a role in gene
regulation.

* Mitosis and cytokinesis produce two genetically identical


daughter cells.

• Interphase prepares the cell to divide.

• During interphase, the DNA is duplicated.

The Cell Cycle: Interphase


When a cell is not dividing it is said to be in interphase:

(Interphase- 75% of cell life cycle)

 G1: Gap 1 (pre-synthetic stage)

- still young
- rapid growth
- cell increase in size
- the organelles double
themselves
- proteins are produced
- cells are recovering from
an earlier cell division and are
synthesizing components cell
growth and DNA synthesis
- cells that are not dividing
remain this stage throughout
their life

Gap 1 (G1 phase)

 Is the first part of the cell cycle wherein the cell


carries out its normal metabolic functions.

 Example:

– WBCs will mature and perform its function in


defending the body from opportunistic diseases.

– Lung cells facilitates gas exchange among RBCs


while RBCs deliver Oxygen and CO2 into and away
from the cells of the body.

Gap 1 (G1 phase)

 Cells are specialized based on their structures and


functions.
 During this phase, cells also increase their size, as
their organelles increase in number.

 In terms of this duration, cells spends most of their life


cycle in this phase though the length differs among cell
types.

 Cells can’t grow beyond its limited size due to the


ratio of the cell surface with its volume.
The Cell Cycle: Interphase

• S: Synthesis, replication of chromatids happens, DNA


replication occurs, chromatids form another set of
chromatids and attaches to them called sister chromatids.
-

Synthesis (S phase)

 Is the 2nd part of the cell cycle where cells make a


copy of its genetic material in the form of nuclear DNA.

 During this phase, the cell spends considerable amount


of time and energy to make its own copies of its
chromosomes.

 Each chromosome contains one DNA molecule that is


copied with enough accuracy through DNA Replication

Synthesis (S phase)

 This ensures that the daughter cells receive exact


copies of the parent’s genetic material during cell division.

 During replication, the 2 strands of each DNA


molecule unzip and separate then each strand is used as
template to form a new and complimentary DNA strand.

 Once this process is done, the nucleus now contains


two complete and identical sets of DNA molecule.

Synthesis (S phase)

 Aside from the DNA, the cell also produces a copy of


protein complex called microtubules that will later help the
cell organize its contents.

 After completion, the cell continues to grow then


prepares for cell division.

The Cell Cycle: Interphase

• G2: Gap 2 (post synthetic stage)


- final preparation of the

cell

- cell prepare for cell

division

- cells are making sure all

the DNA was replicated

correctly;

- a little more growth

- the chromosomes start

to undergo

condensation

- becoming tightly coiled

Centrioles replicate and

one centriole moves to

each pole.

Gap 2 (G2 phase)

 During this phase, cells continue to carry out their


normal functions and also undergo further growth.

 This stage contains a critical checkpoint before


transitioning to the next stage. The cells make sure that
everything is in order, including growing to its correct size
and duplicating DNA without damage.
Mitosis
Mitosis involves the division of the nucleus into two
genetically identical nuclei.

– Has four parts, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase,


and Telophase.

 During this stage, the hereditary material of the parent


cell is given to the daughter cells.

 This leads to the formation of two daughter cells


containing the identical genetic materials.

Mitosis

 The goal of mitosis is to distribute the identical


set of genetic instructions, that is, one copy of each
chromosome to the two daughter cells

 it is logical for DNA replication to occur before


mitosis begins.

 During this stage, the cell’s nuclear membrane


disintegrates, while the DNA condenses, forming two
nuclei
Cytokinesis

 Basically divides the cytoplasm of the cell.

 Begins during telophase and continues after the


nuclei have formed in the daughter cells.
EARLY PROPHASE

 Centrioles move to each pole of the cell

 Chromosomes appears like long threads

 Nucleolus becomes less distinct

 Nuclear membrane is still visible

 Formation of asters

LATE PROPHASE

 Centrioles nearly at opposite sides of the nucleus

 Nuclear membrane slowly disintegrates


 Chromosomes move toward the equator

 Nucleolus is no longer visible

METAPHASE

 Nuclear membrane has completely disappeared

 Formation of the metaphase plate

 Centromere of chromosome is attached to a spindle


fibril at the equator

 Centrioles are at the opposite ends of the poles

EARLY ANAPHASE

 Sister chromatids separate and begin moving toward


opposite poles of the cell

 Sister chromatids start to move toward the poles,


seemingly being pulled by the thread or fibers
LATE ANAPHASE

 Migration of chromosomes to their respective poles


 Cytokinesis begins

 Beginning of slight cleavage furrow formation

TELOPHASE
Formation of new nuclear membrane
Deepening of cleavage furrow and cells finally divide into 2
parts
Reappearance of nucleolus
Replication of centrioles
Cytokinesis is almost complete

Rate of Cell Division


Regulation of Cell Cycle

 External Factors

– Come from outside of the cell that are in forms of


messages from nearby cells or from remote parts of the
organism’s body.

– Physical and Chemical factors help regulate the cell


cycle.
– When a cell touches another cell, it stops dividing – a
phenomenon called contact inhibition.

– Cells that would only grow if surface is available and


stop dividing when detached from favorable conditions
– a phenomenon called anchorage dependent.
Regulation of Cell Cycle

– This means that cells have receptors in their cell


membrane and also found on neighboring cells that bind
them together and causing cell’s cytoplasm to form
structures that can block the signals, thus, stopping the
continuous division.

– Chemical signals released by the cell such as growth


factors provide instructions for other cells to grow.
Regulation of Cell Cycle

– In summary, cell growth and division occur in


response to different growth factors present in cells.

 Internal Factors

– Can also bind receptors that will later on trigger


internal factors.

– these come from inside the cell that include several


types of molecules in its cytoplasm such as kinases and
cyclins
Regulation of Cell Cycle

 Apoptosis

– Human cells appear to be programmed to undergo


many cell divisions and then die.

– This orderly programmed cell death is called


apoptosis, which is different from unintentional cell
death caused by mechanical injury or infection among
cells. (Initiated by either mitochondria or lysosome)

– It is the body’s way to get rid of a cell struck at a cell


cycle checkpoint or in irreparable condition to eliminate
cells that are no longer functioning as when WBCs have
done their part in destroying invaders.

– This process is needed by the body to ensure proper


cell functioning.
Apoptosis Vs. Necrosis.

 Apoptosis is a programmed cell death that is initiated


by cells when they lack any incoming survival signal in a
form of trophic factors or when they detect extensive DNA
damage in their own nucleus, while Necrosis occurs when
cells die accidentally due to, say, trauma (ex. Spider bites, or
lack of nutrient supply in patients suffering from diabetes)
Major steps of apoptosis:

 Cell shrinks

 Cell fragments

 Cytoskeleton collapses

 Nuclear envelope disassembles

 Cells release apoptotic bodies