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Ship Knowledge
Klaas van Dokkum
Side 1
Side 2
Klaas van Dokkum
Klaas van Dokkum
Peter Schotvanger
DOKMAR, Maritime Publishers BV
P.O.Box 360
1600 AJ Enkhuizen, The Netherlands.
1st edition: 2003
2nd edition: 2005
3rd edition: 2006
4th edition: 2007
5th edition: 2008
6th edition: 2010
7th edition: 2011
© Copyright 2011, DOKMAR, Enkhuizen, The Netherlands
ISBN 978-90-71500-18-3
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or
transmitted in any form or by any means, including electronic, mechanical, by photocopy, through
recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.
Great care has been taken with the investigation of prior copyright. In case of omission the rightful
claimant is requested to inform the publishers.
Side 3

I stand in great debt to the following persons for their invaluable cooperation in realizing this
sixth edition:
- Mr J.H. ten Katen, retired ship repairer and ex Lloyd's Surveyor, for his rich experience in the
shipping industry and his textual contributions in plain, simple wording. He expertly provided
corrections and added much supplementary material, as well.
- Professor Thomas Lamb (University of Michigan, USA) submitted the contents of the first edition
and the concept of the 2nd one in scrupulous detail.
He, also, possesses the talent of putting his expert knowledge in the field of shipbuilding in plain
terms, greatly contributing to the readability of the work.
- To Mr Erwin van den Berg (Naval Architect) I am indebted for the bulk of corrective work to the
second edition that he accomplished in the very short time available.
- Mr Klaas Slot ( gratuitously provided the book's firstclass
photographs, for which the author owes him his sincere gratitude.
The following persons, authorities each in their field, supplied the following chapters:
Chapter 3 part 4 Jan Groen Naval Architect
Chapter 4 Arie Stuurman Naval Architect
Guus van der Bles Naval Architect
Chapter 6 part 7 Hans ten Katen Naval Architect
Chapter 11 part 1 and 2 Hans ten Katen Naval Architect
Chapter 13 René Borstlap Electrical Engineer
Jan van Boerum Electrical Engineer
Chapter 16 part 4 Herbert Koelman Naval Architect
- Carmen Koenen-Loos, The Netherlands
- Michel Wijnhold, The Netherlands
Textual corrections and proof readings:
- Carol Conover, The Netherlands
- Mike Cooke-Yarborough, Naval Architect, UK
- Mimi Kuyper-Heeres, Senior lecturer Nautical English, Terschelling, The Netherlands
- Iain Irving, Dover, UK
- Peter Bos, Master at Holland America Line, USA
- Jacob Pinkster, M.Sc. FRINA, Naval Architect, TU-Delft, The Netherlands
- Ubbo van Sijtsema, The Netherlands
And, of course, my wife Joke for all her support and advice during the work on this book.
Side 4


In preparing the 7th English edition a number of inadequacies, omissions and defects of the 6th
edition have been remedied, some of the chapters have been considerably rewritten, many subjects
have been improved and quite a lot of new ones have been added.
The various subjects pertaining to modern shipbuilding and seamanship as well as to present-day
shipping trends and the offshore industry, are dealt with in this book in a very clear and detailed
An attempt is made to give as complete an overview as possible of ships, pertinent auxiliaries,
systems, rules and regulations.
The book provides a rich source of maritime information meant for all those with an interest in
It is eminently suitable for maritime students and newcomers in the field. For those employed in
shipbuilding, shipping and related fields, this book is an efficient reference and convenient manual.
In order to facilitate finding a certain word or subject, an index and list of abbriviations are
included at the back of the book.
The author aims at forging a strong link between the contents of the book and the views of its
readers, and any reactions, recommendations or criticism are highly welcome.
On the website you will find free down loads of questions pertaining to each
chapter and an explanation of the abbreviations used in this book.
Side 5

15. SAFETY 338
Side 6

Figurtekst slut.
Side 7
Side 8

1 Introduction 10
2 Multi-purpose ship 10
3 Mega yacht 12
4 Container ship 14
5 Car & passenger ferry 16
6. Chemical tanker and LNG tanker 18
7. Offshore support vessels 20
8. Fishing vessel 22
9. Clipper ship 24

1 Introduction
This chapter shows some isometric views of ships. Ail visible parts and spaces are numbered and
named. This is meant as an introduction to different types of ships and can be used as a reference
for the following chapters.

2 Multi-purpose ship
1. Rudder
2. Propeller
3. Main engine with gearbox and shaft generator
4. CO2 bottles in CO2 room
5. Man overboard boat (MOB)
6. Free fall lifeboat
7. Crane for MOB, lifeboat, life raft and provisions.
8. Funnel with all exhaust pipes
9. Mainmast with navigation lights
10. Mast table with radar scanners
11. Monkey island with magnetic compass and search light
12. Accommodation
13. Hatch stacking crane
14. Heavy fuel oil tank
15. Bulk cargo
16. Vertical bulkhead or pontoon
17. Heavy cargo, steel coils
18. Project cargo
19. Horizontal decks or hatch covers
20. General cargo, rolls of paper
21. Sheer strake
22. Hold fan exhausts shaft generator
23. Fixed bulkhead
24. Container pedestal
25. Tank top, max. load 15 t/m2
26. Containers, 1 bay, 5 rows, 3 tiers
27. Vertical bulkhead or pontoon provisions.
28. Hatch coaming
29. Wing tank (ballast)
30. Bulk cargo
31. Side deck
32. Stacked hatches
33. Foremast with forward steaming light
34. Breakwater
35. Anchor windlass
36. Collision bulkhead
37. Deep tank
38. Bow thruster in tube
39. Bulbous bow and forepeak tank
40. Port side
41. Starboard side
Side 9

Principal Dimensions:
Length overall. 118.55 metres
Length between .p.p 111.85 metres
Breadth moulded 15.20 metres
Depth 8.45 metres
Design Draft 6.30 metres
Corresponding deadweight 6600 tons
(excluding grain bulkheads/tweendeck)
Rammetekst slut.
Containers at mean draft of approximately 6.30 meter: in hold 174 TEU (Twenty feet Equivalent
Units) on deck 96 TEU
Tonnage Regulation (London 1969) 4900 Gross Tonnage
Grain capacity (excluding bulkheads) 328500 Cubic Feet
At a draft of 6.30 metres service speed will be 14 knots, with a shaft power of 3321 kilowatt.
Main engine = 3840 kW / 150 kW for PTO (Power Take Off) / 90% MCR (Maximum Continuous
Rammetekst slut.
Side 10

3 Mega Yacht
Principal particulars:
Length overall 82,00 metres
Maximum beam 14,20 metres
Maximum speed approximately 20 knots
Accommodation 1 master suite, 2 VIP and 3 twin guest cabins
Material hull - steel, superstructure - aluminum
Engines propulsion MTU diesels, 2 × 4680 Hp
Fuel capacity 294 m3
Naval architects oceAnco
Exterior design Nuvolari & Lenard
Interior design Nuvolari & Lenard, Alberto Pinto
Rammetekst slut.
1. Steering flat
2. Garage
3. Retractable azimuth thruster
4. Reversing gearbox
5. Propulsion engine, starboard
6. Crew lounge
7. Crew mess
8. Main lobby with guest entrance
9. VIP cabin
10. Crew cabin
11. Bow thruster
12. Swimming pool with adjustable floor in top position usable as helipad or dance floor
13. Glass elevator
14. Dining room
15. Guest cabin
16. Main Saloon
17. Upper deck saloon
18. Gym and massage parlour
19. Bridge
Side 11
Side 12

4a Container ship

The numbers shown in this picture are row numbers
Figurtekst slut.
View of the hatch from the bridge.
From hatch to highest container the Tier numbers are: 82 - 90
Figurtekst slut.
Principal particulars:
Length overall 335 metres
Width overall 42.80 metres
Height up to 1st deck 24.50 metres
Max. draft 14.60 metres
Capacity 104,400 tons
Container capacity 8,750 TEU
Class Germanischer Lloyd
Speed 25 knots
Main engine MAN B&W 12k98MC, 68,640 kW
Shipyard Hyundai Heavy Industries, S. Korea
Rammetekst slut.
1. Transom
2. Freefall lifeboat
3. Rudder + propeller
4. Double-hull side with fuel or ballast water
5. Main engine
6. Accommodation
7. Stores crane
8. 20' containers
9. 40' containers
10. Walkway with container supports
11. Double bottom with fuel or ballast water
12. Bow thruster room
13. Bulbous bow
14. Bay 1
Side 13

4b Multi-purpose ship
TYPE: Highest Ice Class (up to 8.3m draft)
Double Hull Box-shaped Multi
Purpose Tweendeck/Container Carrier
FLAG: Cyprus
CLASSIFICATION: GL + 100 A5, E3, G, General Cargo
strengthened for heavy cargoes, equipped for
carriage of containers, + MC E3 AUT.
SOLAS II-2 Reg.54 Dangerous goods St
Lawrence / Great Lakes fitted
Length o. a.: 143.15 metres
Length b.p.: 133.00 metres
Breadth moulded: 22.80 metres
Breadth max.: 23.13 metres
Depth to main deck: 13.30 metres
Deadweight summer: 17,452 mt
Fresh water allowance: 206 mm
Draft design / max: 8.3 m / 9.71 m Speed at designed draft: abt 15.5 knots
Speed at max draft: abt 15.0 knots
GT: 12,993
NT: 5,894
Side 14
5 Car & Passenger Ferry
1. Rudder
2. Controllable pitch propeller
3. Stern tube
4. Ballast tank
5. Aft engine room with gearbox
6. Seawater inlet chest
7. Forward engine room with 1 of the 4 main engines
8. Stern ramp
9. Mooring gear
10. CO2 room
11. Harbour control room for loading officer
12. Main deck for trailers and double stacked containers
13. Accommodation ladder
14. Outside decks
15. Lifeboat in davits
16. Deck 11
17. Funnel
18. Exhaust pipes
19. Panorama lounge
20. Officers and crew messes
21. Passenger cabins
22. Fast-rescue boat
23. Drivers accommodation
24. Upper trailer deck
25. Ramp to lower hold
26. Stabilizer, retractable
27. Shops and restaurants
28. Helicopter deck
29. Entertainment spaces and bars
30. Fan room
31. Heeling tank
32. Void
33. Ro-Ro cargo
34. Web frame
35. Car deck
36. Marine evacuation system
37. Cinema
38. Satellite dome for internet
39. Satellite dome for communication (Inmarsat)
40. Radar mast
41. Officers cabins
42. Wheelhouse
43. Car deck fan room
44. Fore deck
45. Anchor
46. Bulbous bow
Side 15
Principal particulars:
Delivered: Nov. 2001
Contract Price: 128 million
Lloyd's Register +100A1, Roll-on Roll-off Cargo and Passenger Ship + LMC, UMS, SLM.
Length o.a. 215.10 m
Length b.p. 203.70 m
Beam mld. 31.50 m
Draught design 6.05 m
Depth 9.40 m
GT 59,925
NT 26,868
tDW design 8,800
tDW scantling 10,350
Total capacity 1360
- cabins 546
Car / Trailer Deck:
Cars 1380
Lane 3355 m.
Crew: 141
Stern ramp (I × w)
12.5×18 m
Main engines (4):
Output, each 9450 Kw
Output, total 51394 BHP
Rpm 500
Aux engines (2):
kW each 4050
Rpm 720
Propellers (2):
Diameter 4.9 m
Rpm 153
Bow thrusters (2):
kW each 2000
Speed / Consumption:
Trial speed 23.8 knots
Service speed 22.0 knots
Fuel consump. 130.8t./24hr
Fuel quality 380 cSt
Tank Capacities:
Heavy fuel oil 1000 m3
Lub oil 50 m3
Fresh water 400 m3
Ballast water 3500 m3
Rammetekst slut.
Side 16

6 Chemical tanker and LNG tanker

Side 17

Chemical tanker
1. Rudder with conventional propeller
2. Tank heating / tank wash room
3. Cofferdam, empty space between two tanks
4. Vent pipes with pressure vacuum valves
5. Hose crane
6. Manifold
7. Transverse horizontally corrugated bulkhead
8. Wing tank in double hull
9. Double bottom tank
10. Tank top
11. Longitudinal vertically corrugated bulkhead
12. Rail
13. Catwalk
14. Deck longitudinals
15. Forecastle with anchoring and mooring gear
16. Bow thruster
17. Bulbous bow

LNG tanker (MOSS-Rosenberg Principle)

1. Rudder
2. Propeller
3. Tail shaft
4. Propulsion turbines
5. Condenser
6. Boiler
7. Uptake / funnel
8. Stores crane
9. Spherical cargo tanks
10. Centre column with ladder and cargo pumps
11. Cargo tank safety devices
12. Walkway
13. Forward lookout
14. Manifold
15. Hose crane
16. Insulation
Side 18

7 Offshore Support Vessels (OSV)

Figurtekst slut.
Multipurpose support vessel
Figurtekst slut.
Side 19
1. Working deck
2. Anchor roller
3. Steering gear
4. Starboard ducted propeller
5. Stern tube
6. Thruster
7. Azimuth thruster
8. Tanks for dry bulk cargo e.g. cement / mud
9. Deck cranes
10. Propeller shaft
11. (Reduction) Gear box
12. Main engine
13. Heavy lift crane
14. Liferafts
15. MOB-boat with crane
16. Lifeboat
17. Storage reel for steel wires for anchor handling
18. Bridge with controls for deck gear and ship's manoeuvring
19. Fire fighting monitor
20. Radar antennas
21. Antenna for communication system / satellite antenna
22. Switchboard
23. Anchor windlass
24. Helicopter deck
25. Auxiliary generator
Multipurpose support vessel
Figurtekst slut.

A larger type Anchor Handling Tug Supplier (AHT'S)
Figurtekst slut.
Anchor Handling Tug Supplier
Figurtekst slut.
Side 20

8 Fishing vessel
1. Rudder
2. Kort nozzle
3. Propeller
4. Engine room
5. Engine room bulkhead
6. Main engine
7. Fuel tanks, two wing tanks and a centre tank
8. Starboard bracket pole, used when fishing with nets and otter boards.
The derrick will not be used in that case
9. Portal mast
10. Revolving drum for nets
11. Funnel
12. Mess room, dayroom
13. Bridge with navigational equipment and control panels for the main engine, and the nets and
fish winch
14. Cabin for four
15. Bulwark
16. Bulwark frame
17. Freeing port
18. Wooden work deck
19. Fish tank hatch
20. Drop chute
21. Fish hold, with an insulation layer of about 20 cm all around
22. Bilge keel
23. Sheer strake
24. Double bottom
25. Bow thruster installation
26. Name of the ship and fishery (registration) number
27. Fishing winch
28. Conveyor belt and fish cleaning table
29. Fairleads for fish line
30. Forecastle deck
31. Fishing wire blocks
32. Fishing wire
33. Fishing derrick
34. Mast
35. Radar antenna on mast

A comparable type of fishing vessel in service
Figurtekst slut.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 21
Principal particulars:
Length: 23.99 metres
Breadth: 6.20 metres
Depth: 2.70 metres
Gross Tonnage: 102 GT
Delivered: 2000
Main Engine: 300 horse power
Rammetekst slut.

Fishing vessel on her sea trials
Figurtekst slut.
Side 22

9 Clipper ship "Stad Amsterdam"

1. Mizzen topgallant
2. Mizzen topsail
3. Crossjack
4. Spanker
5. Longroom
6. Steering wheel
7. Mizzen top
8. Main lower topsail yard
9. Longroom sky light
10. Chart room
11. Main upper topsail
12. Main lower topsail
13. Main course
14. Mainstay
15. Main top
16. Fore upper topsail
17. Fore lower topsail
18. Brace winches
19. Harbor entrance
20. Davits
21. Deck pantry
22. Lower deck
23. Tween deck
24. Chicken lockers
25. Capstan
26. Boat gear
27. Fore course
28. Foretop
29. Forestay
30. Life boat
31. Crew cabins
32. Side lights
33. Fore topmast staysail
34. Inner jib
35. Outer jib
36. Flying jib
37. Bowsprit
38. Cathead
39. Figurehead
40. Bobstays
41. Bow thruster
42. Accommodation
43. Lounge
44. Owner's cabin
45. Propeller frame
46. Martingale or dolphin striker
47. Jib boom
Side 23
Principle particulars:
Length overall: 76 metres
Length over deck: 60.5 metres
Beam over all: 10.5 metres
Air draft: 46.5 metres
Draft (max.): 4.8 metres
Number of sails: 29
Area of sails: 2,200 m2
Engine: 749 kW
GT: 723
Speed under sail: 16.5 knots
Speed under power: 11 knots
Building yard: Damen Oranjewerf, Amsterdam
Building time: 1997 - 2000
Rammetekst slut.
Side 24

Figurtekst slut.
Side 25
Side 26


1 Principal dimensions 28
2 Form coefficients 33
2 Hull-form (Lines Plan) 35
4 Drawings 39
5 Important data on various ships 44

1 Principal dimensions
1.1 Definitions
Length overall
Length of the ship between extremities.
Length between perpendiculars
Length from aft perpendicular (centre of rudderstock) to forward perpendicular
Load line Length
Length as used in freeboard calculation
Width of the hull, usually inside shell plating
Height from baseline to uppermost continuous deck at side, inside plating
The maximum depth underwater, incl. shell plating.
Imaginary lines, perpendicular to the base line or plane (and the water line). On a ship there are:
- Forward Perpendicular (FPP or Fp). This line crosses the intersection of the water line and the
- After Perpendicular (APP or AP) This line usually aligns with the center line of the rudder stock
(the imaginary line around which the rudder rotates).
The perpendiculars are shown on the lines plan. They are the ends of the 'block' which contains the
underwater part of the hull.
Water Line
The water line of a ship lying in the water. There are different water lines for different situations,
such as:
Light water line
The water line of a ship carrying only her regular inventory.
Deep water line
The water line of maximum load draught in seawater.
Construction (Scantling) water line (CWl)
The water line used as the limit to which the various structural components are designed.
1. Plimsoll mark
2. Load line mark, a number of horizontal lines indicating the minimum freeboard as above
3. The deck line is marked off above the Plimsoll circle
4. Draught marks
Side 27

Explanation of abbreviations used on the mark:

TF: Tropical Fresh (for water with a density of 1.000 t/m3)
F: Fresh (ditto)
T: Tropical (for water with a density of 1.025 t/m3)
S: Summer freeboard (ditto)
W: Winter (ditto)
WNA : Winter North Atlantic (ditto), only for ships, less than 100 metre
GL: Germanischer Lloyd
Deck line
Extended line from the upper side of the freeboard deck (or deck-covering) at the ship's side.
Moulded dimensions
Distance between two points, measured at inside of shell plating (or outside framing).
Base Line
The Baseline is a level, or plane, at the underside of the frame at mid length (midship section). This
is the top of the flat keel plate, when there is no rise of floor. When a ship has rake of keel, like
tugboats or fishing ships, the keel line is at an angle with the baseline. Draft forward is less than aft
when the ship is at 'even keel'.
Plimsoll Mark
The Plimsoll mark or Freeboard mark is a symbol indicating the maximum immersion of the ship in
the water, leaving a minimum freeboard for safety. The mark consists of a circle with a diametre of
300 mm., through which a horizontal line is drawn with its upper edge going through the centre of
the circle.
This level indicates the minimum free-board in salt water summer conditions. Beside the circle is
the load line mark consisting of a number of horizontal lines indicating the minimum freeboards as
All load lines are connected by a vertical line. The ship may load cargo till the upper edge of the
relevant load line is at the water level.
The freeboard is marked according to the result of the freeboard calculation, where the summer
freeboard in salt water is established.
The main parametres in that calculation are length, width (beam), sheer, length of superstructures,
length/depth ratio, etc.
Allowances are made for fresh water.
The minimum freeboard depends on:
- The geographical area
- The time of the year
The Plimsoll Mark is basically to be checked by the crew. The origin lies in the safety of the people
on board.
The abbreviations of the marked load lines have to be in the language of the flag state of the vessel.
For easy checking of the position of the Mark (during the yearly load line survey), above the mark
a reference line is drawn: the deck line.
It is normally at the level of the weather deck, but if the weather deck is not the freeboard deck (e.g.
Ro-Ro, passenger ships), at the level of that deck.
When the distance between the deck line and the mark is impractically large, or the connection
between the deck and the shell plate is rounded off (tankers, bulkcarriers), the reference line is
positioned at a lower level.
The Mark and the Deck line are to be marked permanently on the port and starboard-side, mid-
length. (See also load-line Certificate, Chapter 6)
When a ship carries a deck cargo of timber, and certain requirements are met, this ship is allowed to
have more draught (less freeboard).
This is because of the additional reserve buoyancy provided by the deck cargo. To indicate this, the
ship has a special Freeboard Mark for carrying a deck cargo of timber, the socalled Timber Mark.
Hopper Dredgers have a similar free-board allowance as these ships can drop their cargo (sand)
instantly, and so increase their freeboard.
Tankers carrying liquid cargoes and being completely watertight, also have allowance for less
freeboard compared with other cargo ships with the same length.
The lines plan shows the shape of the ship. At the outside of the frames and other internals the
shell plating is fitted around the internals.
The thickness of the shell plating is not taken into consideration for certain measurements. Those
measurements are called moulded.
Rammetekst slut.
The draught marks, load line mark, Plimsoll mark and deckline have to be marked permanently on
the shell plating.
Usually this means that they are outlined on the plating by bead welding or by welded plate.
Rammetekst slut.
Side 28

1. Length over all (Loa)

2. Length between the fore and aft perpendicular (Lpp)
3. Length on the water line
4. Breadth over all
5. Depth
6. Draught
7. Freeboard
8. Air draught

1.2 Dimensions
Length between perpendiculars (Lpp or Lbp)
Distance between the Fore and the Aft Perpendiculars.
Length over all (Loa)
The horizontal distance over the extremities, from stem to stern.
Length on the water line (Lwl)
Horizontal distance between the points where bow and stern intersect the water plane, at summer
mark, less the shell plating, i.e. moulded.
Draught Forward (Tfwd)
Vertical distance between the water line and the underside of the keel, as measured at the forward
Draught aft (Ta)
The vertical distance between the water line and the underside of the keel as measured at the aft
The difference between the draught at the stem and the draught at the stern.
Down and trimmed by the head.
Vessel, loaded with cargo, to the mark, and the draught forward is larger than at the stern.
Down and trimmed by the stern.
Vessel loaded with cargo, to the mark, and the draught aft is larger, than forward.
On an even keel, in proper trim.
The draught aft equals the draught forward.
Breadth or beam (Bmld)
The greatest moulded breadth, measured from side to side at the outside of the frames, but inside
the shell plating.
Breadth over all
The maximum breadth of the ship as measured from the outer hull on star-board to the outer hull on
port side, including rubbing bars, permanent fenders etc.
The vertical distance between the base line and the upper continuous deck. The depth is measured
at half Lpp at the side of the ship.
The distance between the water line and the top of the deck at the side (at the deck line). The term
Summer Freeboard means the distance from the top of the Summer Load Line and the Plimsoll
Mark and the upper edge of the deck line.
Air draught
The vertical distance between the water line and the highest point of the ship. The air draught is
measured from the summer mark. If the ship has less draught one can ballast until it reaches the
summer draught and so obtain its minimum air draught.
Side 29

The sheer line is easily visible
Figurtekst slut.
This is the upward rise of a ship's deck from mid length towards the bow and stern. The sheer gives
the vessel extra reserve buoyancy at the stem and the stern.
The transverse curvature of the deck. The curvature helps to ensure sufficient drainage of any water
on deck.
Rise of floor
Common to some types of vessels like tugboats and fishing boats.
This is the upward deviation from the baseline of the lower edges of the floors from the keel
towards the bilges, in order to collect water inside the hull near center line, for easy pumping. This
was used in all ships but out of fashion in large ships today. They have flat bottoms.
Bilge radius
The radius of the curvature of the bilge.
1. Camber
2. Keel
3. Bilge radius
4. Rise of floor

1.3 Proportions
The ratios of some of the dimensions discussed above can be used to obtain information on
resistance, stability and manoeuvrability of the ship. Some widely used ratios are:
The ratio of length and breadth:
L/B can differ quite significantly depending on the type of vessel.
Common values:
Passenger ships 6-8
Freighters 5-7
Tug boats 3-5
A larger L/B value is favourable for speed, but unfavourable for manoeuvrability and stability.
The length/depth ratio.
The customary values for L/D vary between 10 and 15.
This relation plays a role in the determination of the freeboard and the longitudinal strength.
B/T (T = Draught)
The breadth/draught ratio, varies between 2 and 4.5.
A larger breadth in relation to the draught (a larger B/T value) gives a greater initial stability.
The breadth/depth ratio, varies between 1 and 2.
If this value increases, it will have an unfavourable effect on the stability (because the deck edge
will submerge at a smaller angle of heel) and strength.

1.4 Volumes and weights

The size of a ship can be expressed by using terms which describe the characteristics of the ship.
Each term has a specific abbreviation. The type of ship determines the term to be used.
For instance, the size of a container vessel is expressed in the number of 20' containers it can load;
a Ro-Ro carrier's size is given by the total lane metres and a passenger ship by the number of
passengers she can carry.
Measurement Treaty
All aspects concerning the measurements of seagoing vessels are listed in the Certificate of
The Certificate of Registry is required by the International treaty on the measurement of ships, as
set up by the IMO-conference in 1969.
The treaty applies to seagoing vessels with a minimum length of 24 metres on international
At the IMO-conference in 1969 the new measurements for the "Gross Tonnage" and "Nett
Tonnage" were introduced, to establish a world-wide standard for calculating the size of a ship. In
many countries the Gross Tonnage is used to calculate harbour dues and pilotage charges, and to
determine the size of the crew.
Register ton
To determine the size of a ship the Register Ton is used.
It is based on volume where one register ton equals 100 cft, or 2.83 m3.

An example of a ship with a small depth
Figurtekst slut.
Side 30

In the drawing NT is given a different colour within GT (which is more-or-less the whole ship), to
indicate the difference between NT and GT.
Figurtekst slut.
Gross Tonnage
The Gross Tonnage (GT), is calculated using a formula that takes into account the ship's volume in
cubic metres below the main deck and the enclosed spaces above the main deck.
This volume is then multiplied by a coefficient, which results in a nondimensional number (this
means no values of T or m3 should be placed after the number).
All measurements used in the calculation are moulded dimensions.
In order to minimize the daily expenses of a ship, the ship owner will keep the GT as low as
possible. One way of doing this is by keeping the Depth small, so more cargo can be placed on
deck. This strategy is particularly used in container-feeder ships.
As a consequence, dangerous situations can occur as the loss of reserve buoyancy can result in a
loss of stability and in more "water on deck".
Net Tonnage
The Net Tonnage is also a nondimensional number that describes the volume of the cargo space.
The NT is derived from the GT by subtracting the volumes occupied by:
- crew
- navigation equipment
- the propulsion equipment(partly)
- workshops
- ballast
The NT may not be less than 30% of the GT
Underwater volume (m3)
The moulded underwater volume of a ship is the displacement in m3 minus the contribution of the
shell, propeller and rudder. Or: the calculated volume of that part of the hull which is immersed in
the water, on the outside of the frames without extensions. The influence of the shell in weight, is
compensated by the extra displacement.
Displacement (m3)
The displacement is the volume of the part of the ship below the water line including the shell
plating, propeller and rudder.
Displacement D or ∆ (ton)
The displacement is the weight of the volume of water displaced by the ship. One could also say:
the displacement equals the total mass of the ship.
Displacement (ton) = water displaced (m3) × density of water (t/m3)
Rammetekst slut.
Lightship weight (ton)
This is the weight of the ship including the regular inventory, but without any cargo, fuel or crew.
The regular inventory includes: anchors, life-saving appliances, lubricating oil, paint, etc.
Deadweight (ton)
This is the weight a ship can load to take her from her lightship draught to her summer load line
draught. This is a fixed value, which is unique for each ship. Through the years, there is usually a
buildup of mud in the ballast tanks, additional spares are taken on board, and less is taken off.
There is also water which cannot be pumped out. The total weight of all this, is called the growth,
and has to be subtracted from the deadweight.
Deadweight (ton) = design displacement ∆(ton) - light ship weight (ton)
Deadweight (ton) = maximum weight ∆(ton) - actual weight A(ton)
Rammetekst slut.
Cargo Capacity (t)
This is the total weight of cargo a ship is designed to carry, at a certain time. The actual cargo
loaded (in ton) is not a fixed number. It depends on the ship's maximum allowable immersion at the
relevant season, which will include the capacity (in ton) of fuel, spares, provisions and drinking
For a long voyage a large quantity of fuel has to be taken, which reduces the cargo capacity. If, on
the other hand, the ship refuels (bunkers) during the voyage, the cargo capacity is larger upon
departure. The choice of the amount of fuel on board and the location for refuelling depends on
many factors, but in the end the master has final responsibility for the choices made.
Cargo capacity (ton) = deadweight (tons) - ballast, fuel, provisions (ton).
Rammetekst slut.
Side 31

The cargo capacity largely determines the amount of money a ship generates.
Figurtekst slut.

A ship with a large midship coefficient and a large block coefficient.
Figurtekst slut.

2 Form coefficients
Form coefficients define the characteristics of the vessel's shape below the design waterline.
2.1 Waterplane coefficient, Cw (α)

The waterplane coefficient gives the ratio of the area of the waterplane (Aw) and the rectangular
plane bounded by Lpp and breadth moulded (Bmld).
A large waterplane coefficient in combination with a small block coefficient (or coefficient of
fineness) is favourable for stability in both transverse and longitudinal directions.

2.2 Midship section coefficient, Cm (β)

The midship coefficient gives the ratio of the area of the midship section (Am) and the area
bounded by Bmld and T.
This makes it possible to get an impression of the shape of the underwater body of a ship without
extensive use of any data. However, the form coefficients do not contain any information on the
dimensions of the ship.
They are nondimensional figures.
Side 32

2.3 Block coefficient, coefficient of fineness, Cb. (δ)

The block coefficient gives the ratio of the volume of the underwater body (V) and the rectangular
block bounded by Lpp, Bmld and draught (T).
A vessel with a small block coefficient is referred to as 'fine'.
In general, fast ships have small block coefficients.
Customary values for the block coefficient of several types of vessels:
Ship type Block coefficient Cb Appr. ship speed
Lighter 0.90 5 - 10 knots
Bulk carrier 0.80 - 0.85 12 - 17 knots
Tanker 0.80 - 0.85 12 - 16 knots
General cargo 0.55 - 0.75 13 - 22 knots
Container ship 0.50 - 0.70 14 - 26 knots
Ferry 0.50 - 0.70 15 - 26 knots

Graphic representation of the block coefficient.
Figurtekst slut.

2.4 Prismatic coefficient, Cp. (phi)

The Prismatic Coefficient gives the ratio of the volume of the underwater body and the block
formed by the area of the Midship Section (Am) and Lpp.
The Cp is important for the resistance and hence for the necessary propulsive power (if the Cp
decreases, the necessary propulsive power also becomes smaller).
The maximum value of all these coefficients is reached in the case of a rectangular block, and
equals 1. The minimum value is theoretically 0.

Graphic representation of the prismatic coefficient.
Figurtekst slut.

A ship with a small block-coefficient and a large midship section coefficient
Figurtekst slut.
A ship with a large block-coefficient and a Iarge midship section and prismatic coefficient
Figurtekst slut.

Water lines, ordinates, verticals, diagonals
Figurtekst slut.

Water lines, ordinates
Figurtekst slut.
Side 33

3 Hull form (Lines plan)

When the principal dimensions, displacement and hull-form coefficients are known, one has an
impressive amount of design information, but not yet a clear image of the exact geometric shape of
the ship. The shape is given by the lines plan.
The shape of a ship can vary in height, length and breadth. In order to represent this complex shape
on paper, transverse sections of the hull are combined with two longitudinal sets of parallel planes,
each one perpendicular to the others.
Evenly spaced vertical cross-sections in transverse direction are called ordinates. Usually the ship is
divided into 20 ordinates, from the centre of the rudder stock (ordinate 0) to the intersection of the
water line and the mouldside of the stem (ordinate 20). The boundaries of these distances are
numbered 0 to 20, called the ordinate numbers. A projection of all ordinates into one view is called
a frame plan.
Water lines
Horizontal sections of the hull are called water lines. One of these is the design water line. This is
the water line of the fully-loaded ship. Usually 3 to 4 other water lines are drawn between the
design waterline and the base line, numbered upwards from 0 at the baseline.
The construction water line, or the scantling water line, can be higher. When the water lines are
projected and drawn into one view from above, the result is called a water line model.

verticals, diagonals
Figurtekst slut.
The ordinates or stations
Figurtekst slut.

The water lines
Figurtekst slut.

Verticals or Buttock lines
Figurtekst slut.

The diagonals
Figurtekst slut.
Verticals / Buttocks
Vertical sections in longitudinal direction are called verticals or buttock lines. These longitudinal
sections are parallel to the plane of symmetry of the ship.
When the buttocks are projected and drawn into one particular view, the result is called a sheer
Apart from the rectangular sections, sometimes planes are used, in longitudinal direction, but at an
angle to the midship plane. They are called diagonals, or sentlines.
The diagonals are longitudinal sections that intersect with the hull surface at a certain angle. On the
longitudinal plan they show up as curves. The curvature of the frames (ordinates), water lines and
buttocks are compared to each other and modified until they are consistent, and develop smoothly
in all directions.
When this procedure is executed, the results can be checked using the diagonals. The most common
diagonal is called the bilge diagonal.
Side 34
Today the lines plans are made with the aid of computer programs that have the capability to
transform the shape of the vessel automatically when modifications in the ship's design require this.
When the lines plan is ready, the program is used to calculate, among other things, the volume,
displacement and stability of the ship, set against draught.
As shown in the lines plan below, both the water lines and the verticals/buttocks are drawn in one
half of the ship. In the body plan, the frames aft of midships are drawn on the left and the forward
frames are drawn on the right.
The lines plan is a moulded plan i.e. at the outside of the frames, thus inside the shell plating.
The lines plans shown on page 35 and 36 are of vessels that have underwater bodies that differ

Ultra Large Crude Carrier
Figurtekst slut.
drastically. The reader can tell from these plans that a ship will be finer with smaller coefficients
when the water lines, ordinates and buttocks are more widely spaced.
For instance, a rectangular pontoon has only one water line, one ordinate and one buttock, the
coefficients are 1.
The lines plan of a trawler with a length over all of 124 metres
Figurtekst slut.
Side 35

Sailing yacht
Figurtekst slut.
Lpp = 35 metres
Bmld = 10.08 metres
Tmld = 4.5 metres
Volume = 896 m3
Cb = 0.565
Cm = 0.908
Cp = 0.622
LCB =2.90 %
KM = 5.13 metre
Rammetekst slut.
Lpp = 23.5 metre
Bmld = 6.25 metre
Tmld = 4 metre
Volume = 92 m3
Cp = 0.157
Cm = 0.305
Cp = 0.515
LCB = -3.16 %
KM = 6.06 metre
Rammetekst slut.

Coastgaurd ship with a somewhat exceptional underwater-shape
Figurtekst slut.
Lpp = 73.2 metre
Bmld = 18 metre
Tmld = 5 metre
Volume = 4196 m3
Cb = 0.637
Cm = 0.933
Cp = 0.683
LCB = -0.75 %
KM = 8.67 metre
Rammetekst slut.
Side 36

Heavy cargo ship, multipurpose
Figurtekst slut.
Lpp = 134 metre
Bmld = 28 metre
Tmld = 7 metre
Volume = 18644 m3
Cb = 0.710
Cm = 0.992
Cp = 0.715
LCB = -2.24 %
KM = 14.46 metre
Rammetekst slut.

Figurtekst slut.
Lpp = 96 metre
Bmld =11.5 metre
Tmld = 3.25 metre
Volume = 1620 m3
Cb = 0.452
Cm = 0.752
Cp = 0.601
LCB = -2.30 %
KM = 6.17 metre
Rammetekst slut.
Abbreviations used in the drawings:
Lpp = length between perpendiculars
Bmld = breadth moulded
Tmld = draught moulded
Carène = volume of the underwater body, as measured on the lines, to the outside of the frames
Cb = block coefficient or coefficient of fineness
Cm = midship section coefficient
Cp = prismatic coefficient
LCB = longitudinal position of the resultant of all upward buoyancy forces;
Longitudinal centre of buoyancy (forward or aft of ordinate 10) in % of Lpp
VCB = vertical position of the resultant of all upward buoyancy forces;
KM = height of metacentre above the keel (metre).
Side 37

4 Drawings
4.1 Drawing list
To build a ship, hundreds of drawings are often needed. A selected number of drawings are
submitted for approv al by the Flag State and the relevant Classification Society.
The construction drawings have to be approved by the Classification Society, and the drawings
concerning safety in general by the Flag State. Which drawings have to be submitted depends on
the type of ship.
Classification requirements:
- General Arrangement Plan,
- Lines Plan
- Construction Plan(s) Profile and Decks
- Transverse Sections, incl. Midship Section,
- Double Bottom Construction
- Fore and Aft ship,
- Rudder, Sternframe
- Engine foundations,
- Crane foundations, if applicable,
- Deckhouse
- Capacity Plan.
- Loading Manual for longitudinal strength
- Pumping and Piping,
- Shafting,
- Etc.
The flag State requires:
- General Arrangement Plan,
- Capacity Plan,
- Safety Equipment Plan,
- Stability calculations,
- All Class-approved drawings.
The above very much depends on the flag the ship will carry. There are completely different
requirements from one flag State to another, and they can all be delegated to Class.

4.2 General arrangement plan

The General Arrangement plan shows the division and arrangement of the ship.
The following views are displayed:
- a (SB) side-view of the ship
- the plan views of the most important decks
- sometimes crosssections, or a bow and stern view are included.
The views and crosssections mentioned above, display among other things:
- the division into the different compartments (for example: tanks, engine room, holds)
- location of bulkheads.
- location and arrangement of the superstructures.
- major equipment (for example: winches, loading gear, bow thruster, lifeboat).
In addition to these, some basic data is included in the drawing such as:
- principal dimensions
- volumes of the holds
- tonnage
- deadweight
- engine power
- speed
- class.
The general arrangement plan of this ship is shown on the next pages.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 38

General Arrangement plan of a multipurpose vassel that carries mostly paper, timber products and
Figurtekst slut.
Side 39
Side 40

4.3 Midship section

This cross-section shows one or more transverse sections of the ship.
In the case of a freighter it is always a cross-section of the hold amidships.
It shows the principal dimensions, quality and thickness of shell plating, deck plating, all
longitudinal stiffening, transverse frames and web frames, if applicable, and important equipment
- Principal dimensions
- Engine power and speed
- Classification data
- Equipment numbers and anchor and chain cable details
- Maximum longitudinal bending moment.

Midship section of the HCC 5000 multipurpose ship
Figurtekst slut.
Side 41

Shell expansion of a containerfeeder
Figurtekst slut.

4.4 Scantling plan / construction plan

This drawing shows the longitudinal centreline section (CL) and the plan views of the most
important decks. Sometimes the drawing also includes the watertight and other important
It indicates their locations and the dimensions of the structural members (including the plate
Sometimes the bulkheads are shown on the midship section drawing.

4.5 Shell expansion

A shell expansion is drawn in order to have information about the distribution of the different shell
plates and other details (for example hull openings) in the complete hull.
The quality and thickness of the shell plating is shown at each level and frame number. This is very
important when repairs have to be carried out.
It is usually drawn with the scaled centreline of the ship's bottom as the base. Each frame is shown
at its scale spacing and girth (length from centreline to top of the uppermost plate).
The seams and butts of shell plates are drawn, shell openings like sea chests, longitudinal internals,
tank bounderies, decks, etc. are indicated by different symbols.

4.6 Various other drawings

Double Bottom
The height and the length of the double bottom can be found on the Construction Plan, and the
Midship Section. Where the tank top meets the shell can be seen on the Shell Expansion. The
forward part, vulnerable to the impact forces due to the pitching movement of the ship, has
increased scantlings.
The decks are important for Class, as they are part of the longitudinal strength calculation. The
Midship Section gives most of the information, supplemented by the Construction Plan. Decks in
way of the neutral plane are less important.
Side 42
Construction aft / Engine room and foundations
The Engine room construction is important, including the foundations for the various machinery, in
connection with propulsion forces and vibration.
Special drawings, normally labelled Construction aft, show the web frames and vertical structure of
this part of the ship.
Safety Plan
The safety plan is a general arrangement plan on which all the safety devices such as lifeboats,
liferafts, lifebuoys, hydrants, firehose boxes, escape routes, fire extinguishers are shown.
See also under Chapter 15, Safety.
Docking Plan
The docking plan is a mixed version of the General Arrangement and the Capacity Plan.
It shows where the ship can be supported by the blocks in drydock.
Important information is the location of longitudinal and transverse bulk-heads, rise of floor, and
the positions of shell openings, drainplugs, echosounder, log, etc.
Capacity plan
This is also a version of the General arrangement.
All tanks and holds are shown with their volumes and centre of gravity.
Together with the stability and 'light ship weight' particulars, this forms the basis on which stability
calculations are performed. Normally this drawing goes together with the Dead-weight scale, which
shows the relation between draught, freeboard, displacement, immersion per centimetre and
deadweight in fresh and salt water.
Navigation light arrangement
The Navigation lights have to be installed in accordance with the International Regulations for
Preventing of Collisions at Sea (lights and shapes).
The arrangement has to be approved by Flag State.

4.7 Bulkheads
Every ship has to be provided with watertight bulkheads.
Minimum required:
- the forepeak bulkhead (collision bulkhead),
- the after-peak bulkhead,
- engine room bulkhead(s).
The required minimum number of bulkheads of a ship is given in the following table, printed in the
rules of the classification societies.
Alternative arrangements can be considered, depending on operational restrictions and adequate
constructional compensation.
Length [m] Engine room midships Engine room aft
< 65 4 3
65 - 85 4 4
85 - 90 5 5
90 - 105 5 5
105 - 115 6 5
115 - 125 6 6
125 - 145 7 6
145 - 165 8 7
165 - 190 9 8
> 190 To be decided upon To be decided upon
* Aft-peak bulkhead = Aft
bulkhead Engine room

Feeder, 134 metre length, with three watertight bulkheads in the holds and three container guide-
Figurtekst slut.

5 Important data on various ships

Shipowners have an interest in promoting their ships as much as possible, especially the types of
cargo their ships can transport.
Or to put it in another way: how they can earn money.
The tables on the following pages contain data of a number of ships which significantly differ in
the type of cargo they can carry.
The abbreviations and other information are explained, unless they have previously been explained
in the text.
Side 43

5.1 Refrigerated vessel

Flag: Panama
Call sign: H3EY
Lloyds No: (1) 9167801
Built: 2000
DWT: (2) 12.902 mt
GT/NT: 11.382/6.408
Loa: 155 metre
Beam: (3) 24 metre
Summer draught: 10,1 metre
Holds/Hatches/Compartments: (4) 4/4/15
Ventilation/Air changes : (5) Vertical / 90
Different temps : (6) 8/2 per hold
Cranes : 2 × 40 ton
Pallet cranes : 2 × 8 ton
Container capacity: (7) 294 TEU plus 60 FEU or 207 FEU
Reefer plugs: (8) 185

Speed banana laden: (09) approximately 21.5 knots

Consumption (reefer plant) : (10) appr. 49 MT IFO 380 RMG 35
Aux: (11) appr. 6 MT IFO 380 RMG 35
Tank capacity: (12) 1.800 MT IFO 380 RMG 35 150 MT MDO DMA
Additional Features: Bowthruster
Explanation of the specification
(1) Lloyd's number is also the IMO-registration number of the ship. Even after a change of
ownership, this identification number stays with the vessel for the full lifetime.
(2) Deadweight
(3) Breadth
(4) The number of holds, hatches and compartments. Most holds have three tween decks resulting
in a hold which is divided into 4 compartments.
(5) The ventilation is vertical. The entire hold capacity of air can be changed 90 times per hour.
(6) Number of isolated compartments where the temperature can be adjusted separately of the other
compartments; two per hold.
(7) The vessel can transport 294 Twenty Foot Equivalent Units + 60 Forty Foot Equivalent Units or
207 FEUs. (294/2 + 60).
(8) Ship can provide 185 containers with electric power.
(9) If the vessel is fully laden with bananas, the maximum speed is 21.5 knots.
(10) The daily fuel consumption (including the refrigerating plant) is approximately 49 tons of
Intermediate Fuel Oil 380 cst, (at 50 °C) or specified as Residual Machine G-35, with a viscosity of
35 cst (at 100 °C).
(11) The daily fuel consumption of the auxiliaries is 6 tons.
(12) Capacity of the fuel tanks is 1800 tons RMG and 180 tons DMA (Distillate Marine Fuels, A is
gas oil).

Opened hold of a reefer
Figurtekst slut.

Deck layout of a reefer
Figurtekst slut.
Side 44
CLASS S-TYPE LLOYD'S + 100 Al + (1)
strengthened for heavy
Ice Class 1A (2)
Length over all 168.14 m
Breadth moulded 25.20/25.30 m
Height in hold as SID 14.30 m
Height in lower hold as 3 height 3.30, 7.00 or
TWD 10.25 m
Height in tween deck 3 heights 9.90, 6.20 or
as TWD 2.95 m
Design draft 10.00 m
Max summer draft 10.65 m
GT abt 16,800 (4)
NT abt 6,900
DEADWEIGHT all design draft abt 18,900/18,275 mt (5)
told (excl/incl TWD)
max summer draft abt 21,150/20,525 mt
(excl/incl TWD)
CAPACITY grain = bale hold 0 14,000 cbft 400 (6)
hold 1 179,000 cbft
5,050 m3
hold 2/3 662,000 cbft
18,750 m3
total 855,000 cbft
24,200 m3
if tween deck installed
63,000 cbft/1,780 m3
less in holds
FLOOR SPACE tank top total 1,625 (no 0: 50 (7)
m2, no 1: 340 m2, no
2/3: 1,235 m2)
tween deck total 1,840 m2 (no 1:
425 m2, no 2/3: 1,415
m2 )
weather deck total 2,800 m2 (no 0: 50
m2, no 1: 425 m2, no 2:
685 m2, no 3: 650 m2)
AIR CHANGE (basis abt 20 × per hour (8)
empty holds)
Hold units 478 TEU
Deck units 632 TEU
Total units 1,110 TEU
Max size height up to 9'6", width
up to 2,500 mm
limited quantity
alternative dimensions
such as length 45 ft
Power available for up to 800/900 kW
reefer connection.
SIDEPORTS 5 side shifters, each 16t
SWL, 500t capacity per
HATCHES weather deck no 0: 6.50 × 7.50 m no
1: 25.60 × 17.80/15.20
no 2: 38.40 × 17.80 m
no 3: 25.60 × 20.40 m
steel, end folding type
tween deck no 1: 25.60 ×
17.80/15.20/10.10 m
no 2: 38.40 × 17.80 m
under crossbeam: 4.20
× 17.80 m no 3: 25.60
× 20.40 m
consisting of 18 steel
Bulkheads/compartmen removable pontoons up
ts to 14 compartments at
TEU interval
Weather deck hatch 1.75 t/m2 weatherload,
covers 2.00 t/m2 payload
Tween deck hatch hold 1: 7.5 t/m2, hold 2:
covers 5,5 t/m2, hold 3: 5.0
Tank top 20.0 t/m2
Tons/reach 3 of 120 mt SWL/14m
and 50 mt SWL/30m
Position 2 × PS (aft and mid)
and 1 × SB (forward)
MAIN ENGINE Wärtsilä 16,400 (12)
HP/12,060 kW
Bowthruster 1,155
HP/850 kW abt 19.6
Speed design draft abt 19.6 knots
Fuel consumption per abt 45 mt IFO 380 cSt,
day no MIDO at sea, except
for maneuvering
Intermediate Fuel Oil 1,700 m3
Marine Diesel Oil 180 m3
BALLAST 7,200 m3
Side 45

5.2 General cargo ship

Lloyd's = The Classification Society (1)
+ 100A1 = Built according to and under
supervision of the rules of this Class.
+ LMC = Lloyd's Machinery Class. All
machinery has been built in accordance with the
specifications of this classification.
UMS = Unmanned Machinery Space. The
engine room does not have to be manned
LA = Lifting Appliances. The cargo gear has
been approved as classed.
NAV1 = Permission for a single bridge watch
control, although SOLAS-rules only permit this
in favourable circumstances.
The vessel has been reinforced to carry heavy (2)
1A - Finnish/Swedish Ice-class.
Length over all (3)
Width / Beam Moulded
Height in hold as SID = Height in hold as single
decker (no tween deck)
Height in lower deck as TWD = Height in lower
hold as a tweendecker
Height in tween deck as TWD = Height in the
tweendeck as a tweendecker.
Gross Tonnage (4)
Net Tonnage
Deadweight all told = Deadweight at design (5)
Approximately 18900/18275 metric tons
(excluding/including tween decks).
Capacity = Grain or Bale space. Because the (6)
hold is box shaped, the total m3 of bulk cargo
equals the total m3 of general cargo.
Cbft = Cubic feet. If all the tween decks are
installed in the hold, the capacity of the hold
decreases by 63000 ft3 or 1780 m3.
Floor Space = Deck area of the tank top, tween (7)
deck and weather deck overall and per hold.
Ventilation: = Number of air-changes per hour, (8)
with empty hold.
Container intake = The number of containers (9)
with a length of 20' that can be loaded.
Maximum height and breadth. = The inside
measurements of the cargohold are, if
practicable, based on a number of times the size
of a container in length and width, with a little
Maximum load = Minimum strength of the (10)
hatches (also according to class) as determined
by the Loadline Convention. The criteria are
based on the maximum height of a water column
on the hatch, which is 1.8 metres. This figure is
under discussion, the hatch covers of
bulkcarriers are required to be made stronger.
Deck cranes = The deck cranes can be combined (11)
(in twins). All three cranes can lift up to 120
(combinable) tons if the jibs are topped to a
reach of 14 metres.
If they are lowered to a range of 30 metres, they
can lift up to 50 tons.
Position of the cranes: 2 on port side, one on
starboard (fore).
Main engine = 45mt IFO 380 cst (centistoke) = (12)
45 tons intermediate fuel oil 380 centistoke
Side 46

5.3 Chemical tanker

Imo Type II, Marpol - Annex I & II (1)

Built: 2000
Dwt m. to 6430 mt
GT: 4670
NT: 1679
Speed: 15.5 knots
L.o.a. 118.00 metre
Breadth: 17.00 metre
Draft: 6.45 metre
Cargo cap. 98.5 %: 6871 cbm
Type steel: (2) duplex stainless steel
Ice class: 1A
Exterior heating of cargo tanks up to 80 °C (3)
2 sloptanks cap. 206 m3 total
Explanation of the specifications
(1) Marpol requirements, Annex I: oil products, Annex II: liquid chemicals.
(2) The tanks are constructed of duplex stainless steel, which means that the steel plate of the tank
suroundings is rolled in two layers: ordinary steel at the outside, and stainless steel on the tankside.
(3) Sloptanks are tanks that collect the washing water.
5.4 Gas tanker
Side 47

1. LNG/LEG/LPG carrier:
Liquefied Natural Gas / Liquefied ethylene gas / Liquefied petroleum gas carrier. This vessel is
capable of transporting LNG, Ethylene and LPG gases, like propane and butane.
2. The vessel is capable of transporting various products. These products have dissimilar specific
weights (9). The tank capacity (volume) is fixed, but the mass depends on the volume and the
specific gravity. Therefore, the deadweight of the vessel, and consequently the draft of the vessel
depend on the product on board. The draught and deadweight as given is valid for a cargo of
3. The vessel has two separate sets of main engines. The two LNG engines are used when the
vessel is carrying an LNG cargo and uses the boil-off gas as fuel. With a cargo of Ethylene or LPG,
the vessel uses the two engines that consume heavy fuel oil.
4. The vessel has a diesel electric (or gas electric) propulsion system. The HFO generator sets are
capable of delivering 3840 kW (kilo Watt) and the generator sets that run on LNG deliver 2385 kW.
5. The average speed of the vessel is 15 knots when carrying a cargo of ethylene and at the same
time cooling it down from -98°C to -102°C. The cooling down requires electrical energy, which
cannot be used for propusion. If it is not necessary to cool down the cargo, but only to keep it at the
same pressure, the speed is increased to 15.5 kn.
These speeds can be reached in wind speeds and associated sea conditions up to a maximum of
Beaufort force 4.
6. Fuel consumption in port depends on the cargo operation that has to be carried out by the ship
and is expressed in tonnes per day (t/day)
7. Time required to cool down a cargo of ethylene, expressed in hrs (hours)
8. The vessel has two manifolds, a high one, and a lower one.
The manifolds consist of lines for liquid and for vapours. The sizes of the connections are
expressed in " or inches
9. The Sp.grav or specific gravity shows the specific weight of certain cargos.
The specific gravity is expressed in tonnes per cubic metre (t/m3). The specific gravity is a
characteristic of the product, and is valid for the given temperature, expressed in degrees Celcius
Side 48

Figurtekst slut.
Side 49
Side 50

1 Classifications of ships by type 52
2 Brief discussion of several types of ships 53

1 Classification of ships in types

This table categorises vessels by type.
It is by no means a complete overview. Some vessels can be placed in more than one category.
Dry Cargo Liquid cargo Passenger ships
(2.1) (2.2) (2.3)
Unitised cargo Bulk cargo Crude carrier Passenger ship
Container vessel Bulk carrier Product tanker Car and passenger
Roll-on/Roll-off Ore carrier Chemical tanker ferries
Heavy-cargo vessel LPG/LNG carrier Cruise ship
Refrigerated ships
Cattle ship
Multipurpose ship
Naval vessels Fishing Dredgers etc. Work ships
(2.4) (2.5) (2.6) (2.7)
Aircraft carriers Trawlers Trailing hopper Crane vessels
Amphibious support Other types of suction dredger Cablelayers
vessels fishing vessels Cutter suction Buoylayers
Logistic support dredger Oilrecovery vessels
Frigates Rock-dumper Shear leg cranes
Auxiliary vessels Yachts Fast craft Offshore equipment
(2.8) (2.9) (2.10) (2.11)
Seagoing tugs Motor yachts Catamaran Drilling rigs/
Harbour tugs Sailing yachts Axe bow Jack up
Icebreakers Drill-ships
Pilot vessels Pipe layers
Coastguard vessels Floating Production
Research vessels Storage and Offloading
vessel F(P) SO
Side 51

2 Brief discussion of several types of ships

The discussion of the vessels below includes a general description, dimensions and other
For example, important features for a container vessel are the maximum number of standard
containers she can carry and the deadweight.
For a passenger ship, the deadweight is not important, but the number of passengers is. A tug has to
deliver a high bollard pull, whereas that is not important for a container feeder.

2.1 Dry Cargo

2.1.1 Multi-purpose ships

Multipurpose means that these vessels can transport many types of cargo.
Pontoons are used to change the layout of the cargo hold in length and in height in accordance with
the cargo. These pontoons can be fitted at various positions and heights, have a weight of approx.
20 tons and can be used as tween deck or bulkhead.
Usually the hatchways and hatch coamings are of the same dimensions as the holds, which makes
loading and discharging easier. The holds are closed with hatches. There is a variety of systems.
Cargo such as wood or containers can be carried on top of the hatches. Often the hatch coamings
and bulwarks are heightened to support the containers.
Possible cargo
- containers
- general cargo
- dry bulk cargo such as grain
- wood
- cars
- heavy items (project cargo)
- deadweight (t)
- hold capacity (m3, ft3)
- number of containers and their
- dimensions (20ft and/or 40ft)
- maximum deck load (t/m2)
- maximum wheel-load (t)
- lifting capacity of cargo gear
Multipurpose vessels can be subdivided into:
- ships with cargo gear (up to 120 tons lifting capacity per crane)
- ships without cargo gear
- coastal trade liners
A multi-purpose vessel can also be provided with one or more ramps on the side of the ship.
Loading and discharging can then be carried out over these ramps by forklifts. This is faster and
less dependent on the weather.
a. Ships with cargo gear.
Multipurpose ships with cargo gear are heavier than comparable vessels without cargo gear. As a
result their carrying capacity is less.
The advantage of such a ship is that she can work in ports and industrial zones where no cranes are
available. A disadvantage is the increased air-draught which reduces the number of ports the ship
can enter.
b. Ships without cargo gear.
Ships without cargo gear are dependent on the presence of loading gear in the ports and are
therefore limited in their employability.
c. Coastal trade liners
In order to navigate from the sea into the inland waterways, coastal trade liners have a small
draught; usually not more than 3.60 metres, a small air draught of approximately 6.5 metres and,
compared to other ships of the same size, a large ballast tank capacity. Like inland vessels, coastal
trade liners (also called sea-river ships) have masts which can be lowered and often a wheelhouse
which can be adjusted in height. When the ship has to pass under a bridge, the wheelhouse can be
Additional characteristics.
- draught when loaded
- air-draught when loaded
- draught when not loaded
- air-draught when not loaded.
- ballast-tank capacity
Multipurpose ships, loading/discharging under cover
Figurtekst slut.

Multi-purpose ship with its own cargo gear
Figurtekst slut.
Side 52

2.1.2 Container ships

Since the 1960s the transport of containers has continued to grow. The specific advantage of the
use of containers is that the cargo can be transported directly from and to house or factory, and not
just from port to port. Transport by water is just a link in the chain of transport.
Container vessels have grown from a capacity of 200 TEU (1966) to approximately 15.000 TEU
Possible Cargo
- containers (dry, liquid and reefer containers)
- maximum amount of TEUs or FEUs
- amount of TEUs or FEUs below the weather deck along with their heights
- number of container tiers
- presence of cargo gear
- open or closed ship
a. Division of containerships.
- Feeders
These are small containerships, specialized in the transport of containers from small ports, the
feeder ports, to main ports and vice versa, or for use in services which are not profitable for larger
container vessels.
Feeders are sometimes equipped with cargo gear. The capacity is approximately 200 - 2.000 TEU.
- Panamax ships
The dimensions of these ships are maximized to the size of the present Panama Locks: 294 × 32.2
metres. The carrying capacity is approximately 4,500 - 5,000 TEU.
These ships are sometimes equipped with cargo gear.
- Post panamax ships
These ships have dimensions exceeding the size of the Panama Locks. There carrying capacity
5,000 - 8,000 TEU.
- Very Large Container Ships (VLCS)
Length approximately 300 metres or more. Capacity 8,000 - 10,000 TEU.
- Ultra Large Container Ships (ULCS)
These comprise all ships above 10,000 TEU. For the year 2013, a new generation containerships
has been planned: Length and beam of these ships will be approximately 400 × 59 metres. Carrying
capacity will be 18,000 TEU; effectively probably somewhat more.
The speed will be around 23 knots, due to hull design.
The sizes of containers vary. The ISO-standards distinguish the TEU and the FEU, which may
differ in height.
TEU = twenty feet equivalent unit. The nominal length of these containers is:
20' = 20 * 0.305 = 6.10 metres. The actual length is 1.5" (38mm) shorter, leaving some space
between the containers.
FEU = forty feet equivalent unit. The nominal length of these containers is :
40' = 40 * 0.305 = 12.20 metres.
Rammetekst slut.
b. Speed vs fuel consumption.
Until 2008, containerships were meant to sailat a speed as high as possible. A speed of 25 knots
was normal. Due to the present high fuel costs, the speed has been adjusted (reduced). Reduction of
the speed from 25 to 20 knots, can reduce the fuel consumption by 50%. This lower speed, however
can result in the necessity to put an additional ship in the service.
The table below shows the fuel reduction when compared to the consumption the fuel for full speed
(25 knots).
12-14 kn. Ultra slow steaming: 90%
14-17 kn. Slow steaming, 70 - 80%
18-21 kn. Economical sp. 50 - 60%
21-25 kn. nearly full speed, 20 - 10 %
Side 53

Partly open-hatch container vessel
Figurtekst slut.

Container feeder
Figurtekst slut.
Car carrier with quarter ramp and a side ramp
Figurtekst slut.

Small Ro-Ro freighter with vehicles in the holds and on the upper deck
Figurtekst slut.

2.1.3 Roll-on / Roll-off

a. Ro-Ro carriers
To facilitate the transport of mobile cargo, Ro-Ro vessels have continuous decks over the entire
length of the ship. Due to the large area of these decks, the vessel loses its stability rapidly if a large
quantity of water floods the (lower) decks after a collision, in the case of a damaged side door or by
water due to firefighting, resulting in a huge free surface.
Therefore the safety regulations for these vessels have been made more stringent and refined in the
last few years (2010) by the requirement of transverse division doors dividing the deck in
compartments, where a free-water surface on the largest of these compartments is still not fatal for
the ship's stability.
The tweendecks of these ships are often adjustable in height.
Loading and discharging proceeds via ramps in the side or stern which form a watertight closure
and also function as the driveway for the mobile cargo.
During loading and unloading, the ship lists easily, which, especially with a stern ramp, twists the
To prevent this, a Ro-Ro is equipped with an anti-heeling system which automatically distributes
water between two opposing ballast tanks, keeping the ship upright.
During loading and discharging additional ventilation is required to get rid of the exhaust fumes of
the diesel-driven lorries and tractors.
b. Ro-Ro car and passenger ferries
Almost all ferries transport both passengers and vehicles. The vessels usually shuttle between two
ports on a very tight schedule. The passengers drive their own cars on board via a ramp, which is
either part of the ship, a movable ramp placed on the quay or a combination of these two.
Possible cargo
- cars, trucks, trains and lorries
- passengers
- trailers (with containers)
- number of cars or trucks
- lane length
- height between decks
- number of passengers
- carrying capacity
Side 54

Heavy lift vessel, also suitable as multipurpose ship
Figurtekst slut.

2.1.4 Heavy Lift ships

Heavy lift ships can be divided into:
- conventional heavy-lift ships
- dock-ships (semi-submersible)
The construction and stability allows them to carry extremely large and heavy objects.
The semi-submersible heavy lift vessels can sink by letting in water, till the main deck is
sufficiently below the waterline to take large floating objects like drilling rigs on deck (float on /
float off).
Semi-submersible heavy lift vessel
Figurtekst slut.
When the water is pumped out, the cargo is lifted and the ship sails with the cargo as one unit.
Lashing and securing the cargo needs to be carefully calculated and carried out.
The conventional heavy-cargo vessels are often fitted with their own loading gear.
However, this does not necessarily mean that these vessels are able to lift all heavy objects
When there is no heavy cargo, the vessels can function as multipurpose vessels.
Possible Cargo
- heavy or bulky objects
- complete parts of factories
- drilling rigs
- multi-purpose / general cargo
- carrying capacity
- maximum deck load per m2 and in total
- dimensions of holds and decks
- lifting capacity per crane and max. height above deck.

2.1.5 Refrigerated ships

Refrigerated ships (reefers) have refrigerated holds to transport chilled fruit or vegetables, or frozen
Modern refrigerated ships increasingly carry cargo in containers instead of on pallets. Refrigerated
containers have a built-in refrigeration system, which can be plugged in to the ship's electricity
system. Air is used to remove the excess heat from the refrigeration units and therefore the
ventilation of the holds is very important.
Refrigerated containers can also be transported by a container vessel.
When fruit is carried, it is not only the temperature that is being controlled, but also the
composition of the air in the containers in order to control the ripening process of the fruit.
An increasing number of reefers are taking on general cargo such as cars and trucks, as return cargo.
Compared to multipurpose vessels, reefers have:
- smaller hatch openings (length, width and height)
- more tweendecks
Possible cargo
- fruit, vegetables (cooled, chilled)
- meat, fish (frozen)
- general cargo
- containers on deck and sometimes in the holds.
- carrying capacity
- tonnage
- temperature range
- cooling and freezing capacity
- range of atmospheric control / air changes per hour
- relatively high ship speed.
Refrigerated ship with cargo gear.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 55

2.1.6 Cattle ships

Cattle ships transport livestock, such as sheep from Australia to the Middle East, and cows from
North-west Europe to the Mediterranean.
The holds are set up as stables.
Silos with fodder are installed at the main or lower deck.
Sheep are often fed automatically, while cows are fed semi-automatically: the fodder is
mechanically moved from the silo to the deck where it is distributed manually by means of wheel-
barrows. A network of conveyor-belts and elevators dumps the manure overboard.
A proper ventilation system is required: at least 45 air changes per hour.
Cattle ships need a low stability, with a long transverse period, i.e. a slender ship. This is to prevent
the animals from breaking their legs due to the ship's rolling.
The slender shape of the fore ship also prevents too much pounding.
Possible cargo
- livestock such as cows, sheep, goats, camels, horses etc.
- total deck area (m2)
- stable system
- floor system
- manure discharge system

2.1.7 Bulk carriers

Bulk carriers are specially designed ships that carry loose cargo in bulk. There are three types of
bulk carriers:
a. Handy size, approx. 30,000 tons deadweight, often with their own cargo gear. Cargo: precious
ore, sand, scrap, (china)clay, grain and forest products
b. Panamax, approx. 80,000 tons deadweight, seldom carry cargo gear. Cargo: grain and ore
c. Capesize, approx. 160,000 tons deadweight and over, no cargo gear. Cargo: coal, ore.
Bulk carriers are usually discharged by grabs or by suction pipes. Feeding is by a shooter or
conveyor belt.
Cattle Ship
Figurtekst slut.

Ore carrier
Figurtekst slut.
Bulk carriers have large upper and lower ballast tanks to shape the hold for automatic grain
stowage (eliminate free surface) and to give the empty vessel sufficient draught and greater stability
in transit.
Ships transporting ore have a special design. Ore is very heavy (stowage factor is approximately
0.5 m3/t) and thus ships only need small holds to be loaded completely.
To prevent too much stability the holds must not be situated too low or too close to the sides of the
Some bulk carriers can also function as tankers.
This combination carrier is called an Ore Bulk Oil (OBO) carrier.
Possible cargo
- coal
- ore
- grain and other agricultural products
- fertilizer
- cement
- light minerals
carrying capacity (t)
- cargo volume (m3)

Bulk carrier with open side-rolling hatches being moored for discharging.
Figurtekst slut.
Big tankers, bulk carriers and container vessels can also be classified on the basis of the passage
criteria. These designations are:
- Panamax ships. Ships with a width less than 32.3 metres. They have the maximum width with
which they can still pass the locks in the Panama Canal.
- Post Panamax ships. These ships are too large to pass through the Panama Canal.
- Suezmax ships have a maximum draught of 20 metres, which allows them to use the Suez Canal.
Rammetekst slut.
Side 56

Top to bottom: Panamax, ULCC, Suez max, AFRA max and a IWW (Inland WaterWay)
Figurtekst slut.

2.2 Liquid cargoes

2.2.1 Crude oil tankers
Crude oil tankers are used to carry crude oil from a loading port near an oil field or from the end of
a pipeline to a refinery. The carrying capacity of crude oil tankers has risen to as much as 500,000
tons. Contrary to product tankers, crude oil tankers have a limited number of tanks, usually
approximately 18 - 21 tanks plus two or three slop tanks.
Tankers are provided with a double hull. This means that the side tanks and the double bottom
tanks, which surround the cargo tanks, are ballast tanks only. The double hull prevents the cargo
from leaking into the sea, and thus polluting the sea, when the shell is punctured through e.g. a
collision or grounding.
The ballast tanks can contain sufficient ballast water to achieve a proper draught and trim even
when there is no cargo on board.
A disadvantage of the double hull design is that the ballast tanks are difficult to reach. This is
especially problematic when there is leakage between the ballast and cargo tanks. Ventilation,
which is essential before entering, and cleaning of the tanks is also very problematic.
The large crude oil tankers are subdivided into the following classes:
- Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC) > 300,000 dwt
- Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC) 200,000 - 300,000 dwt
- Suez max (old max Suez draught) ca. 150,000 - 160,000 dwt
- Aframax (Standard size tanker of ca. 105,000 dwt.)
The deep draught of VLCCs and ULCCs restricts the sailing routes and limits the number of ports
that can be called at for loading or discharging.
Crude oil tankers load their cargoes through pipelines, hoses or flexible pipes, either at a shore
facility or at a mooring buoy.
The hose(s) is/are temporarily connected to transverse pipes on deck, at mid length, called the
The oil is pumped on board by shore pumps. From the transverse lines, the oil goes down verticaly
through drop lines, into the ship's bottom lines.
A cofferdam is a narrow, empty space between two other spaces, to create a safe division,
provided with a sounding pipe, a bilge connection and a connection to the open air.
Rammetekst slut.
Three or four longitudinal pipelines with branches deliver the oil to any tank. At the end of each
branch a valve is installed. The bottom lines are connected to the pumps in the pump room, a space
between the cargo tanks and the engine room.
To discharge the cargo, the ship's pumps draw the oil from the cargo tanks, pressing it upwards to
the deck lines, and then to the manifold.
The oil is pumped through hoses ashore to the receiving facility, where the cargo ends up in a shore
tank. Loading and discharging takes some 24 to 36 hours per operation.
Apart from the cargo pipeline system there are various other cargo related pipeline systems on deck
and in the tanks:
- Inert gas system fills empty space created while discharging with a gas which contains very little
oxygen (normally 2 to 5%) in order to prevent explosions. Oil will not burn as long as the
percentage of oxygen stays below 5%.
- Tank-wash system used to
Crude oil is the raw product as pumped out of the earth, with the water and sand removed.
Rammetekst slut.
Side 57

Chemical tankers
Figurtekst slut.
remove deposits from the inside tank wall before repairs, docking or reloading. During discharge,
the tanks and cargo are washed to reduce sediment. Before dry docking or repairs, tanks are washed
with water, through the same system, to clean the tanks for entry (the tanks have to be ventilated
extensively after the washing). Tank washing sometimes needs to be done with hot water.
- Heating coil system in at least the slop tanks. Usually crude does not need to be heated during the
- Ballast system is completely separated from the cargo system.
Possible cargo
- crude oil
- carrying capacity (tons)
- tank volume (m3)
- discharging speed (m3/hour)
- maximum laden draught (metre)

2.2.2 Product tankers

"Product" refers to the products of refineries and the petrochemical industries, as opposed to crude
Product tankers have a large number of tanks with a total carrying capacity of approximately
50,000 tons. The piping systems on a product tanker are different from the systems in crude oil
tankers. Normally every tank has its own filling and discharge line to the manifold and its own
cargo pump.
This in connection with many different cargo parcels on board. The ballast is carried in tanks
surrounding the cargo-tanks, similar to crude carriers.
Possible cargo
- oil products like gasoline, kerosene, naphtha, diesel oil, lubricating oil, bitumen
- vegetable oil
- wine
- orange juice
- carrying capacity (t)
- total volume and volume per tank (m3)
- number of cargoes which can be on board simultaneously
- coating or quality of internal tank surface.

2.2.3 Chemical tankers

Chemical tankers are basically product carriers with tanks of a higher safety grade, i.e. a wider
distance between tank and outer shell or bottom. Also tanks are subject to more stringent
restrictions, depending on the cargoes the ship is allowed to carry, in connection with the toxicity
and flammability of the typical chemical cargo.
All cargo tanks are separated from:
- the outer-shell by a ballast tank
- the engine room bulkhead by a coffer dam, mostly in the form of a ballast pump room
- the forepeak bulkhead by a coffer dam.
This ensures that in case of leakage from one of the tanks, the vulnerability of crew and
environment is reduced. To prevent contact between incompatible cargoes, a cofferdam separation
is sometimes required between tanks.
The GT of chemical tankers varies between 2,500 and 23,000. The number of tanks in transverse
direction varies between 3 for tankers up to 6,000 tons and 6 for larger tankers.
Chemical tankers are divided in classes, depending on the protection the ship offers against
I for the most toxic cargoes, II and III for less dangerous substances.
The cargoes are divided in classes of toxicity:
A, B, C and D
A is the most toxic and D the least. IMO has decided in what category each liquid chemical is listed,
and what category ship is allowed to transport that cargo.
Possible cargo
- acids
- alkalines
- alcohol
- edible oils
- chlorinated alkenes
- monomers
- chemical substances
- carrying capacity
- number of tanks
- tank coating / stainless steel
Side 58

2.2.4 LPG/LNG tankers

Gas tankers are basically chemical tankers for cargoes which would be gas under ambient
temperatures and atmospheric pressure.
These cargoes are liquid when:
- pressurized
- brought under low temperature.
When liquefied, the space a gas takes is about 1/600 of the space needed under atmospheric
Gasses are therefore transported in liquefied condition.
Safety devices applicable to chemical tankers are also applicable on gas tankers.
The cargo storage arrangements however, are totally different.
Cargo handling is somewhat different.
This type of cargo ship can be divided in three main-categories:
- Pressurized ships, cargo under pressure at ambient temperature
- Fully insulated / fully refrigerated ships, cargo at atmospheric pressure at low temperature.
- Semi-Pressurized ships, cargo at low temperature and under pressure.
The first category include relatively small ships: 500 to 6000 m3 tank capacity, and the second
group can have as large as 190.000 m3 tank capacity. Fully Pressurized (FP) ships are mostly used
for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) transport between the smaller terminals.
The largest ships are 10.000 m3. Fully pressurised means that the cargo is carried in closed
cylindrical tanks, at ambient temperature, with such pressure that the cargo is liquid in the tank. In
case of LPG, this means a pressure of 8 Bar in moderate temperature up to 15 Bar in tropical
Fully Refrigerated (FR) ships carry cargo at atmospheric pressure at very low temperature. In case
of LPG, this means - 42 °C, the boiling point of propane.
LPG is a mixture of propane and butane, with boiling points of -42 and +0.5 °C respectively.
LPG ships are up to 80.000 m3.
A special type of fully refrigerated ship is the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. When
carrying LNG at atmospheric pressure, a temperature - 162 °C is needed, as LNG is a mixture of
methane and ethane. Under atmospheric pressure methane has a liquefying point of -161 °C and
ethane of -88 °C.
Semi Pressurized / Semi Refrigerated (SP/SR) ships are a hybrid type between Fully Pressurized
and Fully Refrigerated (FP/FR).
They were designed when materials became available which could withstand low temperatures, the
cryogenic steels. When a cargo that would normally produce high pressure at ambient temperature
is kept under cooled condition, the pressure it develops is much lower.
This makes it possible to carry a large number of different cargoes. The cooling capacity
determines which cargoes are on the list of approved cargoes.
The development of this ship type started with Semi Pressurised / Semi Refrigerated ships (SP/SR)
later with Semi Pressurized / Fully Refrigerated ships (SP/FR) up to 30.000 m3 and pressure up to 8
Ethylene carriers are a development of SP/FR tankers. The necessary cargo temperature is -104 °C
In all gas tankers the tanks are kept under, at least, a small positive pressure to prevent air from
entering the tank, which could create an explosive mixture. Loading and unloading is carried out in
a completely closed system, allowing no venting or vapors to escape into the atmosphere.

LNG-tanker (Moss-Rosenberg Principle)
Figurtekst slut.
Side 59
During loading of LNG, a vapor return line is used, the vapor is liquefied ashore and is not lost.
When loading LPG, the vapor is reliquefied on board.
The gas-cargo is carried in independent tanks. This means that the tanks are installed in a hold on
supports that are mostly wood, with wooden supports for sideways forces. In case of leakages, the
very cold liquid should never come in contact with the primary construction. Therefore, barriers are
arranged, the primary barrier being the tank itself.
A secondary barrier is required in case of leakage from cargoes below -10 °C. Depending on the
temperature and pressure of the cargo, rules are stipulated.
Tanks are constructed in 4 types:
- Fully refrigerated, atmospheric. Tank of flat panel construction, inside a hold. Intended for
cargoes up to minus 10 °C. The secondary barrier is the hold, which is kept inerted.
- Fully refrigerated, atmospheric. Spherical steel tank, placed in a hold, sometimes hanging from an
expansion ring at mid-height. The secondary barrier is the hold, where the atmosphere is allowed to
be air. However, inerting should be possible at short notice.
- Cylindrical, horizontal tanks, at ambient temp. The cargo fully pressurized (max 18 Bar),
insulated to prevent increase of pressure. This type of tank is used on SP/FR ships and on ethylene
- Box-type membrane tanks, with a very thin special stainless steel primary barrier, supported by a
thick layer of foam insulation, inside a steel secondary barrier, again surrounded by insulation.
The whole assembly is placed in a hold on blocks.
To keep the cargo cold, a small percentage is allowed to vaporize, called boil-off.
In LPG and Ethylene tankers the "boil-off" is collected and by compressing and cooling in a
condenser, reliquefied. By letting this condensation expand above the cargo, the whole cargo is
cooled and brought to the desired temperature for transport and discharge.
This is the single stage cooling cycle. A cascade cooling process (a multiple-step process) is used to
reach lower temperatures by using cargo or another refrigerant, such as propylene, in a secondary
cooling cycle as a coolant in the initial stage condenser. The cargo pumps have to be deep well
In the past, large LNG tankers were steam turbine ships. The boil-off of the cargo could then be
used as fuel in the boilers.
The latest LNG tankers are provided with reliquefying plants, compressing the boil-off into liquid
gas again. Due to the high gas prices nowadays this is feasible.
Today the propulsion of LNG tankers is changing from steam to diesel-electric, where one or more
diesel engines are dual-fuel; depending on the price of gas and fuel, they burn either heavy fuel or
boil-off gas.
- total tank capacity (m3)
- maximal tank pressure
- minimal cargo temperature
- maximum quantity in the tanks
- time needed for loading and discharging
- type of cargo tank
- lowest acceptable/achievable cargo temperature
- cooling down time
- inerting capacity (Nitrogen)

LPG tanker
Figurtekst slut.

2.3 Passenger ships

2.3.1 Cruise ships
Except in some archipelago areas, such as the Philippines and Indonesia, the traditional passenger
liners have disappeared.
International and inter-continental transport of passengers is now almost completely done by
The modern cruise ships are used for making luxurious holiday trips to distant countries and ports.
On board there is a whole range of facilities for relaxation such as swimming pools, cinemas, bars,
casinos, theatres, health clubs, etc.
Possible cargo
- passengers
- maximum number of passengers
- number of cabins according to size, luxury and location.
Without exception, these vessels are equipped with very good air conditioning systems.
Stabilizers or anti-rolling fins limit the rolling to 2°, ultimately 4°.
These ships are often highly manoeuverable due to azipod propulsion systems.
Even modern cruise sailing ships have no noticeable list when sailing.
The number of persons on board can be as high as appr. 6400 (2011); the crew is twenty - thirty
percent of that number.

A luxury cruise ship
Figurtekst slut.
Side 60

2.4 Naval vessels

2.4.1 Aircraft carriers

Aircraft carriers come in various sizes. They are made to enable helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft
to land on and take off from.
CTOL (Conventional Take Off and Landing) aircraft carriers usually need a steam-driven catapult
or a slightly heeling deck to enable the plane to take off, and brake lines to catch landing planes.
STOVL (Short Take Off and Vertical Landing) aircraft carriers are smaller than CTOLs. They
employ a jump for a more forceful lift during take-offs.

2.4.2 Amphibious support vessels

Landing Platform Docks (LPD's) are amphibious transporters with a widely varied packet of duties
and the appropriate facilities.
They can be employed to transport a full platoon of marines (app. 600 men) with equipment, cars,
helicopters and landing craft. In order to fulfill this duty these vessels have a deck that can harbour
several helicopters at the same time, a hangar, a car deck, one or several heavy duty goods lifts,
davits for landing craft and rhib's (rigged hull inflatable boat) and a landing dock which enables
landing craft to sail into and out off.
An LPD has ballast tanks to allow the stern to submerge several metres to make this landing dock
accessible. The dock is then flooded to allow the craft to enter or leave the dock.
Furthermore, these vessels possess command facilities, facilities for contingency services,
evacuation facilities, an extensive hospital unit with operating theatres and intensive care units, and
they can be employed as emergency hospitals for a large number of casualties.
An LPD is the ultimate combination of freighter, airport, port, hotel, hospital, command centre,
crisis centre, etc.
To enable them to remain stationary for a long period of time, these vessels employ a Dynamic
Positioning System (DPS).

Conventional Take Off and Landing) aircraft carrier
Figurtekst slut.

Amphibious support vessels
Figurtekst slut.

Figurtekst slut.

2.4.3 Logistic support vessels

A Joint Support Ship (JSS) is the most modern version of this type of vessels and can best be
compared to a combination of a freighter, a supplier and an LPD.
The emphasis is on facilitating and transportation of material for all armed forces, (army, navy and
air force). This can range from fuel to ammunition and food, but also from tanks to helicopters, etc.
and if applicable to aid supplies. JSS's can discharge at sea or in port. Discharging at sea means
using helicopters or vessels or barges. In port, ramps, lifts or cranes are used.
2.4.4 Frigates
Frigates are combat vessels with a wide range of usability. They can be used for air defence,
fighting submarines and surface combat.
They have extensive communication equipment and sonars.
They also have several fully automatic tracking and weapon systems at their disposal that can be
employed from the command post.
Frigates combine command facilities with air defence facilities and are able to defend a complete
squadron against air raids.
Another outstanding feature is the incorporation of the stealth technology, which makes them
harder to detect on radar equipment and explains the angular appearance of these vessels.
Extensive automation enables these vessels, despite their enormous proportions, to operate with
approximately 170 crew, and, if necessary, 40 (staff) officers.
Side 61

2.4.5 Patrol vessels

Ocean-going Patrol Vessels (OPV's) are recent designs, originating from changing naval tasks of
the various armed forces.
The duties encompass activities like:
- coast guard duties,
- crime and terrorism fighting,
- piracy prevention,
- maritime presence,
- search and rescue,
- logistic support,
- emergency service,
- humanitarian aid,
- maritime interception operations,
- evacuations and maintenance of law and order in the broadest sense.

2.4.6 Mine counter-measure vessels

An MCMV is used to track and detonate mines.
The most common types are:
- Mine hunters. These vessels are equipped with several mine detecting sonar systems. They have
an ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) at their disposal to research a sonar signal, and deliver an
explosive charge.
- Mine sweepers. This type of vessel sweeps the sea (bottom) to find and detonate anchored
floating mines and mines that lay on the sea bottom.

2.4.7 Submarines
Submarines are hard to detect and, therefore very popular with navies, all over the world.
We recognize:
Ballistic Rocket nuclear submarines, large subs (120 to 170 metres) armed with ballistic rockets.
If necessary, they can remain under water for months at a time.
Nuclear attack submarines.
Slightly less large subs (70 to 150 metres) armed with torpedoes against both submarines and
surface vessels, underwater-to-surface missiles, torpedoes against surface vessels and cruise
missiles against land-based targets.
General purpose diesel-electric submarines.
Small to medium-sized submarines with torpedoes and USM's. Propelled by propellers powered by
large accumulators. To charge the batteries, these subs have to sail at periscope/snorkel depth at a
regular basis.

2.4.8 Landing craft

Vessels designed to transport amphibian units, people and craft, to a coastal zone. They are
designed to sail onto the beach and allow troops and craft to disembark via a ramp.

2.4.9 Support vessels

Examples of support vessels are:
- Rescue and salvage ships comparable to a sea-going tug boat but equipped with extensive
firefighting equipment.
- Submarine support vessels Diving operation support vessels.

2.4.10 Small fast craft

These fast craft can achieve speeds of up to 50 knots. They are also known as Fast Rating and
Intercepting Special Forces Craft (FRISC).
Characteristics of these vessels are :
- Fast
- Very seaworthy
- Employable from ships (davits or docking stations)
- Multi-usable
General purpose diesei-electric submarines
Figurtekst slut.

Mine counter measure vessel
Figurtekst slut.

Coast guard vessel
Figurtekst slut.
Side 62

2.5 Fishing vessels

2.5.1 Preface.
a. The fishing methods used world wide, and the vessels in use for it, are many. Mentioned below is
only a limited impression.
b. The various fishing methods can be categorized as follows:
• Active method (pelagic): the fishing gear (net) is being towed through the water or over the
• Passive method: the fishing gear (net or lines with hooks) is positioned stationary in the water.

2.5.2 Ships with an active method of fishing.

Trawlers are fishing vessels which drag their bagshaped nets through the water. In pelagic fishery,
the nets are suspended between the water surface and the seabed. In bottom fishery, the net is
dragged over the seabed, which requires a high pulling power. The construction and equipment of
these fishing vessels strongly depend on the fishing method and the species of fish aimed at.
The fish is kept on board during the fishing trip as refrigerated cargo.
The beam trawler pulls its two nets, one on either side, from the ends of two derricks, which are
fitted low, at the double foremast.
Each net is kept open by a transverse beam, provided with sliding shoes and waking-up chains. The
waking-up chains are replaced more and more by systems which do not disturb the seabed. Also
waking-up by electrical pulses is coming into use. The derricks are lowered as close to the water as
possible during fishing, to prevent stability problems when one of the nets suddenly fills up with
fish, or sand, or gets hooked at a wreck or suchlike.
The stern trawler has only one net, launched from a slipway at the stern. This net is kept open by
two boards, one on either side shearing away, by the ship's speed. Stern-trawlers are usually larger
than derrick trawlers.
Beam trawler busy washing her nets
Figurtekst slut.
Trawlers are like tug-boats. They have to pull the nets at relatively low speed over the seabed,
which requires enormous power especially at the end of a pull, when the net is full.
These ships have diesel engines similar in power to a tugboat.
The only difference is that the tug-boat can be shorter in length with the same power, as it does not
need space for cargo.
The propeller is built in a Kort-nozzle (see chapter 12), boosting the propeller-performance by
some 25 to 30 %, and the bollard-pull accordingly.
When two boats are pulling a net between the ships, the combined pulling force allows for a bigger
Possible cargo
- cooled fish (in crushed ice)
- frozen fish or shell-fish
- engine power (bollard pull)
- volume of fish holds
- transport temperature
- freezing capacity
- method of fish processing
- method of refrigerating / chilling
- the fish winch and net drum
- possible fishing methods

2.5.3 Ships with a passive fishing method

This kind of fishing (non-trawling) can be divided into:
- anchored nets, anchored to the seabed, such as:
• vertical nets (screens)
• floating long line with attached many short ends with hooks
• fish-traps
- floating nets, connected to the ship
• vertical screen nets
• floating long line, as above.
Non-trawling vessels can range from a simple craft deploying crab / lobster baskets, a net or a long-
line with floats and hooks, to fishing vessels which can lay out nets several kilometres in length,
waiting for the fish to swim in. Typical examples are: seiners, tuna clippers, crab boats, etc.
Possible cargo
- See 2.5.2
- See 2.5.2

Refrigerated trawler
Figurtekst slut.
Trawler engaged in trawl fishing. Speed while fishing is approximately 3 knots, while not fishing,
the speed can be 12 knots. The length of the nets can be between 60 and 80 metres and the lines can
be 300 to 600 metres.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 63

2.6 Dredgers
Dredging is a special trade, dealing with the removal of sand, mud or other sediment from the
seabed and transporting it to some other location, for deepening existing water or to provide sand
for other purposes.
Dredgers and associated vessels exist in many varieties, from the old fashioned bucket dredger, the
straight suction dredger, to the advanced hop-pers and cutter dredgers.
DP operated stone dumping vessels are also part of the dredging industry. The main types are given

2.6.1 Trailing suction hopper dredger

The most multi-functional ship is the TSHD. The main function is to suck sand, clay or mud from
the seabed through a suction pipe, connected to the ship. >
That pipe can be lowered till the suction mouth is resting at the seabed. Huge pumps pump water
mixed with solids from the seabed into the hold of the ship.
The surplus water flows back into the sea, the sand settles in the hold.
The ship sails afterwards to the discharge location where the cargo is discharged through flaps in
the bottom.
Another possibility is to dilute the cargo again with water by special jetwaterlines, and to pump it
ashore. Another way is 'rainbowing', to simply blow it ashore, over the bow, up to 100 metres away
from the ships bow. The bow is provided with a bow coupler for the discharge hose and with a
huge jetnozzle for rainbowing.
The size of the TSHD's is measured in hopper hold size (m3). The present maximum is 40.000 m3,
which means a ship of Panamax size.
The density of the cargo can amount to 2 ton/m3. The installed power is more than necessary for the
transit only.
Rainbowing requires much power. During this process the propellers have to keep the ship in
position, with the bow pushed against the sloped seabed. The inside of the hold is a few millimetres
thicker where in contact with the cargo as wear and tear is very high. Coating is of no use.
Suction depth varies from some 40 metres for deepening of harbours etc., to 120 metres for
suctioning of sand to be used elsewhere. Diametre of the suction pipes is up to 1400 mm. Good
manoeuvrability is ensured by two propellers and bowthrusters.
Possible cargo
- sand
- gravel
- stratum or clayish soil
- unwanted port sediment
- pump capacity
- depth range
- hold volume (the largest is 40,000 m3, (2011)
- carrying capacity

Figurtekst slut.

Trailing hopper suction dredger
Figurtekst slut.
Side 64

2.6.2 Cutterdredgers
When the sea bottom is too hard to be removed by suction it has to be cut or crushed first. Cutter
dredgers have a very strong, hinged arm in a slot in the midships plane of the pontoon. An electric
motor on the arm drives a rotating cutter head at the outer end. The head is fitted with knives to cut
and crush the soil.
A pump in the dredger sucks the crushed material to the surface through a suction pipe inside the
There is no hold. The water and soil mixture is pumped directly ashore through a flexible floating
pipeline, or to barges alongside.
The barge performs a swinging movement through the water, pivoting around a spud pole. The
spud pole is a heavy pile with a sharp pointed end which is held vertically in a carriage, which can
move longitudinally. The pole is lowered until its end is well into the sea bed. Two large anchors,
laid sideways from the cutter arm, and connected by wires to winches on board, provide the means
to swing the dredger.

Backacter or Backhoe, secured to the seabed by spudpoles. For moving in the work area some are
fitted with thrusters. Alongside a split-rail barge is moored, which can drop its cargo by splitting
over its length, with hinges at deck level.
Figurtekst slut.
The cutter arm with motor, shafting, cutter head, suction pipe, jet piping, etc., can weigh up to 1400
As well as pontoon cutter dredgers, high powered self-propelled ship-type ones are being built.
- pump capacity
- depth range
- presence of propulsion
- torque and cutter power
- length of the cutterarm and maximum working depth.

Cutter-suction dredger, rotating the entire barge with the cutter-suction beam(ladder) by the
anchor-wires around its portside spud pole.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 65

2.6.3 Backacters
A relatively new development in dredging is the use of a back-hoe digger, similar to those used
ashore. The digger is permanently installed on a pontoon. The hinged arm is mounted on a pedestal,
and the bucket at the end of the arm can contain up to 30 m3 of material. The bucket can descend to
25 -30 metres depth to dig, and then drop the dredged material straight into a barge on the surface.

2.6.4 Barges
There are many types of barges. They may be small or large, have no self-discharging capability or
have bottom or split-hull discharge. They may be self-propelled or handled by tugs, may be
manned or unmanned, and range in size from a few hundred m3 to 10,000 m3.

Figurtekst slut.
Multi-cat now in use, as buoy positioner
Figurtekst slut.

2.7 Workships
2.7.1 Cable laying ships.
Cable ships are specially designed for their task. They can lay one or more cables on the seabed,
The cables are stowed in large coils in circular vertical drums with diameters similar to the beam of
the ship. They are pulled out from the centre of a coil at considerable speed by the cable in the
If the laying distance exceeds the length of one cable, more are joined on board. Depending upon
the depth of the sea and the likelihood of fishermen damaging it, it may be dug into seabed by a
plough towed by the ship.
As well as laying cables, the ships are able to find, lift and repair broken or damaged ones.
It is crucial that the actual positions of the cables on the seabed corre-spond accurately with their
positions on the chart. Modern cable ships are equipped with very accurate position-fixing
equipment, and multiple adjustable, often azimuthing, propellers in conjunction with dynamic
positioning (DP) and dynamic tracking (DT) systems.
Possible cargo
- new cables
- old cables
- repair equipment
- carrying capacity (ton)
- engine power
- details of DP/DT installation
A cable ship
Figurtekst slut.

2.7.2 Buoy tenders

The crane is often provided with a heaving compensator to keep control of the load (buoy) on the
crane due to swell and rolling.
Side 66

Escort Tug
Figurtekst slut.

Tugs assisting a tanker
Figurtekst slut.
Seagoing tug
Figurtekst slut.

2.8 Auxiliary vessels

2.8.1 Tugs
- Seagoing tugs
Seagoing tugs are relatively small, strong ships with high pulling power. The towing wire is stowed
on a reel on the towing winch. The winch can heave or veer, as required, to adjust the length of the
wire. There are usually two reels so that a spare wire is available if needed. The wire may be up to
1,000 metres in length with a diameter of 100 milimetres.
The centre of effort between the towing wire and the tug has to be close to the tug's midships so
that the force has the least influence on the tug's manoeuvrability.
The tug's characteristic low, flat after-deck with no obstructions, allows for change in the angle
between the towing wire and the tug. A gob rope around the towing wire prevents the angle from
becoming unsafe.
On a long-distance tow the wire is secured athwartships at the stern by a fixed locking arrangement.
Seagoing tugs are used for:
- salvage
- towing
- anchor handling in the offshore industry
- environmental service
- assistance to ships with engine and/or steering problems
- fire fighting
Any floating object, like partly completed ships, floating wrecks, docks, drilling rigs and other
large objects that have to be brought to a position at sea (or inland) can be towed by tugs (if
sufficiently sea-worthy).
The introduction of semi-submersible heavy lift carriers has reduced long distance towing.
Coastal states often use seagoing tugs to avert an imminent environmental disaster.
Salvage means the saving of a ship that would otherwise sink, ground, or burn out.
Payment of the high salvage costs is often a problem.
- Escort tugs
Escort tugs are used to escort ships along dangerous passages. They were developed after a number
of serious tanker accidents in recent years.
Escort tugs operate in confined coastal waters. They are small, sturdy, seagoing tugs that can push
or pull a large ship away from a dangerous area when her own propulsion is not sufficient. Escort
tugs need to be highly manoeuvrable and therefore often have azimuthing thrusters.
- Harbour tugs
Harbour tugs are used in ports, inland waterways and coastal areas for:
- assisting and towing vessels in and out of ports
- salvaging, or assisting in salvage in ports or coastal areas.
- fighting fires and environmental disasters.
- keeping ports free of fixed ice
- power installed
- bollard pull
- salvage pump capacity
- fire fighting equipment
- pollution fighting capability
- speed without connected object
- range and bunker capacity

2.8.2 Icebreakers
Icebreakers are similar to tugs - high engine power in a relatively small ship - and often fully
equipped for towage and salvage.
Their main function is to cut a channel through ice at sea, in a port, a river or other waterways.
Obviously they have to be able to resist floating ice.
The bow area especially is reinforced and the steel used must have a very high impact value at low
temperatures. The shell must be free of protrusions because floating ice would rip them off
The bow often has nozzles connected to a pipe-system discharging compressed air, which can be
blown under the ice-layer, breaking it upwards.
There is hardly a paint strong enough to resist the forces involved in ice-breaking. The wear
resistance of the steel of the shell plating and propeller is thus subject to high requirements. Ice is
usually broken by moving the sloping bow on to the ice, until the weight of the foreship breaks the
ice. Some icebreakers have nuclear propulsion.
- engine power
- bollard pull
- shape of the fore-ship, is important for the method of icebreaking.
- total mass of the ship, important for the ability to penetrate the ice.
Side 67

Cargo vessel with icebreaker stem and the same cargo vessel in ice below
Figurtekst slut.

2.8.3 Pilot boats

Entering and departing from a port needs to be carried out safely.
The ship's crew often has limited knowledge of local conditions.
Dangers, recent changes, customs and rules differ from port to port and can change continuously.
Therefore local knowledge is hired.
Usually this involves a pilot coming on board just before entering the particular port. That pilot can
be boarded or disembarked by:
- a pilot boat (small fast boat) from the actual port
- a pilot boat on station at sea, close to port, with small launches
- a helicopter (often only for very large ships)
A ship can get directives about how to manoeuvre from a Vessel Traffic Service (VTS). A VTS
controls the shipping using a shore-radar system and radio communication.
A shore-based controller informs the ship's crew and/or the pilot about possible hazards and other
- speed
- number of seats and beds for pilots

Helicopter taking off with a pilot. In the back ground a tender.
Figurtekst slut.
Seaworthy sailing yacht, 27 metres
Figurtekst slut.

2.9 Yachts
Yachts can be divided into motor yachts and sailing yachts with or without an auxiliary motor.
These vessels are used by:
- Private individuals for leisure use
- Wealthy persons who use the yacht as their home, either for leisure or for business.
- Companies that use the yachts for representative purposes; these yachts usually have a length of
15 metres or more.
- Private individuals or companies who buy the yacht for races.
- Large yachts used in chartering; the length of these yachts starts at approximately 15 metres.
The construction of large luxurious yachts is very similar to the building of commercial ships, but
with more emphasis on the finish and appearance.
Possible cargo
- owner and guests
- passengers
- total sail area and nature of the rigging
- motor power
- number of cabins and number of berths
- luxury
- seaworthiness
Side 68

Swath (small waterplane area twin hull) in dock,
Figurtekst slut.

2.10 Fast craft

2.10.1 Catamaran
A catamaran is a vessel with two hulls, each with a very large L/B ratio, creating a low wave
The two hulls are connected at deck level by a rectangular platform. The combination of the two
hulls results in great stability.
The waterline area and displacement is low, restricting the cargo capacity. The result is a ship that
can only carry light cargoes, like passengers over short distances in protected water between islands,
in rivers, canals, river deltas etc.
A variation is the trimaran, having three hulls, where the middle hull is bigger than the two outer
Its maximum length is 126 metres. Catamarans and trimaran vessels are also called multi-hull
On many inland waters regulations have come into force regarding maximum wave height
produced by passing craft.
The term "low wash ship" has been introduced for catamarans producing waves with a maximum
height of 0.5 metres.
The maximum wave height a normal catamaran produces is approximately 1 metre.
Possible cargo
- passengers
- light cargo
- speed
- maximal wave height produced

2.10.2 The Axe bow

The Axe bow is a further development of the Enlarged Ship Concept (ESC). The principle of the
ESC is based on significant lengthening the hull, without increasing the functionality of the ship.
The extra length leads to a major improvement of:
- the seakeeping characteristics (lower vertical peak accelerations)
- less resistance.
The ESC has been applied for the first time on patrol boats for the Coastguard and Fast Crew
Suppliers for the Offshore industry.
The Axe bow has a vertical stem and an extremely deep V-shaped bow, lacking any "flare". To get
sufficient reserve buoyancy in the bow, the sheer rises notably and the keel slopes downward to the
stem giving the bow the appearance of an axe.
The Axe bow actually produces a "soft suspension" (lower vertical peak accelerations). Besides, the
Axe bow has a very low resistance, a characteristic which increases with higher wave conditions.
Axe bow
Figurtekst slut.
Side 69

Axe bow
Figurtekst slut.

Hydrofoil passes at high speed a feeder ship
Figurtekst slut.

2.11 Offshore equipment

2.11.1 Definition of "Offshore"
The word "Offshore" in the Oil and Gas Industry refers to industrial activities in open sea, starting
from the search (exploration) of oil and gas to production (exploitation) and transportation to shore.
The Offshore is part of an industry that actually designs, builds and operates the offshore structures
to allow the execution of offshore activities.

2.11.2 Stages of Offshore activities

The table below briefly highlights the main activities of the Offshore industry and of the
vessels/units in use to facilitate the availability of "Oil & Gas". The order in which ships are
described in the following pages and units, is in accordance with the sequence of development of
From search to delivery, as follows:
- search
- evaluation of seismic information
- exploration drilling
- production drilling
- crane barge
- production platform
- shuttle tanker or pipeline
Item Activity Vessel/unit in
a Searching for oil Seismic surveying Seismic survey vessels
b Confirming it Exploration Jack-up drilling rigs,
see note 1
Drilling vessels (ship
shape), see note 1
drilling units
c Building the production Construction and 1. Crane vessels
facilities installation of the
2. Offshore barges
platform/unit 3. Heavy lift carrier
d Developing the field Drilling and 1. Jack-up drilling rigs
completing the
2. Semi-submersible
production wells and
drilling units
interconnecting the
production wells with 3. Pipe laying barges or
the production facility pipe laying vessels
e Getting the - Production 1. Fixed platforms
hydrocarbons to the - Depressurization and 2. Tension leg
surface and processing separation into oil, gas platforms
at the surface and water fractions 3. FPSOs (Floating
Production Storage and
Offloading Vessel)
4. FSOs (Floating
Storage and Offloading
5. Production jack-ups
or semi-subs
6. Subsea installations
7. Others, see note 2
f Bringing the 'product' Transportation 1. Shuttle tankers
to shore
2. Pipelines, laid on the
seabed by pipe laying
vessels, see note 3
g Support - Supply and services 1. Suppliers, crew
- Maintenance and boats, anchor handlers
repair 2. Diving and
Multipurpose support
- Watch keeping
3. Standby and chase
Side 70

2.11.3 Brief description of offshore units.

a. Seismic Survey vessel
The purpose of a Seismic Survey Vessel is to produce detailed information for oil companies as a
basis for actual production drilling.
The information is the result of the evaluation of the reflected sound waves in the sea floor.
To obtain these results sound waves are initiated by a vessel by means of air guns; the reflections
are collected by a number of detectors within long cables (streamers) towed by the survey vessel.

Seismic survey vessel in operation
Figurtekst slut.
Seismic survey vessel in dry dock
Figurtekst slut.
1. The type of vessel / unit to be used depends on the water depth. Due to the limited length of the
legs of the jack-up drilling rigs, these rigs are limited in their drilling operations to a maximum of
120 to 150 m. water depth; in general preferred because of their stable work platform.
Within and above the operational limitations of the jack-ups the semi-submersible drilling rigs may
be used. Depending on the distance to the shore base and the expected sea conditions, the ship-
shaped drilling vessel is a good alternative.
2. The technique to get the hydrocarbons to the surface has been rapidly expanding over the last
decades, resulting in all kinds of different types of production facilities such as:
• SALM (Self Anchoring Leg Mooring system)
• SALS (Self Anchoring Leg System)
• Spar (A very large spar buoy with production and storage facility)
• SPM (Single Point Mooring system)
• Satellite Platform (Unmanned)
3. The technique of laying pipes on the seabed in extended water depth has drastically improved
and as a consequence, more and more "hightech"pipe laying units have been built and are
successfully operating. To allow the installation of pipelines in the open sea the following pipe
laying vessels are used:
• S-lay pipe laying vessels (shal-low and deep water)
• J-lay pipe laying vessels (deep water)
• Reel-lay pipe laying vessels (small diametre).
Technical aspects
All the technical aspects, such as strength, stability, hydrodynamical behaviour, freeboard, safety
etc., in the design and engineering process of ordinary ships are also applicable to offshore craft
augmented by the specific technical requirements within the offshore application.
Side 71
Certification aspects
Based on the applicable specific tasKs, Classification Societies and National Authorities have
imposed additional Rules, Regulations and Requirements as a basis for certification and safe
working conditions.
See also chapter 6.
b.1 Jack-Ups
The Jack-Up drilling rig is used for exploration drilling from approx. 10 metres to max. 150
metres water depth.
The Jack-Up barge is a triangle or rectangle-shaped barge which is towed to the work location.
At the location the barge lowers its legs till they are on the seabed and afterwards climbs into the
legs, lifting itself to a working height, safe above the waves.
Jack-Up Barges are mainly used for exploration drilling (usually 3 legged) and as a work barge for
construction work (typically 4-legged).
Long distance transport of Jack-ups is by towing with a tug (wet tow) or by heavy-lift transport

Jack-Up rigs
Figurtekst slut.
1. Derrick
2. Helideck
3. Drill floor and wind wall
4. Leg
5. Deck cranes
6. Deck house or accommodation
7. Monkey platform
8. Deck, tanks and work spaces
Side 72

Drilling ship
Figurtekst slut.
1. Drilling derrick
2. Drill floor
3. Riser and pipe storage
4. Supply handling crane
5. Accommodation / helideck
6. Lifeboat stations
Semi-submersible drilling unit in dry-dock
Figurtekst slut.
1. Drilling derrick
2. Deck
3. Columns
4. Cross brace
5. Diagonal brace
6. Anchor racks
7. Anchor winches (on corner edges)
8. Lifeboat station
9. Deck cranes
10. Floater
Semi submersible at operatiing draught
Figurtekst slut.
b.2 Drilling Ship
A ship-shaped drilling unit used for drilling, exploration and production wells in medium to deep
water (from 150 to 3000 metre water depth).
A modern drill ship can obtain an average speed of 14 knots in transit with a high drilling
equipment storage capacity.
The vessel is ideal for drilling consecutive wells in different parts of the world.
To maintain position during drilling operations the ships are either anchor moored with 8 or 12
anchors on long wires and chain, or rely on Dynamic Positioning (DP), depending on the water
b.3 Semi-Submersible Drilling Unit
A semi-submersible drilling unit is used for drilling exploration and production wells in 150 - 2,500
metre water depth.
Anchored units can operate in up to 1,500 metre water depth.
Dynamically positioned vessels can operate independent of water depth (up to around the year 2010
drilling was performed in up to 2,800 metre water depth).
An important advantage of the Semi-submersible type is the improved motion behaviour of the
platform in harsh environments, which gives a larger working window
A dynamically positioned (D.P.) vessel uses its propellers, rudders, tunnel thrusters and/or
azimuthing thrusters to stay in position.
A control system continuously determines the required thrust vector based on information from a
position reference system, like radio or hydro-acoustic beacons or GPS.
Rammetekst slut.
Side 73
c.1 Crane Vessels
These are ship-shape and semi-sub-mersible barges or vessels, equipped with one or two heavy-
duty offshore cranes.
The largest crane vessels are the Semi-Submersible Crane Vessels (SSCV). The maximum hoisting
capacity is 7,000 metric tons per crane, with two cranes on one barge.
The crane-vessels are used for lifting and installation of large modules (weighing up to 12,000
metric tons) for fixed offshore platforms, from transport barges onto the fixed platform.
Recently crane vessels have come into use for the removal of offshore platforms when the oil/gas
reservoirs are depleted.
Some crane vessels also have pipe laying facilities.
Module :
On top of a jacket, various items are to be fitted and interconnected.
These parts are prefabricated as much practicable, and as squarely as possible, so that when placed
on top of the jacket, and after fixing them permanently to the structure of the jacket, only
connections between these items have to be made.
These pre-fabricated structures, often box-shaped are called Modules.
The weight of each module is limited by the weight the available offshore crane unit can handle.
Rammetekst slut.
The base of the platform (called jacket) is either launched from a barge or lifted onto the sea-bed
by the crane vessel prior to installation of the topside modules.
After installation of the jacket it is firmly connected to the seabed by steel piles, that are driven
down by large hydraulic hammers suspended from the offshore cranes.
Rammetekst slut.
Heavy lift pipelaying vessel. This is a combination of a pipelayer and a ship for offshore
installations in general. The ship is provided with equipment for pipelaying and with a crane with a
lifting capacity of 3000 tons.
The pipelay installation is fitted below deck. This can be seen from the stinger which is fitted low at
the stern. This reduces the pipe movements when the ship is rolling
Figurtekst slut.
Side 74

Various types of offshore structures (fixed and offshore floating structures)
The depths, indicated in this picture, are for guidance only. Designers and developers are constantly
trying to adapt a certain type of 'rig' for deeper locations. Equipment is altered and added for each
project and sometimes even displacement is anlarged to enable the fitting of the additional gear.
Figurtekst slut.
1. Fixed Platform, jacket type, (deepest water depth 420 metre.)
2. Fixed Platform, Compliant Tower type (deepest water depth 540 metre)
3. Floating Platform, MonoColumnTLPtype (deepest water depth 1,400 m.)
4. Floating Platform, SPAR type (deepest water depth. 2,400 metre)
5. Floating Platform, Semi-sub type (deepest water depth 2,500 metre)
6. Floating Platform, FourColumnTLPtype (deepest water depth 1,500 m.)
7. Single Well Oil Production Systems (SWOPS) (water depth 1,850 metre)
e.l Fixed Production Platforms
Production Platforms provide a working platform for production drilling, production and the
starting point of the pipeline to the collecting unit. They are prefabricated ashore
After construction the platform is transported lying on its side on a barge to the production location
at sea and launched from the barge into a vertical position on the seabed. Afterwards it is fixed to
the seabed by piles, with the help of a floating offshore crane. Modules are afterwards lifted onto
the platform, and interconnected.
A drilling derrick and a flare boom are installed.
After commissioning the drilling can start. After installing well-heads with the necessary pipeline
connections, the production can start.
The platform can be subdivided into the following main components:
- steel jacket or concrete substructure
- deck
- modules
- drilling derrick
- helideck
- flare boom
Most platforms stand in water depths varying from approx. 20 m. to 150 m. The highest jacket built
so far was for a water depth of 412 metres.
e.2 Tension Leg Platform (TLP)
The Tension Leg Platform is used for drilling and production purposes.
The unit resembles a semi-submersible drilling unit and is attached to the sea floor with vertically
tensioned steel cables. The buoyancy of the platform applies tension to the cables. The advantage
of the TLP is its economical aspect in comparison with the fixed platforms, specifically for deeper
water. When the production in a particular field ends, this type of platform can be moved to other
Side 75

Fixed Platform with Subsea Infrastructure and Semi-Sub conducting subsea well workover
Figurtekst slut.
1. Fixed Platform
2. Semi Submersible Drilling Unit
3. Marine Drilling Riser
4. Blow Out Preventer (BOP)
5. Subsea wellhead and X-mas tree
6. In-field flow lines
7. Pipeline End Manifold (PLEM)
8. Diving Support Vessel (DSV)
Dry Tree Unit (TLP) with a FPSO field development
Figurtekst slut.
1. Dry Tree Unit (TLP)
3. Calm buoy
4. Shuttle Tanker
5. Risers
6. Tendons (taut mooring lines)
7. Gravity Actuated Pipe (GAP), export line
8. Flowlines
9. Catenary mooring lines
Side 76

Schematic view of the process and storage on board an FPSO with an external turret
Figurtekst slut.
e.3 Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO)
A FPSO vessel produces crude oil from fluids pumped up from the oil wells. On the vessel the
fluids are processed to separate the crude oil from water and the gas and oil are temporarily stored
on board until the oil is offloaded to a shuttle tanker.
The DP-FPSO is a recent development whereby the FPSO is kept on position by means of a
Dynamic Positioning (DP) system using azimuthing thrusters. Conventionally an FPSO is kept on
position by a spread anchor mooring system. In deep water an anchor mooring system is no longer
feasible. The FPSO vessel weathervanes around the turret to keep the drift forces and the roll
motion as small as possible by turning its bow into the waves or current.
The turret is a vertical tube, going through the ship, from above deck to below the flatbottom,
around which the whole FPSO can turn freely.
The flexible pipelines (called risers) that bring the fluid to the surface are connected to the turret
from below. The oil is produced from several oil wells in the field and transported to the risers by
infield pipelines.
Oil wells are drilled by a drilling vessel like the dynamically positioned drilling ship.
FPSO. L.o.a × Br. × T: 343 metre × 52 metre × 21 metre. Crude storage capacity: 1,600,000
barrels (= approx. 252,800 m3))
Figurtekst slut.
1. External Turret (Pivot point)
2. Flare tower (100 metre high)
3. Gas lift compression modules
4. Crude separation modules
5. Power generation modules
6. Water injection treatment module
Side 77
f.1 Shuttle tankers
In the absence of a pipeline from the production facility to the shore terminal a shuttle tanker can be
used to load the oil from the FPSO or FSO and transport this as cargo to the shore terminal.
The shuttle tanker comes into position astern of the FPSO and connects by a special adapter in the
bow, the bow-coupler, to a hose.
The shuttle tanker can be connected with mooring lines from the FPSO, keeping its engine in astern
mode to stay free from the FPSO, but most shuttle-tankers today are dynamically positioned,
without any connection apart from the hose.
Weathervaning is the behaviour, deliberate or not, of a ship, when moored from a single anchor or
mooring line, to position itself in the direction of the resultant of wind, waves and current so that
the energy needed to stay in that position is minimised.
For DP ships this influences the fuel consumption.
Rammetekst slut.

Shuttle tanker in dry dock
Figurtekst slut.
1. Bow loading station
2. Cargo lines
3. Heli-deck
4. Accommodation

FPSO with shuttle tanker behind
Figurtekst slut.
1. Flare stack
2. Proces equipment
3. Heli deck
4. Shuttle tanker
Jack-up (DP) maintenance platform during jacking trials
The barge (or platform) can be lifted above the surface and out of reach of the waves, when
brought to its working position at DP, The jack-up platform can be used for maintenance,
commissioning of permanent oil platforms or for the installation of wind farms,
Figurtekst slut.
Side 78
f.2 Pipe laying barges / semi subs
For the installation of sub-sea oil and gas pipelines various barges and vessels are used:
- anchor-moored or dynamically positioned flat bottom barges,
- semi-submersibles
- ship-shaped vessels
Many of these pipe laying vessels also have a heavy-duty crane for construction and/or installation
work. On the main deck of the barge or ship, the pipe pieces (joints) are welded together. For this
purpose a complete pipe joining/welding and coating factory is installed on deck. After welding the
pipe joints, non-destructive testing (NDT) is carried out before the pipe is moved aft, length by
length, horizontally, over the "firing line" via the pipe stinger.
The stinger is a guidance beam, preventing the pipe from buckling directly behind the barge,
guiding the pipeline into the water, and to the seabed. The stinger extends out-board over the stern
of the pipe laying barge and functions as an articulated outrigger that allows for the lowering of the
pipe line onto the seabed.
This process is controlled by means of pipe tensioners (varying in capacity from 40-250 tons),
taking the weight of the hanging pipe and allowing some movement due to waves, etc. Pipes are
supplied to the pipe laying vessel by PSV's or by pipe-supply carriers, multi-purpose ships, where
the pipes are on board as cargo.

Combined Reel-Lay and J-Lay pipe laying vessel
Figurtekst slut.
1. J-lay tower / Reeling ramp
2. Storage reels for flexibles / rigid reeled pipe line
3. Pipe rack for rigid pipe sections
4. Crane, 400 ton capacity
5. Accommodation/heli-deck/lifeboat station
They moor alongside the pipe layer at sea, open their hatch and the pipes are discharged from the
cargo hold by the pipe layer's cranes onto storage racks in the pipe layer.
The S-lay system involves welding the pipe pieces (joints) together horizontally, leading the pipe
aft horizontally and then downwards over the stinger towards the seabed, where it lands with a
gentle curve. Pipes are laid this way to a depth of 1,000 metres.
A few very large S-lay pipe laying vessels are equipped with a long stinger of approximately 150
metres. It can be curved downwards, guiding the pipe over an accurately positioned roller system
until it hangs vertically, very alike the J-lay. This arrangement allows 1,000 mm pipes to be laid to
a depth of 2,500 metres.
The J-lay system is the normal one for depths between 1,000 and 2,500 metres. The pipe layer has
a vertical or inclined tower in which the pipe joints are welded together vertically. The tensioners
are installed in the tower, and welding, NDT, coating etc. are all done in the vertical position. The
shape of the pipe hanging in the water is like a letter J.
Pipes are laid this way to depths of 2,500 metres.

DP S-lay pipe laying vessel. Waterdepth till 2500 metre, with the stringer at the bow
Figurtekst slut.
Side 79

Maintanance jack-up near a production platform.
Supplier and a chase vessel are near by,
Figurtekst slut.

Figurtekst slut.
g.1a Platform Supply Vessel (PSV)
Supply vessels combine many functions and are used for the supply of fuel, drilling mud, fresh
water, drilling equipment and pipes to or from off-shore platforms or other vessels (e.g. supply of
pipes to pipe laying vessels). During these supply operations DP is often used to stay in position.
Another function besides supply, is fire fighting.
Suppliers are characterized by a superstructure and deck-house forward and a long flat aft deck.
They have no helideck and no cranes. The offshore platform or vessel uses its own cranes to lift
cargo from the PSV deck.
The difference from an AHT is that a PSV has a long aft deck and below-deck storage tanks.
g.1 b Anchor Handling Tug (AHT)
An anchor handling tug is used to set and retrieve anchors of moored offshore units and for towing
these units. The AHT often looks similar to a PSV, but has a shorter aft deck and an open stern with
a stern roll and large winches to be able to pull anchors on the deck.
If the anchor handler can also function as a supplier it is called an Anchor Handling Tug Supplier
(see illustration chapter 1, section 7)
g.2a Diving Support Vessel (DSV)
Diving support vessels are used to support divers doing inspections, construction or repair work on
sub-sea structures.
To facilitate the diving operations DSVs have diving bell(s) and decompression chambers for the
A moon pool (a hole in the middle of the ship, allowing vertical transport of diving equipment) is
used to lower divers or sub-sea tools.
Such a sub-sea tool is the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV), a self-propelled underwater remote
controlled robot for inspection or construction and repair work.
Usually the ROV is connected by an umbilical cord (a cable for power and controls) to the support
vessel. DSVs are anchor moored or dynamically positioned. When working with divers, very strict
requirements apply to the anchor mooring or DP system, as a drift-off of the DSV could put the
divers in danger.
Therefore DSVs have to comply with the highest DP standards (class 3).
g.2b Multipurpose Support Vessel (MSV)
A MSV is somewhat similar to a diving support vessel.
Without diving operations, the DP requirements are less stringent.
MSVs can be used for a large variety of tasks like:
- survey work (e.g. seabed, pipeline, sub-sea structure);
- (sub-sea) construction, installation and maintenance or repair work;
- trenching of cables or pipelines;
- installation of flexibles;
- well intervention and workover services.
g.3 Crew boat
Used for crew changes for drilling rigs or other craft in benign waters.
They are fast boats of approx. 20 metres in length, with an accommodation for some 24 passengers
in chairs, and an open aft deck to take some spares and sufficient place to embark or disembark the
crewmembers using a crew-basket, suspended from the crane of the rig or ship.
In some areas (e.g. North Sea) helicopters are used for crew changes.
g.4 Standby - and chase vessels
Standby vessels stay in the neighbourhood of platforms or offshore operations to perform rescue
operations in case of emergencies.
Chase vessels are used to chase ships away from platforms, offshore operations or seismic survey
Side 80

Figurtekst slut.
Side 81
Side 82


1 Pre-contractual work 82
2 Design and construction 85
3 Delivery 91

1. Pre-contractual work
Prior to the signing of the contract between shipyard and ship-owner for the actual construction of
the ship, the shipping company, financer and future owners have already completed a long road of
negotiations and considerations.
Unlike a car, most cargo ships are not ready for delivery in a wide range of pre-constructed models.
Most new ships are designed and constructed following the specific requirements of the shipping
However, more and more ships are built in larger series on a standard design, with limited
variations between ships. This makes series-production possible, enabling a shipyard to increase its
production efficiency
The advantages of a standardized ship are:
- the clients know what they can expect
- the design is already proven and can be optimized during the series
- the price and construction are known
- the almost complete absence of the design and engineering period shortens the delivery period of
later ships in the series
- the costs for design and engineering of the ship are spread over multiple ships, so the overall costs
per ship are lower.
The disadvantages of a standardized ship are:
- the design may not be entirely suitable for the requirements of the shipping company
- the involvement of the shipping company is limited to details only
- more competitors may operate the same ships, which are not optimized for a particular trade or
shipping company.
- Level of innovations and cost saving prospects for the future are lower. Innovative solutions can't
be fully utilized on standard ship's.
In spite of the disadvantages, shipyards have introduced good and versatile standardised ships in
recent years.
Some shipping companies are now ordering whole series of these ships with sometimes only a few
modifications to the design. However, each modification costs extra.

1.1 Owners' requirements

Most shipping companies first define formal owners requirements, in particular if the ship will be
newly designed and optimized for the shipping company.
It specifies several characteristics of the new ship, such as:
- the desired carrying capacity and tonnage
- desired service speed and trial speed
- types of cargo the ship must be able to transport
- cargo-hold layout
- system of hatches/hatch covers
- cargo gear required and its type, capacity and safe working load
- number of crew and passengers, to determine the number of cabins
- composition of the crew, luxury and dimensions of the cabins and general accommodation
- operational area
- operational range to determine the size of the fuel tanks and storage compartments
- limitations to the size in respect to the routes it will navigate (bridges, locks, water depth etc.)
- special requirements like strengthening for navigation in ice (ice class) or ramps in the side of the
- if freight contracts have already been made, the ultimate completion date
- required certification, classification society and flag of registration.
Side 83

The shipping company then submits this list of requirements to several shipyards as a call for
tenders. The shipyards will then inform the shipping company if they are interested in preparing a
tender for design and construction of the required ship(s). This may depend on:
- the technical capability of the ship-yard and experience with the ship type
- the capacity and earliest delivery time that the shipyard can offer
- the amount of material and man-power that is required in the available time
- special interest of the shipyard to build such a type of ship
- expected price level
- expected competition
After informative talks the shipping company sets a time period in which the shipyards can submit
an offer (tender, quotation) subject to contract. This means that the shipping company does not
have to pay for the offer and that the shipyards do not know which one will get the contract.
Sometimes the shipping company already has a preference for a particular shipyard, and then the
offers are used in the negotiations with the preferred yard.

Pontoon hatches used as tweendeck in a multi purpose ship
Figurtekst slut.
1.2 The preliminary sketch
The offer subject to contract is the response of the shipyard to the invitation to tender. This offer
consists of a preliminary design, which, in turn, consists of an outline specification, a preliminary
General Arrangement plan and an estimate of the price. The outline specification is a brief
technical description and the General Arrangement plan is a side and top view of the ship, which
shows the arrangement of the relevant spaces in the vessel. On the basis of a comparison of the
offers, a shipping company will continue negotiations with 2 or 3 shipyards.
The Preliminary design for the tender is prepared in the project department (or Design department)
of the shipyard. This requires a lot of calculations and design work, especially if the design is
entirely new.
The vessel including its hull, machinery and equipment to be built under the special survey of
Lloyd's Register of Shipping and to be classed and registered as +100 A1 +LMC, UMS, IWS,
PCW8T, SCM, LA., NAV I, Iceciass 1A 'Strengthened for heavy cargoes' Timber dec* Cargoes.
Container cargoes in hold and on upperdeck'.
strengthened for regular discharge by grabs.
The vessel to be registered under the flag of the Netherlands.
The following maritime Rules and Regulations, those coming into effect as of the date of execution
of the contract to be complied with, including rules and regulations known at the day of execution
of the contract, coming into force and being applicable to the vessel before actual delivery;
- Rules and regulation of Classification Society
- International 'Convention for the safety of life at sea, 1992 and latest amendments
- International convention on load fines, 1966
- Regulations for the Measurement of Vessel (London, 1969)
- Convention on the International Regulations for preventing collisions at sea, 1972
- Convention on the International Regulations for preventing pollutions at sea 1973, 1978 (Annex f,
IV, V) and latest amendments
- Acts of International Telecommunication and Radio Conference (GMDSS Area III)
- Suez Canai navigation rule
- Panama Canal navigation ruie
- USCG rules for foreign flag ship 'visiting US harbour {+ USDPH)
- Maritime rules of 'the Netherlands (NSI), including NSI Noise Regulations
- Regulations of Unattended Machinery Space by NSI
- Rule of Australian Waterside Workers Federation (AWWF), Australian Navigation and Pilot Rule
- Reg-54 of Solas 1981 for the carriage of dangerous goods DHI (Partial application)
- St. Lawrence Seaway and Great Lakes requirements
Rammetekst slut.
Legal part of new building specification
Side 84

A section on a screen
Figurtekst slut.
The demands on naval architects, Computer Aided Design (CAD) programs and designers are quite
heavy and if the shipyard is too small to carry out such design and calculation work in a short
period, it may co-operate with other shipyards, or subcontract the work to specialized design offices.
Various CAD computer programs are used for the following activities (first in the preliminary
design and later on in the final design):
- The design and optimization of the hull form, general arrangement of hull, decks and
superstructures, maximum deck load etc.
- Hydrostatic calculations, both for trim and stability of the ship in various loading conditions and
for checking stability in case of damage to determine the chance of survival. This stability has to
fulfill the requirements of the IMO. Additionally the longitudinal strength of the ship is checked for
the same conditions.
- Hydrodynamic calculations, calculations that are performed to estimate the resistance of the ship,
and to determine the characteristics of the ship's propeller and its propulsive efficiency, from which
the power to be installed can be derived. From these calculations the 'speed - power curves' are
derived. In these curves the required engine power is plotted against a certain speed, usually for
'trial and service conditions' (smooth sea, new clean hull, no wind with a certain 'sea margin'). The
ship's behaviour at sea and its manoeuvrability at different conditions of loading can be predicted.
- To check whether the outline specification satisfies all the legal requirements, see page 83.
- The design information is the basis for the calculation of the building cost of the ship, that will be
stated in the offer to the ship owner.
Limited time is available when a client is there. On the other hand the more subjects are covered by
calculations and reliable estimations, the lower the risk for the yard and the more competitive the
price. So yards invest in good design tools and key figures to speed up the tender process.

1.3 The tender

After having studied all the offers, the shipping company can make a final choice for a particular
design and start negotiations with one or two shipyards to finalize the contract price and
specification, resulting in a contract for the building of the ship between the ship owner and yard.
In other cases the shipping company can elaborate upon its chosen design, prepare a detailed
building specification of the ship and a preliminary cost estimation. This document may be as large
as 200 pages.
This detailed building specification can then be sent to two or three shipyards for a more detailed
offer to complete the design and construct the ship(s). This procedure is called a tender, and
participating in it is called "to tender". For state owned companies the European Union (EU)
sometimes requires an "open tender" in which other shipyards, if they are from the EU, can partake.
Sometimes it can take months for the shipyards to detail the design and the specification of systems
in the ship to be built and to calculate an accurate price for the tender, but they still do not receive
any money and are still under no obligation.
The financing scheme has to be agreed, often together with the shipyard's bank, to negotiate the
invoice periods with the ship owner.
Some shipyards may offer financing schemes in which the shipowner only pays 10% at the signing
of the contract and 90% on delivery.
This can be more attractive to the owner than a payment scheme that requires advance payments to
the yard before building is started.
Finally the order will be given to one of the shipyards.
In this process, not only price is taken into consideration, but also other factors like the delivery
date, the reputation of the shipyard (working within budget and time) and whether the shipyard has
constructed a vessel for the shipping company before.

1.4 The contract specification

After the preparation, sometimes lasting up to a year, the parties involved sign the final building
The building contract establishes all the legal positions and commercial conditions between the
shipyard, the shipping company and often also the financer and is always related to a signed
contract specification and a signed General Arrangement of the ship.
When the building contract has been signed, all the parties have obligations that start with the first
down payment and end with the delivery and final payment.
The shipyard gives a yard number to the future ship, which is stated on all the drawings and
At this point the clock starts to tick for construction.
Within the contract there is a provision to allow for price adjustments should any changes to the
original design be made during the building period.
For any alterations or additional components, the additional price will be estimated, negotiated and
The payment will be settled at a later date in accordance with the provisions of the contract.
Not only the primary investments, but also operational costs and revenues are relevant, for all
commercial craft.
For other ships like mega yachts the quality is important for future resell prospects.
Side 85

2. Design and construction

The building time, as agreed in the contract, comprises the design phase and the building phase.
The design period varies from 6 to 18 months depending on the complexity of the ship.
The building period varies between 6 and 24 months.
A building team may be formed by the shipping company and the shipyard who both appoint
project managers, responsible for the entire building process until delivery, each person an expert in
his or her own field.

Wave-pattern before optimization
Figurtekst slut.
Wave-pattern after optimization
Figurtekst slut.

2.1 The design and engineering department

Most shipyards have a 'Project- 'or 'Design Department' in which preliminary designs are prepared
and where the final design calculations are made for the ship designs that become ship contracts.
These final designs will be futher developed in every detail of the construction and systems in the
Engineering Department.
This department used to be called the 'Drawing office', but nowadays in most shipyards the
engineering is prepared behind workstations by engineers using Computer Aided Engineering
systems. There is not a single drawing table to be found. The ship is developed in detail in
construction drawings. The diagrams of all the mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, and electrical
systems including the accomodation, are detailed.
Most relevant drawings have to be submitted to the:
- Classification Society with which the ship is to be classed
- Regulating Body of the country where the ship is to be registered (flag state).
Even though people from the shipping company are on the building team, some drawings still need
approval from the management of the shipping company.
Furthermore, every detail of the engineered construction or system has to comply with the rules of
the Classification Society, which regularly sends inspectors to the shipyard to assure compliance
with initially approved drawings.
Some shipyards have a small engineering department, mostly focusing on project management.
They will sub-contract the engineering package to an independent marine engineering office, to
their co-makers for the electrical installation, engine room installation, air conditioning installation,
etc., or they will cooperate with other shipyards. The detailed engineering of a ship design to a
complete and approved set of drawings takes tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of
man hours. This is costly; as a rule of thumb up to 10% of the total building price.
In many countries there is good co-operation between the various shipyards, and standardization
has led to a better match of products and computer-programs. This makes it increasingly easy for
shipyards to build parts for each other.
Wave-pattern around tug; computerized (1), model test (2) and under real condition (3)
Figurtekst slut.
Side 86

Panels (blocks) and sections of a ship
Figurtekst slut.
1. Monkey island
2. Wheelhouse
3. Bridge wing
4. Bridge deck
5. Staircase well
6. Funnel
7. Boat deck
8. Uptake
9. Stern section
10. Steering flat
11. Rudder section
12. Sternpost
13. Engine foundation
14. Engine room casing
15. Engine room double bottom
16. Bottom panel
17. Rear most side panel
18. Side panel
19. Moveable bulkhead
Side 87
20. Bulkhead in tweendeck position
21. Side panel
22. Bottom panel
23. Bilge keel
24. A midship section, is formed by two side panels and a bottom panel
25. Forepeak section
26. Hawse pipe
27. Chain locker
28. Forecastle
29. Ventilation casing
30. Bulwark
Side 88

Cruise liner during seakeeping and manoeuvring tests
Figurtekst slut.

2.2 Specialist knowledge

For certain difficult areas of design, specialized research and engineering firms are consulted.
These firms can advise shipyards in:
- the optimization of the shape of the ship
- calculations on noise and vibrations
- the optimization of the propellers, ducts and rudders.
Research on the hull is done both by computer calculations and results of model testing in a model
tank. The resistance curves are obtained by measuring the required propulsion power at different
drafts and speeds. In addition to this, research is done on the influence of waves on speed, the
necessary propulsion power, navigability, rolling and pitching behaviour and manoeuvrability.
With very large ships research is done on the extreme forces and bending moments that arise in the
ship in large waves/heavy seas.
The optimization of the ship's shape is a very laborious task where measuring and calculating go
hand in hand.
In the figures (page 85) the wave patterns of a ship at a certain speed before and after optimization
are shown. After optimization the ship makes fewer waves, so the optimization procedure has
reduced the wave resistance.
The bulbous bow has already reduced this resistance because the wave produced by the bulbous
bow counteracts the bow wave. However, this is only one effect that is accounted for in the
optimization process, there are many other effects that can further minimize wave resistance.

2.3 Preparation and pre-fabrication of steel parts

The production preparation department gets the construction drawings from the engineering
department to prepare the material ordering lists and the job-descriptions for the production of the
block sections.
Every individual steel part gets its own individual code, (the 'pos-number'), and description, type of
material, block section number, etc.
With the aid of a computer-program, a nesting engineer nests' a collection of steel parts with the
same material type and thickness in rectangular steel plates.
The goal of the nesting process is that the construction parts for the ship are located in such a
pattern in the available steel plates that there is a minimal amount of waste material after cutting all
the parts out of the base-plate.
On the Numerical Controlled (NC) steel cutting machine, a computer controls the cutting torch, for
instance an autogenous flame cutting torch or a plasma cutter in a water bath (wet-plasma).
In the 'wet-plasma' cutting process, the excess heat is drained quickly and the cutting fumes are
absorbed into the water.
Some shipyards use 'dry plasma' cutting where a vacuum system below the plate draws the fumes
As a result minimal distortions will occur in the pre-fabricated steel construction parts and there is
good control of the exact dimensions of the plates.
The cutting machine can also mark a part's code number on the steel.
Side 89

2.4 The production phases

A ship is constructed in various stages, which can sometimes overlap:
- pre-fabrication of steel parts
- building of flat panels (plates with stiffeners)
- building of block-sections (3-dimensional parts that can still be moved from a workshop to the
- assembling of hull and deckhouse on a slipway or in a building dock
- installation and outfitting of systems and components
- painting of individual parts
- final paint layers on the outside hull
- launching of the ship
- outfitting alongside a quay and subsequent completion
- system trials at the shipyard
- sea trial.
Automation of the construction has led to more efficiency. Furthermore, the sections are engineered
in such a way that as much assembly welding as possible can be done by semi-automatic welding
and robots.
Building by block-section enables parts of the double bottom, the fore ship and the aft ship to be
welded whilst lying upside down in the workplace.
This manner of welding produces a uniform quality of the weld in less time.
Because access to the different blocks is much more restricted when they are joined together, the
ships systems are pre-outfitted in the sections as far as possible, prior to the joining. This means
that piping systems, tanks, filters and other small auxiliaries are all placed in the section before the
joining of all the blocks.
The building of a ship used to begin with the placing of a keel plate. The rest of the construction
was then connected to this first item.
Today, laying the keel means that the first bottom block is placed in the assembly hall or on the
building berth.
Subsequently, the other blocks of the ship are then built onto this.
At this stage, the production is well underway.
View of an assembly shop
Figurtekst slut.

The first bottom block is placed,
Figurtekst slut.
Some modern shipyards do the actual building in large indoor assembly halls where they use pre-
painted steel plates.
After welding the plates, the joints are immediately painted.
Several factors determine where the ship will be finished.
The finishing is either done in the assembly hall or at the outfitting dock.
In some cases the deckhouse can not physically fit into the assembly hall.
If the vessel is going to be launched longitudinally, she should have minimum weight on board.
The launching of a ship can be longitudinal or transverse (side launching), depending on the layout
of the shipyard and the slipway and is always an exciting moment because at the moment the ship
is launched, there is no going back.

2.5 Launching and fitting out

In longitudinal launches from a slipway, the ship acquires so much speed that it takes a lot of effort
to reduce this speed. This is done by water brakes and drag chains or ropes.
In side-launches, from a transverse slipway, the ship can bounce back against the wharf, especially
when the water level is high.
The ship does not gain much speed, but instead produces very high waves.
After the launch, the final items such as masts, hatches, engines, funnel, ventilation shafts, cranes
etc. are added to the ship at the fitting-out berth. Finally, the cabins and other spaces are furnished
and the inventory is brought on board.
(Inventory is not a yard supply, apart from some basics, they are normally supplied by owners).
Side 90

A side-launch
Figurtekst slut.

The main engine (700 tons) is brought on hoard
Figurtekst slut.
Installation of a complete deckhouse, while the ship is at the fitting out dock.
Figurtekst slut.

2.6 Commissioning
When the ship's electrical systems are ready, the switchboard is connected to the shore supply to
get power.
After careful checking, one of the ship's generators is started, and electric power from the generator
is supplied to the switchboard and the ship can then begin to function independently from the shore
Upon completion of the vessel in the shipyard the final testing of all systems will be conducted at
the shipyard with the exception of items which can only be tested during sea trials in open sea.
Final testing at the shipyard is related to electrical systems, engines, generators, pumps, technical
equipment, life-saving equipment light ship weight measurement, and the inclining experiment
(the stability test).
During commissioning a very important item is the inclination test and the lightweight
measurement. The inclination test is carried out to find the height of the centre of gravity. Moving a
known weight from midships to both sides alternately and measuring list very accurately during the
various steps in that procedure make it possible to calculate the position of 'G'.
This is a very important figure for stability calculations.
Rammetekst slut.
In principle all these tests will be carried out in the presence of the owner's representative(s),
Classification surveyor(s) and, if applicable, National Authority representative(s).
(Final testing in open sea is mainly related to final testing of machinery under working conditions,
fuel consumption, vessel's speed, rudder tests and anchor tests.)
Next is the first, technical, sea trial, which can take from a few hours to several days. This is the
first time that the ship leaves the shore and is completely self-reliant.
The ship as a whole and all of its parts are extensively tested and all the results are carefully
The Classification Society and the National Shipping Inspectorate (flag state) are also present to see
if all requirements are met.
In general, these trials are successful, but there are always small imperfections which can be
corrected during or after the trial.
The exact behavior of the ship in open sea will become clear when the ship is in use; however, the
speed and fuel consumption of the empty ship can be measured during sea trials.
Side 91

Manoeuvring test during sea trials
Figurtekst slut.

2.7 Production logistics

More and more shipyards advertise shorter delivery periods, and more and more shipping
companies stipulate it. In order to facilitate this trend, many of shipyards sub-contract other
shipyards to build parts of the ship. It is also common that the hull of the ship is constructed in low-
wage countries and that the hull is fitted out and completed locally.
But even without these measures, all semi-finished parts must be ready for the next phase of
construction to commence. For standard ships, the yard layout is optimized for the flow of its
particular section blocks and turnaround time. Yards that produce custom built vessels, focus on the
turnaround of specific logistic units of standardized size. Each unit will have more or less the same
lead time so the waiting hours and temporary storage in the process will be minimized. Handling of
these units can be automated, while the parts are totally different or unique, for example plates are
joined and stiffeners are added to form bulkheads and decks on a so called 'panel line'.
All panels arrive at the right time at the section building area, to be fitted in the block. The
management approach is called lean-production.
Additionally, all the purchased parts must be ready in time, but not too early because of the costs of
storage and interest.
Keeping the construction process manageable requires that a proper overall plan of the project in
terms of technicalities, logistics and finance should be available any time of the day. Such a
management system integrates and controls data from the preparation, design, purchase, stocks,
production, administration and project management.
3. Delivery
3.1 Sea trials
The Shipping Company and Certifying Authorities will finally accept the ship subject to the issue
of the relevant certificates and successful sea trial tests. During a short voyage the protocol of
consignment is signed, the shipyard's flag will be exchanged for the flag of the shipping company
and the financer pays the last instalment. Because there is usually a 12-month period of guarantee
on the ship, the shipping company usually requires a bank guarantee from the shipyard. This is
called upon when the shipyard cannot, or refuses to comply with the guarantee.
It is normal for a guarantee engineer from the shipyard to be on board for the first months of a
ship's life

3.2 Period of guarantee

The guarantee conditions are an integral part of the building contract.
In general, the guarantee period is 12 months from delivery of the vessel.
The shipyard almost always takes over the guarantee conditions and periods of the companies
supplying the different ship components and transfers them to the shipowner at delivery. If the ship
needs repairing within the period of guarantee, the vessel's location and the urgency of the repair
jobs determines who will repair the vessel and where it will be done.
If the ship cannot be repaired at or by the shipyard, for instance, because the ship is in another
country, the shipping company is allowed to have the ship repaired by a third party, but only if the
costs of repairing the ship are not more than the price the shipyard would ask.
This condition protects the shipyards against excessive bills if there is a deal between the shipping
company and the repair yard.
Repairs of components and equipment are almost exclusively done by local service agents,
especially when the parts are of a well-known brand. This is always done in consultation with the
shipyard or the supplier.
The crew is prohibited from conducting repairs during the period of guar antee unless the repairs
are absolutely necessary. In this case, the shipyard has to be consulted first.
Sometimes suppliers have two periods of guarantee for their product. The first period covers a
period of months after delivery from the factory; the second, after the product is put into operation.
The reason for this is, that there sometimes is a long period between delivery to the shipyard and
the time the component is put into operation.
Side 92

Figurtekst slut.
Side 93
Side 94

1 General 96
2 Longitudinal strength 96
3 Torsion of the hull 107
4 Local stresses 107
5 Stiffening 108

1 General
When a ship is moving through the water, there are many forces acting on it.
How they act is largely determined by the purpose the ship was built for. Forces on a tugboat will
be different from the forces acting on a container ship.
The types of forces that occur in waves are the same for every ship but the magnitudes and points
of action depend on the shape of the ship below and immediately above the waterline.
The pattern of forces on a ship is very complicated and largely depends on the following
- the weight of the empty ship (light ship weight)
- the weight and distribution of the cargo, fuel, ballast, provisions, etc
- hydrostatic* pressure on the hull applied by the water
- hydrodynamic* forces resulting from the movement of the ship in the waves
- vibrations caused by engines, propeller, pitching
- incidental forces caused by docking, collisions
- ice

A ship with heel in an unstable situation.
Figurtekst slut.
These and other forces cause the ship to flex. When the force disappears, the ship will regain its
original shape. Every ship is different and will have more or less flexibility. If, however, the forces
exceed a certain limit, permanent deformation can result.

2 Longitudinal strength
2.1 Shearing forces
When a ship is in calm water the total downward force of her weight equals the total upward force
of her buoyancy. This equilibrium does not exist throughout her length. Local differences in weight
and shape give rise to shearing forces resulting in vertical stresses.
*Static and dynamic Examples of dynamic:
The concepts static and dynamic are widely used in this and other chapters.
Static means that the force exerted on an object is absorbed immediately.
Dynamic means the force is absorbed gradually.
Examples of static:
- A swing with a child is slowly pushed forwards.
This is a static movement because the force exerted on the swing is absorbed instantaneously.
- A crane on a ship is loading cargo. As the cargo runner is stiffened, the ship lists slowly.
This is a static movement because the ship absorbs the force that lifts the weight instantaneously.
Examples of dynamic:
- The same swing is pushed forward suddenly.
The weight of the swing cannot absorb this sudden burst of force and loses control.
This is a dynamic motion.
- The same crane has lifted the weight several meters.
The cable suddenly snaps and the weight falls on the quay.
This causes the ship to list violently lo Hie other side.
The ship is unable to absorb the sudden change in weight and, as a result, acquires a dynamic
Rammetekst slut.
Side 95
The shearing force is the force that shifts the transverse plane from one part of the ship to another.
The submerged part of the ship clearly shows the difference in volume between midship, fore and
aft ; this is the reason for the difference in upward force. In the drawing on the right of this page a
part of the aft ship is shown along with the shearing force near a bulkhead.
The shearing force at the bulkhead is 400 - 200 = 200 tons. The downward force causes a hogging
moment of 400 tons × 6 meters = 2400 tm.
The upward force causes a sagging moment of 200 t × 3m. = 600 tm The bending moment at the
bulkhead is: 2400 tm - 600tm =1800tm (hogging).

200 tons shearing force at this bulkhead
Figurtekst slut.

The submerged part of this ship clearly shows the difference in volume between the midships
section and the aft ship,
This explains the difference in upward pressure force.
Figurtekst slut.
The black vectors represent the upward pressure and the weight of the ship.
The red vectors indicate the resultant per section.
Figurtekst slut.

This is how the separate compartments would float. The dashed line indicates their actual draft,
Figurtekst slut.

The black vectors indicate the resultant shearing forces between the different compartments.
The red vectors indicate the resultant per section.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 96

2.2 Explanation of bending moments

Below is an explanation of how bending moments and shearing forces are continuously changing.
As an example a rectangular vessel is used which is divided into three compartments (A, B and C).
In figures 1, 2 and 3 both outer compartments are filled with cargo.
In fig. 4, 5 and 6 the inner compartment (B) is filled with cargo.
In fig. 2 and 5 the vessel is on a wave crest and in fig. 3 and 6 the vessel is in a trough.
The upward pressures keep changing because the wave is moving along the vessel. The downward
forces, however, stay the same.
The upward and downward forces per compartment are shown as vectors.
The mean resultant per compartment is given as a vector on the line below. The load curve
indicates the difference of the up and downward forces per meter at each point on the base-line.
The sum of the areas above the base-line and of the areas below the base-line should be equal.
The shearing force curve indicates a sum of the shearing forces on the right part produced by the
left side, going from left to right.
If the direction of the force changes (from upward to downward or vice versa), the shearing force
curve will either descent or ascend.
The shearing force curve has an extreme value at the points where the direction of the force
Converting the load curve to a shear force curve is called summing.
The sum of the areas above the base line has to equal the sum of the areas below the baseline.
The shearing forces are expressed in tons.
The bending moment is determined by summing the shearing forces from left to right.
The bending moment is expressed in ton-meter (tm).
If the shearing force curve descends or vice versa, the bending moment will bend from "hollow" to
"round" or vice versa.
fig. 1
Figurtekst slut.
fig. 2
Figurtekst slut.
fig. 3
Figurtekst slut.
Side 97
When the shearing force curve crosses the baseline, the bending moment line will descend or
The ship will take the shape of the bending moment line if this has only one extreme (maximum)
The situation in figures 1 and 2 is called a hogging condition and the situation in figures 3, 4, 5 and
6 is called a sagging condition.
Around mid-height of the rectangular cross-section of the barge vessel there is a "neutral zone".
At that level there are no tension or compression stresses.
Further above or below the stresses have a higher value, as can be seen from Hooke's Law stress
On the diagram of the bending moment, the maximum bending moment is at half length, (½ L),
decreasing to zero (0) at the ends.
In a ship we find a similar stress distribution.
The vertical deflection of a ship's hull, in longitudinal direction, where the hull is bent upwards
amidships, as a result of cargo distribution and/or the way the ship is supported by a wave.
The vertical deflection of a ship's hull in longitudinal direction, where the hull is bent downward
amid-ships, as a result of cargo distribution and/or the way the ship is supported at sea.
Rammetekst slut.

Stress distribution in a beam, during bending. The neutral axis is at the level of the center of
gravity of the sections.
Figurtekst slut.
fig. 4
Figurtekst slut.
fig. 5
Figurtekst slut.
fig. 6
Figurtekst slut.
Side 98

The upper graph shows the forces which are working on a ship.
The red line represents the weight of the ship at each section.
Cut the ships body in slices of for instance one meter. Each slice has its own weight, working as a
vertical downward force.
The blue line represents the upward force of the displaced water, found in the same manner.
The middle graph is the sum at each section of both graphs from the upper picture.
It shows the shearforce at each location.

The third graph shows the shearforce and the bending moment.
The red line is the summation of the shearforces at each position, from left, the shearforce in each
position added to the shearforce of the former position.
The ends are zero.
When this procedure Is repeated with the graph of the shearforce, the graph of the bending
moments is found.
Side 99

When a thick plate has to be welded to a thin plate thickness reduction has to be carried out, See
items 1 and 3 from the picture beside.
Figurtekst slut.

1. Upper strake of side bulkhead (22 mm)

2. Main deck (14 mm)
3. Longitudinal or side bulkhead (9 mm)
4. Deck longitudinal, Holland-Profile (HP profile)
5. Deck longitudinal (flat bar)
6. Longitudinal (HP-profile)
7. Web frame with plate stiffeners around manhole
8. Inner side of the shell with stringer
9. Longitudinals on the side bulkhead.

Feeder in heavy weather. The ship is partially on a wave crest; hogging
Figurtekst slut.

The ship is partially in a trough. In this case the foreship will experience a large sagging moment
while the aft ship experiences a large hogging moment.
Figurtekst slut.

2.3 Longitudinal reinforcements

At mid-length the longitudinal stresses in the extreme top deck and bottom area are maximum (see
page 98-99). To keep the stresses in these areas below the maximum allowed, increased material is
This can be achieved by installing thicker deck plates, sheer strake, bottom plating and bilge strake,
including the longitudinal stiffening attached to that plating.
The tank top with its stiffening in the double bottom also has to be considred.
Using material that can withstand higher stresses (high tensile steel) can reduce the weight in those
The pictures above clearly show the difference in plate thickness between the upper strake of the
side bulkhead and the side bulkhead below it.
In this ship (container feeder) the upper strake of the side bulkhead is about 2.5 times as thick as the
continuous side bulkhead.
The place where the plate thickness changes (from 22 mm to 9 mm) is called the taper.

2.4 The loading program

To judge if stresses are within limits, there is a Classification Rule that each ship over 65 meters in
length has on board a loading instrument, a computer with a program that calculates the stresses in
the ship, according to the cargo on board.
When a ship's officer has entered the weight of all the items into the loading instrument, (this is
normally done before they are actually loaded on board), the computer can calculate shearing
forces, bending moments and stability.
The program compares the load entered with the requirements and regulations of the Classification
Bureau and the Flag State. Two calculations are made:
- harbour condition
- sea condition.
In port, higher stresses are allowed, as the influence of waves is absent. This permits higher stresses
during loading and unloading sequences to adapt to these higher stresses.
Upon completion of cargo the ship has to meet sea requirements.
Page 100 contains an example of a stress calculation with the related curves.
Of the total loading programme, only a few examples are shown on the next page.
Side 100

Displacement 32794
Dead weight 20450
Cargo weight 16158
Ballast weight 1909
Fuel weight 1809
Misc. weight 574
Trim and Drafts
Draft FP 8.82
Draft AP 9.11
Draft mean 8.97
Trim 0.29
Heel Port 0.04

G'M 2.17
GM Reg 0.60

Limits: Sea Condition

SF 41.2
BM 78.3
TM 45.3
Seawater Dens 1.023

Vessel Center of Gravity

LCG 91.90
TCG 0.00
VCG 11.79
GZ, GM see chapter 16
SF = Shear Force
BM = Bending Moment
TM = Torsion Moment
LCG = Longitudinal Center of Gravity
TCG = Transverse Center of Gravity
VCG = Vertical Center of Gravity
FSM = Free Surface Moment
FP = Forward Perpendicular
AP = Aft Perpendicular
tm = ton-meter
rad = radial
Dens = Density
Wgt of 20's = Weight of 20 feet containers.
Side 101

Total failure due to incorrect sequence in cargo and / or ballast handling.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 102

2.5 Stress distribution and deflection simulation

Stresses in and deflections of the ship's hull, due to the various forces working on ships
encountering heavy waves, can be simulated in computer models. The following pages show the
exaggerated stress distribution in col-ours, and the consequent deflection.
This technique, using the various speeds and wave patterns in relation to the ship, simulated in a
computer, is a tool for ship managers giving advice - when to change course or slow down - to ship
masters, in order to prevent damages.
These computer simulation outcomes can be translated into clear written advise.

This figure shows the deformation of a large Post-Panamax Container vessel in hogging condition.
Figurtekst slut.
This figure shows the pressure distribution for the above load case,
Figurtekst slut.
Side 103

This figure shows the deformation and the stresses in the bottom plating under hogging condition
Figurtekst slut.
This figure shows the torsional deflection of the same container vessel together with the stresses,
Here the detail view into the forward cargo hold is of special interest.
The torsional loads cause a considerably high stress level in the partial stringer decks at the
positions of changing width.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 104

This is a finite element model of a multipurpose vessel with heavy lift cranes installed at port side,
The deflections are caused by an oblique sea
Figurtekst slut.

View of left load case from side
Figurtekst slut.
Torsional deflection in heeled condition to starboard, with the crane columns bending inwards
Figurtekst slut.

Same as above. Deflections in sagging condition.
No stress distribution.
The different colours represent the plate thickness.
Figurtekst slut.
View of left middle case load from side
Figurtekst slut.

Torsional deflection in heeled condition to portside, with the crane columns bending outwards
Figurtekst slut.

View of the left load case from side
Figurtekst slut.
Side 105

3 Torsion of the hull

Torsion occurs in a seaway and when there is an asymmetry in the mass distribution over the
horizontal plane.
For example, if there is a weight of 100 tons on the starboard side of the fore ship which is
compensated by an equivalent weight on the port side of the aft ship, there will be torsion (or
If both weights are 10 meters from the centre line, the torsion moment will be:
100 ton × 10 meters = 1000 tm.
In adverse weather, especially when the waves come at an angle, the torsion can increase as a
consequence of the asymmetric distribution of the upward pressure exerted by the water on the
submerged part of the hull.
Torsion causes a ship to be subject to extra stresses and deformations. This can result in leaking
hatches and defects in hatch-coaming corners. Especially "open ships", i.e. ships with large deck
openings, tend to be torsionally weak and are sensitive to this. A good example are container ships
and modern box-hold general cargo ships.
Large bulk carriers (capesize) with large hatch openings and enormous torsional forces when
ocean-waves approach at an angle, are specially strengthened at hatch coaming corners.

Damage caused by panting strain, Entire forepeak tank torn off, Ship size 100,000 ton deadweight.
Figurtekst slut.

4 Local stresses
4.1 Panting stresses
These occur in the foreship during pitching. The constantly changing water pressure increases the
stress in the skin and frames.
Panting stress is not a result of hydro-static pressure, but a result of hydro-dynamic pressure.
To reduce the panting stress effect, panting beams in transverse direction and stringers against the
ship's shell are added to the forepeak, the area aft of the forepeak and aft peak structure.

Forces on the fore-ship if the ship is on a wave top (left) and in a trough(right).
Figurtekst slut.

4.2 Pounding
When pitching becomes so heavy that the entire bow comes above the water, pounding or
slamming can occur.
Especially with a flat fore-ship, such as in bulk carriers and tankers, the dynamic forces on the flat
bottom, can result in damage to plating and internals.
To prevent this kind of damage, thicker plates and more internals, are inserted at smaller intervals,
such as floors at every frame and more keelsons.

4.3 Diagonal loads

These occur when the ship is asymmetrically laden and during rolling of the ship in waves.
The effect of the diagonal loads is reduced by the addition of frame brackets, deck beam brackets,
cross frames and transverse bulkheads.

4.4 Vibration stresses

These can be caused by:
- vibration induced by the main engine,
- forces on the aft ship caused by the rotation of the propeller.
- wave impact
Vibration occurs when resonant frequency is equal to the first, second or third order of an induction
source: the main engine, the propeller, etc. Adding weight and structure, and so changing the
resonant frequency or local stiffening are remedies.
Vibration is a growing concern, as ships are built lighter and lighter, due to the use of high tensile
steel, which allows thinner construction for the same strength, and the application of better paints,
which eliminate the need of corrosion surplus.
Vibration can result in fatigue defects, noise, and discomfort for the crew. Vibration can also be
eliminated by inducing another vibration source, with contrapulses.
4.5 Dry docking loads
These forces are the result of vertical upward forces to the keel and to a lesser extent side blocks.
Keel blocks are supposed to take the total weight of the ship.
Side blocks are put in dry dock to keep the ship upright, but also to take weight.
When calculating block loads, only the keel blocks are taken into consideration.

Diagonal loads due to roiling in waves
Figurtekst slut.
Side 106

5 Stiffening
5.1 Purpose of stiffeners
To prevent the plate areas (or plate fields) of a ship from distorting under the influence of the
shearing loads, bending moments and local loads, they have to be stiffened.

Compression forces on a plate result in plate buckling.
Figurtekst slut.

Compression forces on a stiffened plate, Buckling requires extra force.
Figurtekst slut.
Parallel frames on a plate subjected to bending moment
Figurtekst slut.
Examples of plate areas are:
- the shell,
- decks,
- bulkheads
- tank top.
Deformation of plate areas can be prevented by welding stiffeners in the direction of the forces.

5.2 Shell plating

The shell plating's primary task is to keep the sea water outside the ship. On the outside of the shell
there is water and on the inside air, water, fuel or cargo. The result of the above is different pressure
outside and inside. The shell plating has to withstand bending forces.
The pressure on the shell from outside depends on the draft The distribution of pressure can be seen
in the drawing.

5.3 Decks
The weather deck will flex under the load of water on deck, ice or deck cargo.
The tweendeck will be flexed by the weight of the cargo on deck, and the apparent increase of
weight due to pitching and rolling.
5.4 Bulkheads
Bulkheads have to withstand bending forces when they border a tank or a hold with bulk cargo.
When the height of liquid or bulk cargo is different on either side of a bulkhead, there is a pressure
differ-ence, causing bending of the bulk-head.
At sea, these forces can be multiplied by the ship's movement and by sloshing. For the strength
calculation of this kind of bulkhead it is assumed that one side is empty, while the other side is
filled with liquid to the height of the overflow pipe on deck.
When a bulkhead has to function as a support for heavy deck constructions, there are also
compression forces. Bulkheads fitted against torsion of the hull have to be stiffened keeping
diagonal forces in mind.

5.5 Tank top

The tank top, the closing plate of the double bottom, can be under pressure from below from liquids
and above from cargo resting on it.
Pressure from underneath is caused by liquid in the double-bottom tank, and the height of the
overflow / air pipes which allow the liquid to fill high in the pipe, or even to overflow. The height
of the liquid column causes pressure on the tank top. See drawing.
5.6 Panel
The water pressure results in forces on the plating, which are so large that they cannot be absorbed
by the plate without deformation or even fracturing. Therefore, the plates have to be stiffened by
stiffening profiles.
A combination of plates with stiffeners is called a panel.
By adding stiffeners, the panel is divided in strakes, the width of the stiffener-spacing.
Side 107
The load on that area is transferred to the stiffener, which in itself has gained strength due to the
fact that it is welded to the plate.
The thickness of the plating is determined by the stiffener spacing. In bulkheads, therefore, the
lower plates are thicker than the upper plates.
Classification provides regulations for the maximum spacing of stiffeners, depending on their
function (shell frames).

Each stiffener takes a part of the total force working on a panel.

The magnitude of the force is related to the pressure on the panel, the spacing of the stiffeners and
the (unsupported) length of the stiffener. The drawing shows the part supported by the middle
To determine the dimensions of the stiffener, a percentage of the width of the plate carried by the
stiffener, is taken into the calculation of the required section modules.
The section modulus comprises stiffener plus plate. The effective part of the plate is called the
contributing plate.

When the unsupported length (span) of a stiffener is so long that it results in very heavy stiffeners,
the stiffeners themselves get support from even heavier stiffeners, the so-called stringers or web
The table shows various panels with their specific stiffeners and supporting webs.
The spacing of horizontal webs and stringers (flats), increases from a small spacing at the bottom to
a large spacing at the top of the bulkhead, in connection with the triangular liquid pressure on the
The same (vertical) profile section over the full height of the bulkhead is then used.

Stiffeners can be chosen from a range of types. The most commonly used are flat bars, inverted
angle bars and Holland-Profiles or bulb-flats.
These are hot-rolled sections.
Constructed T-profile
Figurtekst slut.
Web frames and stringers can be made of similar profiles, but this is impracticable. Normally these
beams are constructed from plate with a flange or facebar.

5.7 Longitudinal framing and transverse framing system

Longitudinal forces are present on all ships and play a larger role if the ship is longer and/or has
less depth.
This is why ships with a length of more than 70 meters are usually constructed in accordance with
a longitdinal stiffening system.
This means that the primary stiffening of the shell plating, deck and bottom plating run fore and aft.
Ships shorter than 70 meters (for example fishing boats and tug boats) are usually built in
accordance with a transverse stiffening system.
The decision to use either longitudinal or transverse framing is also influenced by the shape.
If the parallel mid body is relatively long, for instance in ships for inland navigation and in barges,
longitudinal stiffening is cheaper and easier.
This is also true with shorter ships.
Lloyd's Register does not require a calculation for longitudinal strength if the ship is shorter than 65
The next six pages portray different kinds of ships:
108 - 109:
a 4250 TEU container vessel with longitudinal framing
cross section of a container ship near the engineroom with transverse frames
a double hull tanker with longitudinal framing system
112 - 113:
a tug with transverse frames.
Similar stiffeners have names in connection with the type of panel they support.
Planes Stiffening Support
shell (vertical) frames stringers (horizontal) web
(horizontal) longitudinals
bulkheads horizontal stiffening web girders stringers
vertical stiffening (horizontal)

decks deck beam or longitudinals deck girders or deep beams

flat bottom bottom longitudinals (fore and floors keelsons
bottom frames (transverse)
tank top tanktop stiffener (fore and aft) floors keelsons
tanktop stiffener (transverse)
Rammetekst slut.
Side 108
Side 109
1. Bow
2. Webs in fore castle
3. Side longitudinals
4. Bulbous bow
5. Floors in double bottom
6. Main deck
7. Tween deck (alleyway)
8. No. 1 hold
9. No. 2 hold
10. Coaming toprail
11. Bulkhead
12. Double bottom
13. Stringer jj
14. Container hold
15. Double bottom tank
16. Pipe duct or duct keel
17. Bottom lonitudinals
18. Web frame
19. Accomodation
ShipConstructorÆ image courtesy of Sinopacific Group, China.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 110

1. Frames
2. Ice strengthening frames
3. Web frames
4. Deck beams
5. Deck girders
6. Centre keels (duct keel)
7. Stanchions
Side 111

Half of the midship section of a large tanker
ShipConstructorÆ image courtesy of Estaleiro Atlantico Sul, Brazil
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Plating Stiffeners on the Plate-stiffeners Holds
1. Shell 7. Side longitudinals 12. Tie beam or cross- 19. Wing ballast tank
2. Longitudinal 8. Bottom frame 13. Stringer 20. Double bottom
bulkhead (of the inner /longitudinal
14. Stringer deck 21. Cargo tank
3. Transverse bulkhead 9. Inner bottom 15. Watertight floor
4. Lower hopper 16. Plate floor
5. Tank top 10. Bulkhead stiffener 17. Watertight side
6. Bottom 11. Stiffener with 18. Web frame
Side 112

1. Wheelhouse front windows

2. Wheelhouse rear windows
3. Portside funnel
4. Starboard side funnel
5. Mast
6. Deckhouse top
7. Foredeck
8. Forward bitts
9. Center lead
10. Location for the bow fender
11. Side bitts forward
12. Bilge keel
13. Towing bitt
14. Sideshell transverse frame
15. Deck bracket
16. Bilge bracket
17. Transverse full floor
18. Stringer
19. Stern fender
Side 113

Bender Shipbuilding & Repair co., Inc.
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20. Sternroller, for anchor handling
21. Bulwark cap, gunwale
22. Thruster nozzle
23. Poop deck, working deck
24. Rubbing bar
25. Deck beam
26. Transverse bulkhead
27. Location of towing winch
28. Steering flat
29. Side bitts aft
30. Longitudinal bulkhead (Shaft tunnel)
31. Bilge plating
Side 114

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Side 115
Side 116


1 The International Maritime Organization (IMO) 116
2 Certificates 118
3 Classification 119
4 ISM code 122
5 ISO 123
6 ISPS code 123
7 Marine pollution 124
8 Ballast water management 129
9 Documents 131

1. The International Maritime Organization (IMO)

1.1 General
International shipping, is subject to the stringent laws and regulations of international and national
regulatory bodies.
These bodies are united in the International Maritime Organization, IMO, which is a United
Nations Agency.
The main objective, from the establishment in 1948 up to its inauguration in 1958, is improvement
- maritme safety,
- efficiency of navigation and prevention
- control of marine pollution.
SOLAS (Safety Of Life At Sea) goes back as far as 1912, but due to World War I, never came into
Many countries had unilateral regulations on safety, but as sea trade is of an international nature,
the rules and regulations needed to be inter-national.
IMO's theme is:
Safe, secure and efficient shipping on clean oceans.
The first objective was to improve the safety of life at sea, SOLAS, followed by the concern for oil
pollution (OilPol 1954), finally resulting in the MARPOL-Convention, (International Convention
for the prevention of pollution from ships) accelerated by the Torrey Canyon accident (1967).

Basic structure of IMO
Figurtekst slut.

1.2 Assembly/Committees
Within IMO the governing body is the Assembly, which has established Committees for the
different objectives.
- MSC, the Maritime Safety Committee, governs the SOLAS Convention and deals with safety
matters, Codes and Conventions.
- MEPC, the Marine Environment Protection Committee, governs the Marpol regulations, first
developed in 1973, and embraced via the protocol of 1978 and deals with the prevention and
control of pollution from ships.
Other Committees are LEGAL (Legal Matters), TC (Technical Co-operation) and FAL
(Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic).
There are some 9 sub-committees. As of 2010 there were 169 member states.
Over the years IMO has adopted many conventions, protocols, codes and amendments.
After a convention is adopted by IMO it shall be ratified and implemented by individual
Side 117

Brief flowchart of IMO processes
Figurtekst slut.
Port State Control:
Flag States around the North-Atlantic and in the Mediterranean set up a system of ship inspections
related to the international regulations regarding Loadline, SOLAS, Marpol, Tonnage, Colreg,
Living and working conditions of crew, Dangerous Goods, Class, etc.
The target is to inspect 25% of the ships coming to their ports.
If deficiencies are found, they normally have to be rectified before departure, or are to be checked
in the next port.
Serious deficiencies result in the ship's detention, which means that the ship is not allowed to depart
before the deficiencies are corrected.
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Designed, approved and surveyed to withstand the roughest seas.
Figurtekst slut.

1.3 Conventions and Codes

The Conventions, Protocols, Codes and its amendments require that ships are periodically surveyed
to check that they comply with the requirements.
When they are found to comply they are issued with a certificate that is accepted worldwide.
Compulsory equipment has to be type-approved by the flag State or Classification Society.
The following IMO Conventions have been adopted
(not all have been implemented):
The International Convention on Load Lines 1966
- International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, SOLAS 1974 and protocol of 1978
- International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch-keeping for Seafarers
- Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, (Colregs)
- International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of ships,
- International Convention for the prevention of pollution from ships, 1973, modified as per
protocol 1978 (Marpol)
- International Convention on the control of harmful anti-fouling systems
- International Convention for the control and management of ship's ballast water and sediments
(not yet in force)
- The Torremolinos International Convention on the Safety of Fishing vessels, 1977
Each of the Conventions is, where necessary, more detailed in Codes.
However, some Codes are independent of a Convention.
Examples of Codes:
- International Life Saving Appliances Code (LSA code)
- International code for Fire Safety System (FSS code)
- International Safety Management Code (ISM)
- International Code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in
bulk (IBC Code)
- International Code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk
(IGC code)
- International Ship and Port facility Security Code (ISPS Code)
- NOx Technical Code (NOx Code, on air pollution)
- International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code (IMSBC)
- International code for the safe carriage of Grain
- Code of safety for fishermen and fishing vessels
- Code of safe practice for cargo stowage and securing.
Flag State:
Flag State is the country in which the ship is registered.
Each country is responsible for the laws and rules applicable to ships sailing under their flag. Often
the control of the rules is delegated to the Classification Society of the relevant ship.
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Side 118

2. Certificates
Before any Certificate can be issued, a ship must be registered in a country, the flag State. The
flagstate allows a ship to fly its flag and belong to its 'fleet'.
For a certain fee, and taxation on the earnings, the authorities allow the ship to sail under their
jurisdiction. The port where the ship has been registered has to be marked on the stern.
The certificates can be divided into certificates every ship shall have on board, certificates which
are connected to the type of cargo the ship is intended for or the area the ship is allowed to sail.

2.1 Compulsory certificates

The SOLAS Convention requires every ship on international voyages to have on board the have the
following certificates on board:
- Cargo ships:
• Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate
• Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate
A Cargo Ship Safety Certificate, is a combination of the above certificates and can be issued to
replace individual certificates. The certificates have to be accompanied by a Record of Equipment,
a list of items which need to be on board the relevant ship.
SOLAS or the specific code concerned regulates the ship's construction, with regard to strength,
maximum size of floodable compartments, intact and damage stability, covered under the Safety
Construction Certificate.
Passenger ships:
- Passenger Ship Safety Certificate
This certificate has been in use longer than the cargo ship safety certificate, and has the same
Rules and regulations and certificates are more stringent for passenger ships than for cargo ships.

2.2 Other certificates

2.2.1 Loadline
The Loadline Convention requires the International Loadline Certificate, which is evidence of
meeting free-board requirements, as prescribed in the Convention, and in the relevant Code.
Loadline requirements were initiated in the United Kingdom by a member of parliament, Mr
Plimsoll. Since 1876 certificates have been issued by the Classification Societies, when the
Freeboard Mark or Plimsoll Mark became compulsory.
The present regulations are laid down in the 1966 Loadline Convention.
On the basis of a ship's length, size of openings on deck, sheer, door sill heights, etc., a minimum
freeboard is calculated and has to be marked on the ship's side.
The regulations allow oil tankers and ships which carry timber deck cargoes to have less freeboard.
2.2.2 Tonnage
The Tonnage Convention requires every ship to be provided with an International Tonnage
Certificate. It is issued by the flag State or authorized Classification Society on behalf of the flag
It is accepted worldwide and provides the official details of the ship: main dimensions and volumes
of the various spaces, in particular the spaces in connection with cargo, cargo holds, tanks, etc., all
in accordance with regulations set out in the Tonnage Convention. It shows Gross Tonnage and Net
Safety and evironmentol requirements as well as harbour dues and many other financial charges are
often based on GT.
Apart from the International Tonnage Certificate, the Suez Canal and the Panama Canal have
their own 'tonnage' requirements on which their fees are based. Therefore, special tonnage
certificates are issued for Suez Canal and Panama Canal.

Survey to verify freeboard marks on the ship's side.
Figurtekst slut.
In a manufacturer's workshop a local surveyor examines the fit and alignment of intermediate and
thrust shafts.
Figurtekst slut.

Surveyors check links and shackles of an anchor chain.
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Side 119

2.2.3 Marpol
Marpol has 6 technical Annexes, each specifiying its applicable kind of pollution:
- Annex I, mineral oil from cargo or engineroom,
- Annex II regulates the carriage of Noxious Liquids (NLS) cargo in bulk, in the Certificate of
- Annex III, deals with Harmful Substances in packaged form,
- Annex IV deals with Sewage,
- Annex V deals with Garbage,
- Annex VI deals with air pollution.

2.2.4 Safe Manning Certificate

The flag State is also responsible for stating the minimum number of crew, and their required

2.3 Certificates in connection with the ship's trade

2.3.1 Mineral oil

Annex I requires for every tanker (>150 GT) a valid "International Oil Pollution Prevention
Certificate" (IOPP).

2.3.2 Noxious Liquids (NLS) in bulk

International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (COF),
accompanied by a Cargo list, is issued when the ship complies with the regulations in the relevant
Code and Annex II.
NLS tankers have to carry equipment to minimize residues in cargo tanks and its associated piping,
various measurement tools and special equipment related to the cargo they transport.
The cargo list names the chemicals the tanks are suitable for.
This relates to closing appliances, cargo tank coating, gasket materials, protective clothing,
breathing apparatus, gasmasks, etc.
2.3.3 Certificate of fitness for the carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk
Gas carriers carry this certificate, in accordance with the International Gas Carrier Code, or for
older ships, the Gas Carrier Code.

2.3.4 Certificate for the carriage of dangerous goods

This Document of Compliance clearly states what dangerous goods the ship is allowed to carry,
where on board and in what form, e.g.; packaged, in bulk, solid or liquid.
An approved cargo list gives the specific names.

2.3.5 Certificate for the carriage of solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC Code)
A special certificate has been created for the transport of Solid Bulk Cargoes on bulk carriers.
These cargoes have been categorized:
- Group A is cargo which may liquefy, such as coal slurry or wet sand
- Group B is a chemical hazard
- Group C has none of the above
disadvantages For each of these cargoes there are special requirements.
O.N.: Official Number NET.: Net Tonnage
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Every ship is provided with a so-called IMO number, a 7-digit identification number.
The number stays with the ship for its lifetime has to be clearly visible and is printed on all
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Side 120
Survey Intervals and Validity of Certificates
Certificate or Document Reference Restrictions
1. SOLAS 74
Passenger Ship Safety Reg.1/12 Vessels carrying more than 12
Certificate Passengers
Cargo Ship Safety Construction Reg.1/12 Cargo Vessels > 500 GT
Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Reg. 1/12 Cargo Vessels > 500 GT
Cargo Ship Safety Radio Reg. 1/12 Cargo Vessels > 300 GT
Cargo Ship Safety Certificate 1 Protocol 88 Reg. 1/12 Cargo Vessels > 500 GT
International Ship Security Reg. XI-2/1.12 Passenger Ships, MODU's
Certificate (I.July 2004) ISPS Code A/19.2 Cargo Vessels > 500 GT

Safety Management Certificate Reg. IX / 4 Passenger Vessels Cargo

(ISM) ISM Code Reg. 13.4 Vessels > 500 GT MODUS >
500 GT
Document of Compliance Reg. IX / 4 Companies operating
ISM Code Reg. 13.2 Companies operating Vessels >
500 GT
High Speed Craft Safety Reg.X/3 HSC Code 1.8 High-Speed Craft
International Certificate of Reg. VII / 8 Vessels carrying Dangerous
Fitness for the Carriage of Chemicals in Bulk, built on or
IBC Code Sec. 1.5
Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk after 1 July 1986
International Certificate of Reg. VII /11 Vessels carrying Liquefied
Fitness for the Carriage of Gases in Bulk, built on or after
IGC Code Sec. 1.5
Liquefied Gases in Bulk 1 July 1986
Document of Compliance with Reg. 11-2/19.4 (former 54.3) Vessels carrying Dangerous
the special Requirements for HSC Code Goods
Ships carrying Dangerous
Minimum Safe Manning Reg. V/14.2 Cargo Vessels > 500 GT
Certificate Passenger Vessels
(former 13(b))
Document of Authorization for Reg. VI / 9 Vessels carrying Grain in Bulk
the Carriage of Grain
International Certificate of Reg. VII /16 Vessels carrying Packaged
Fitness for the Carriage of INF Irradiated Nuclear Fuel,
Cargo INF Code Reg. 1.3.4 Plutonium and High-Level
Radioactive Wastes
2. MARPOL73/78Annexl
International Oil Pollution Reg. 7 Oil Tankers > 150 GT
Prevention Certificate (IOPP Other Vessels > 400 GT
3. MARPOL 73 / 78 Annex II
International Certificate of Reg. 7 A Chemical Tankers, incl. NLS
Fitness for the Carriage of
Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk
International Pollution Reg. 9 Other Vessels certified to carry
Prevention certificate for the Noxious Liquid Substances in
Carriage of Noxious Liquid Bulk
Substances in Bulk (NLS
4. MARPOL 73/78 Annex IV
International Sewage Pollution Reg. 5 Vessels > 400 GT and/or
Prevention Certificate carrying more than 15 Persons
6. MARPOL 73 / 78 Annex VI
(Entry into Force 19 May
International Air Pollution Reg. 6 Vessels > 400 GT Platforms and
Prevention Certificate Drilling Rigs
Engine International Air NOx Technical Code Reg. 2.2.9 Marine Diesel Engines >130Kw
Pollution Prevention Certificate
7. Load Line 1966
International Load Line Art. 16,1 LLC Protocol 88 Art. Vessels > 24 metre in Length
Certificate 18
8. International Tonnage
Convention 69
International Tonnage Art. 7 Vessel > 24 metre in Length
Side 121
An Initial Survey - is a complete inspection before a ship is put into service of all the items
relating to a particular certificicate to ensure that the relevant requirements are complied with and
that these items are satisfactory for the service for which the ship is intended.
A - Annual Survey: An annual survey is a general inspection of the items relevant to the particlar
certificate to ensure that they have been maintained and remain satisfactory for the service for
which the ship is intended.
IM - Intermediate Survey: An intermediate survey is an inspection of specified items relevant to
the particular certificate to ensure that they are in a satisfactory condition and fit for the service for
which the ship is intended.
P - Periodical Survey: A periodical survey is an inspection of the items relating to the particular
certificate to ensure that they are in a satisfactory condition and fit for the service for which the ship
is intended.
R - Renewal Survey: A renewal survey is the same as a periodical survey but also leads to the
issue of a new certificate.
An Additonal survey - is an i-spection, either general or partial-according to the circumstances, to
be made after a repair resulting from investigations or when-ever any important repairs or renewals
are made
Reg. - Regulation
ISPS - International Ship and Port facility Security code
ISM - International Safety Management
HSC - High Speed Craft
IBC - International Certificate of fitness for carriage of dangerous Chemicals in Bulk
IGC - International Gas Code
INF - Irradiated Nuclear Fuel
HSSC - Harmonized System of Survey and Certification
Side 122

3. Classification
Ships are built in accordance with certain Rules and Regulations of a Classification Society, chosen
by the prospective owner.
The Society approves the relevant drawings and inspects the actual construction.
A Classification society controls strength and quality of materials and workmanship in connection
with the ship, when built "under Class".
The Classification Society issues a certificate upon completion of construction: The Certificate of
Class, for Hull and Machinery.
The Certificate of Class is the basis for underwriters to insure a ship. A Certificate of Class is
issued with a validity of 5 years, to be endorsed every year upon completion of the Annual Survey.
Every year, in a window of three months before the birthday to three months after, an Annual
Survey has to be carried out, covering:
- Class,
- Safety Construction,
- Safety Equipment,
- Loadline,
- Radio,
- Dangerous Goods, etc.
Normally all are done at the same port of call.
If at the end of three months after the birthday', one of the statutory certificates has not been
endorsed by the relevant Class or flag State the certificate is no longer valid so the ship is not
allowed to leave port.
To carry out the different surveys, the Classification Societies each maintain a worldwide network
of surveyors. Since 1968, the main Societies have been grouped under IACS, the International
Association of Classification Societies.
Since 1970 they received the status of Non governnental organization (NGO) to IMO, contributing
their expert technical knowledge.
Birthday: The annual anniversary of the date on which the certificates were first issued after an
initial survey.
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For Class and ISM, ships have to dry-dock two times in five years
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Members of the IACS: (in alphabetic order)
- American Bureau of Shipping (ABS)
- Bureau Veritas (BV)
- Det Norske Veritas (DNV)
- China Classification Society (CCS)
- Germanischer Lloyd (GL)
- Indian Registry (IRS)
- Korea Register of Shipping (KR)
- Lloyd's Register (LR)
- Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NKK)
- Registro Italiano Navala (RINA)
- Russian Maritime Register of Shipping (RS) The division between
Many flagstates delegate these tasks to the Classification Society. Therefore, on many ships, the
stattory certificates are also issued by the Classification Society, however, only on behalf of the
The validity of the certificates has been harmonised since 1999, as per IMO Assembly resolution
HSSC (Harmonized System of Ship survey and Certification).
All certificates have a validity of 5 years, starting from the new building date, and are renewed at
each Special Survey, i.e. after 5 years. The 'birthday' remains the same.

4. ISM Code
4.1 Introduction
The International Safety Management (ISM) Code is very important to a ship and her owner.
This certificate, for both ship and office, is a statement that owners/managers and the ship's staff are
committed to maintaining the vessel as required, and to fulfill obligations connected with safety
and pollution.
Most regulations in shipping concern technical aspects of the ship and the required training of the
The ISM code, applicable to all SOLAS ships since 2002, is a list of requirements for the
organization of the ship, and the management system.
The management system comprises:
- organization on board ship
- organization ashore
- organization of the shipping company
- communication between shore and ship
The importance of good management for safety in general is illustrated by the fact that 80% of all
accidents involve human element.

4.2 Objectives
The objectives of the ISM-code are:
- to satisfy all relevant national and international regulations such as SOLAS, MARPOL, ISM,
Class and ILO.
- to create permanent awareness of safe behavior by personnel on board and ashore
- to ensure a readiness to act effectively in emergencies
- to improve safety at sea
- to prevent accidents and damage to environment
The ISM-code is a standard of safety consisting of 13 elements, each describing a business
operation relevant to safety and environment, such as:
- (planned) maintenance
- office personnel and crew

4.3 How ISM works

a. The Shipping Companies

Every shipping company must possess a Document of Compliance (DOC). This document states
that the shipping company is found fit to operate the ship in accordance with the ISM-code.
One of the requirements is that the shipping company must develop,
Side 123
execute and maintain a Safety Management System (SMS).
The flag state issues the DOC, but only after a Classification Society has approved the safety
management system.
The DOC remains valid for a period of five years, provided that the annual surveys by the
Classification Society yield satisfactory results.

b. The Ships
Ships get a Safety Management Certificate (SMC) if the DOC has been issued to the shipping
company and the ship passes the SMC audit. The SMC also remains valid for a five year period.
During this period there should be an inspection between the second and third year.

4.4 The audits

The SMS is inspected by means of an audit. An audit is a prescribed survey to check whether the
organizations ashore and on board comply with the SMS. Audits can be internal, which means by
sombody from the company itself or external by a classification surveyor.
The ISO-organization grants one certificate to the entire organization, contrary to the ISM which
has sepa-rate certificates for the organization on and off shore.

a. Internal Audits
Internal audits are performed by the shipping company and handle matters such as:
- actual work practices relative to the SMS regulations
- safety measures and the environment relative to the SMS
- efficiency and ability to take appropriate measures
All relevant personnel must be informed of the results of these audits and the measures taken.
The management must correct all shortcomings. Internal audits are usually performed annually.

b. External Audits
External audits are performed by the bureau of classification under supervision of the flag State.
If the organisation lives up to the standards set, the shore organization receives the DOC and the
ship the SMC.

5. ISO
ISO (International Standard Organisation) has drawn up the:
- ISO 9000 (standard)
- ISO 14000 (environment)
- ISO 18000 (labor circumstances) These standards guarantee quality.
ISO standards are voluntary. The company draws up a Quality Management System (QMS),
certified by a bureau of classification.
The ISO 9000 standard is a general standard aligned to the ISM code. This means that every
company draws up and executes its own QMS based on the requirements.

6. ISPS Code
ISPS Code is partly mandatory under SOLAS Chapter XI-2 which forms the basis for this Code.
Various regulatory bodies have taken measures in connection with the threat of terrorist attacks.
IMO has compiled regulations under the name of:
International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code).
Applicable to:
- Passenger ships
- Tankers
- Ferries
- Cargo ships above 500 GT Mobile Offshore Drilling Units
- Harbour facilities and means of transport.
These vessels must have an International Ship Security Certificate on board.
Fishing ships and Naval ships are exempted from the Code. The objective of the ISPS Code is to
minimize risk of terrorist activity. De ISPS Code requires:
- In the owners office:
• Company Security Officers (CSO)
- On a ship:
• de Security Officer (SSO)
- For a port facility:
• The Port Facility Security Officer (PFSO)
All ships which are obliged to carry an ISPS certificate, and the relevant harbour facilities have to
compile a security scheme:
- To know who is on board or in the facility;
- To control entrances and perform visitor identity checks;
- To control loading and discharging cargo and stores.
The ISPS Code acknowledges 3 threat-levels:
- level 1: No specific threat » no additional measures needed,
- level 2: Enhanced, general threat » increased security
- level 3: Terrorist threat » further increased measures.

6.1 LRIT (Long Range Identification and Tracking system)

Since the end of 2008, or from the first radio survey thereafter, cargo-ships, passengerships and
mobile off-shore drilling units, above 300 gt, have to transmit their position to a central database
every six hours to allow flag States to know where ships, registered in their administration, are,
These data have to be transmitted automatically through a suitable transmission system, in
accordance with the radio zones for which the ship is certified. The system has to be type-approved.
This requirement is part of the ISPS regulations of IMO.

Grills fitted around the after deck of a passenger ship to prevent pirates or stowaways from
Figurtekst slut.
Side 124

7. Marine Pollution (MARPOL)

In 1973 IMO adopted the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships,
modified again in 1978. The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) performs the
daily work and provides clarification.
The actual regulations to prevent pollution by oil and other harmful substances are provided in the

7.1 Annex I
Annex I deals with regulations to prevent the pollution of the seas by oil from ships. Oil is defined
as petroleum in any form including crude oil, fuel oil, sludge and refined products.
There are two basic situations:
- Oil and oily mixtures generated in Engine Rooms and machinery spaces of all ships (>400GT)
- Oil and oily mixtures from Oil Tankers from cargo pump rooms, cargo handling, cargo tank
cleaning, etc.
All Engine Rooms and Machinery spaces generate waste oil, sludge and oil-polluted bilge water.
Waste oil and sludge will be collected in waste oil tanks and sludge tanks, and the bilge water via
the bilge wells, in bilge water holding tanks. After settling, the water in the bilge water holding tank
can be pumped into the sea, via the bilge water filtering equipment and 15 ppm alarm under the
following conditions:
- the vessel is not in a Special Area
- the vessel is underway at sea
- the oil content of the effluent with-out dilution does not exceed 15 parts per million (PPM).
To be allowed to discharge oily water from engine rooms while sailing in a Special Area, filtering
equipment must be on board with an oil content metre and a device that automatically stops the
discharge when the oil content exceeds 15 PPM. Special Areas, such as the North-West European
Waters, the Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean and the Gulfs Area and the Antartic can be found in
regulation 1.11 of the Annex. For the Arctics general prohibition is applicable.
All the equipment must be Type Approved.
All operations, such as fuel bunkering, transfer of waste oils and sludge, handling of bilge water,
defective filtering equipment and accidental discharges must be recorded in the Oil Record Book
(Part I).

7.1.1 Oil tankers

Oil Tankers generate cargo residues. These oily-residues are collected in the slop tank(s). It is,
under no circumstances, allowed to transfer such oily-residues to the engine room.
Oil Tankers have, apart from engine-room generated oils, another problem. When an oil cargo is
unloaded, there is always residue, and often the tanks must be cleaned to prepare them for other
Washing is done with rotating water jets (tank washing machines) in the tanks, generating an oily
water mixture, which is pumped to the slop tank. There it is left to settle into oil and water.
While washing, the washing water is continuously pumped to another tank or the slop tank.
Water washing is carried out to enable to load the next cargo. To achieve a gasfree condition, all
the oil that can generate gas needs to be removed. This is best done by washing the tank. After
washing and pumping away the slops, the tank is to be properly re-inerted, after which the tank has
to be ventilated untill the oxygen content is 21%. By following this procedure, there is never an
explosive mixture. Inert gas requirements are applicable for oil tankers of 20.000 tons and above.
After settling, the water content of the slop tank is pumped into the sea, under the following
- The tanker is not within a special Area
- The tanker is more than 50 nautcal miles from the nearest land
- The ship is underway at sea
- The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30 liters per nautical mile
- The total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed 1/15,000 of the total of the
particular cargo for existing tankers. For new tankers, 1/30,000 of the total quantity of the particular
- The tanker has in operation Oil Discharge and Monitoring Equiment and a slop tank
arrangement as required by regulation 13 of this Annex.

Bilge water separator with lb ppm oil content metre / alarm
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Side 125
The Oil Discharge and Monitoring Equipment (ODME) must be type approved. Oil tankers over
150 GT must be equipped with an ODME.
All operations must be recorded in the Oil Record Book (Part II).
The remaining oil:
- is to be retained in the slop tank
- to be pumped ashore
- if suitable, mixed with other cargo, (load-on-top-system).
Crude tankers, during unloading, wash their tanks with their cargo, to prevent the accumulation of
sediment. The cargo oil is pumped through the rotating jets under high pressure and the sediments
are kept mixed with the cargo and pumped ashore with the cargo. This is called Crude Oil
Washing (COW).
The rotating jets are the same as used during tank washing with water.
A problem connected with high pres-sure water washing and COW is that static electricity is
generated. Crude Oil Washing and water washing is therefore only allowed in an atmosphere with
reduced oxygen (5%), below the level that explosions or fire can occur.
COW is compulsory under Marpol legislation (Inert Gas is a requirement). To achieve an
atmosphere of less than 5% oxygen above the cargo or in the empty tank, the boiler exhaust gas of
the boiler, after washing, flows into the tank during unloading.
All tankers have their cargo and ballast water in completely separate tanks. These are called
Segregated Ballast Tanks (SBT)
All handling of oils and ballast water has to be accurately administrated and entries are to be kept
on board for three years.
The minimum SBT capacity of a tanker is regulated to ensure sufficient ballast capacity for safe
Special area
Special area is an area at sea where nothing may be pumped overboard,
For example, the Mediterranean and Baltic are speciai areas.
Rammetekst slut.

7.2 Annex II
This Annex of Marpol regulates the prevention of pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances, not
only chemicals' but also for instance vegetable oils.
The stringency of the regulations varies with the polluting properties of the substances.
A special mandatory Code, issued by IMO, the International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC code) gives
a list of requirements for ships that carry noxious liquid substances.
Noxious liquid substances are divided into four categories:
- X: major pollution hazard
- Y: limited pollution hazard
- Z: minor pollution hazard
- Other Substances, products as deemed not posing any harm
If substances in any of these categories are discharged into the sea, for instance during tank
cleaning or deballasting, they form a greater or lesser hazard depending upon their category
Depending on the cargo category, the ship's cargo tanks have to meet special requirement, with
regard to location, distance from ship's side or bottom, i.e. double hull requirements. Therefore the
ships are divided into Types 1, 2 and 3 for pollution purposes.
Pumping, piping and unloading arrangements are regulated.
Slop handling and mandatory prewash (tank cleaning and discharge of the washings ashore after
unloading) are prescribed, for all Category X and high viscous or solidifying Y products. Stability
in intact and damaged condition is also an important issue.
Another important matter for all NLS tankers is the total quantity of residue on board after
discharge. Special cargo pumps, or built-in devices in the cargo pumps allow emptying of the tanks
until only a minimum quantity (a few litres per tank and associated piping) is left behind; this is
called the minimum stripping quantity.
The last drops are pumped out via a small pipe, via the normal discharge line to the manifold. As
with all other tankers, all cargo handling has to be accurately recorded in the Cargo Record Book,
with-out delay. The relevant equipment required for NLS, and the required procedures, are
described in a specific book, the Procedures and Arrangements Manual, the passport of the ship
Every chemical tanker much be provided with an International Cer-tificate of Fitness for the
Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk, with an attached list of cargoes that the ship is fit to
carry, a tank plan, tank groups, and a list of additional requirements.
This certificate has a validity of five years and runs parallel to the ship's Special Survey cycle.
Annual survey of the equipment is mandatory after which the certificate is endorsed.
A chemical tanker
Figurtekst slut.
Side 126
Nearly everything coming on board is packed, from meat to toilet paper, in cartons and wooden
boxes, plastics, foil, glass, tin, other metals, etc. Passenger ships, especially, are huge waste
The remains of food can usually be dumped into the sea, but not in port.
Port authorities do not permit dumping of waste by ships and have strict rules and penalties to
prevent it, not only for passenger ships, but for all ships.
Paper and cardboard can be incinerated or compacted for landing ashore. Other dry waste can also
be compacted for landing.
Sewage is treated according to its category, grey water and black water.
Grey water is from wash basins and showers which is piped to holding tanks and then discharged
overboard as regulations permit. Black water derives from toilets and must be treated biologically
and/or chemically before discharge into the sea.
Passenger ships cannot do this in port, so they have to store it and keep it on board until they are
well out to sea.
Rammetekst slut.

The Ocean Assurance Programme
Sterile emissions and treated water according to or exceeding: IMO,
USDA, Alaska, Miami,
Caspian Sea and other
local rules and reglations
Figurtekst slut.
Side 127
Some ships have advanced waste water treatment piants allowing discharge of end products at sea
as well. The plants are certified and audited by sampling.
Nowadays there are firms which supply the whole package, as shown in the picture. The various
problems are solved in the following ways: - Liquid waste, grey and black water,
undergoes biological treatment before going overboard.
- Food and wet waste is collected and water is removed by condensing and drying. The water goes
to the grey water system. The dry residue is bagged automatically and burned.
- Tin and glass is crushed, shredded, cleaned, dried and split, for collection and transport ashore,
and as far as possible, burnt in an incinerator.
Engine-room generated sludge is also dealt with in the incinerator.
In the end, ashes and flue gas remain. Ashes go ashore, as do compacted tin, plastics and glass.
Incinerators are complex furnaces. The initial heat in the furnace is generated by oil burners, the
waste to be burnt is dropped from above onto a traveling bed. The necessary heat is partly produced
by the waste itself. The end product is ashes and flue gas. Flue gas disappears into the atmosphere
and the ashes are cooled, bagged and transferred ashore.
Rammetekst slut.
Side 128

7.3 Annex III

This Annex regulates the pollution aspects of Packaged Harmful substances.
The carriage of harmful substances is prohibited, except in accordance with the provisions of this
Annex. Packages must be durably labelled with the correct name and, where appropriate, with the
marine pollutant durable mark.
The packing must be adequate. There are stowage requirements and quantity limitations.
Annex III has been revised per 1 January 2010.

7.4 Annex IV
This Annex regulates the Prevention of Pollution by Sewage, applicable to ships over 400 GT and
under 400 GT which are certified to carry more then 15 persons.
Every ship must be equipped with a sewage system, comminuting and disinfecting system or a
holding tank.
Two criteria:
- At least 12 miles off the coast when a ship has an approved treatment system, sewage can be
- Ships having a comminuting system can discharge sewage 3 miles beyond the nearest land.
The size of the holding tank depends on the ship's normal operating schedule, and there must be
adequate connections for discharge into a reception facility.
The content of the holding tank can be discharged overboard at least 12 miles from shore and only
when moving at a speed of at least 4 knots.

7.5 Annex V
This Annex regulates the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage, Garbage means all kinds of
victuals and domestic and operational waste, needing to be disposed of continuously or periodically,
except substances defined under other Annexes.
Disposal into the sea of plastics is always prohibited. This includes ropes, fishing nets and plastic
bags. Floating waste like dunnage, lining and packing material, is allowed to be disposed of into the
sea at least 25 miles from the nearest land.
Food waste, paper, rags, etc., may be disposed of into the sea at least 12 miles from shore. If the
latter is ground into small particles, max. 25 mm, 3 miles is sufficient.
Ships operating in special areas have to comply with stricter discharge standards. On ships intended
for long voyages, waste from packages, i.e. wood, carton, plastics, etc., can be disposed in an
This is a simple stove, where the waste is put into the fire-space, and a simple gas-oil burner ignites
the waste and if necessary, keeps it burning.
Every ship of 400 GT of above and every ship which is certified to carry 15 persons or more must
have a garbage management plan and a record must be kept, similar to substances described
under other Annexes.
7.6 Annex VI
Annex VI deals with air pollution caused by ships.
It restricts the emission of:
- Substances which attack the ozone-layer,
- Nitrogen-Oxygen compounds NO(x)
- Sulphur-Oxygen compounds SO(x).
- Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
- Exhaust of incinerators.
NOx and SOx emissions are directly related to the quality of the fuels burnt in ship's diesels or
boilers, which is a matter of economics.
However, in certain areas and ports, pollution is drastically restricted, and clean diesel oil has to be
used to fulfill the requirements.

Sewage tank
Figurtekst slut.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 129

When danger of oil pollution exists, harbour authorities require precautions to prevent spreading
of the oil. Normally a 'flowboom' is laid around the ship.
Figurtekst slut.
Incinerators have to be provided with type-approval, which is related to the quality of the burning
process. IMO is trying to standardize the requirements of the various governments.
Mondial SECA
Before July 1st 2010 4,5% 1,5%
2010 1%
2012 3,5%
2015 0,1%
2020* 0,5%
SECA: Supher Emission Control Area

8. Ballast Water Management (BWM)

Ships need ballast water for many reasons: to achieve sufficient draft and stability, to reduce
stresses, to correct list or trim, etc. Ships normally take ballast during or after unloading cargo.
Mud and the local organisms come aboard with the ballast water.
During the voyage to a loading port the mud settles and organisms may grow. In the loading port
the ballast water, or some of it, has to be pumped out.
Most of the mud stays on board. The majority of the organisms, however, are discharged with the
water and may harm the local environment.

:Evaluation 2018
Due to the growing amount of ballast water transported around the world, a great environmental
problem has been created.
Species are brought to places where they become dominant to the existing species, resulting in
environmental imbalance or even danger to the environment.
IMO has adopted a convention with regulations and guidelines to stop / minimise this transport of
invasive species. The aim is to drastically reduce the transport of invasive species.
This resolution will not be implemented soon. From the 30 required countries at this time (2011) 27
have ratified, with 25 % of the world total GT, where 35% is required.
The subject has been divided into a sediment problem and the problem of organisms. The amount
of mud has to be minimized by taking ballast in deep water and by removing mud when it has
This process is quite easy in large ballast tanks, but nearly impossible in low double bottom tanks
and impracticable during a voyage.
Apart from the environmental problem, the ship's loading capacity is reduced by the weight of the
mud. This weight can vary from just a few tons in a small coastal vessel, up to 2000 tons in case of
a large tanker. Therefore, the sediment content has to be monitored.
The amount of sediment normally stabilizes, and is the main component of the 'ship's constant'.
This is the difference between what the ship should be able to load and what it actually can load
until the limits indicated by the freeboard requirements are reached.
In order not to arrive at a loading port with ballast water from the previous discharge port still on
board, it is necessary to change it at sea during the voyage.
Ballast water is considered 'clean' if it has been taken on board at least 200 nautical miles from
shore in a minimum depth of 200 metres.
Air pollution
Figurtekst slut.
Side 130
Table: Ballast water implementation Schedule
Summarizes the implementation schedule ot the type of treatment required according to the age of
ship and its ballast capacity as per the provisions of the Convention (Regulation B-3)

Ballast water exchange standard, Dl

- 95% volumetric exchange
- or pumps through 3 times the volume of each tank.
Ballast water treatment standard D2
- Approved treatment systems are to treat ballast water.
Changing the ballast water can be performed in three ways:
1. Sequential method, emptying and refilling each individual tank,
2. Flow-through method, replacing the water by adding to and simultaneously overflowing of the
3. Dilution method, filling on top while simultaneously pumping the water out from the bottom.
The tank content is considered changed when 95 % of the water has been exchanged.
When method 2 or 3 is chosen, changing is considered complete when three times the volume of
the tank has been pumped through.
The entire procedure involves: free surface effects, draft, trim, propeller immersion, minimum draft
forward to prevent slamming, visibility from the bridge, stability, stress, sloshing, possible over-
pres-surizing, prevention of internal transfer of bal last water, etc.
Planning is necessary to change the ballast, and once started it has to be completed; otherwise the
organisms may grow again.
An approved Ballast Water Management Plan has to be on board every ship, detailing how to
change ballast taking the above into account. A designated person has to be appointed in charge of
ballast water management who is responsible for the training of other personnel. The form of the
BWM plan and the record of activities is given in the IMO convention. A Ballast Water Record
Book has to be kept.
Precautions have to be taken to prevent contamination of water when pumping is changed from one
tank to another. But the main concern is the stability of the ship during this operation.
The quantity of organisms and mud can be reduced by not taking ballast during the night when the
organisms tend to come to the surface,
Sediment is the collection of very fine particles of all kinds of solids, dispersed in river and coastal
water. Most is soil, but all kinds of particles can be part of it. In uncoated tanks, rust from the tank
construction will also be part of the sediment.
The quantity of sediment depends on the ship's size and the location where ballast is taken.
Rammetekst slut.
or in shallow water where propellers stir up the sediment or where dredging is in progress or has
recently been done.
Filling an empty ballast tank with 'clean' water straightaway is the ideal solution to avoid sediment
and organism problems. Heat treatment of water during filling, chlorination or the use of ultraviolet
light are considered solutions, but these methods only kill the organisms, solving only part of the
problem. Prevention of the intake of mud and the killing of organisms, is possible using a
centrifugal separator to separate the sediment from the water. The sediment goes back into the sea
and the clean water goes into the ballast tank. Most organisms do not survive the centrifugal forces.
The remaining organisms still have to be killed by chlorination, but only with a fraction of the toxic
chlorine (obtained by electrolysis of seawater) that would have to be used without separation.
Facilities for ballast exchange and monitoring should be provided on new ships. These facilities
could include tank entrance hatches with sampling points, remote measuring of content, additional
filling pipes, etc. The construction of tanks should minimize sediment build-up by sloping
horizontal areas like frames, flanges and girders. Certain countries with long freshwater rivers,
require the ballast exchange to be carried out twice: once before entering coastal waters, and again
before going up river. Somebody on board must be designated as the person in charge of ballast
water management and the associated training of others.
Side 131
9. Documents
Some compulsory documents are shown on the following pages.
Side 132
Side 133
Side 134
Side 135
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Side 137
Side 138
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Side 140
Side 141
Side 142

Figurtekst slut.
Side 143
Side 144

1 Cargo holds 144
2 Stern 150
3 Engine room 156
4 Double-bottom and wing tanks 158
5 Bow 167
6 Accommodation 174
7 Bridge 177

1 Cargo holds
Cargo holds are in general large, empty, rectangular spaces where there are as few stiffeners as
possible exposed to the cargo (frames, longitudinals etc.).
The bulkheads of the holds are as flat as possible to make them "user-friendly".
In bulk carriers the surroundings of the tank top in the holds, not under the hatch opening, slope
upward, so that the cargo slides down towards the area where the grab can take it.
Hold looking forward (feeder)
Figurtekst slut.
Nevertheless, the hold is so important that the entire ship's construction is aimed at enabling the
moving of the hold and its contents (the cargo) through the water from port to port.
The amount of cargo carried determines the earning capacity of the ship.
Also, these ships have an increased tank top plate thickness to compensate for the wear damage
caused by grabs.
Hold of a capeslze bulker, self-trimming, corrugated bulkhead (left), double hull (right). Damages
in corrugated bulkhead from grabs.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 145

1.1 Multipurpose ships

In multipurpose ships, the ship owners prefer just one very large hold. The crew can then decide on
the basis of the type of cargo how to subdivide the hold. The hold is divided by movable
bulkheads positioned either horizontally or vertically.
The bulkheads can be attached to the sides of the hold in a very simple manner.
Legal safety requirements (intact / damage stability) normally require that one or more of these
movable bulkheads are always in place. The actual number of sub-division bulkheads depends on
the length of the ship.
Both the side longitudinal bulkheads (the boundary between hold and wing tanks) and the tank tops
have manholes to enable access for inspection of the tanks.
The longitudinal bulkheads have lashing points for cargo securing. Heavy cargo is often secured
temporarily by means of beams and / or brackets welded to strong points in the ship's side and tank
top. This of course, can only be done when the tanks are safe for hot work.
The humidity in the holds can be controlled by ventilation, recirculation and / or the use of dryers.
Most multipurpose ship cargo holds are box-shaped. This means that the hold is rectangular and
the spaces have straight walls. This is important when containers have to be carried as cargo.
If the hatches and the holds have a facility to lash containers, the holds are then said to be
"container fitted".

Cargo hold of a heavy-lift ship.
Figurtekst slut.
The ship in the pictures shown is designed to load wood, in box-shaped parcels. The design is
optimized for loading these parcels, with a minimum toss of space. The hatch-covers are trapezium-
shaped, with external stiffening, so that another tier can be loaded in the space created by the
shape of the hatch cover. A disadvantage is that the ship cannot take deck cargo,
Particulars of the hold:
Length 49.7 meters
Width 10.0 meters
Height of the coaming: 2.33 meters
Max. depth 8,85 meters
Capacity 149,300 ft3 = 4228 m3
Figurtekst slut.
Side 146

Explanation of the image to the left:

1. Forecastle deck
2. Breakwater on the focsle deck
3. Bulkhead
4. Tank top
5. Holes for fitting container supports
6. Manholes, entrances to double bottom
7. Longitudinal bulkhead between hold and wing tank
Explanation of the image below:
1. Bridge
2. Deckhouse
3. Engine-room bulkhead
4. Tank top
5. Wing tank
6. Longitudinal bulkhead
7. (full) Floor (plate)
8. Side girder
9. Web frame
10. Toprail
11. Coaming
12. Gangway / Main deck
Side 147

1.2 Container feeder ships

The holds on cellular container ships are divided into multiple cells, each capable of storing a stack
of 20' or 40' containers in a fore and aft direction. The spaces (cells) are separated from each other
by guide rails.
During loading and discharging the containers are guided by the vertical rails. In addition, the rails
also keep the containers in place.
Because of the small depth, which keeps the tonnage figure low, container feeders have more
containers on top of the hatch covers than inside the holds.

1.3 Tankers
When ships are designed to carry liquid cargoes in bulk, they are called tankers. The total cargo
space is then divided by watertight bulkheads into a large number of separate tanks.
Each tank (in oil tankers) is provided with:
- entrance - and escape hatch
- tank cleaning hatches
- ladder to descend in the tank
- ullage and/or sounding pipe
- ventilation / de-aeration pipe (closed system)
- filling and discharge lines
- (deep-well) pump, depending on the kind of cargo
- dipping holes.
Cargo tanks are provided with simple ladders for inspections, cleaning, maintenance etc. The
entrance is usually a small hatch in the upper deck.
Figurtekst slut.

The inside of tanks on a chemical tanker (GT 3350, deadweight 5070 tons). The transverse and
longitudinal bulkheads are corrugated.
The tank can be inspected by entering via the entrance hatch and a simple ladder. The double
bottom slopes slightly towards centre line, to facilitate the flow of liquids to the suction of the pump.
Figurtekst slut.
Every tank has possibilities for:
- temperature measurement,
- ullage and / or sounding measurement, often radar level control,
- heating possibilities to control the cargo temperature,
- independent high level alarm (95% full) and overfill alarm (98% full).
- tank cleaning with fixed or hand operated washing machines.
Internal surfaces of cargo tanks are:
- coated with a paint which is resistant to the cargo the ship has been designed for.
- not painted if constructed of stainless steel.
1. Corrugated bulkhead (transverse)
2. Stringer
3. Main deck
4. Centre line corrugated bulkhead
5. Facebar of the web frame
Furthermore, and depending on the size of the ship, there are additional deck holes for transport of
materials, tools, or in case of an accident, for people.
The tanks have as little stiffening inside as possible to prevent the accumulation of dirt and
sediment, and to minimize the area to be expensively coated.
Crude tankers only have the deck head and bottom coated.
Inert gas protects the steel generally.
No oxygen - no rust.
The surrounding ballast tanks are also stiffened where possible.
Division-bulkheads between cargo tanks are therefore, often corrugated to minimize stiffening;
however, stringers and some brackets are still needed.
Ullage is the distance between the cargo liquid and the top edge of the entrance hatch, (or another
decisive level) on which the tank content tables are based. In dry-cargo ships it is simply the space
between the cargo (such as grain), and a measuring point on deck.
Rammetekst slut.
Side 148

Double hull (Suez max)tanker
Figurtekst slut.

1. Sternsection
2. Deckhouse
3. Side longitudinals
4. Deck on sidetank
5. Deck on cargotank
6. Deck longitudinals
7. Webframe of longitudin bulkhead, upper bracket
8. Webframe of longitudin bulkhead, lower bracket
9. Webframe in lower side (ba last) tank
10. Deck girder
11. Bracket of side keelson
12. Transverse bulkhead
13. Web in sidetank
14. Full floor in double bottom
15. Cargo manifold. Vapour return line
16. Loading and discharge conections (cargo, bunker water, etc)
17. Cargo tank hatch
18. Deck pipelines
Side 149
Side 150

2 Stern
Most cargo ships have the accommodation and the engine room as far aft as practicable.
The accommodation is above the engine room, and the propeller shaft is as short as possible.
The parallel midbody is available for cargo in this configuration.
The V-shaped after part still allows the various engine parts to be fitted.
The work places, storage facilities and most fuel tanks are also found aft. The after peak is the part
of the ship that is enclosed by the after peak bulkhead, the stern shell, transom and the after deck.
It is the part, where the stern tube is located, with the tail shaft running through it.
The stern tube is supported by high floors extending above shaft level. These high floors at every
frame also have to sustain any propeller-induced vibration.
The stern section is the section above the after peak where the steering gear is located.
The rudder carrier is located in the steering flat, taking the weight of the rudder and rudderstock or
The kingpost runs through the rudder trunk (frame 0) in the upper part of the after peak. The
transom borders the after side of the stern section.
This is a plate running nearly the full width of the ship, on which the name of the ship and the home
port are welded.
1. Funnel
2. Bridge
3. Bridge wing
4. Accommodation
5. Poop deck
6. Main deck
7. Rudder horn
8. Floor plate, frame no 3
9. Floor plate, frame no 10
10. Stiffeners
11. Centre keelson
12. Stern frame
13. Bottom plate

Assembly drawing
Figurtekst slut.
Side 151

Transverse cross-section at frame 10
Figurtekst slut.
Explanation numbers: see previous page.

Transverse cross-section at frame 3
Figurtekst slut.

Longitudinal cross-section of the engine foundation
Figurtekst slut.
Transverse see-through of the aft ship
Figurtekst slut.

1. Tank top
2. Top plate of engine foundation
3. Brackets under engine bed
4. Floors
5. Engine bed longitudinal girders
Assembly drawing of the double bottom of the engine room
Figurtekst slut.
Side 152

A container feeder, seen from aft with a glimpse of the engine room.
Ballast lines come from the ballast tanks into the engine room.
The frames in the engine room double bottom run in the transverse direction and those in the wing
tanks in longitudinal direction.
1. Web frame
2. Fuel tank with heating coils
3. Hold bilge
4. Bilge line
5. Ballast line
6. Web frame
7. Longitudinal stiffener
8. Water or oil tank
9. Fuel tank with heating coils
10. Delivery suction line of wing tank
11. Side girder
12. Centre keelson
13. Full floor (plate)
Inside of an aft ship under construction
Figurtekst slut.
View from aft of a Roll-on Roll-off vessel.
The open access spaces can be closed by ramps (not yet in place).
When the ramps are opened, they can be used to load or discharge moving cargo.
1. Freeboard deck
2. Main deck
3. A-frame, space for the propeller clearance
4. End of sturntube / tailshaft bearing
5. Skeg
Side 153

Top view of the stern of a passenger liner
Figurtekst slut.

Bottom view of the stern of a passenger liner
Figurtekst slut.
Attaching the azipod to the ship
Figurtekst slut.
1. Centre keel
2. Side girder (watertight)
3. Floors
4. Hole in the deck for the azipod (see also chapter 12)
5. Skeg
6. Floor in skeg
7. Stiffening floor brackets
8. Longitudinal floor brackets
9. Stringer brackets
10. Azipod connecting flange
The Skeg
This is a narrow vertical part added to the hull in the stern.
It is necessary for the course stability of twin propeller ships.
The skeg improves the course stability of the ship by enlarging the lateral area.
The skeg is important for dry docking as it transfers the load of the after part of the ship to the keel
Side 154

1. Fender channel
2. After peak
3. Stem brackets
4. Azimuth thruster room
5. Watertight bulkhead
6. Transverse frame
7. De-aerating or vent pipes
8. Deck girder
9. Deck longitudinal
10. Bulwark bracket
11. Towing bitt
12. Exhaust pipes
13. Wheelhouse top
14. Thruster location
15. Keel
16. Skeg
Side 155
Side 156

3 Engine room
The engine room is a compartment that usually spans the full width of the ship. In tankers and bulk
carriers, however, there are often bunker tanks in the sides, still leaving sufficient space for the
engine room.
Watertight bulkheads are located at the after and forward ends of the engine room.

Above the engine room the casing rises vertically towards the funnel. The exhaust gas lines of the
various diesel engines and the boiler(s) run up through the casing.
Part of the casing has an access hatch, which may be opened or removed to allow transport of
engine parts. Travelling cranes are installed above the main and auxiliary engines with simple
manual hoists or electric hoists capable of lifting piston heads and pistons.
The large open engine room space is stiffened with deep frames, flats and pillars to withstand the
water pressure from outside, the weight of the engines and the vibration induced by them.
Foundations supporting the main and auxiliary engines have to transfer the weight of the machine,
the induced vibrations and resulting stresses onto the ship's structure.
The foundations have to keep the engines in place when the ship is rolling and / or pitching and
have to be stiff to maintain a proper alignment of engine and propeller shafting.
All machinery is properly bolted down and provided with sideways supports to secure their position
in the heaviest ship's motions.
The double bottom below the engine room is often at a different level from the double bottom
below the cargo spaces so that propeller shaft is at the right height. The propeller blades have to be
a sufficient distance above the baseline to prevent damage.
Construction drawings of the engine room of a container feeder
Figurtekst slut.
Side 157
Explanation of the image at the right and previous page
1. After peak bulkhead
2. Cable guide
3. Hoist beam
4. Flat
5. Main deck
6. Top plate for the engine foundation
7. Longitudinal girders of the engine foundation
8. Longitudinal deck girder with faceplate
9. Deck girder
10. Transverse deck girder
11. Watertight bulkhead (wing tank)
12. Watertight Centre line bulkhead (wing tank)
13. Frame 23 (web frame)
14. Side girder
15. Floor
16. Web frame
View in the engine room of a container feeder
Figurtekst slut.
1. Floors
2. Tank top
3. Crown plate of the engine foundation
4. Longitudinal girder
5. Brackets with flange
6. Pillar
7. Bulkhead stiffeners
8. Stringer
9. Side longitudinals
10. Web frames
11. Side girder
Side 158

4 Double-bottom and wing tanks

The double-bottom and wing tanks are discussed together as they have the same function. The wing
tanks are located at the sides of the ship on top of the double bottom.
Usually the two wing tanks are separated in the sense that no fluid can flow between them.
Sometimes, however, the two tanks are joined in a U-shaped or L-shaped fashion.
The functions of the double bottom and wing tanks are:
- to increase the transverse and longitudinal strength of the ship
- additional safety when the bottom or side is damaged (damage stability)
- to carry seawater ballast to keep the propeller in the water, to prevent pounding when the ship has
no cargo on board. This is also advantageous for the stability of the vessel
- to store fuel
- to provide list and trim control
- to compensate for uneven loading
Ro-ro ships are often fitted with a heeling system.
This is a system which automatically pumps ballast water from one wing tank to the opposite wing
tank very quickly, to compensate for a list due to cargo loading.
Ballast tanks are by definition watertight compartments. Oil tanks are oiltight
In the double bottom, the separation of the two sides is accomplished by the centre keel or side
girders fore and aft and by a watertight floor in the transverse direction.
An oil tank and a drinking water tank must be separated by an empty space, a cofferdam.
The wing tanks are separated by watertight web frames.
The shell stiffeners in the double bottom and the wing tanks usually run in a longitudinal direction.
When a ship has a length of approximately 60 meters or less, for instance a tugboat or fishing
vessel, the frames run in a transverse direction.
Sometimes a combination of the two systems is used, when the double bottom and the main deck
are longitudinally framed and the side tanks are transverselly framed.
The double bottom is covered by the tank top and thereby separated from the hold.
Several piping systems run through the double bottom, such as piping for fuel, bilge or ballast
water systems.
Container ships need reinforcements in the double bottom at the corners of the containers.
Floor plates in the double bottom can be divided into:
- water-or oil-tight floors
- floors, that can be reduced in weight by manholes (also for access)
- floors made of profiles and brackets (open floors)
View looking down at an aft shift double bottom section. Rolled bilge plates are laying ready to be
Figurtekst slut.
1. Bilge bracket
2. Tank top
3. Tank top longitudinal
4. Lightening hole
5. Side girder
6. Duct keel
7. Watertight side keelson
8. Full floor
9. Full floor, water tight
10. Bilge plate
Side 159
Vents and openings are installed for the filling and emptying of the tanks. Every double bottom
tank must be fitted with a sounding pipe, normally aft (with a small doubling underneath) and a
vent pipe forward and aft in each tank.
Tank contents are often measured by special measuring devices, with a display in the cargo control
This can be a float, connected to a counter, sending a signal to the computer in the control room, a
bubble-pipe system working on air pressure or even a tank-radar.
The double bottom is accessible by bolted manhole covers in the tank top; every tank must have a
means of entry.
Fuel tanks often have a system for heating fuel (depending on the type of oil). Most ships burn
heavy fuel, and the viscosity depends on the temperature.
The fuel tanks therefore are usually provided with heating coils, through which hot water, steam or
thermal oil circulates.

1. Centre keel (watertight)

2. Side girder
3. Bottom longitudinal
4. Watertight or oil tight floor (plate floor)
5. Full floor (plate floor)
6. End of ballast line, with suction
7. Ballast line
8. Bilge line
9. Lightening hole
10. Side shell longitudinal
11. Watertight or oil tight bulkheads
12. Web frame
13. Hatch coaming
14. Coaming bracket
15. Main deck (gangway)
16. Ballast or fuel tank
17. Beam
18. Engineroom bulkhead
19. Ventilation trunk of cargo hold
20. Deck house front
Side 160

Location of the section in the ship
Figurtekst slut.

Transverse cross-sections
Figurtekst slut.
Side 161

Longitudinal cross-sections
Figurtekst slut.
1. Full floor (plate floor)
2. Side girder
3. Bilge bracket
4. Bilge keel
5. Container pot recess
6. Air holes
7. Drain holes
8. Tank top
9. Tank top longitudinals
10. Bottom longitudinal
11. Port side
12. Starboard side
13. Longitudinal framing system
14. Transverse framing system
15. Floor on frame 31
16. Floor on frame 35
17. Floor on frame 46
18. Longitudinal slots
19. Bottom shell
20. Heating coils
21. Ballast line (GRE of GRP)
Side 162

Location of the section in the ship
Figurtekst slut.

1. Hatch coaming plate

2. Toprail
3. Gangway
4. Deck longitudinal
5. Side shell longitudinal
6. Shell plating
7. Longitudinal bulkhead, tank side
8. Scallop
Side 163
A worker leaves a side tank via a manhole in a multipurpose ship
Figurtekst slut.
1. Main deck
2. Deck longitudinal supporting the tip of the coaming bracket
3. Stringer
4. Web frame
5. Side shell longitudinal
6. Full floor (plate floor)
Side 164

Location of the section in the ship
Figurtekst slut.
Bilge wells:
Fluid present in the compartment will flow to the bilge well and can then be removed by the bilge
pumping arrangement.
Heating coils:
These are in the heavy oil tank. If the oil is too viscous to be pumped, it will be heated up to a 'safe
viscous' temperature.
1. Longitudinal bulkhead
2. Bilge well
3. Heating coils
4. Bilge line
5. Cross-over line

This isometric shows an open wing tank and a double bottom of a Ro-Ro passenger ferry.
The cross-over line is visible as an open line between the portside tank and the starboard tank.
A cross-over in this case is designed to be used in the event of a collision. Water entering one space
will flow to the tank on the other side.
This will moderate the list.
The system can reduce damage stability requirements.
The majority of ferries and passenger liners have such a cross-over system.
Side 165
The bilge keel is welded onto a flat bar. When damaged, the bilge keel will break off, with the strip
remaining attached to the shell.
Without a backing strip, a crack in the bilge keel could continue into the bilge strake, which is very
Rammetekst slut.
1. Draft mark
2. Plimsoll mark
3. Deck line
4. Bulwark
5. Container strut
6. Bilge strake, approximately 10 mm thick
7. Backing bar
8. Bilge keel

Bilge keel. Approximately 220 × 15 mm
Figurtekst slut.

Side view
Figurtekst slut.
Side 166

Bulk carrier, capesize, alongside discharge berth.
Figurtekst slut.
1. Hatch coaming
2. Side-rolling hatch cover
3. Top wing(ballast)tank
4. Double hull
5. Lower hopper, part of double bottom tank
6. Pipe tunnel or Duct keel
7. Double bottom (ballast) tank
8. Bulldozer to move cargo into grab reach
9. Bulkhead
10. Cargo (coal or ore)
11. Grab
Huge heaps of iron-ore and coal stored ashore in the Port of Rotterdam waiting for further
Figurtekst slut.
Side 167

5 Bow
The bow is the part of the ship between the stem and the collision or forepeak bulkhead, and the
adjacent part aft of the forepeak, to the parallel body.
The space forward of the collision bulkhead and below the main deck, is the fore peak. The fore
peak tank is the lowest space in the bow and is often divided in a lower and an upper fore peak tank.
The fore peak tank is usually used as a ballast tank.
If the ship is not loaded this is often filled with water to increase the draft and to reduce the trim by
the stern.
Usually there is a wash-bulkhead at the Centre line in the peak tanks.
This prevents sloshing (the fast movement of water from port to starboard) when a tank is partially
filled. It also improves the rolling-behavior of the ship.
Directly behind the fore peak there can be another tank (deep tank) that extends from starboard to
port and from the bottom to the deck; used for ballast or fuel.
In the top of the fore peak, right below the anchor windlass there are chain lockers for the stowage
of the anchor chains.
Above the weather deck in the bow there is often a forecastle, a superstructure from bow to above
the collision bulkhead. Sometimes it is extended further aft, to even aft of number one hatch.
The forecastle is protected against rough seas by a bulwark.
On the forecastle are the windlass and other mooring equipment. The fore mast is usually located at
the rear part of the forecastle deck.
1. Bulbous bow
2. Side of bulb
3. Shell frame
4. Stringer
5. Centreline web
6. Thwartship wash bulkhead
7. Stringer
Side 168

1. Bow
2. Forecastle deck
3. Break water
4. Bulbous bow
5. Main deck
6. Stringer
7. Bow thruster room
8. Hatch coaming with brackets
9. De-aerating pipes
10. Top rail
11. Vent of the wing tank
12. Access / lightening holes
13. Transition of transverse to longi tudinal framing system
14. Tank top
Side 169
The forecastle can be divided into:
- stores and workshops for ship maintenance:
• tools for work on deck (bosun's store, carpenter's store)
• storage for paint (with fixed fire-fighting equipment)
• storage for ropes.
- Storage for cargo-handling equipment like:
• twist locks, (container lashing equipment)
• slings, shackles,
• airbags.
These items are usually stored in racks made for this purpose.
If necessary, these racks can be lifted up by the ship's crane or the hatch cradle crane.
Container-lashing gear is often stored in boxes along the hatch coaming.
The bow is subject to extraordinarily large forces, acceleration and stresses caused by:
a. the pitching of the ship (pitching stresses).
b. the fore peak moving in and out of the water (panting stresses).
c. maintaining speed in heavy weather
d. ice.
Items stored in the fore peak spaces need to be properly secured, to deal with the acceleration
To compensate for the forces mentioned, the forward part of a ship needs additional reinforcement
that sometimes extends to midships.
A bulbous bow can be added to reduce wave-resistance.
Bulbous bow
With an ordinary bow, often the bow-wave and the foreshoulder wave interfere in such a way that
they are producing an enlarged foreshoulder wave. This results in a high wave resistance of the ship.
By adding a bulbous bow, the bow wave is brought more forward, and when properly positioned,
interferes with the fore shoulder wave in such a way that the latter is eliminated.
Stiffening Location Objective
Reduced frame spacing Foreship: 700 mm a.c.
Reduced frame spacing Fore peak: 600 mm a
Smaller spacing internals Double bottom fwd a
general (floors and side girders)
Panting area (stringers, Fore peak a.b.
horizontal beams)
Intermediate frames Fore peak a.b.
Web frames, side girders Fore peak c.
Increased shell thickness Draft b.

An impressive picture of a bulbous bow
Figurtekst slut.
Side 170

1. Bulbous bow
2. Breast hook
3. Floor
4. Floor stiffener
5. Access / lightening opening
6. Stringer or flat
7. Centre keel in bulb
8. Stem bar
9. Transition of flat to shell stringer
10. Shell frame (HP)
11. Hawse pipe
12. Anchor pocket
13. Chain locker
14. Watertight bulkhead (collision bulkhead)
15. Ladder to the forecastle deck
16. Weather deck (main)
17. Emergency fire pump / bilge
18. Bilge line in bow-thruster room
19. Fore peak (water ballast)
20. Bow-thruster tunnel
21. Floor slab in bow-thruster room
22. Deep tank (water ballast)
23. Floors
24. Wash bulkhead at the Centre line of the ship

Location of the section in the ship
Figurtekst slut.

Assembly drawing
Figurtekst slut.
Side 171

Fitting of the shell plating
Figurtekst slut.
Longitudinal section of the fore peak
Figurtekst slut.
Transverse section at frame 121
Figurtekst slut.

Horizontal section at 4.30 m above the baseline
Figurtekst slut.
Transverse section at frame 127
Figurtekst slut.
Side 172

Image courtesy of Estaleiro Atlantico Sul and ShipConstructor Software Inc
Figurtekst slut.
1. Bulbous bow with stringers and floors
2. Soft nose plate with vertical stiffening behind
3. Stiffening in forepeak
4. Bottom stiffening against slamming
5. Web frame in forepeak
6. Stringer in forepeak
7. Focsle space
8. Forepeak bulk head
9. Webframe in No. 1 port side tank
10. Accommodation deckhouse
Side 173

1. Bulbous bow with stringers and floors

2. Bow-thruster room
3. Focsle deck
4. Coaming foremost hold
5. Steps in foremost hold for containers
6. Collision bulkhead
7. Ballast tank
8. Spaces in focsle
Container ship such as above
Figurtekst slut.
Side 174

6. Accommodation
6.1 Introduction
In the past, the crew accommodation was not the most important aspect in the design phase.
The reason for this was the large number of men in the crew compared to the present day.
Forty years ago a crew of forty manned a vessel that today might have a crew of twelve.
Due to the added workload of today's crew, there is growing pressure to improve their facilities.
When the size of the ship permits, cabins are for one person only, have a separate day and bedroom,
are well equipped and have their own toilet and shower.
As a result of smaller crews and shorter lay days, the importance of recreational and leisure
facilities has grown (a gym, satellite telephone connection from all crew cabins, central antenna
system, etc.).
The height of the accommodation is important, for the view from the bridge.
Ships with the accommodation aft, when with a considerable trim, and thus a blind sector, need a
higher accommodation than ships with the deck house forward.

6.2 Safety
Safety-equipment particulary focuses on the prevention of fire.
The requirements are stated in SOLAS resolution, chapter 11-2: "Construction - Fire protection,
fire detection and fire extinction".
The chapter consists of the following parts:
Part A: General
Part B: Fire safety measures for passenger ships
Part C: Fire safety measures for cargo ships
Part D: Fire safety measures for tankers.
1. Sufficient mess room accommodation shall be provided in all ships
2. In ships of less than 1,000 tons separate mess room accommodation shall be provided for:
• master and officers
• petty officers and other ratings
3. In ships of 1,000 tons and over, separate mess room accommodation shall be provided for -
• master and officers
• deck department petty officers and other ratings
• engine department petty officers and other ratings
4. Adequate mess room accommodation shall be provided for the catering department, either by the
provision of a separate mess room or by giving them the right to use the mess rooms assigned to
other groups.
Rammetekst slut.
Example of International Labour Organisation (ILO) rules

Main deck plan of the accommodation on a coastal trade liner
Figurtekst slut.
Side 175

6.3 Environment
a. Vibration
Vibration is usually accompanied by sound or noise as they usually have the same source. On a
ship these sources are generally the propeller, the various diesel engines and even the waves at sea.
Insulation techniques and the prevention of local resonance are used to keep the vibrations in the
accommodation and other locations within acceptable levels. Installing the diesel engines on
cushionmounts reduces vibrations considerably. Vibration has a negative effect on many things.
Writing can be difficult and sophisticated machinery may be damaged. Resonance can result in
fractures in the structure.
(ISO-criteria: vibrations of 4-5 millimeter/sec are tolerated. Values larger than 10 mm/sec are
b. Noise nuisance
Too much noise is disturbing and irritating and therefore has a negative impact on the working and
living conditions on board ship.
Noise affects:
- communication in the engine room and on the bridge (the listening aspect of keeping watch is
- conversations in the common spaces
- the peace in cabins where a low noise level is required and disturbance by music etc. from other
spaces is not appreciated
- human condition
- quality of rest.
Noises come from:
- propulsion installations, propeller, auxiliaries, hydraulic power packs
- AC and ventilation systems and cabin refrigerators
- crew, music, TV, toilets, etc.
Noise is measured and expressed in decibels.
The following maximum values apply to ships:
- day rooms, mess room etc.: 65 dB
- cabins, sick bay: 60 dB
- galley, control rooms: 75 dB.
c. Air conditioning
Air conditioning in the accommodation and control rooms is normal today.
The air conditioning and climate
An engine placed on cushion mounts
Figurtekst slut.
1. Foundation
2. Flexible supports
3. Diesel engine (crank case)
4. Flexible coupling with shaft o generator
Flexible support of the engines
Flexible support of the (main) engine reduces the level of air sound. The flexible placing of the
engine has two goals:
- Reduction of the dynamic stress on the ship
- Reduction of dynamic forces on the engine foundation. Less sound will be lead through the ship
into the accommodation. If a hammer hits the foundation, the sound will travel through the
construction and the sound can be heard in the fore ship. If, however, a layer of rubber is placed
between the foundation and the hammer, the sound will be largely absorbed.
Rammetekst slut.
control requirements will depend on the outside temperature and relative humidity. Air
conditioning normally consists of a ventilation cabinet where outside air is sucked in, cooled to
remove the moisture, and afterwards heated to the desired temperature.
Needless to say, proper insulation of the accommodation is a prerequisite for a good interior
d. Lighting and daylight
High standards are set for lighting in work and living spaces.
Light fittings should be able to resist the vibration on a ship and should be easily accessible for
Windows (port holes) should be sized and fitted so that one can look outside both sitting down and
standing up.
There are also certain requirements for port holes, such as the design pressure and the position on
board (e.g. not below the freeboard deck).

6.4 Methods of insulation

Insulation material has to be installed to combat:
- inside and outside temperature differences,
- heat in case of fire
- noise.
All accommodation decks and bulkheads which are in contact with the outside or hot locations in
the ship, such as the engine room need to be insulated against heat and cold.

Fire and thermal insulation
Figurtekst slut.
1. Steel plate (outside of accommodation or inside boundary)
2. HP-profile
3. Glass wool
4. Welding stud
5. U-profile
6. Accommodation panel (a galvanized steel plate of 1 mm thickness)
Side 176

Sound reducing wall panels are fitted clear of steel decks and bulkheads. In the space the vibration
and noise is reduced by the vibration reducing panels.
Figurtekst slut.
a. Rock or Glass wool patches
- Wall
Batts of rock wool or glass wool are attached to welded pins that have been placed on the steel
Thickness depends on the difference in temperature inside and out.
The drawing shows an example of fire protection and thermal insulation. The panels of the
accommodation are free of contact with the insulation to prevent the transfer of vibrations.
The panels are attached to U-profiles which, in turn, are attached to the insulating floor.
- Flooring
To minimize disturbing sounds and reduce the chances of fire, the floors (especially if they are
directly above the engine room) are built as sprung floors.
These floors can consist of multiple layers of steel wool with a large density (e.g. baffles) placed on
the steel deck, covered by a hard ground slab.
Part of accommodation insulated by rock wool on welding pins
Figurtekst slut.

6.5 Communication
Each cabin should be equipped with a telephone and terminal for a central antenna for radio, TV
and internet
For operational and safety reasons it is necessary that each member of the crew can be summoned
or warned at any time or place.

6.6 Maintenance
Cleaning and maintenance of the accommodation is necessary for both hygiene and appearance.
In general, the arrangement of the accommodation should be designed for easy and efficient
cleaning and maintenance.
Things that have to be taken into account are:
- prevention of dirt transfer from work to living space
- proper choice of materials (clean and easy to maintain).
In the design phase it is important:
- to include enclosed compartments where dirty overalls can be taken off and hands can be washed
- to include a cleaning-gear locker on every deck.
Side 177

Galley with port holes
Figurtekst slut.

6.7 Overview of the different spaces

Captain's office
A separate office for the captain.
Cargo office
This is the room where the captain or chief mate deals with agents, cargo-receivers, customs, ship
chandler, suppliers, etc.
Cargo control room
On board tankers and bulk carriers, the loading and discharging, ballasting and deballasting is
controlled from this room. Smaller ships can have a control panel on the bridge.
The food is prepared here.
It is situated near the mess room to keep the walking distance as small as possible.
Dining room for officers and crew. Duty-mess
A small room with table, chairs and a cabinet where crew can eat in dirty clothes, in case there is
too much work on deck or in the engine room. Lounge
This is the focal point of social activities outside working hours.
A space located centrally, with at least a washing machine and dryer.
The arrangement of this space is subject to legal requirements.
Furthermore, it has to have easy access for a stretcher.
These are being increasingly standardized.
Cabins may be finished completely at the manufacturer's (prefab).
After placing on board, terminals for electricity, water, heating, etc. have only to be installed and
Owner's cabin
The owner's cabin is usually on the same deck as the captain's and chief engineer's cabins.
It is a passenger cabin, for office staff, a pilot, superintendent or other person not belonging to the
Working deck
On large ships, the lowest deck in the accommodation, often one deck above the main deck, is a
working deck where you can find the cargo office, captain's office, meeting room, galley and mess
Every space above this deck is private.
Space usage on the working deck depends very much on the size of the ship.
Storerooms contain:
- provisions and cold stores near the galley
- bonded store, also near the galley
- luggage lockers on all cabin decks
- engine spare parts and tools near or in the engine room
- paint locker, forward or aft, isolated from the accommodation, with entry from outside only
- garbage locker near incinerator and galley, only accessible from outside.
The main deck below the accommodation spaces may be used as the work deck or for stores,
engine room stores, etc. depending on the ship's size.
7. Bridge
Uselly on the highest deck. This is where all navigation and communication equipment is situated.
Communications are provided to the engine room, steering gear room, all cabins, etc.
Some ships have the engine-control panel in the wheelhouse.
In some ships the ballast system, which is located in the engine room, can be accessed.
The bridge may be located aft, mid-ships or forward.
There are no special reasons for the location. However there are requirements regarding horizontal
and vertical blind sectors.
There is ongoing development of integrated bridge systems to improve ease of operation.
Side 178
Integrated bridge can basically be divided into two main concepts.
A: Stand alone items like
- Radar
- Electronic charts
- Conning information systems, arranged in such a way that they are linked to each other via
keyboard and screen switching.
B: Multifunction systems are capable of performing in combination
- Radar
- Electronic chart
- Conning information systems
For this concept a network system is required based upon computer systems. Sensor information is
shared by all workstations. Selections of any specific function can be made at any workstation.
Redundancy will be required at a higher level than for A variant. The A variant is less flexible but
more reliable. New IMO regulations however will require more and more use of networked
systems, forcing manufacturers to develop their own processor boards instead of using the available
personal computers.
Electronic chart display systems.
IMO as well as flag States are increasingly accepting paperless navigation, using the Electronic
Chart Display Information System (ECDIS).
This system shows the chart information and route on a screen making track monitoring and
navigational information visible at a glance. The system includes the echo sounder, AIS and navtex
allowing quick detection of dangerous situations, alerting the operator immediately.
Chart Radar (Radar overlay)
This system presents electronic chart information and the full radar picture on one screen as
Presentation of chart information on a radar has very much improved, although great care must be
taken in order not to present too much. To much information on one screen makes an operator
Conning information screen
The conning information system is directly derived from the aircraft industry. Its screen presents
information previously displayed on a dedicated instruments. A typical conning information screen
would show:
gyro heading
magnetic heading
rudder angle
ship's speed
main engine RPM
pitch of a CPP
Communication system
GMDSS rules require, for instance:
VHF for short range
MF/HF for medium and long range
Sat C for short and long range
These systems are not able to receive or transmit digital in the manner of shoreside ADSL.
Side 179

There is a trend towards the use of V-sat terminals offering high speed communications comparable
to shore side telephone systems. Their use is limited by lack of coverage at sea.
Inmarsat (International maritme satellite) is the pioneer of satellite communications to the marine
It started with the introduction of the Inmarsat A system, followed by B, C and F.
Inmarsat now offers fleet broadband solutions with worldwide coverage and high speed.
Traffic cost for volume users is higher than for V-sat.
Coverage is worldwide except for the polar regions.
The availability of high speed communications allows the ship to become a virtual extension of the
head office computer.
Side 180

Figurtekst slut.
Side 181
Side 182

1 Introduction 182
2 Weather deck hatch covers 182
3 Deformations of the ship 187
4 Weather-tightness 188
5 Hatch cover gantry crane 189
6 Tweendeck hatch covers 191
7 Entrances 191
8 Miscellaneous 193
9 Coming on board /Access to the ship 195

1. Introduction
The watertight hatch covers on cargo holds are as wide as the outside of the hatch coamings. (The
watertight hatch covers on cargo holds fit over the hatch coamings)
The hatchways of multi-purpose ships and container ships are often wider than those on bulk
carriers, which are normally a maximum of half the beam of the ship.
Ships designed for liquid cargoes have small deck openings, large enough for people and
equipement and for tank cleaning gear.
The size of the deck openings influences the assigned freeboard. Tankers are allowed a smaller
freeboard than dry cargo ships.
Hatch covers must be:
- sufficiently strong, to withstand green water
- weathertight
- easy to open and close
- easy to maintain
- fitted with strong securing arrangements.
Some special designs require extra strength, for example:
- cargo such as containers or timber stowed and secured on the hatches.
The sealing systems of the various hatch cover systems are all based on the controlled compression
of a rubber seal against a steel flat bar, either horizontal or upright.
These rubber seals and compression bars need careful maintenance as they are vital for the weather
tightness of the hatches.
Water ingress often means cargo damage.
Hatch cover types and systems are chosen based on parametres such as:
- the type of cargo the ship is designed for
- the availability of lifting appliances, on board or ashore
- the trading area of the ship
Container ships usually have huge covers or pontoons, which are lifted by the shore container crane
and stacked on top of each other or simply laid ashore.
Bulk carriers usually have side-rolling hatches, one set per hatch. Multipurpose ships have pontoon
or folding hatch covers.
Ro-Ro ships have stern ramp doors, bow doors or side ramp doors. Tankers have small hatches
only big enough for people and tools.

2. Weather deck hatch covers

2.1 Pontoon hatch covers

2.1.1 General
Today, general cargo ships up to 10,000 tons deadweight, have one large cargo hold with division
bulkheads positioned where needed.
The usual hatch cover for this kind of ship (multipurpose ship) is the pontoon hatch cover.
Approximately 80-90% of these vessels use this type of cover.
Pontoon covers come in many configurations. Often they are closed on the underside, sometimes
even watertight so that they can be stored in the water beside the ship during loading or discharge.
The hatches are opened and closed by lifting and lowering the pontoons with a crane on the ship or
The crane on the ship is often a hatch cover gantry crane, a travelling crane which can also move
the pontoon hatch covers along the ship and stack them on the coaming.
Reasons for choosing pontoon hatch covers in combination with a hatch cover crane are:
- easy maintenance - the system has no wheels or other movable parts. When in position they only
need to be secured to the coaming and to each other
- flexibility in cargo-hold configuration - movable 'tweendecks and grain bulkheads can be
positioned with the hatch crane.
Side 183

2.1.2 Types of hatches

Pontoon hatch covers can be divided into upper hatch covers, lower hatch covers and end covers.
When a hold is closed the lower hatches are closed before the upper hatches and the other way
around when the hold is opened.
Sometimes there is a short hatch in between with a width of one meter or less; this is called a hatch
beam. These are not always present or necessary. The weight of a hatch can be somewhere between
10 and 25 tons.
A beam acts as a small lower hatch and has the advantage that one can easily open just a part of the
hatch. This is an advantage when it is raining. Sometimes the beam is left in place during cargo
handling to absorb the deformation forces between port and starboard hatch coaming.

Pontoon hatch covers, Turnbottles can be placed in the U-profiles to fasten the deck load
Figurtekst slut.
Coastal trade liner with a partially opened hatch
Figurtekst slut.
1. Pontoon hatch cover
2. Hatch cradle
3. Beam
4. Hatch coaming
5. Top rail
6. Hold
7. Tank top with open manhole
8. Wedges

2.1.3 Positioning of a pontoon hatch

The positioning of pontoon hatch covers is achieved by tapered pins (centre punches) at the side of
the cover, fitting into holes in the coaming top rail. On one side, the hole is a tight fit, and on the
other side it allows approximately 60 mm side-ways movement.
As a result the pontoon hatch cover has the possibility to move several millimetre over the sliding
blocks in transverse direction. This prevents the hatch from getting stuck if the width of the hold
changes by a few millimetres, due to forces during loading.
Note: The sliding of the pontoon hatch cover is an apparent movement, not a real one. In reality,
the top rail moves under the hatch.
1. Hatch
2. Top rail
3. Gliding block
4. Center punch
5. Leading block
6. Wave water
7. Side for sealing by customs
8. Rubber packing

Immovable center, transverse direction
Figurtekst slut.
Movable center, transverse direction
Figurtekst slut.
Side 184

Multi purpose ship with pontoon hatch covers
Figurtekst slut.
Beam between two closing hatches
Figurtekst slut.
1. End hatch
2. Closing hatch
3. Beam
4. Intermediate hatch
5. Wedges
6. Gantry crane control box
Control panel of the hatch gantry crane. The yellow display on the right side shows a longitudinal
drawing of the hatch arrangement (Various arrangements are possible)
01, 07, 08, 14 End hatches
02, 04, 06, 09, 11, 13 Closing hatches
03, 05, 10, 12 Bottom hatches
Figurtekst slut.

2.2 Hydraulic folding hatch covers

Folding hatches are opened and closed by means of hydraulic cylinders.
The location of the cylinder can vary.
- cylinders attached to the outside of the hatch. This type is only pos sible if it leaves enough
walking space at the main deck side (mini mum of 60 cm).
- cylinders which are supported by the main hinge aft or forward of the hold beam. The cylinders
that push the hatch up or down are located at the main hinges.
- faster opening and closing compared with pontoon hatches
- the hatches can cover the hold over the entire length of the ship (there is no hatch crane blocking
their way)
- easier to control, especially in bad weather
- more hatch area per hatch; this means that there are fewer transverse seams and therefore shorter
length of rubber seals (e.g. instead of 10 pontoon hatch covers, only 8 folding hatches are required).
- high acquisition cost
- vulnerability of the hydraulic system
- vulnerable to damage by shore crane due to height when stored.
Hydraulically operated folding hatches need safety devices to prevent collapse in the open
- ruptured hose safety system. This prevents the hydraulic system from emptying when a hose
- if the control button is released (dead man's brake), the system will stop. For example, if the
control button is on the starboard side a dead man's button hould be installed on the port side.
Emergency push buttons can also be installed.
- safety hook. This prevents the opened hatches from slamming shut when stored upright.
Side 185

1. Hinges between two covers, lower hinges

2. Hatch cover
3. Main hinges
4. Cylinder
5. Wheel
6. Ramp / rail track

Ship with open (hydraulic) folding hatches. The ship is being loaded with timber parcels
Figurtekst slut.
Side 186

2.3 Side-rolling hatch covers

Large bulk carriers are usually provided with side-roiling hatch covers. This type of hatch cover
opens and closes in the transverse direction. When in the closed position, they rest on special pads,
which adjust the compression of the rubber gaskets. Before they can be rolled towards the sides of
the ship, they are lifted, usually hydraulically.
When lowering the hatches in the closing operation, the covers are positioned precisely by V-
shaped catches, to align the gaskets above the compression bars. The hatches are opened and closed
with chains or cogwheels driven by hydraulic pumps. The individual hatch covers have to be
secured to each other and to the coamings by means of bolts and/or quick-acting cleats.
On large vessels especially, the hatch coamings have to withstand distortions of the ship as a result
of the varying types of cargo and the state of the sea.
- minimal jointing length easy opening and closing
- low air draft of the hatch covers
- maintenance friendly
- large and heavy

Panamax bulkcarrier, side-rolling hatches, two covers on each hold
Figurtekst slut.
Ore carrier. Each hatch has a single cover
Figurtekst slut.
Side 187

2.4 Stack pack hatch covers (Piggy-back)

Another way of opening and closing hatches is the fore and aft rolling pontoon system.
One cover can be lifted to a sufficient height above the coaming by hydraulic rams. This allows the
other cover to be rolled underneath the raised one, after which the upper cover is lowered till it rests
on the lower one. Together they can roll, by an electric / hydraulic drive inside the pontoon, either
over the forward half of the hold or the after half.
The covers can have a height of approximately one meter, and a weight of 25 - 80 tons.
They are mainly used on bulk carriers.
1. Lower cover
2. Upper cover(s)
3. Lifting rams

2.5 Open cargo holds (No hatch covers)

Some ships like container ships have holds without hatch covers. They are called open hatch ships.
The holds have to be equipped with extra powerful bilge pumps to cope with water that enters the
The containers in the holds prevent free surface effect.
The largest quantity of water to be dealt with is not from bad weather, but from a tropical rain
Having no hatch covers saves time opening and closing.
Some types of dredgers also have open holds. The cargo comes on board as slurry: a mix of water
and sand. The sand settles, and the surplus water flows over the side.
When the hold is full with settled sand, the remaining water is pumped out.

Piggy back hatch-cover
Figurtekst slut.

3 Deformations of the ship

During loading and discharge a ship with a long hatch opening can become somewhat deformed.
This phenomenon is called harbuor deflection.
This deflection can be prevented by placing one or more beams or strong hatches in the transverse
If, in spite of this, deflection still occurs, it can cause the coamings and therefore the top rail to
move several centimeters out of position.
Stainless steel sliding blocks can be welded onto the top rail to guide the sliding of the hatches.
The sliding blocks also adjust the height of the covers.
To prevent damage to the seal the sealing rubber with or without a compression bar, is allowed to
be compressed to a maximum of 10 mm.
The hatches are not constructed to resist the forces acting on a ship in waves. This is why there is a
fixed side and a free side.
Container ships and bulk carriers suffer from torsion and warping in the hull, forcing the
rectangular hatch openings to become a parallelogram. The rectangular hatch covers continually
slide the rubber gaskets over the compression bars, or over the coaming.
The covers wear at the resting pad areas.
Therefore, special sliding pads have been developed, consisting of layers of different materials.
These pads allow sliding and carry the weight of the cover.
Greasing the rubbers before closing the hatches helps reduce wear.
Side 188

1. Upper cover
2. Lower cover
3. Compression bar
4. Rubber gasket
5. Drain gutter
Intermediate hatch
Figurtekst slut.
1. Rubber gasket
2. Compression strip (fore and aft)
3. Top coaming
4. Pontoon hatch cover
5. Compression strip for the circumferential seam sealing
6. Hold

Figurtekst slut.
4. Weather-tightness
Hatch covers have to seal the hold weather-tight. This weather-tightness is achieved by:

4.1 Rubber sealing gaskets

Rubber sealing gaskets, glued in a channel in the cover, rest with controlled compression on the
coaming, on a flat surface or on a vertical compression bar.
The compression is controlled by resting pads, adjusted in height, to obtain the required
The sealing gaskets have a backup in the form of a save-all, a gutter, collecting the drops of water
that managed to pass the rubber gaskets. Often this gutter is doubled.
It is fitted between the rubber and the coaming inner edge, and between hatches in the transverse
direction, below the jointing rubber, leading the leakage water to the coaming. The corners of the
coaming are provided with a drain.

4.2 Cleats
Cleats on the outer edge of the pontoon hatch cover fix the hatch cover to the coaming (see picture
quick acting cleats, upper left).

4.3 Wedges
Wedges - to ensure the compression of transverse joints is maintained.

4.4 Checking weather-tightness

Hatch covers have to be regularly checked for tightness.
It can be done as follows:
- hose test. A powerful jet of water is sprayed against the joints of the pontoon hatch cover, while
the hold is simultaneously checked for leakage.
- with the aid of ultrasonic detection equipment. A sound waves transmitter is placed in the hold
and a detection microphone (receiver) on top of the hatch cover, or moved along the coaming. If
the detector does not 'hear' a sound at the transmitted frequency, the hatch is considered watertight.
Checking the tightness of hatch covers is commonly performed by charterers and P & I clubs prior
to loading. It is the normal test when the ship is new, during commissioning, at Annual Survey, at
Special Survey or after repairs when the class surveyor inspects the hatches.
Side 189

5. Hatch cover gantry crane

Ships that are equipped with pontoon hatch covers generally have a crane to open and close the
Ships with a carrying capacity of more than 10,000 tons (especially container ships) need a crane
(on board or ashore) to open and close this type of hatch.

Top view of the hatch cradle, fixed bridge
Figurtekst slut.
1. Store crane
2. Control box
3. Cable sheave jigger winch
4. Hoisting frame
5. Columns
6. Wheel with hydro motor. Two of the four wheels are equipped with brakes.
Side 190

This drawing shows how, with the aid of the hatch cradle, the bulkheads can be placed in different
Figurtekst slut.
The lifting and lowering of the hatches by the hatch cradle is done by:
- hydraulic cylinders (up to 17 tons)
- steel cables operated by winches on the loading platform of the crane (up to 21 tons)
Hatch cranes are sometimes equipped with two stores cranes. These cranes are capable of:
- loading and discharging provisions and engine parts
- lifting materials in and out of the hold
- carrying materials over the entire length of the ship.
This stores crane can rotate 360°, but cannot be topped or lowered.
With the gantry one can also operate a working basket for work in the hold, such as:
- handling grain or separation bulkheads
- handling the supports for the tweendecks.
The steel cables that control the movable bridge can be disconnected and attached to a bulkhead.
They can then be positioned anywhere in the hold by the hatch cradle. The bulkheads can then be
used as tweendecks or separation bulkheads.
Safety on the hatch cover gantry cradle:
- an optical signal when moving
- emergency stops on the hatch crane:
• on the loading platform
• the bottom side near the gangway (Port- and Starboard side)
• speed brakes in the hydraulic system will immediately come into action in case of a hydraulic leak
or defect.
Cargo hold of a multi purpose cargo ship, divided in two parts, using the movable bulkhead. The
forward part for hulk cargo, the rear for packaged cargo.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 191

6. Tweendeck hatch covers

Tweendeck hatchcovers come in the following versions:
- pontoon hatch cover
- folding hatch cover.
Tweendeck hatch covers are normally not provided with rubber gaskets.

6.1 Pontoon tweendeck covers

Pontoon tweendeck hatches are usually found on multipurpose ships where their function is
Pontoon hatch covers can be placed both horizontally (tweendeck) and vertically (grain or
separation bulkheads).
The positioning of the pontoons is done by means of the hatch cover crane. If the pontoons are not
in use, they are stored vertically, in a special stowage.

6.2 Folding hatch

Tweendeck folding hatches are common on ships which are provided with more than one
tweendeck, such as reefers.
On reefers having three tweendecks, there is usually one tweendeck where the folding hatch is
fitted with thermal insulation. The folding hatches of tweendecks are normally operated
mechanically using the cargo runner of the crane.

Tweendecks with folding hatches on a reefer.
Figurtekst slut.
An opened side door, equipped with hydraulic cylinders for opening and closing.
Figurtekst slut.

7. Entrances
7.1 Side doors
Side doors are found on ships with a large freeboard, like passenger liners. They use them to
embark and disembark passengers.
Larger side doors (ramps) are used to load and discharge vehicles. Generally, these doors are
controlled hydraulically (see chapter 9). A side door locally weakens the strength of a ship. This is
compensated by thicker side shell plating and heavier internal structural parts.

7.2 Stern doors and ramps

Ro-Ro vessels often load and unload via stern doors and quarter or slewing ramps, combining the
function of bridge between jetty and ship and watertight closure of the cargo-hold. Due to the
weight of the lorries, these doors/ramps are heavily constructed. They are supported at the stern of
the ship by hinges and the jetty. The span can be considerable.
Opening and closing is done by wires, via hydraulic cylinders and jiggerwinches.
The hoisting wires are often backed up by a heavy wire or chain, to prevent lowering too far in case
of wire or hydraulic failure.
7.3 Bow doors
Ro-Ro passenger vessels on short voyages also have bow doors.
There are various types - horizontal sliding doors, vertical doors, and ramp-door combinations.
The latter type is often protected by a bow visor, where the whole bow opens upwards, giving
access to the ramp, the real watertight door.
After a number of accidents, the strength and security of the various systems have received much
attention. Requirements have become more and more stringent.
Ro-Ro ships may have ramps between the upper car deck and lower car deck. This ramp when
closed, is part of the upper car deck and also part of the weather-tight closing of the ship. They are
therefore provided with rubber gaskets.
If such a ramp is installed in the freeboard deck it has to be watertight.
Side 192

7.4 Companion hatches

Companion hatches come in many shapes and sizes. Some types are discussed below.
Storage compartments often need a wide entrance because the stored parts, such as engine parts,
lashing gear, etc. can be quite large.
The companion hatches can be opened manually or with the aid of a crane, a hatch cradle or a
hydraulic system.
Companion hatches on oil tanks can be sealed from the open air with a cover that makes the hatch
impermeable to oil and gas. The cover itself is closed with clamps. Just above the cover is a screw-
thread on a wheel that is used to lift the lid and subsequently turn it away from the hatch coaming.
Hatch covers are sometimes provided with a smaller hatch that is used to take samples and
determine the ullage and the temperature of the cargo.

Hydraulically controlled entrance hatch
Figurtekst slut.

7.5 Accommodation doors

Exterior doors
Exterior doors are weather-tight.
This means that, if the door is closed, it will only leak when submerged in water.
The exterior doors are often opened and closed with a central bar or wheel, serving up 60 toggles.
The difference in the exterior doors shown below is the number of closing dogs. This determines
the quality of the tightness.
Interior doors
These doors are inside the weather-tight doors. Fire fighting regulations require that there is a fire
barrier in the accommodation. This can then be achieved by using metal fireproof interior doors
which automatically close in case of an alarm.
A watertight door
Figurtekst slut.

7.6 Watertight doors

These are really watertight closing appliances used in watertight bulkheads, for instance between
engine rooms.
They are designed to withstand water pressure up to the margin line.
Watertight doors can be controlled locally, manually and hydraulically, as well as from the bridge.
The control panel on the bridge indicates whether a watertight door is open or closed. The doors are
operated hydraulically.
The watertight doors should not leak even if the whole compartment is filled with water.
Weathertight door. This door can be opened with just one bar.
Figurtekst slut.

Overview of the watertight doors that can be controlled from the bridge
Figurtekst slut.
Side 193

8 Miscellaneous
8.1 Ventilation louvres
All the vents of the holds, the engine room and the accommodation are shielded by gratings, often
louvres. These have to be provided with means for closing weather-tight and airtight by a cover in
case of bad weather or fire.

Ventilation louvre with cover
Figurtekst slut.

8.2 Manhole covers

Manhole covers close the access openings that are part of every tank, except for the cargo tanks.
Manholes make it possible to inspect a tank.
Manhole cover of top wing tank nr 1, portside, in the main deck of a bulk carrier, looking aft.
Figurtekst slut.

1. Port hole
2. Tank vent
3. Vent
4. (Companion) hatch
5. Quick acting cleat for securing of cover

8.3 De-aeration devices

8.3.1 Tank vent / overflow

Every liquid-containing tank must have a means of venting in order to prevent over and under-
pressure during emptying or filling.
For this purpose, every water and oil tank has airpipes that ends on the freeboard deck at a vent
terminal with a closing device, preventing seawater entering the tank.
In case of submersion of the airpipe terminal due to large waves, a floating ball inside will float
upwards until it is pressed against a rubber ring.
This mechanism seals the pipe from the seawater. When the tank is overfilled, the surplus water
discharges via the airpipe head (goose neck) on deck. Tank vents / overflows can be equipped with:
- an overflow pipe, to guide the contents of the tank to another location
- a sounding opening where the depth of the liquid in the tank can be measured
- in case of a vent / overflow of an oil-tank, a flameproof mesh and a save-all to keep oil inside is
Cargo tanks of tank vessels have complicated venting systems, in connection with inert gas and the
influence of outside temperature on the pressure in the cargo tank.

Raised tank vents
Figurtekst slut.
Drawing of the inside of a vent terminal
Figurtekst slut.
1. Plastic ball
2. Rubber gasket
3. Vent opening
4. Air and water release pipe
Side 194

8.3.2 Mushroom shaped vents

Mushroom shaped vents are only used for the ventilation of dry spaces like the bosun's store or the
accommodation. They have to be provided with a closing flap for protection against fire or bad
Often the whole mushroom head can be screwed down to close the vent.
There are two ways of closing them, either by manually rotating the top part or with a valve. They
are a mechanical backup when the air conditioning does not work; under normal circumstances
they are closed.

Mushroom shaped vent with a hand wheel
Figurtekst slut.
PV breaker
Left: A similar device, compared with the pressure / vacuum valve, is the PV breaker, in use on
large tankers with an inertgas system, working on all tanks together. When the gas pressure in a
cargo tank becomes too high or too low, the PV-Valve will adjust the pressure to the limit where
the valve has been designed for. When the pressure increases or decreases too fast, the capacity of
the PV Valve is not enough, and the second device, the PV-Breaker will protect the combined tanks.
This PV-Breaker is an ordinary water lock, connected with the inert gas mainline, which is blown
or sucked out by pressure. An opening of 400 mm or 500 mm diametres opens to release the
overpressure, but the flow does not stop when the pressure is within limits. The flow only stops
when the pressure in the tanks is atmospheric, and therefore the tanks must reinerted.
Figurtekst slut.

8.3.3 High-velocity pressure /vacuum valves

High-velocity speed pressure valves are tank vents with the special characteristic that they let the
gas escape only when a certain over pressure is reached, and not before that.
The velocity of the escaping gas is so high (with a minimum of 30 m/sec) that it can never catch
The gas rapidly diffuses into the air and will not fall back to the ship.
They will also let air into the tank in case of under pressure, for example during the emptying of
the tank.
To ensure that no flames can enter of the tank via this route, a fire-resistant wire mesh covers the
inlet side of the valve.
The type of high-velocity pressure valve discussed here is the most widely used type on tankers.
It is a safety device against over or under pressure of the atmosphere above the cargo, what
normally is controlled manually through the inert gas system or damp return system. All the parts
mentioned in this section are either bronze, galvanized or stainless steel. The classification society
determines which type of material is to be used.

Pressure / vacuum valve (P. V. valve)
Figurtekst slut.
High-velocity pressure / vacuum valve. The arrows depict the path of the escaping gas.
Figurtekst slut.

High-velocity pressure / vacuum valve. The arrows depict the path of the air flowing in.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 195

9. Boarding / access
9.1 Accommodation ladder
Every ship needs means of getting people on board safely. Most vessels have two accommodation
ladders, one each side, preferably where the ship's side is flat. In general, the accommodation
ladder is made of lightweight aluminium that makes it easy to handle. The top of the
accommodation ladder is attached to a platform with a slewing connection, so that, if necessary, it
can be turned away from the ship in case of a large gap between the ship and the quay. On the quay
the accommodation ladder rests on a roller, at the bottom of the stairs. This roller allows the
accommodation ladder to slide on the jetty as a result of changes in draft or movements of the ship.
Lowering and lifting of the ladder is done by a winch. The ladder can be held just above sealevel
when the ship is not alongside.
Compulsory safety measures:
- a safety net hanging under the accommodation ladder
- a life buoy at the gangway with light and line.

Lowered accommodation ladder,
Figurtekst slut.
9.2 Gangway
Many vessels have an aluminum gangway in addition to an accommodation ladder. This gangway
is used whenever the accommodation ladder cannot be used, due to location or jetty layout. The
gangway is put into the desired position by either a crane or manpower.

Gangway on a passenger liner
Figurtekst slut.

Side view of an accommodation ladder and top view of the platform
Figurtekst slut.
1. Top platform
2. Steps
3. Bottom platform
4. Roller
5. Handrail
6. Stanchion
7. Synthetic rope
8. Steel cables attached to the winch
Side 196

Figurtekst slut.
Side 197
Side 198


1 Cargo handling gear 198
2 Slewing cranes 200
3 Conventional type crane 202
4 The slewing crane of the low type 205
5 Cranes for heavy cargo 206
6 Gantry cranes 208
7 Side loaders 208
8 Ramps 210
9 Registers and certificates 213
10 Load testing equipment 215

1. Cargo handling gear

Transshipment is moving cargo into and from a means of conveyance, like a ship or a truck. Most
cargo is moved with the aid of some type of cargo handling gear. Only very small and lightweight
cargo is still moved by manpower. The cargo handling gear is either present on the ship (self-
loader/unloader) or at the port. In the latter case the quay has a large array of mobile cranes capable
of moving along the length of the quay.
These cranes used to move exclusively on rails, but today an increasing number of cranes are
equipped with ordinary wheels with tyres and steering capabilities. This allows the cranes to move
freely across the entire quay / port.

1.1 The choice of cargo handling gear

There are many types of cargo handling gear for ships and just as many incentives for choosing to
install one or the other:

A mobile crane on pneumatic tires
Figurtekst slut.
- the charterer (who hires the ship) demands it. Why, is not the shipping company's concern, but if
not in possession of a self discharging ship, the order goes to a competitor who does have one!
- the trading area requires it because the ports in that area lack cranes. This is often the case in
Africa, South-America, Asia and in small ports and factory sites all over the world.
- in order to transport special cargo too bulky or too heavy to handle with the available shore cranes.
- special cargo is a one-time, large scale transport like a complete factory, moved in sections, or
large and heavy machinery.
Ship's cranes reduce the stability and the carrying capacity of a ship; they also cost money and
require maintenance.
On a general cargo ship, two cranes, including foundations, represent 10% of the total building

Mobile crane loading paper rolls stowed on a pallet
Figurtekst slut.
Side 199

Container cranes on rails at work
Figurtekst slut.
Refrigerated vessels often have 7 or more light cranes on board which may cost as much as 20% of
the total building costs.
As a compromise a ship may be built without cranes, but with the necessary foundation
(strengthening in several places on the ship) and piping systems.
If cranes are then required, they can be installed without radical changes to the ship and without
extra loss of time (if the cranes are ordered in advance).

1.2 Statutory demands

The statutory demands for cargo handling gear, including lifts, ramps, hoistable decks etc. are laid
down in the ILO-convention 152 (International Labour Organisation).
Compliance with the regulations is under the supervision of the flag State and the Classification
Classification of cargo handling gear is regulated by:
- national law, which states that the ship checks the gear annually and a class check done every 5
- international regulations which state that the gear has to be checked annually by the
Classification Society for an examination and a function test. Once in five years a Quadrennial
Survey, i.e. a yearly examination, including opening up of blocks, etc. plus a load-test.

1.2.1 Division of tasks.

The inspections, certification and responsibilities are divided as follows: all ILO-152 tasks directly
related to cargo handling (cranes, ramps etc.) are the responsibility of the Classification Society.
All ILO-tasks related to safety, such as access to the ship, hold or crane accesses and safety in the
holds as well as supervising the Classification Societies are the responsibility of the flag State.
all tasks that do not result from the ILO-152 treaty such as hoisting gear in the engine room, store
cranes, etc., are the responsibility of the shipping company, in compliance with national law and

Marking of SWL and range of a large shear legs floating crane
Figurtekst slut.
SWL 60 t (40 t)/16 m (28 m)
SWL is:
- 60 tons with a radius of 16 meters
- 40 tons with a radius of 28 meters.

1.2.2 Certificates
The items under control of the Classification Society are specifically mentioned in the Register of
Ship's Lifting Appliances and Cargo Handling Gear. Excerpts from the ILO-152 treaty:
Every seagoing vessel must have a Register of Ship's Lifting Appliances and Cargo Handling
The inside cover of this register must state:
- the rules for the five-yearly inspections as stated in the ILO-rules and the rules of the
Classification Society.
- rules for the annual inspections
- test certificates must be present for all parts of the loading gear that can wear through use and
• the crane (complete)
• the runner and topping lift wire(s)
• the blocks and sheaves
• the hoisting winch
• the crane hook
• attachments
The certificate must show which requirements are applicable for every part.
- certificates are marked by the surveyors name stamp, covered by his signature and the date and
place of testing.
- the bottom of the crane jib must show:
• the maximum Safe Working Load (SWL).
• the radius applicable to the load (the horizontal distance between turning point and vertical runner)
These figures must be clearly visible from where the cargo is hooked on to the cargo hook.
Side 200

2. Slewing cranes
The picture on the right shows a ship with three ordinary slewing cranes. The crane house is bolted
to a slewing bearing, whose lower ring is bolted to a pillar, the foundation, which is part of the
ship's structure. The slewing bearing is a large double-turning bearing. An electric or hydraulic
motor drives a pinion which meshes with the upper turning ring which is a large ring-shaped
cogwheel that rotates the crane. Normally the crane cannot rotate unrestrictedly due to electrical
cables running to and from the crane inside the pedestal.
The crane cabin is a steel construction with windows giving the crane driver a wide view of the
work area. The wire drums, drive motors and the controls and safety devices are all located in the
crane house. The diameter is 2-3 meters.
The crane jib is hinged on the crane house, to allow lowering and topping. The jib consists of one
or two box beams. It is designed to have the required strength, with minimum weight and maximun
stiffness is.
The different types of revolving cranes discussed can be distinguished mainly on the basis of where
the jib is attached to the crane house.

2.1 The position of cranes

Masts and cranes used to be placed exclusively on the ship's centre line, but today they are
increasingly placed towards the ship's side.
In general:
- Cranes on the centreline of the ship are best for the ship's stability. They give the crane driver a
good view of the hold, but not of the quay. There is no preference which side the ship should go
- Cranes positioned on one side of the ship have an adverse effect on the position of the ship's
centre of gravity. Therefore only large ships, where the mass of the cranes is very small compared
to the ship's total mass, can have that arrangement.
The crane driver's view of the holds is as good as when all the cranes are on the centreline, but the
view of the quay is better. Also, the reach of the crane over the quay is much improved.
- An alternative is to position one crane on the portside and one to starboard, (or two and two,
alternating). They are still off centre, but now half the number of cranes are not on the side of the
quay, which is bad for visibility and the reach of these cranes.
- if remote controls (wireless) are used, the view from the crane cabin is of no importance. The
crane driver can position himself wherever the visibility is best.

2.2 Securing the cranes

All crane jibs are subject to additional forces from waves.
They have their own cradle, a support where they can be secured during the voyage.
This can be done by means of:
- a fixed or moveable support some-where on deck
- a fixed support against the forecastle, a deck house or the break-water
- a neighbouring crane as support when the jib's length equals the distance between the two cranes
- a support against a crane cabin when the crane is not in use.

Container feeder with revolving deck cranes
Figurtekst slut.
1. Jib rest on the fore mast
2. Crane foundation / pedestal
3. Slewing bearing
4. Crane house
5. Jib
6. Topping cilinder
7. Jib-crutch or boom rest
Side 201

2.3 Controlling the load

a. Slewing velocity
Revolving cranes often have a long cargo runner (hoisting wire) to which the load is attached,
especially at short range (when the jib is near vertical). If the crane rotates, the initial velocity of the
load will be less than the velocity of the jib. The velocity of the load then increases.
When the jib reaches its final position and stops, the load will still have momentum, which sends it
past the position of the jib. The skills of the crane driver ensure that the load arrives at the intended
An objection to the revolving crane is that the horizontal momentum of the load makes it difficult
to accurately position the load. Therefore, high loading and discharge speeds cannot be obtained. In
many cranes with a large range, the angular velocity, when revolving, is reduced automatically in
connection with the following:
- the forces of accelerating and decelerating increase with the square of the range.
- centrifugal forces, which give the load the tendency to leave its circular trajectory, increase as a
function of the crane's range.
- crane drivers can control the load up to a maximum angular velocity of 2.5-3 m/s.

b. Lifting capacity
The maximum pulling capacity of a drum winch is, on average, 10-25 tons.
If the jib is lowered and the radius of the crane increases, the load, hanging from the end of the jib,
increases the moment on the crane (tipping moment).
For this reason, the maximum load of all cranes depends on the radius (inversely proportional).
In some cranes, the maximum pulling force of the winch is automatically reduced when the radius
increases. This prevents loads from lifting when the radius is too large (load/momentum limit).

c. Lifting velocity
With some cranes it is possible to switch the winch manually from single work to double acting.
In double acting, the maximum pulling force is larger and the lifting velocity smaller (inversely
Often this switching is automatic;
if the crane has to lift too heavy a load it will switch to double.

2.4 Ship stability

When working with cargo gear and especially with heavy loads, the stability (GM) of the ship must
be positive to such an extent, that it remains positive when the load is suspended from the crane.
The ship's initial stability prevents cranes from listing the ship more than 5°. Too great a list can be
prevented or reduced by shifting ballast water (or fuel).
In many ships this is automated by an anti-heeling system that automatically pumps water from one
wing tank to another, during the moving of a heavy load from port to starboard, or vice versa. The
working angle limit of cranes is normally 5°.
In general, revolving cranes are hardly affected by trim (the difference in draft fore and aft).
Most cranes can tolerate a trim of 5°, but there are also cranes with a maximum trim of 2°. One of
the reasons for a maximum list and maximum trim is that the slewing engine must overcome a
larger part of the load's weight (this increases with the sine of the crane's angle with the vertical).

2.5 Safeguards
Some safety devices of revolving cranes are typical for these types of cranes, others apply to all
crane types. General rules:
- a zero voltage device shall be present. No power to the various electric motors means that brakes
are applied. If the power supply is restored after it has been interrupted, the crane will not start on
its own. A normal safeguard is the automatic main switch.
It can be turned on again when the crane driver is back in place and resets the controls.
- An overload safety shall be present. If any part of the crane experiences overload, the crane will
shut down. When a crane motor comes in overload, power to the motor is cut out, and the brake of
that motor comes in, stopping the motor from turning.
Side 202
- emergency stops shall be present. Red emergency stop buttons shall be present within reach of
the crane driver and wherever the regulations require them. When pushed, all movement of the
crane is made impossible. Emergency stops can only be reset locally.
- a hoist-limit switch shall be present. This is a switch that defines the highest position of the hook.
- empty drum safeguard. The hoisting cable shall be wrapped around the drum at least three times
in order to keep sufficient lifting capacity (friction).
- sometimes an inclination limit switch is present. This shuts down the crane when the angle of
inclination becomes too large.
Specifically for revolving cranes:
- a limit switch for the highest and lowest position of the jib.
This is also the maximum and minimum outreach limit.
- turning limit switch(es) to prevent the crane jib from touching another part of the ship's structure.

2.6 Drives
Every crane has at least three motors: one for the runner, one for the topping of the jib and one for
slewing. The motors can be hydraulic or electric. In case of hydraulic power to the crane, the
hydraulic supply is created by a socalled power-pack, driven by an electric motor.

a. Hydraulic crane drives

The runner and the slewing both require revolving hydraulic motors; the topping of the jib is done
using one or two hydraulic cylinders.
The main slide valve is controlled with the main lever via the driver valve.
The motor automatically stops moving when the crane reaches an extreme position. This is done
with the aid of a limit switch and an end switch, although movement in the opposite direction is
still possible.
To lay down the jib in the crutch, the resting position, an override switch is necessary, as this is
normally below the lowest allowable position of the jib.
The main slide valve often has a very ingenious construction adapting the force and velocity of the
winch engine to the position of the control lever. The main slide valve also lifts the brakes of the
particular motor when movement is wanted.
Furthermore, if the oil lines of a hydraulic motor are closed, the main slide valve can absorb the
extra load.

b. Electric drives
The electric drives of the ship's cranes receive their power from a switchboard. For this purpose, the
ship's 3-phase current is changed by an adjustable converter into either direct current (DC) or an
alternating current (AC) with an adjustable frequency.
The control lever operates the converter, which sends current to the motor and releases the brakes.
In contrast to the hydraulic engines, the electric motor cannot absorb the forces of a load if the
power supply is cut off. In case of a stop command, the brakes are applied instantaneously to
overcome this short coming. However, as a result of this, the brakes of an electric winch engine
wear faster than the brakes of a hydraulic winch motor.
As in hydraulic drives, excessive lifting, slacking, topping and slewing is prevented by a limit

2.7 Classification of cranes

Revolving cranes can be categorized by the following types:
- conventional type (section 3)
- low type (section 4)
- heavy lift cranes (section 5)

3. Conventional type crane

The advantage of conventional revolving cranes over low ones is that during topping and slacking,
the load remains at the same height.
This horizontal level luffing / load travel is achieved by using the high position of the pulley block
and the way the runner is reeved through. This ensures that it slacks the same distance that the top
of the jib rises.
When lowering, the same correction is carried out in reverse.
In the case of double runners, hook blocks are used instead of hooks.
Conventional cranes can differ in the ways that the jib is slacked and topped:
- with a cable (topping lift wire)
- with (two) hydraulic cylinders

3.1 Topping with a steel cable

In topping and slacking with a cable, the crane jib is attached to the crane house as low as possible,
just above the slewing bearing. A longer distance between the end connection of the topping lift
wire and the lower hinge pin of the jib means less force in that wire. Further more, the center of
gravity will be lower.
A possible danger in these types of cranes is that in case of a sudden list, a steep crane jib can
smash against the crane cabin.
This effect is amplified by the forces in the runner. To prevent this, rubber stops are used, but if
there is a load hanging from the runner, both the load and the crane-jib can be damaged.
The topping lift wire can be connected to the top of the jib, to a point halfway or a combination of
both, preventing vibrations in the jib.

3.2 Topping with hydraulic cylinders

The jib fulcrum is attached higher to the crane house if the crane jib is moved vertically by
hydraulic cylinders.
This is because the cylinders are attached to the lower part of the jib at one end and to the base of
the crane house at the other end.
The cylinders are positioned such that they are beside the crane cabin when the jib is completely
This means that although the load can touch the crane cabin, it cannot damage the cylinders.
Side 203

1. Crane house
2. Cabin
3. Jib
4. Pedestal
5. Slewing bearing
6. Turning point of the jib
7. Light runner (auxiliary hoist)
8. Hoisting safety device
9. Hanger (topping lift)
10. Runner
11. Pulley (sheave)
12. Light cargo block
13. Swivel
14. Rams horn hook
15. Heavy cargo block
Some typical figures that apply to these cranes are:
- maximum lifting capacity of 16-60 tons
- maximum reach 22-34 meters
Using hydraulic cylinders for the topping of the jib has a number of advantages over topping with a
steel cable:
- slamming of the jib as a result of waves is prevented because double-acting hydraulic cylinders
can absorb both pulling and pushing forces.
- cylinders are easier to maintain than cables. The latter have to be replaced every five years.
- the jib cannot shoot through the top position. This allows cranes with hydraulic cylinders to have
a smaller range (2 metres) than cranes with wires (3 metres).

Cranes with topping wires
Figurtekst slut.
Side 204

3.3 Crane cabin

The drawing below shows the arrangement of the crane winch, which is driven by an electric-
hydraulic motor. An electric motor drives the hydraulic pump which, in turn, supplies oil to the
hydraulic lifting and revolving motors.
The oil absorbs the heat that is generated in this process and is subsequently cooled in an oil-cooler
by an automated ventilator; then it is pumped back to the hydraulic oil tank.

Crane cabin
Figurtekst slut.
1. Crane cabin
2. Lever for topping and revolving
3. Lever for lifting
4. Jib
5. Hydraulic motor
6. Oil tank
7. Oil filter
8. Oil cooler
9. Limit switch
10. Drum for topping
11. Drum for hoisting
12. Hook block

3.4 Bulk crane

The bulk crane is a unit designed for loading and/or discharging using grabs and logs on standard
(handy size, 30,000 tons) bulk carriers.
These are usually conventional revolving cranes, up to 20 ton SWL.

1. Jib
2. Crane house
3. Grab
Side 205
Slewing crane of the low type with hydraulic topping cylinders
Figurtekst slut.
1. Jib
2. Crane house
3. Runner
4. Topping cylinder
5. Crane cabin
6. Hoisting winch
7. Hook block
8. Cam disc
9. Fulcrum of the jib
10. Crane foundation
11. Hook rotator

3.5 Tanker manifold crane / hose crane

A tanker needs a crane to handle the loading/discharging hose.
Often, the hose has to be picked up from the jetty or out of sea in case of a buoy mooring.
The hydraulic crane always has a low tubular foundation, with a crane body bolted on through a
slewing bearing. The jib is fitted at the top of the body. The jib is supported by a hydraulic ram.
The winch is often on top of the jib or on the crane body.
There is no crane cabin, a platform with handles is sufficient. However, often there is a second
maneuvring stand at the ship's side.
Once the hose is lifted and bolted to the manifold pipe, the crane is no longer needed during the
whole loading or discharge operation.
Depending on the ship's size, the SWL ranges from 5 tons for a 5000 ton tanker to 20 tons for a
300,000 ton tanker. The beam of the ship decides if one crane can do the job or if two are needed
beside each other, one on each side.
The necessary reach is only 5 to 7 metres beyond the ship.

4. Slewing crane of the low type

In cranes of the conventional type the crane houses are 8-15 metres above the slewing bearing.
However, in cranes of the low type, this distance is approximately 5 metres.
The crane cabin extends just above the fulcrum of the jib, which fuses into one box beam jib further
away from the crane.
The drum of the hoisting winch, which also serves as a pulley, is placed on top of the crane house.
The lifting capacity of these cranes can vary between 10 and 150 tons, the range between 12 to 35
4.1 The crane's construction
The figures above show one of many versions of the low type cranes.
A peculiarity of this crane is that the horizontal position is merely used to "park" the crane in the
boom cradle: the boom rest.
When operating, the crane should remain topped at least 15°, as indicated by the minimum and
maximum range.
All revolving cranes give the load a certain freedom of rotation.
The runner itself, however, also has a tendency to twist when being loaded or unloaded.
For this reason, the hook is always connected to the runner via a swivel, allowing the two parts to
rotate independently.
When a double cargo runner is used, the hook block must not rotate relative to the crane jib because
this will cause the two parts of the runner to twist together.
A special electric-hydraulic hook rotator can be used to prevent this and to prevent undesired
rotation of the load.
The crane jib has a cable reel that slacks and hoists the rotator power cable via a number of guide
sheaves, ensuring that it never hangs too loosely or too tightly and that it follows the cargo hook
This cable reel is controlled by the crane driver with the same right hand lever that the driver uses
to control the hoisting winch.

More containers fit beneath the jib without obscuring the view
Figurtekst slut.
Side 206

4.2 Advantages of the low crane

- The jib of a low crane is much higher then that of a conventional crane with the top of the crane
house is at the same height.
The crane can still operate with many containers stacked on top of each other.
- The low crane is lighter and has a lower centre of gravity then a conventional crane with the
slewing bearing at the same height. This offers more stability and increases cargo capacity.
- The low crane obstructs the view from the bridge less.

5. Cranes for heavy cargo

Loads to be transported by ship are becoming heavier. The shipping industry therefore builds ships
for heavy cargo, where every new generation of ships has cranes with a higher capacity than the
previous generation.
The cargoes of specialized ships can be complete installations for the petro chemical industry, or
power stations and suchlike, having heavy components amongst the total package.
Nowadays, cranes with a lifting capacity of 150 tons or more, are called 'heavy lift cranes'.
The lifting capacity can be as high as 1200 tons.
There are two basic types of heavy cargo cranes:
- conventional cranes
- mast cranes.
The conventional crane has a crane house, mounted on and revolving through a slewing roller
bearing, with a connected crane jib.
The slewing bearing is bolted to a pedestal and has to take the full tilting moment of the crane plus
The winches are located inside the crane house, and slewing can be carried out unobstructed.
The mast crane is installed around a mast, welded to the ship's structure. At the lower part of the
mast a platform is mounted which can rotate around the mast.
The jib, or derrick is mounted on this platform.
On top of the mast is a freeturning swivel head, with sheaves for the topping and runner wires.
The winches are installed inside the mast, inside the pedestal of the mast or even below deck.
Heavy-lift ships with mast cranes
Figurtekst slut.
1. Mast
2. Jib
3. Topping lift and running part of the hoisting rope
4. Cargo hook
5. Hook of auxiliary hoist
6. Slewing bearing
7. Mast foundation / pedestal
8. Top slewing unit
Side 207
The topping and runner wires go through the mast to the top swivel.
This arrangement restricts slewing ability, normally to around 270°.
Conventional cranes are built to a maximum of 1200 tons, restricted by the cost of the slewing
bearing. Higher lifting capacity is not economical and is technically too difficult.
These cargoes impact the ship's construction. The double bottom and the tank top have to be
constructed to take a large number of tons per m2.
Stability requires anti-heeling tanks with high capacity pumps to prevent listing of the ship while
lifting cargo from outside the ship. Usually side tanks are used for this purpose.
To increase stability, side pontoons which can be emptied or filled with water are often attached to
the ship's side. They enlarge the moment of inertia of the waterline.
Cranes are often used in tandem to lift a heavy part. The load control is computerized and both
crane drivers have information displays about both cranes.
Maximum reach and load are derived from the load / moment curve calculated for each individual
crane, and must not to be exceeded.
For heavy cargoes, the ship is provided with special equipments - heavy slings, shackles, spreader
beams, etc. Suitable lashing gear must also be provided. All are load-tested, marked and certified.

5.1 Stabilizing pontoons

Stabilizing pontoons are employed when the heeling tanks fail to reduce the list to an angle of less
than 3°. The pontoons are necessary when the GM gets smaller than 1 meter.
They are rigidly attached to the sides of the ship at a distance of 0.5 meters in such a way that the
ship and pontoon essentially become one.
Heavy-lift ship with hatch covers fitted as portable tanks to enlarge the water-line area and thus
the stability
Figurtekst slut.

Stabilising pontoon for increased waterline area and a faster crane operation
Figurtekst slut.
A pontoon consists of tanks that can be filled and emptied independently.
The pontoon increases the GM of the ship in the picture by 0.4-0.8 meters. It can transfer both
downward and upward forces.
After use, the pontoons are emptied and lifted back on board.

Hoisting diagram for a derrick
Figurtekst slut.
Jib angle 83° 49° 27° 13° 0°
Lift capacity 2751 275 t 203 t 186 t 162 t
Range 5.0 m 18.8 m 25.0 m 27.0 m 27.5 m
5.2 Hoisting diagram
The capacity of a crane depends on the range and maximum load of all parts of the crane, in total as
well as separately.
The right side of the graph shows the importance of the range.

Spreader beam
Figurtekst slut.
Side 208

6 Gantry cranes
Gantry cranes are deck cranes that can travel fore and aft over the cargo. Many different types of
cranes can be mounted on a gantry.
Ships without their own cargo gear often use a simple gantry crane to handle hatches.
Gantry cranes specifically for the handling of cargo can be divided into three main types:
- gantry cranes with a revolving crane on top
- gantry cranes with a moveable trolley with jib
- gantry cranes with a double portal and trolley without a jib.

Multipurpose ship with hatch cradle
Figurtekst slut.
Gantry cranes are always sensitive to trim; 2° often is the maximum.
Cranes that have a trolley are even more sensitive and in this case a list of 2° is the maximum.
If there is a revolving crane on top this maximum may be a bit higher, but it will never be more
than 5°.
The four-point suspension of the hoist gives a gantry crane excellent load control. This ensures
that the load stays in line so that it can be deposited at the right location.
A disadvantage of gantry cranes is their massive weight that shifts the center of gravity to a higher
point. This reduces stability and carrying capacity.
An advantage is that the ship needs very little strengthening; only the guide rails on deck need a
strong foundation.
Gantry crane with a cable trolley and a fixed jib, front and side view
Figurtekst slut.

U-gantry with trolley on a container-ship
Figurtekst slut.
A characteristic of gantry cranes is the large reel on the side for the feeder cable.
The portal uses train wheels to travel over the guide rails.
The pinions mesh into a toothed rack, attached to the longitudinal beam, which is usually the
foundation for the rails.
Clamps on the sets of wheels fit around the rails without actually touching them in order to prevent
the gantry from tipping over. During the voyage, heavy gantry cranes are lifted free from the rails
by hydraulic jacks, in order not to damage the wheels (ball-bearings) and rails by the ship's
6.1 U-gantry
The crane's forces are distributed more equally in gantry cranes with two beams and a trolley
without a jib than in a gantry crane with a fixed or rotating jib; there are more torsional forces in the
This allows the structure to be only slightly heavier than structures with only one beam. However,
the crane cabin has to be placed higher than in the other two types of gantry cranes because the load
is always some distance below it.
This type of gantry crane is best used for moving:
- containers
- parcels of timber or paper
- rolls of thin steel
- other bundled cargo

7 Side loaders
Side loader systems are used for the transshipment of small cargo units like pallets, rolls of paper
and general cargo.
The system comprises one or more doors in the side of the ship, and one or more elevators situated
behind these doors to transport the cargo from the ramp, at quay level, to the holds and vice versa.
The advantages are:
- it has minimum impact on the ship's stability because it adds almost no weight
- a high transfer capacity - the cargo does not have to be transported over unnecessary distances,
minimizing the waiting period
- if the route over the quay to the ship is covered, loading and discharge of delicate cargo (paper
rolls) can continue during rain or snow
Side 209

Side and top view of an elevator system
Figurtekst slut.
Ship with three side doors
Figurtekst slut.

Paper rolls on the elevator. The cargo is transported by the lift to the tween deck or the lower hold
Figurtekst slut.
A fork lift picks up cargo to convey to the holds
Figurtekst slut.
1. Opened side door
2. Cargo (paper rolls)
3. Elevator
4. Quay
5. Tweendeck
The disadvantages are:
- the doors in the side of the ship reduce the longitudinal strength, which has to be compensated for
with thicker plates around the opening in the ship's side
- the elevators reduce the available cargo volume
- the elevators are unsuitable for heavy loads
- there is a maximum size for the cargo to fit the dimensions of the elevators.
Some characteristics of side load systems
- the maximum work load (of the elevator) is 8-20 tons
- the lifting speed of the elevator is 0.33-0.66 m/s (20-40 meters/min.).
Side 210

8 Ramps
8.1 Between ship and shore
Ro-Ro vessels are ships where the cargo is brought on board via wheels and ramps.
Loading and discharging can take place quickly due to the speedy and mainly horizontal transport.
An advantage of this is that the ship is independent from the shore facilities. In general, ramps have
sufficient length to be used both in high and low tides. Opening and closing is done with a winch or
hydraulic cylinders.
Closing and securing is done using hydraulic sequence locking systems.
The most important types of ramps are:
- straight ramps, extending straight from the forward and aft ends or from the side
- quarter ramps, having an angle of 45° relative to the centerline.
- slewing ramps, with an angle between +45° and -45° relative to the centerline.
Driving from the loading deck to the other decks also proceeds via internal ramps. These include:
- fixed ramps
- adjustable ramps
- car decks that also serve as ramps The use of straight ramps means that the ships sometimes
depend on a specially designed, sloped quay, with a landing area for the ramp. If loading and
discharge are done via the fore or the aft ship, the full length of the ship has to fit in the berthing
place. However, this is not necessary if the straight ramp is lowered from the side of the ship.

8.1.1 Straight ramp in the fore ship

A straight ramp forward, is normally combined with a watertight door, behind bow doors or
sometimes a bow visor. The bow doors have a very complicated shape as this is part of the profile
of the ship's bow. The inside of these doors have a flat edge with a rubber seal to make the door
watertight. The bow doors/visor absorb the forces of the waves, and are therefore subject to
stringent requirements for strength, locking system, seals and security. Rules stipulate that the bow
ramp and the watertight door, positioned at the collision bulkhead, must be separated from each
This is normally accomplished in one of the two following ways.
a. With a folding frame bow ramp arrangement the collision bulkhead door can be completely
separated from the rest of the ramp.
This implies that no part connected to the door will extend forward of the location of the collision
bulkhead. A steel frame is positioned forward of the collision bulkhead door and controls the
folding movement through hinge connections with the outer part of the ramp. In the fully open
position the frame, together with the outer section, forms the load carrying structure.
b. A normal bow ramp/door arrangement is fitted behind the bow doors/visor. Behind this ramp, at
the position of the collision bulkhead, another set of doors is fitted.
8.1.2 Straight ramp in the aft ship
The aft ship can suffice with just one watertight door, which, if it is flat, is used as a ramp.

8.1.3 Straight ramp in the side

Straight ramps can also be located on the side and are comparable to the straight ramps in the stern
and to the side loaders discussed earlier.
The ship designer tries to make the side ramp in such a manner that, when closed, it forms a
seamless whole with the ship's shell.
There are also stringent requirements for locking, sealing and safety measures for these types of

8.1.4 Quarter ramps

A quarter ramp makes an angle of approximately 45° with the ship's centerline. This limits the
orientations of the ship in berthing to the side where ramp is located.

1. Straight stern ramp/door

2. Shell door
3. Hoistable ramp
4. Hydraulic power pack
5. Ramp cover
6. Hinged hatch
7. Internal access ramp
8. Hoistable car decks
Side 211
1. Quarter ramp/door
2. Hydraulic power pack
3. Hoistable ramp
4. Shell door
5. Side ramp
6. Mobile deck lifter
7. Car decks
8. Ramp cover

1. Quarter ramp/door
2. Stern door
3. Side ramp
4. Hoistable ramps
5. Hydraulic power pack
6. Ramp cover
7. Bulkhead door
8. Car decks
9. Shell door
Side 212

Ro-ro vessel for trailers, or containers on wheeled supports
Figurtekst slut.
1. Stern ramp, main part
2. Stern ramp, movable part
3. Flaps
4. Quarter ramp
5. Main car deck
6. Movable car deck
7. Walk way
8. Hoisting wires
Side 213

8.2 Inboard ramps

8.2.1 Fixed inboard ramp

The bottom figure on page 211 shows a ship with a fixed ramp that leads to the lower hold.
Economically a disadvantage, as nothing can be stored beneath the ramp.

8.2.2 Hoistable car decks

A hoistable car deck can be used as tweendecks, allowing two layers of cars to be transported one
above the other. When the tweendeck is full, the ramp, complete with cars, is hoisted to the
tweendeck position.
The space below the movable deck can be loaded when the ramp has been hoisted.

8.2.3 Hoistable inboard ramps

Between decks, hoistable ramps are used, which are closed by lifting the ramp, thus closing the
upper deck or the freeboard deck. This has implications for tightness, strength, certification. This
type of ramp can be very long, depending on angle when lowered and height of the cargo space.

8.2.4 Cargo lifts

Trailer lifts provide the only solution to the problem of transferring trailers between deck levels
where longitudinal space is limited. The trailer lifts are available in a wide variety of configurations
to suit individual applications. The layout of the installation can be arranged to enable the lift
platform to act as a watertight hatch cover when secured in its upper level position.

8.2.5 Elevators
Personnel elevators need to be tested and certified yearly by a recognized company.
Cardeck. The sloping ramp with welded anti-slip bars.
Figurtekst slut.
1. Hoistable car deck
2. Hangers with hinges
3. Hoisting wire
4. Ramp
5. Deck

9 Registers and certificates

Every ship with cargo gear has to be provided with a Register of Ship's Cargo Gear and Lifting
Appliances, accompanied by certificates:
- Certificate of Test and Examination of Winches, Derricks, and Accessory Gear
- Certificate of Test and Examination of Cranes or Hoists and their Accessory Gear
- Certificate of Examination and Test of Wire Rope (for each rope!)
Cranes used in the Offshore Industry are subject to more stringent regulations in connection with
use at an Offshore Unit, ship or platform or at sea, and are subject to the unit's movement. These
cranes are called Offshore Cranes.
Repairs to any item of cargo gear have to be done under supervision of Class or flag State, and
generally re-testing and recertification have to be carried out.
Movable or hoistable ramps between decks are in some cases also cargo space.
When a lorry is placed on the ramp before it is hoisted, ramp is cargo gear, and subject to the
normal cargo gear inspections and testing.
In that case the ramp needs to be registered in the cargo gear book.
Wires and locking devices need to be tested by ship's staff regularly, as per ISM requirements.
If this is a ramp between a lower deck and the freeboard deck, the ramp is a watertight closing and
also subject to the loadline regulations, with inspections and tests for weather-tightness.
Side 214
Side 215

10 Load testing equipment

All equipment intended to be used in lifting gear needs to be certified. Regulations for lifting
equipment and testing are international.
This means that material qualities are checked, workmanship is judged and that a load test is
carried out under the supervision of a regulating body. For ships this is normally the Classification
All items of hoisting gear must be covered by a certificate, stating an identification and test.
The load test is carried out to guarantee a Safe Working Load (SWL) or the Working Load Limit
A crane as a complete unit is tested by lifting a weight, and carrying out the normal movements
such as hoisting, lowering, slewing and topping. When power to the crane is interrupted, the brake
has to hold the load.
The test weight is heavier than the WLL.
Individual small items belonging to the crane, such as blocks, hooks, shackles, etc. are normally
tested at a load in accordance with ILO and the Classification Society:
- single sheave blocks at 4 times the SWL
- multi sheave blocks below SWL 25 ton, at 2 × SWL
- multi sheave blocks between SWL 25 and 160 ton at (0.933 × SWL) + 27 ton
- multi sheave blocks over 160 ton, at 1.1 × SWL
- hooks, shackles, chains, rings below SWL 25 ton at 2 × SWL
- hooks, shackles, chains, rings above SWL 25 ton at (1.22 × SWL) + 20 ton.
Test weights can be steel weights with a known mass; the modern variant is a water bag, which
can be filled with water till the required mass is reached.
A certified load cell indicates the weight. Water bags are available up to 35 tons.
Testing the crane using water bags
Figurtekst slut.
Testing with waterbags has a limit. When a heavier test weight is needed, specially constructed
pontoons partly filled with water are used.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 216

Figurtekst slut.
Side 217
Side 218


1 Overview of anchor and mooring gear 218
2 Anchor equipment 219
3 Mooring gear 227
4 Rigging 228
1 Overview of anchor and mooring gear

Anchor windlass on general purpose ship with mooring drum and warping head
Figurtekst slut.
1. Stowage part of the mooring drum
2. Heaving section of the drum (working part)
3. Brake band
4. Gear box
5. Electro-hydraulic motor
6. Warping head
7. Chain in the gypsy wheel
8. Dog clutch
9. Anchor
10. Hawse pipe
11. Spurling pipe
12. Chain locker
13. Chain stopper with security device
14. Guide roller
15. Bollard
16. Guide roller
17. Deck
18. Chain locker hatch
Side 219

Longitudinal cross-section of the fore ship
Figurtekst slut.

2. Anchor equipment
2.1 Purpose
The purpose of the anchor gear (or ground tackle) is to secure a ship to the seabed in shallow water.
Reasons for doing so can be:
- the ship has to wait until a berth becomes available
- to load or discharge cargo when a port does not have a berth along-side for the ship
- to help with manoeuvring
- in emergency, to avoid grounding.
The equipment number can be calculated with the equation:
(∆2/3 + 2HB + 0.1A)
∆ = displacement (weight of the ship) this term indicates the influence of displacement and the
currents on the ship
HB = width and height - determines the influence of frontal winds (m2)
A = the lateral surface of the ship (above the water), which determines the influence of side winds
Rammetekst slut.

2.2 Legal requirements

A certificate issued by Class must be provided for each anchor. It shows the type, materials used,
weight and testing. The same applies to chain cables. A certificate for the anchor and mooring
equipment is only issued after all the requirements of the Classification Society are met.
The original certificate has to be on board. The table below indicates equipment numbers used to
determine the minimum weights and dimensions of anchors, chains, ropes, etc. The equipment
number can be found on the Midship Section drawing.
U2) U3)
550 600 P U16 p 117 3 1740 1305 440 36 32
600 660 Q U17 q 118 3 1920 1440 440 38 34
660 720 R U18 r 119 3 2100 1575 440 40 36
720 780 S U19 s 120 3 2280 1710 467.5 42 36
780 840 T U20 t 121 3 2460 1845 467.5 44 38
840 910 U U21 u 122 3 2640 1980 467.5 46 40
910 980 V U22 v 123 3 2850 2140 495 48 42
980 1060 w U23 w 124 3 3060 2295 495 50 44
1060 1140 X U24 x 125 3 3300 2475 495 50 46
1140 1220 Y U25 y 126 3 3540 2655 522.5 52 46
1220 1300 z U26 z 127 3 3780 2835 522.5 54 48
1300 1390 A† U27 A 128 3 4050 3040 522.5 56 50
1390 1480 B† U28 B 129 3 4320 3240 550 58 50
1480 1570 C† U29 C 130 3 4590 3445 550 60 52
1570 1670 D† U30 D 131 3 4890 3670 550 62 54
Side 220

Hall anchor (conventional anchor)
Figurtekst slut.
1. Anchor shackle
2. Shank
3. Flukes
4. Crown pin
5. Crown plate or head
6. Anchor chain with swivel

2.3 Anchors
Anchors are the final safety resource of a ship. A regular check of the condition of the anchor
itself, the crown, anchor shackle, the chain cable, windlass, brake band and anchor securing
arrangements is the responsibility of the master.
In general, ships have two bow anchors and sometimes a stern anchor. There are two bow anchors
for safety.
Under normal circumstances one anchor is sufficient, but under severe weather conditions or in a
strong current both anchors may be needed.
Also, if one anchor fails, the second anchor is a back-up.
Normally a ship is not allowed to sail from any port when an anchor has been lost.
The Classification Bureau may allow departure under the condition that replacement is carried out
at the earliest opportunity and that the vessel takes additional tug assistance leaving and entering
The stern anchor is used to prevent ships (coastal trade liners, for example) from rotating due to
tidal changes in a river.
Anchors can be:
- Conventional anchors
- HHP anchors (high holding power)
- SHHP anchors (super high holding power)
Common conventional anchor types are Spek, Hall, Union and Baldt.
Spek anchors have the advantage of being fully balanced.
A fully balanced anchor has the following advantages:
- an anchor recess that completely envelops the anchor, can be used
- the shell cannot be easily damaged during heaving when the anchor flukes leave the water
Accepted HHP anchors are AC14, Pool and Danforth. CQR and Plow-type anchors are only used
on small craft. Various copies of accepted types are made all over the world.
The conventional type is still used a lot and serves as a standard for newer types of anchors (see
Conventional anchors are always cast. Newer types, such as Pool, can also consist of plates (or
other components) that are welded together.
If the flukes are hollow, they tend to be more resistant towards bending forces.
The crown plate ensures that the flukes of the anchor penetrate the sea floor. In certain types of
anchors, flukes prevent the anchor from burying itself too deeply in the sea bottom.

The total holding force is supplied by the anchor and the weight of the chain. The dashed lines in
the drawing show that it is not dangerous if a ship floats away for a certain distance (a ship's
length) from the original anchor position.
Figurtekst slut.
The navy uses a specially developed HHP anchor with an open crown plate (bottom plate). The
advantage of this type of anchor is that it digs into the bottom more rapidly.
HHP anchors are allowed to be 25% lighter in weight because their holding force is twice as strong
as that of a conventional anchor.
The SHHP anchors can be 50% lighter in weight because their holding force is even larger, namely
4 times as large as a conventional anchor.
However, this type of anchor is not accepted by Class for normal ships and can only be used on
yachts and special craft.
For Offshore and Dredging special very high holding power anchors are used.
They have to be laid in position by a tugboat, a so-called 'anchor-run boat' and also have to be lifted
out by the same boat using a separate wire attached to the crown of the anchor. These anchors are
certified as Recoverable Mooring Systems.
An example of such an anchor is the Flipper Delta anchor.

HHP-anchor with an open crown plate
Figurtekst slut.
Side 221

Spek anchor, fully balanced
Figurtekst slut.

Spek anchor
Figurtekst slut.
Hall anchor
Figurtekst slut.

Pool TW anchor
Figurtekst slut.
Anchor d'hone
Figurtekst slut.

Danforth anchor
Figurtekst slut.

AC-14 anchor
Figurtekst slut.
Flipper Delta anchor
Figurtekst slut.
Side 222

2.4 Anchor chain

The chain runs from the chain locker, through the spurling pipe, via the gypsy wheel of the
windlass through the hawse pipe, to the anchor.
The anchor chain consists of links with studs to prevent kinks in the chain (stud link chain).
The required strength and length of the chain can be determined with the aid of the equipment
numbers in the previous table. This table also distinguishes two main types of material quality,
namely U2 and U3.
Not included in the table is the quality U4, which is an offshore quality.
The anchor chain is composed of lengths (shackles), each with a length of 15 fathoms (15 × 1,83 =
27.5 meters). The shackles are interconnected by a kenter shackle.
In order to keep track of the outboard chain length, the paying out and heaving in of the anchor can
be monitored by markings near each kenter shackle.
The markings are either white paint and/or wire wound around the studs. The kenter itself is red.

Different ways to connect the anchor to the chain
Figurtekst slut.
1. Anchor shank
2. Anchor / link
3. Swivel
4. Open link
5. Enlarged link
6. Kenter shackle
7. Crown shackle
The paid out chain length can also be monitored electronically by sensors that carefully register
how many times the gypsy wheel rotates.
An advantage of this system is that when the anchor is hove in, the winch automatically slows
down when the anchor chain is almost inside and stops when the anchor is home.
A D-shackle connects the anchor and chain. A swivel is usually fixed on the chain and allows the
anchor to rotate independently. The swivel can also be connected directly to the anchor.

Kenter shackle
Figurtekst slut.
1. Half link
2. Locking pin
3. Stud
81 mm U3 chain quality
Figurtekst slut.
1. 3rd length or 'shackle'
2. 6th length or 'shackle'
3. 7th length or 'shackle'
Side 223
Side 224

2.5 Hawse pipes and anchor pockets

The hawse pipe is a tube that leads from the shell plating to the forecastle deck. A water spray in
the pipe cleans the chain during heaving of the anchor.
During heaving, the flukes of the anchor should be parallel to the ship's shell. A collar protects the
part of the ship's shell around the hawse pipe. In addition, the plating is extra thick in this area.
Anchor pockets or recesses are some-times made in the bow into which the anchors can be
completely retracted.

A water spray installation in the hawse pipe
Figurtekst slut.
Anchors in pocket
Figurtekst slut.
The advantages of the anchor recesses:
- the anchors are protected from direct contact with waves
- a loose anchor cannot bang against the shell (important on passenger liners)
- prevention of fatigue damage to the anchor itself
- mooring wires do not get fouled.

2.6 Chain stopper

The chain stopper absorbs the pull of the chain by diverting it to the hull. The chain stopper's
holding force should be min. 80% of tensile breaking strength of the anchor chain.
Furthermore, the hawse pipe's resistance absorbs 20% and the windlass should have a holding force
of 45% of the minimum break load.
In most types of chain stoppers, the chain runs over a roller, sometimes equipped with a tensioner.
The actual stopper is usually a heavy bar laid over the horizontal link and secured with a strong pin.
The securing consists of a hook onto which both eyes of a steel wire are attached. This wire is put
through a link of the chain and tensioned. This fixes the anchor in the recess thereby preventing
banging of the anchor against the shell.
Cable stoppers are to be divided into anchor securings for when the vessel is at sea and riding at
When the vessel is at sea, the anchor is held by the brake band and a securing wire or preferably a
high tensile chain, through the chain cable and then attached to a strong point on the fo'c'sle deck.
The windlass should not be engaged. When riding at anchor the chain force on big ships is held by
a transverse, hingeable bar, a strong back, incorporated in the guide roller above the hawse pipe,
secured on top of a horizontal link of the anchor chain, so that a vertical link cannot pass. The chain
forces are then transferred to the ship's structure. A wire is insufficiently strong and vulnerable to
chafing especially when not lashed through a link of the chain under a stud.

Chain stopper with tensioner
Figurtekst slut.

Chain stopper
Figurtekst slut.
1. Tensioner
2. Cable stopper
3. Chain
4. Guard

Winches on the forecastle of a car ferry
Figurtekst slut.

The main shaft rotates, the warping drum is the only part that also rotates. The gypsy wheel and
both drums are disconnected.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 225

2.7 Winches
Anchor winches are used to heave in and pay out the anchors and anchor chains in a controlled way.
The same winch can be used to operate a mooring drum.
A clutch is used to connect / disconnect the gypsy wheel or the mooring drum to the main shaft.
The anchor can be hove in if the gypsy wheel is coupled to the main shaft.
Anchor winches normally are provided with a mooring drum via a separate clutch.
The winch turns either the gypsy or the mooring drum, or both. The main shaft in most cases is
horizontal, however, in rare cases it can be vertical, like a capstan.
The winches can be powered by:
- electricity
- An electric motor rotates a cogwheel. The advantage of using an electric motor is that the noise is
limited. Especially important on passenger liners.
- hydraulic systems - The cogwheels are driven by a hydraulic motor, which is connected to a
hydraulic pump system located below the deck. Advantages of this system are that there is no risk
of (electrical) sparks and furthermore, the system is gearless.
- electric hydraulic. The set of pumps is incorporated in the winch instead of below deck.
This means that there is no need for piping systems for the hydraulic oil.
- steam.
1. Main shaft
2. Gear box
3. Electric motor
4. Warping drum
5. Drum (storage part)
6. Drum (working part)
7. Gypsy wheel
8. Control lever for the band brake
9. Guide roller
10. Chain stopper (Strong back)
11. Counter weight
12. Stud link chain
13. Endlink for attachment for swivel and anchor
14. Main gear protection casing
Claw clutch out and in
Figurtekst slut.
1. Bearing
2. Sliding clutch
3. Engaged clutch
Side 226

2.8 Chain locker

The anchor chain enters the chain locker via the spurling pipe. Chain lockers are high and narrow,
making them self-stowing. This means that the stacked chain cannot fall over in bad weather.
The end of the chain, the bitter end, is secured to an end connection in the chain locker, with a
release outside the locker.
On very large ships, the connection is often a weak link, which breaks if the chain runs out
This way the chain locker and fo'c'sle deck will not be damaged, because a heavy chain running out
cannot be stopped abruptly.
A grating (plate with holes) in the bottom of the chain locker makes sure that water, rust and mud
can fall to a space below the chain locker. This has a separate manhole entrance for cleaning
purposes. A bilge pump drains the water.
Possible types of chain release (bitter-end connection):
- remove the pin from the last link of the chain with a hammer.
The pin is located either below deck in or near the chain locker or on deck, next to the windlass.
- a weak link in the bitter end connection ensures that the chain breaks loose when the stress
becomes too high.
- a hand wheel may be used to release or attach the chain.
A rope should never be left on the warping drum because the force exerted by the ship may well
exceed the pulling force of the warping drum.
The warping drum can absorb equal amounts of pulling force and brake force; the brake force of
the drums, however, is three times as much as the pulling force due to the band brake.
Rammetekst slut.
Bitter end connection at chain locker access hatch
Figurtekst slut.

Windlass with anchor securing, guide roller and bitter end connections
Figurtekst slut.
Anchor windlass, with on the same shaft as the gipsy a mooring drum and warping head
Figurtekst slut.
1. Working part
2. Storage part
3. Warping head

3 Mooring gear
A ship's mooring system is designed to moor a ship with a standard lay-out on a standard jetty, with
bollards at regular distances.
A ship is therefore equipped with winches, wires or ropes on drums (no hands) and with additional
ropes, which can be paid out by hand and tightened using the warping heads.
Tankers have, through an international standard system of oil companies, a standardized mooring
Side 227

3.1 Winches

3.1.1 Drum
A winch drum can be made in two ways - a single drum or a drum in two parts for tensioning and
stowage. If the drum has one part, it serves both as stowage drum and as heaving and slacking drum.
These types of drums are only suitable for steel wire and certain synthetics. If force is applied to a
synthetic hawser, it may slip through the layers of rope below.
If this happens, the rope fouls. Sorting the rope out again takes a lot of time. If the drum consists of
two parts, then the small part is the working drum and the other part is the stowage part. The
tension in a rope may only be applied on the working drum.
Suppose that the diametre of the drum is 30 cm, and 5 turns fit next to each other in two layers,
then the pulling drum can pull in 10 metres of rope.
If the MBL (minimum break load) of the ropes is 100%, then the holding capacity of the drum is
80%, and the pulling force is approximately 1/3 of this. This rule applies to all the drums

3.1.2 Warping Head

The warping head is used:
- to heave in extra ropes, set them up and fasten them on the bollards
- to move the ship along the quay over short distances. If the warping drum is used, the gypsy and
the reels must not be coupled to the main shaft which would engage the anchor cable.

3.1.3 Self tensioning winches

Self tensioning winches can be adjusted to maintain a certain holding force. If this value is
exceeded, then the winch automatically adjusts the length of wire to the new force (too much
holding force: slacking; too little holding force: heaving). This system is frequently used by ships
that load and discharge quickly or if there is a large tidal range in the port.
Foredeck of a multipurpose ship
Figurtekst slut.
1. Centre lead
2. Bollards
3. Warping head
4. Guide roller (fairlead)
5. Control handle for the band brake
6. Stowage reel
7. Hawse hole
8. Cable stopper

3.1.4 Capstans
The capstan consists of a vertical warping drum with a vertical drive shaft that is driven either
electrically, hydraulically or electrohydraulically.
The capstan is often placed aft and, if the ship is very long, at the sides. If the capstan is combined
with a gypsy it can be used to control the anchor i.e. a vertical anchor windlass.
1. Capstan
2. Roller fairlead
Side 228

3.2 Mooring gear auxiliaries

One or more winches can be placed fore and aft, depending on the size of the ship and the
preference of the owner.
The warping drum, bollard and fairlead are preferably positioned in a straight line.

3.2.1 Leads
A rope is guided from the shore via a Panama lead, through the bulwark to a bollard or winch.
The lead must be able to withstand large forces because the direction of the rope changes inside the
lead. The lead must be curved to prevent wear of the rope.
For the non-moving types like Panama lead, the permitted force is 1/5 of the maximum static force
that this part is able to sustain.

(Panama) lead
Figurtekst slut.

3.2.2 Roller fairleads

Roller fairleads can be made of vertical and horizontal rollers.
Their function is the same as the panama lead. However, the roller fairlead causes less wear to the

Lead and roller fairleads
Figurtekst slut.
3.2.2 Rollers
Rollers on deck serve to change the direction of the ropes. Both the roller fairleads and the roller
guides are able to withstand a maximum of 32 tons of pulling force depending on the ship's size.

1. Stopper eye
2. Nose
3. Bollard
4. Guide roller

3.2.3 Bitts
Bitts transfer the mooring forces to the ship's hull. The outside of the bitts may have a nose, which
prevents the first few turns of the rope from slipping upwards. Above or below this, there is an eye
to which the rope stopper can be attached.
The stopper absorbs the forces in the rope temporarily so that the rope can be taken off the warping
drum and secured on the bitts.
The double bitts is provided with two ridges to prevent the rope from lifting.

3.3 Emergency towing system for tankers

In recent years a number of environmental disasters involving tankers has shown how difficult it is
to connect to a ship in distress.
The IMO demands that tankers with a carrying capacity of more than 20,000 tons have an
emergency towing connection forward and aft.
Forward this is a stopper, which holds a standard chain when pulled through from outside to inside
(the same stopper the tanker uses when mooring on a single buoy).
Aft, it has to be a prepared system that can be deployed by one man.
This means a rope or wire in the water with a messenger buoy, ready to be picked up and secured
by a tugboat.
Buoy of an emergency towing system
Figurtekst slut.

4. Rigging
4.1 Cables and ropes
Cables are used on ships:
a. to moor the ship and maintain its position at a jetty and for towing, mostly in combination with a
b. for the cargo gear
c. in fishing and dredging
The cables mentioned in a. are usually made of rope and called hawsers or lines. The cables used in
b. and c. generally are steel cables.
The latter are described in more detail in the section "description of common cables".
Rope can be made from either natural or synthetic fibres. Nowadays, with a few exceptions, most
ropes are made from synthetic fibres.
The synthetic fibres are manufactured from mineral oil products that have undergone a chemical
The rotation of the threads is opposite to the strands, preventing the rope from unlaying. On the
next page some (of the many) types of ropes are categorized according to the way they have been
laid (plaited).
Some rope types have a sleeve.
The purpose of the sleeve is to keep the strands in the core together.
This has the advantage that the strands in the core can be arranged in a parallel fashion, giving the
maximum tensile strength. The mantle itself rarely contributes to the tensile strength.
The threads in the core need not be resistant to wear as the mantle provides wear resistance.
Therefore it is important that the wear resistance of the sleeve (usually polyester) is higher than the
wear resistance of the core. A sleeve keeps the cable round and compact, which reduces sensitivity
to wear and gives better spooling property.
Some core types that can be present in sleeved cables:
- braided
- stranded
- parallel strands
- parallel threads
Side 229

1. Bow lines
2. Spring lines
table of equipment links the so-called equipment number to the composition, sizes and quality of
anchors, chains I mooring ropes on ocean-going vessels. The equipment number is normally
calculated in the design stage of the sel. This table is accepted and used by all main classification
® (mm) (mm) (kN)
OR LENG (m) (m) (kN)
40-910 2640 1980 467,5 46 40 190 520 4 170 200
10-980 2850 2140 495 48 4? 190 560 4 170 215
80- 3060 2295 495 50 44 200 600 4 180 230
60- 3300 2475 495 50 46 200 645 4 180 250
40- 3540 2655 522,5 52 46 200 690 4 180 270
20- 3780 2835 522,5 54 48 200 740 4 180 285
00- 4050 3040 522,5 56 50 200 785 4 180 305
90- 4320 3240 550 58 50 200 835 4 180 325
80- 4590 3445 550 60 52 220 890 5 190 325
70- 4890 3670 550 6? 54 220 940 5 190 335
70- 5250 3940 577,5 64 56 220 1025 5 190 350
The characteristics that are important when using or buying rope:
- MBF (Minimum Break Force) - minimum force in kN at which load the rope should not break
- elasticity
- density - the larger the density, the heavier the rope.
It is important to know whether the density is smaller or larger than 1.000 t/m3, in other words:
does the rope sink or float.
- UV-resistance. After several years, sunlight can degrade a rope.
- wear resistance
- construction - the number of strands and the way that the rope is plaited; presence of a mantle
- water absorption - expressed as a percentage of the rope's weight
- backlash or snapback - indicates if, in case of breaking, the rope falls "dead" on the deck or snaps
back. Rubber has a large backlash.
- creep limit - lengthening of the cable under constant tension
- chemical durability - indicates how well the rope can resist chemicals knot or splice
- in a cable this can reduce the strength by as much as 50%
- TCLL value (thousand cycle load level) - the cyclic load level as a percentage and as an absolute
value of the maximum load under wet conditions.
This is the load at which a cable will break when it has undergone the load 1000 times.
For example, if the TCLL value of a 100 ton/f cable is 50%, or 50 ton/f, then the cable will break if
subjected to a 50 ton/f load 1000 times.
- 3-strand rope
Figurtekst slut.

- Parallel fibre core with mantle
Figurtekst slut.

- 4 × 2-strand braided rope
Figurtekst slut.

- Braided rope
Figurtekst slut.
The drawing above shows how a rope can be composed
Figurtekst slut.
1. Fiber
2. Thread
3. Rope yarn
4. Strand
5. 3-Strand rope
Side 230

4.2 Description of common cables

a. High-grade cables
b. Polyamide
c. Polyester
d. Polyolefines
e. Steel wire ropes

a. High-grade cables
Aramide and High Module Poly-Ethylene (HMPE) are high-grade cables. Kevlar, Twaron and
Technora are aramide brand names and Dyneema and Spectra are HMPE-brands.
The difference between the two types is that aramide has a lower (thus better) creep, but aramide
sinks whereas HMPE floats. Highgrade cables are relatively new products and strength wise they
are comparable to steel cable of the same diameter.
However, the price is 5 -10 times higher than steel cables.
Advantages over steel cables are:
- light weight
- easy to handle
- nonconductive
- small backlash
- low elasticity

b. Polyamide
Polyamide is better known as nylon. Polyamide ropes sink (density > 1,000 kg/m3) and absorb
water after being in contact with water a few days.
The absorption of water adds 4% to the rope's weight. This can reduce the MBF by 20%.
Polyamides have a large elasticity. A consequence of this is the backlash when parting. The rope
sweeps over the deck and endangers the people present.

c. Polyester
Polyesters are very resistant to wear and very durable, both in wet and dry conditions. Its
mechanical characteristics resemble nylon, except that it is more resistant to wear.
Furthermore, polyester is more expensive.
The density of nylon (1.14) is lower than of polyester (1.38) and the energy absorbing capacity of
nylon is higher, making it more suitable to absorb large force variations.
For this reason, nylon is often used as a shock absorber, to protect steel cables from large shock
1. Working deck
2. Towing wire
3. Retractable towing pins (Karmoy pins)
4. Stretcher
5. Towing bridle
6. Deck crane
7. Window wiper

This graph shows the TCLL-vaiues for a number of rope types
Figurtekst slut.

d. Polyolefines
There are two types of polyolefine rope, namely "High Performance Ropes" and "Standard Ropes".
The difference between these two lies not just in the MBF, but also in qualities like UV-sensitivity
and wear resistance, which increase the durability of the rope. High performance ropes can also be
found with a mantle.
Polypropylene, polyethylene and mixtures of these compounds are polyolefines. Many high
performance ropes are also polyolefines.
The advantages of polypropylene are:
- it floats
- it is relatively cheap
The disadvantages are:
- it is not very resistant to wear
- it has a low TCLL-value
- it has a short lifespan

All relying on one bollard
Figurtekst slut.
Side 231
6X36WS + IWRC 1960 N/MM2

QUALITY • galvanised TYPE OF LAY • regular lay

TENSILE • 1960 N/mM2 DIRECTION OF • right hand
TOTAL NUMBER • 265 ON REQUEST • lang lay
TYPE OF CORE • IWRC • ungalvanised
NUMBER OF • 84 • dry
NUMBER OF •6 • left hand lay
Standard wire rope with steel core, general purpose use

QUALITY • galvanised TYPE OF LAY • regular lay

TENSILE • 1770 N/mm DIRECTION OF • right hand lay
TOTAL NUMBER • 133 ON REQUEST • ungalvanised
TYPE OF CORE • wsc • greased
NUMBER OF • 36 • left hand Lay
Standard wire rope, mainly used in small diameters on winches
6X19 + FC

QUALITY • galvanised TYPE OF LAY • regular lay

TENSILE • 1770 N/mm DIRECTION OF • right hand lay
TOTAL NUMBER • 114 ON REQUEST • ungalvanised
TYPE OF CORE • fibre • greased
NUMBER OF • 72 • left hand lay
Wire rope with fiber core

OUALITY • galvanised TYPE OF LAY • regular lay

TENSILE • 1960 N/mm DIRECTION OF • right hand lay
TOTAL NUMBER • 133 ON REQUEST • lang lay
TYPE OF CORE • WSC • ungalvanised
NUMBER OF • 72 • dry
NUMBER OF • 12 • left hand lay
Rotation resistant wire, used as hoisting rope

Nominal Diameter MBF

(mm) (kN)
8 44,7
9 51,0
10 69,8
11 84,4
12 100,0
Nominal Diameter MBF
(mm) (kN)
8 37,6
10 58,7
12 84,6
14 115

Nominal Diameter MBF

(mm) (kN)
8 34,8
10 54,4
12 78,3

Nominal Diameter MBF

(mm) (kN)
8 41,1
10 64,3
12 92,6
14 126
Side 232
Polymix (polyprop-polyestermix)


UV-RESISTANCE • good 165°C/265°C
ABRASION • very good COLOUR • white
CHEMICAL • good MARKER YARN • yellow

SPECIFIC 1,38 CONSTRUCTION • parallel cores

UV-RESISTANCE excellent with jacket
ABRASION excellent TCLL VALUE • 70%
CHEMICAL good COLOUR • white
ELONGATION see graph MARKER YARN • orange
High strength Copolymer (HSCP)

SPECIFIC • 0,93 CONSTRUCTION • 8-strand plaited

UV-RESISTANCE • very good TCLL VALUE • 70,7%
ABRASION • very good COLOUR • yellow
MELTING POINT • approx. 140°C

e. Steel wire ropes

Steel cables or wire ropes have advantages and disadvantages. They are strong, cheap, have little
elongation under tension, have a high wear resistance, but they are heavy, and they rust.
They are used where the circumstances allow or demand it. For instance for:
- hoisting and luffing wires in cranes
- mooring wires for tankers and bulk carriers
- anchor wires in dredging and off-shore
- towing wires for fishing and tug-boats.
Fire does not immediately destroy them.
Steel wires are available in numerous constructions, depending on the requirements.
There are basically two steel tensile strength grades: 1770 N/mm2 and 1960 N/mm2.
Cables are made of a number of strands, turned in a long spiral around a core.
The strands consist of a number of wires that are usually galvanized.
For flexible wire, the core is rope, and when flexibility is not necessary, the core is steel. A steel
core makes a stronger wire. Rope core when oiled, lubricates the wire, but allows deformation
under stress and bending. Steel wires need maintenance. Regular greasing is essential.
The strength is maximimum when different sizes of wires are used in one strand, so that the space
between the wires is optimally filled.
Like ordinary rope, there are right hand and left hand laid cables.
Analogous to synthetic rope, the direction of rotation of strands and wires is mostly opposite, called
"ordinary lay".
Other constructions are Crosslay, Lang's Lay, Non-Rotating, etc. When wires and strands have
the same direction of rotation, it is possibile they will open. These types of wires are only to be
used where both ends are fixed, such as mast stays and bridge suspensions. Non-Rotating cables are
always crosslay.
During the fabrication process the wires in the strands can be preformed into the helical form for
the finished state to reduce internal stresses in the rope. This prevents unravelling, and a broken
wire does not stick out. The construction of steel wire is given in a formula.
For example:
Galvanised - Diam. 36 mm, 6 × 36 WS + IWRC.
It means 36 mm diameter, 6 strands with 36 galvanised wires each, Warrington Seal (WS), and an
Independent Wire Rope Core (IRWC).
Warrington seal is a method of constructing a wire rope from wires of different diameters, creating
a more solid section. Steel wire is generally galvanized, but untreated steel wires also exists, and
for special purposes stainless steel is used.
A Talurit clamp is an aluminuim bush, which is pressed under high pressure at the position where
splice would be normally, replaing the timeconsuming splicing. The pressing makes the origin oval
shaped bush into a cylindrical clamp, with the strength of the replaced splice.
A Talurit clamp must not be bent.
Rammetekst slut.

4.3 Various parts

Various rigging parts are explained these pages:
- end connections
- safety hook
- thimbles
- shackles
- turnbuckles or bottle screws
- steel wire clamps
- slings

Life boat hoisted with 19×7 steel wires (non spinning)
Figurtekst slut.
An eye is spliced into a rope
Figurtekst slut.
Side 233

End links
Figurtekst slut.
1. Open socket with rolled connection
2. Closed spelter socket
3. Rolled eye terminal
4. Mechanically spliced eye
5. Hand spliced eye with thimble
6. Thimbled Flemish eye, swaged.
7. Wedge socket (not allowed for hoisting).
- End connections
End connections are needed to connect a wire to something else. Often shackles are used for the
- Safety hook
A safety hook is shown in the figure below. It prevents the load from falling off the hook, even if
the load is resting. The hook can only be opened by pressing the safety pin.

Safety hook
Figurtekst slut.
1. Brand or type marking
2. Chain size (chain 7/8 of an inch)
3. Class, grade 8 (highgrade steel)
4. Safety pin
5. Spring
- Thimbles
A thimble is a ring inside a spliced eye to enlarge the radius of the wire in a splice, e.g. for the pin
of a shackle, thus protecting the wire and is usually made of galvanized steel.
Its function is to protect the eye of a cable from wear and damage.

Figurtekst slut.
- Shackles
Shackles can be divided into bow (anchor) shackles and straight or Deeshackles. The light types
can be closed with a screw pin, the heavy types with a pin and nut. These can come with or without
a split pin.
Their general purpose is to connect certain parts to each other or to the ship. The Safe Working
Load (SWL) can vary from 0.5 tons up to 1000 tons and more.

High tensile steel shackles.
To obtain this high strength, after forging the shackles are subjected to heat treatment. (Quenched
and Tempered)
Figurtekst slut.
1. Bow shackle with slit pin
2. Bow shackle with screw pin
3. D-shackle with nut and split pin
4. D-shackle with screw pin
- Turnbuckles
Turnbuckles are used to connect and tension steel wires or lashing bars. The bottle screw consists
of two screws, one with a left screw thread and the other with a right screw thread.
These are connected by a house.

1. Jaw
2. Body
3. Thread - one left, one right handed
4. Eye
Side 234

This is the correct way of applying the wire clamps to a cable (all U-bolts on the non-pulling part
of the cable)
Figurtekst slut.
- Steel wire clamps
A steel wire clamp can be used to quickly make an eye in a cable. The U-bolt of the clamps should
be attached to the part of the cable that is free from pulling forces.
Steel wire clamps may not be used for lifting purposes, except with for guys and keg sockets to
make sure that the cable does not slip.
(Compulsory) wire clamp on a keg socket
Figurtekst slut.
- Slings
Slings are often used when lifting objects. A sling is a wire with an eye spliced or clamped at each
end. The eye can be long or short, depending on the purpose.
When the item to be lifted has lugs welded on it, a sling with Talurits and shackles can be used. In
other cases long eyes are more versatile.
These eyes can be Talurit clamped, but a Flemish eye, with a swaged clamp is better.
A Flemish eye is a very simple but very strong splice.
From a wire with an even number of strands, the strands has separated over twice the length of the
Over that length the wire is split into two sets of strands.
Half the strands are bent in one direction, the other half in the other direction, combining in
opposite directions, forming an eye.
The strands are wound into each other, forming a wire.
A conical steel bush is compressed onto the wires where they come together, preventing the wire
ends from jumping loose.
The strongest sling is the grommet. A wire is turned around a circular rod, about six times the
circumference forming a cable, after which the rod is pulled out, and the wires, acting as strands,
remain, turned around themselves. The ends are tucked inside the rope.
A grommet is very flexible and strong. The heaviest grommets, for offshore lifts, reach a
calculated MBL of 7500 tons.
Testing is not possible, but the MBL of the individual wires is a known figure, found from a test
Cable-laid slings are very heavy cables, constructed from steel cables with varying diameters, to
fill the available diameter as solidly as possible. Eyes are spliced at each end. The rope diameter
can go as high as 350 mm. The calculated MBL can go as high as 4000 tons.
Fabric Slings
Apart from the fabric slings, slings are made of very long strands of dyneema or similar material
laid into an endless loop, similar to a steel wire grommer, and protected by a canvas type cloth.
These slings are very light and flexible. They are produced with a high MBL, up to 2000 tons at
present, which figure is expected to increase fast.

Cable-laid sling
Figurtekst slut.
Lower block with hook, SWL 6000 tons
Figurtekst slut.
Side 235

4.4 Forces and stresses

- Some definitions
Safe Working Load (SWL) or Working Load Limit (WLL) is the maximum acceptable load on
an item (shackle, hook, wire, derrick, crane, etc.).
Minimum Breaking Load (MBL) is the guaranteed minimum load at which an item, when tested to
destruction, will fail.
So, on average, most items will fail at a higher load.

The figure shows the forces in a wire when a weight of 1000 N is lifted, and how the force in a rope
or wire increases as a function of the angle between the components. When that angle exceeds 90°
the increase is excessive.
Between 120° and 150° the forces run up to 1950 N. The angle is therefore not allowed to exceed
Figurtekst slut.
The load-stretch diagram shows that the tested chain actually failed at a higher load than the MBL.
The diagram also shows that proof loading by the manufacturer is done 2.5 times the safe working
For a recertification test, the proof load will be 2 times the SWL.
Figures normally used for the ratio WLL/MBL (or SWL/MBL) are:
- chains: 1 : 4
- steel wires / shackles 1 : 5
- ropes: 1 : 6 or 1 : 7

Load/stretch diagram of a grade 8 chain
Figurtekst slut.
For heavy or large loads spreaders are used.
Figurtekst slut.

Heavy cargo gear blocks with rams horns (400 tons SWL)
Figurtekst slut.
Side 236

Figurtekst slut.
Side 237
Side 238

1 Propulsion 238
2 Valves 253
3 Bilge line arrangement 255
4 The ballast arrangement 256
5 Fire-fighting arrangement 259
1. Propulsion
Normally propellers are used for ship propulsion (instead of thrusters, paddlewheels or jets) and in
the case of cargo ships where money is more important than manoeuvrebility and high speed,
mostly by only one. The propeller is driven by one or two engines via the propeller shaft and its
blades can be fixed or adjustable. Fixed propellers, in combination with a reversible engine or a
reversing gearbox, are found in coasters and large ships with low speed engines.
Other ships have adjustable propellers. This is called 'controllable pitch propeller' or CPP.
With a controllable pitch propeller, the pitch of the blades is hydraulically adjusted to control the
speed (foreward and backward) of the ship.
The engine runs at constant speed and a shaft generator can be connected to a shaft from the engine.
With fixed propellers the engine speed alters continuously and thus generating a constant voltage
(shaft generator) is not possible.

1.01 Engine room

The various components for propulsion, ship's operations and power generation are located in the
engine room. The location of the engine room depends on where space is needed for cargo.
Many cargo ships have the engine room aft to limit the length of the propeller shaft.
On passenger ships, roros, dredgers, offshore vessels, the engine room is often spread over the
length of the ship to limit the height, or because the amount of machinery is much larger then on
normal cargoships.
Air conditioning machinery for the accomodation is fitted in a separate room in or close to the
accomodation. Many ships have one or more bow thrusters and on some passenger ships for
example stern thrusters are installed.
Tankers and dredgers have separate pumprooms.
Most ships also have hydraulic units for cranes, hatchcovers, ramps and valves.

1. Rudder
2. CPP-Controllable Pitch Propeller
3. Tail shaft
4. Fixed pitch propeller
5. Shaft coupling
6. Gearbox
7. Propulsion diesel engine
8. Turbo charger
9. Electronic manoeuvring panel
10. Stern tube
11. Shaft generator
12. Exhaust lines (aux. eng)
13. Exhaust gas economiser
14. NOx catalizer
15. Dry sulphur scrubber
16. Silencer main engine
17. Silincers auxilary engines
18. Inlet ventilation grating
Side 239

LNG tanker
Figurtekst slut.
With the help of computers, each system in the engine room is displayed in 3-D drawings. In the
past huge and complicated mock-ups were built to see if there was sufficient room for equipment.
With the computer model, an imaginary walk can be taken through the model, to test whether the
accessibility of valves, manual handling gear, etc. is adequate.
Rammetekst slut.
The pipelines each have their own color.
Ballast water - blue
Bilge piping - yellow
Cooling water (salt) - red
Fire-fighting (salt) - red
Lubricating oil - brown
Fuel - purple
Thermal oil - rose
Rammetekst slut.

Exploded view of a container feeder engineroom
Figurtekst slut.
Side 240

1. Main engines (4x)

2. Auxiliary diesel generators
3. Shaft generator (2x)
4. Gearbox
5. Main exhaust lines
6. Auxiliary exhaust lines
7. Silencer
8. Exhaust gas boilers / economisers
9. Shafting
10. Tail shaft
11. CPP
12. Rudder (2x)
13. Intermediate shaft bearing
14. Mooring winch
15. Stern thruster
16. Stabilizer
Side 241
1. Crank shaft with counterweight
2. Main crank shaft bearing
3. Connecting rod
4. Piston
5. Piston ring
6. Cylinder
7. Exhaust valve
8. Fuel injector
9. Cilinder cover
10. Protection cover
All enginerooms contain at least:
- main engine(s) (propulsion),
- auxilliary engines (power generation),
- cooling water system,
- lubricating oil system,
- fuel system,
- compressed air system (starting-, control and working air)
- drinking water system,
- sewage system, bilge system, ballast system,
- boiler (heating of tanks, accomodation etc.),
- refrigerating system,
- firefighting system,
- storage tanks for lubricating oil, hydraulic oil, fuel oil, thermal oil,
- spare parts store,
- control room
- workshop.
Rammetekst slut.

1.02 Engine types

Ship's diesel engines can be two-stroke or four-stroke.
Two-stroke means that it takes two movements of the piston, down and up, to complete one
combustion process.
With four-stroke engines, it takes four strokes.
Two-stroke engine:
1. Piston moves down. Air is taken in at the bottom of the cylinder.
2. Piston moves up. Air is compressed by the piston. Simultaneously, exhaust gasses are forced out
through a valve(s) at the top of the cylinder. Fuel is injected and combustion takes place.
Four-stroke engine:
1. Piston moves down. Air is taken in through valves at the top of the cylinder.
2. Piston moves up. Air is compressed. Fuel is injected and combustion takes place.
3. Piston moves down.
4. Piston moves up. Exhaust gasses are forced out of the cylinder through valves at the top.
RPM: Revolutions Per Minute
Rammetekst slut.
Two stroke engines are always in-line engines.
Four stroke engines can be in-line engines or V-engines.
In-line engine: the cylinders are placed in-line with each other.
V-engine: the cylinders are placed alternately at an angle of 45° to 90° from the vertical on
opposite sides.
A 12-cylinder V-engine is the length of a 6-cylinder engine.
A 12-cylinder V-engine is cheaper than two 6-cylinder in-line engines.
In-line engines have a maximum of 12 cylinders, V-engines up to 20.
Ship's engines are characterised by their speed:
High-speed four-stroke engines -
RPMs above 960.
Medium-speed four-stroke engines -
RPMs ranging from 240-960
Low-speed two-stroke engines -
RPMs below 240.
The high-speed and medium-speed engines drive the propeller through a reduction gear box.
The low-speed engine is directly coupled to the propeller.
Side 242

1. Crankshaft with counter weights

2. Connecting rod
3. Piston
4. Cylinder liner
5. Fire ring with jet cooling
6. Cylinder head
7. Individual cylinder jacket
8. Cylinder crankcase
9. Crankshaft-bearing cover
10. Lateral crankshaft-bearing bolt
11. Crankshaft-bearing bolt
12. Cylinder-head bolt
13. Camshaft fuel injection
14. Fuel pump
15. Fuel injection pipe
16. Push rod
17. Camshaft valve control
18. Rocker arm
19. Exhaust valve with propeller
20. Inlet valve
21. Starting valve
22. Injection nozzle
23. Charging air pipe
24. Exhaust gas pipe
25. Cooling water pipes
26. Charging air cooler
27. Exhaust gas turbocharger
28. Adjusting device for injection timing
29. Adjusting device for valve timing
30. Governor actuator
Side 243

Common rail fuel injection

1. High pressure fuel accumulator
2. High pressure fuel pump, driven by camshaft
3. High pressure fuel line
4. Solenoid fuel valve
5. Injector
6. Low pressure fuel supply line
Side 244

Low-speed crosshead engine for bulk carrier or tanker
Figurtekst slut.
Side 245

Low-speed crosshead engine
Figurtekst slut.
1. Cylinder
2. Piston
3. Exhaust valve
4. Crosshead bearing
5. Crankpin bearing
6. Crankshaft
7. Torsional vibration damper
8. Crankcase door
9. Crankcase bedplate
10. Exhaust gas receiver
11. Piston rod
12. Connecting rod
13. Turning gear
14. Cylinder cover
15. Scavenge air receiver
16. Turbo-charger
17. Lub oil sump
18. Foundation bolt
19. Fuel pump
20. Camshaft
21. A-frame
22. Cooling water (air cooler)
23. Lub. oil lines
Side 246

Fuel system
Figurtekst slut.
HFO needs to be heated to a minimum of 120° C before it can be injected. MDO does not need to
be heated. A viscosity control unit is installed before the engine in combination with an HFO-heater.
Ships that have their engines running on heavy fuel oil require exhaust gas boilers and auxiliary
boilers that heat thermal oil or produce steam. Heating by hot water or electric heaters is usually not
Usually heavy fuel is used for medium-speed and low-speed engines, and diesel oil (or marine gas
oil, MGO) for high-speed engines.
Fuel is supplied by bunker barge or truck and is stored in bunker tanks. From the tanks it is pumped
to the settling tank(s) in the engine room, where water and dirt can sink down (settle). From this
tank the oil is pumped through separators (purifiers) to the day tank (clean oil tank). The water and
dirt, separated from the fuel oil, end up in the sludge tank.
Sludge can be discharged ashore or burnt in an incinerator.

1.03 Fuel
The type of engine to be installed depends also on the type of fuel which is convenient to the owner.
Generally fuel can be divided into two types:
- heavy fuel oil (HFO)
- marine diesel oil (MDO).
Heavy fuel oil has a much higher viscosity (60-380 centistokes) than diesel oil (2-14 centistokes),
at the same temperature (50°C), and produces a lot more sludge and dirtier exhaust gasses, but it is
much cheaper than diesel oil.
Diesel oil requires separation in a separator to eliminate water and dirt particles, but heavy fuel oil
requires not only separation, but heating as well. Heavy fuel oil has to be heated to 40° C (in the
bunker tanks) before it can be pumped, whereas diesel oil is still liquid at zero degrees.

Purifier room
Figurtekst slut.
Side 247
The clean oil from the day tank is pumped by a feed pump (low pres-sure) and a circulating pump
to the fuel pumps (high pressure) on the engine.
Each cylinder has its own fuel pump which pumps the fuel to its injector. Surplus fuel circulates via
the mixing tank and circulating pump back to the settling tank.
Modern engines feed fuel to the cylinders via a common rail fuel system. Instead of one fuel pump
per cylinder, producing a high pressure peak in a fuel line to an injector, accumulators are fitted,
which are under a constant high pressure and fuel is supplied to the injectors through solenoid
valves. The quantity and timing of the injection can be adjusted when the engine is running,
resulting in lower fuel consumption.

Fuel manifold on a large container ship
Figurtekst slut.
Cooling water pumps
Figurtekst slut.

1.04 Cooling
All diesel engines produce heat and need cooling.
This can be achieved by air cooling, but more commonly is liquid (water) cooling. This can be
done directly where the outboard cooling water is pumped in via a filter and passes round the
engine and then pumped overboard. This is used only in very small ships and only when the ship is
in fresh water.
Larger ships use a closed-circuitcooling system with water containing inhibitors to protect the
diesel engine against corrosion.
The cooling liquid is cooled in a heat exchanger outside the diesel engine. The cooling medium is
seawater which passes through a filter and heat exchanger, before being pumped overboard. A
separate seawater pump is required.
In small ships the heat exchanger can be installed in a sea chest which has natural circulation from
The cooler, pump, and often the filter are installed in pairs with the necessary valves to enable
maintenance and cleaning in service.

1.05 Lubrication
Pressure for lubrication of the bearings, cylinders, valves, rocker arms, fuel pumps, injectors and
gear train is provided by a lubricating oil pump. Some engines have attached pumps, driven by the
A stand-by or pre-lubrication pump is then required to lubricate before starting.
Some engines have separate pumps for cylinder lubrication and valve lubrication.
Oil is sucked directly from the crank-case or from the sump tank below the engine.
It is then pumped through the cooler and one or two filters (automatic l.o. filter and duplex filter),
back to the engine.
After lubrication the oil drips into the crankcase or sump tank.
The oil from the sump continuously circulates through a lubricating oil separator, which cleans the
oil of combustion products.
Lubricating oil also has a cooling function.
Cylinder lubrication is, similar to common rail, upgraded by using quantification in relation to the
engine load, also resulting in less cylinder lubricating oil consumption.
Cylinder lubrication
Figurtekst slut.
Side 248

1.06 Starting
Ship's engines can be started by an electric or air-driven starting motor (auxiliary engines) or by
starting air (main engines).
When the engine is electrically started, batteries charged by the engine itself, supply the energy.
When the engine is started by air, air from air bottles is released by a manually or electrically
controlled valve (start button).
When an electric or air-driven starting motor is used, the motor turns the engine through a gear
wheel until firing starts.
When the engine is started by starting air an air distributor driven by the engine camshaft supplies
air (via starting air valves) above the pistons in the same sequence as the combustion sequence.
The air in the starting air bottles is kept constantly pressurized at approximately 30 bar by a starting
air compressor. Although the engine starts at a pressure of 5 bar, a pressure of 30 bar is obligatory,
to allow the engine to be started many times in sucession.

Starting air receivers with main stop valve
Figurtekst slut.
Starting air compressors
Figurtekst slut.

1.07 Exhaust gas

Combustion in the engine produces exhaust gases.
These are a mix of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, unburnt fuel, lubricating oil, surplus oxygen,
sulphur dioxide, water and carbon.
The sulphur oxides and water form corrosive acids. Carbon dioxides and nitrogen oxides are
harmful to the environment.
A new law is now being implemented in some sea-areas to reduce the sulphur content of heavy fuel
oil (1.5 % instead of 3.5%), to reduce the emission of sulphur dioxide into the air.
Systems to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides allready exist, but their maintenance is
The heat from exhaust gases can be used to regenerate energy which would otherwise be lost into
the air. This is done in a heat exchanger in the exhaust gas pipe, called an exhaust gas boiler or
The exhaust gases heat up thermal oil or produce steam.
Apart from this, ships need oil-fired boilers using diesel oil or heavy fuel oil that provide heating of
accomodation, sludge and fuel tanks in port or when the engine is on low load.
Exhaust gas boilers which heat thermal oil or produce steam are mostly found on ships which use
heavy fuel oil with a viscosity of more than 180 centistokes.
When lighter fuels are used, hot water produced by heat from the engine cooling water, is sufficient
for heating accomodation and tanks.

1.08 Combustion air

The air needed for combustion in the engine cylinders is drawn by fans from outside into the engine
room. This air also cools the whole engineroom.
The cylinders are supplied with an over-capacity of air to improve the combustion process and to
cool the exhaustgases.
Therefore the air is compressed in the turbocharger which is driven by the velocity of the exhaust
After compression, the air is cooled in the air cooler by cooling water, to regain its cooling function
and increase its density.

1.09 Shafting
Normally the shafting consists of an intermediate shaft and a conical tailshaft on which the
propeller is mounted. These shafts are supported by bearings.
The tailshaft is situated in the stern-tube with its sterntube bearings and rotates in lubricating oil.
The sterntube is sealed by two seals. The outer seal prevents seawater entering and stern tube oil
leaking out into the sea.
The inner seal prevents oil from leaking into the engineroom.
Both seals are maintained by the static pressure of a gravity header tank filled with stern tube oil.
Electricity from diesel generators is used to drive propulsion gear.
1. Exhaust gas inlet
2. Exhaust gas turbine
3. Air inlet filter
4. Rotary compressor
5. Compressed air outlet
Side 249

1.10 Gear boxes and couplings

When the number of revolutions per minute of the engine (four-stroke engines) is higher than the
desired rotating speed of the propeller shaft, a reduction gearbox is installed between them.
The reduction in revolutions is achieved by increasing the number of teeth on the shaft gear wheel.
Inside the gearbox the engine gear wheel pinion drives the gear wheel of the propeller shaft (bull
If a shaft generator is present, its shaft is also driven by the engine gear wheel in the gearbox.
If an engine, for example, rotates at 600 revolutions per minute, the shaft generator-gearwheel has
to rotate 6 times faster to create a frequency of 60 Hz. The gearbox is partly filled with oil. The
gear wheels are lubricated when they rotate in this oil and by a builtin pump. Vibration and torsion
is reduced by fitting elastic couplings between the engine shaft and the propeller and generator
A pneumatic or hydraulic clutch may be fitted between the engine and the propeller shaft, allowing
the two to be connected or disconnected as required.
This is often the case when two engines drive one propeller shaft or in a twin propellor
configuration, where two engines drive one propeller.

Main engine flywheel with intermediate shaft and main lubricating oil pumps, driven by electric
Figurtekst slut.
1. Flywheel casing
2. Shaft
3 Electric motor
Shafting looking aft
Figurtekst slut.
1. Intermediate shaft
2. Bearing
Various methods of driving a shaft generator, the "power-take-off" or PTO
Figurtekst slut.
1. Generator
2. Engine
3. Gear box
4. Shaft
Side 250

1.11 Electricity
Electricity on board is generated by auxiliary engines (diesel generators)and, if present, the shaft
generator at sea.
Some ships have generators driven by steam turbines, with steam produced by the exhaust gasses.
Two or three auxiliary engines are present, to make sure at least one of them can supply power in
case the others fail.
The main swich board is located in the engine control room.
From there the generators can be started, synchronised and connected to the main busbar of the
ship's electrical power supply system.
The 3-phase generators supply 440 Volt and 60 Hz or 380 Volt and 50 Hz. The auxiliary engines
run in parallel in port or as stand-by at sea, in case the shaft generator/steam turbine fails.
When manoeuvring, some ships with shaft generators use the auxiliary engines for the main power
supply and the shaft generator for bow and stern thrusters.
In coastal waters and channels the ship usually relies on the auxiliary engines only, for safety
If the shaft generator/steam turbine fails, the auxiliary engines take over. When the auxiliary
engines fail, the emergency generator starts up automatically.
The emergency generator only supplies the equipment necessary (essential) to keep the ship
steaming and emergency lighting.
An emergency generator starts on its own batteries or on its own starting air vessel. It has its own
fuel tank and cooling water.
On some ships it is possible to fill the emergency generator starting air bottle by hand compressor.
Diesel generator
Figurtekst slut.
1. Piston
2. Cylinder
3. Cylinder head
4. Entablature with cooling space
5. Inlet / outlet valves
6. Crankshaft
7. Counter weight
8. Connecting rod
9. Turbo charger
10. Exhaust ducting
11. Scavenge air duct
12. Generator
13. Flexible mountings
14. Water cooler
15. Air cooler
Side 251

1.12 Heating
Heating is required for the accomodation and other spaces on the ship (bow thruster room, steering
gear room etc.), water for domestic use, fuel, lubricating oil, sludge and so on, Accomodation
heating is usually by heated air that is blown into the cabins by the air conditioning unit fan.
This unit has a heating and a cooling function, depending on the outside air temperature.
Other ships use central heating with circulating hot water as in most houses.
The heating medium can be steam, hot water or thermal oil.
Ships have exhaust gas boilers and oil fired boilers (they run on HFO or MDO) that heat up thermal
oil or produce steam.
If the heating medium is hot water, ships have heat exchangers in which the water is heated by
engine cooling water, and oil fired boilers to do the same in port.
Hot water as a heating medium will be used on ships with engines that run on the lighter fuels,
because its heating capacity is less than steam or thermal oil. Steam systems are more complicated
than thermal oil systems, but the advantage of steam is, that it is not flammable.
Hot water for domestic use is heated in a hot water boiler by steam, thermal oil or electricity.

Small boiler
Figurtekst slut.

1.13 Heat exchangers

In heat exchangers heat is exchanged between media having different temperatures.
On one side the colder medium heats up, on the other side the warmer medium cools down.
If the main purpose of these exchangers is cooling, they are called coolers. Otherwise they are
called heaters.
There will be various heat exchangers in the engineroom:
- fresh water coolers
- preheaters - heating the engine cooling water at standstil
- lubricating oil coolers - cooling the engine lubricating oil
- lubricating oil heaters - heating the lubricating oil before the purifiers and at standstil
- air coolers - cooling the combustion air after the turbinecompressor.
- air heaters - for general heating/air conditioning
- fuel oil heaters - heating fuel oil before the purifiers and before the engine.
Heat exchangers can be straighttube, U-tube or plate type.

1.14 Pumps
A large diversity of pumps is present on a ship.
- Hand wing pump:
Small portable pump for emptying barrels. Also used for pumping oil from storagetanks/engine
sumps and as small bilge pump.
- Membrane pump:
Suitable for oils and water.
Used as bilgepump.
- Centrifugal pump:
Suitable for all liquids. Relatively small sized pumps with few moving parts deliver a large constant
Used as: cooling water-, ballast-, fire fighting-, condensate-, cargo pump, etc.
- Piston pump:
These pumps are suitable for liquids. They can deliver a high pressure, but no constant flow.
Used as: bilge pump, high pressure cleaner, hydraulic power jack, high pressure fuel pump.
- Gearpump:
Medium-pressure pump for liquids.
Used as fuel pump, steering gear pump, hydraulic oil pump, lubricating oil pump.
- Screwpump:
Constant flow pump for liquids.
Used as lubricating oil pump, fuel pump.
- Diaphragm pump:
Usually air driven, portable pump used as bilge-, sludge- and oil pump.
Centrifugal pumps
Figurtekst slut.
Side 252

1.15 Alarm system

Most systems in the engine room are provided with sensors that measure their actual temperature,
level, pressure or other value.
These signals are continuously compared with their set (desired) values. If a certain deviation
occurs, an alarm is activated in the central alarm computer or panel in the engine control room.
In the engine room itself lights flash and horns sound to attract the engineer's attention.
There is a certain number of critical alarms, like "low lubricating oil pressure" and "cooling water
high temperature" which automatically stop the engine.
Other important alarms warn of high bilge levels or indicate fire. Alarms on the fuel and lubricating
oil filters to the engine warn before the the filters clog.
The more complicated the alarm system, the more sensitive it becomes. It is not unusual for ship
vibration to result in failure of part of the electronic system, causing false alarms.
If a ship's engine room complies with the rules for an unmanned engine room, it means that the
necessary alarms are installed for the space to be unmanned at night.
When the engine room is unmanned, alarms will come through to the alarm panels in the messroom,
engineer's cabins and bridge.

Tank level control panel, Alarms are built in against overflow of each tank
Figurtekst slut.

1.16 Automation
Most systems in the engine room are controlled automatically. This means that systems maintain
themselves more or less at their setpoint.
If, for example, the desired (set) temperature of fresh cooling water into the engine is 70 °C and it
leaves the engine at 90 °C, a regulating valve will send enough cooling water through the cooler to
return it to 70 °C.
If, for example, the desired viscosity of fuel into the engine is 20 cSt at 130 °C, the fuel will be
heated to obtain the right viscosity.
Before the fuel enters the heater, its viscosity is measured.
A signal directs a regulating valve to supply more or less heat.
An other example is filling the settling tank with fuel from a bunker tank. When the level in the
settling tank is low, a low level switch starts the fuel transfer pump.
The pump stops when the upper float switch in the tank is lifted.
A high-high level switch above this float switch activates an alarm if the pump fails to stop.

1.17 Fresh water

Ships that spend enough time at sea or use a lot of water (livestock-, passenger ships), make their
own fresh water from sea water.
There are two ways of doing this: by evaporating seawater, or by reverse osmosis.
- Evaporator
Seawater is pumped into the evaporator and, at the same time more seawater is pumped through an
ejector which creates a partial vacuum inside. The seawater in the evaporator is heated by steam or
engine cooling water to a temperature of 40 °C. In the vacuum, water evaporates at 40 °C. The
evaporated water (vapour) is cooled at the top of the evaporator, and caught in a tray from which it
is pumped to the fresh water tank. The remaining salts (brine) remain in the bottom of the
evaporator and are pumped out.
- Reverse osmosis
It is a natural process (as in plant cells), in which water flows from a weaker solution through a
semi permeable membrane to a denser (saline) solution until an equilibrium is reached between
concentrations and pressure on both sides of the membrane. The pressure difference between the
solutions is called osmotic pressure. If a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is put on the
most concentrated solution (salt water), water is forced through the membrane to the other side
(fresh water), because salts cannot pass the membrane they are left behind. This is called reverse
Reverse osmosis plant
Figurtekst slut.

Fresh water generator / evaporator
Figurtekst slut.
Side 253

2. Valves
In ships, many pipeline systems are installed for the transport of various kinds of liquids, gases, and
In those systems valves are necessary and fitted in large numbers to stop or regulate flow, to
connect numerous spaces or items to a system or to isolate the system from the open air or outside
Valves are made of bronze, cast iron, stainless steel or brass.
The seats are usually made of bronze, but other materials like stainless steel and rubber are also

2.1 Gate valves

By winding the spindle down, a vertical wedge-shaped disc closes the straight flow path inside the
housing. The seats on both sides of the wedge slide against the seats of the housing, thus sealing off
the flow path.
These valves are used for hot and cold water, seawater, lubricating oil, steam and air. They are used
as manual and as remote controlled valves.

Gate valve
Figurtekst slut.
1. Housing
2. Wedge
3. Spindle
4. Sealing rings
5. Plug

2.2 Globe valves

Here the flowpath is not straight and by winding the spindle a horizontal disc is pressed against the
seat of the housing.
They are used for water, oil, air and gas. They are used as manual and as remote controlled valves.
An advantage is that they are smaller than equivalent gate valves.

Globe valve
Figurtekst slut.
1. Housing
2. Separation
3. Disc
4. Spindle
Ball valve
Figurtekst slut.

2.3 Ball valves

The flow path in the housing is closed and opened by turning (90°) a ball with a tubular bore.
These valves allow good flow capacity because there is little resistence in open position.
Used for water, corrosive media, gas. They are manually operated and by actuator.
Below: Gate valve, fitted in vertical pipeline
Figurtekst slut.
Side 254

Butterfly valve, 1000 mm nominal diameter
Figurtekst slut.
1. Ring
2. Disc
3. Handle

2.4 Butterfly valves

A vertical disc closes or opens the flow path by turning through 90°. Because of the simple
construction they are lightweight.
They can be used as open/close valves or as regulating valves.
The seal in the housing is made of vulcanised rubber.
They are used for water and air, and for agressive and chemical media as well. These valves are
operated manually or by an actuator.

2.5 Membrane valves

In this valve the flow path is closed by a membrane. Membranes are made of rubber, teflon or other
flexible material. Depending on the material of the membrane, these valves can be used for various
liquids such as water, oils, acids, alkalines.

2.6 Needle valves

These are globe valves with a needle instead of a disc. Used for precise flow control of liquids and
2.7 Spring loaded valves/safety valves
Valve that opens against the pressure of a spring. They are used as pressure relieve valve/safety
valve or to regulate a (constant) pressure in a pipeline.

2.8 Spade valves

These are gate valves with a flat spade in stead of a wedge disc.

2.9 Non return valves

These valves ensure the liquid or gas flows in one direction only and does not return.

Two types of non-return valves.
Figurtekst slut.
1. Hinge point
2. Direction of flow
3. Closed valve (dotted lines indicates open valve)
1. When an ordinary valve is opened by lifting the disc, the water can flow in both directions.
2. When a screw down non-return valve is opened, i.e. the spindle turned anti-clockwise to allow
the disc to lift, the water can flow from below the disc to above, and not in the other direction.
Rammetekst slut.
Small gate valve, fitted in horizontal pipeline
Figurtekst slut.

Valve chest that can be fitted with non-return valves (bilge arrangement) or stop valves (ballast
Figurtekst slut.
1. Pump suction
2. Suction from the bilge well
3. Hand wheel to operate the valve
4. Stop valve
Side 255

3. Bilge line arrangement

3.1 General
The bilge line arrangement is an important safety system that is required by law. The purpose of the
bilge line arrangement is to pump excess water out of the ship.
Rules made by governments and Classification Societies have to comply with international SOLAS
rules. SOLAS states that the bilge line ballast line and fire-fighting systems must be three
independent systems which can each take over the work of the others if necessary.
Small amounts of water can accumulate in the ship as a result of condensation, leakages of pipes,
from washing or rain, especially in "open ships". Ships without hatch covers, or "open ships" have
to have additional pump capacity in the bilge line arrangement to remove incoming seawater or rain
(SOLAS art 59 sub 2).
As soon as the holds are emptied and cleaned, the bilge line arrangement has to be tested.
Condensation can occur when warm air hits a cold surface. In the most favorable circumstances
the water flows down the sides into the bilge well and can be pumped over-board. When the water
remains on (relatively cold) cargo or seeps into the cargo, damage to the cargo may occur.
Rammetekst slut.

Schematic layout of the three main functions of magnetic float switches
Figurtekst slut.
When it has been found in order, it is noted in the ship's log.
The bilge arrangement has to be capable of pumping bilge water from any individual cargo hold.
To determine the amount of fluid inside a bilge well or a ballast tank one of two systems has to be
- Manual - sounding with sounding tape using a sounding pipe that ends in a tank or a bilge well to
measure the height of the fluid.
- Remote measuring system - the fluid level can be read from an indicator in the engine room or
elsewhere (remote control). A float is placed in the bilge well and when the fluid level rises, so
does the float. When the float reaches a certain level, an alarm is activated.
The water levels in ballast tanks are often measured using bubble-pipes. The pressure needed to
blow air to the bottom, against the water-pressure, is picked up by a transmitter. The signal is
displayed in the cargo control room.

3.2 Engine room

Bilge pumps keep the engine room dry by pumping from the bilges. There are normally three
systems. First, a small pump capable of dealing with the normal small, daily quantities. This small
pump pumps the dirty water (water and oil) into a bilge holding tank. From that tank, it is pumped
by another small pump through an oily water separator and when it is cleaned it is pumped over-
board. If not, it goes to another storage tank, the sludge tank.
A second, bigger pump, the emergency bilge pump, can pump the bilge water from the engine
room straight overboard, but this is only allowed in emergencies.
A third possibility is to use the direct suction of the main cooling water pumps, which has huge
capacity for big leaks in emergencies.
The valve in the bilge well must be fitted with a safety device to ensure that dangerous goods
cannot accidentally pass into the environment.
Parts of the bilge line:

3.3 Bilge pumps

These pumps have to be available for immediate use. However, they may also be used for other
purposes according to the regulations.
A bilge pump must be selfpriming. This means that it does not need help to start drawing water
from the intended compartment.

3.4 Mountings (fittings)

Mountings are ordinary valves, safety valves, plugs, filters, distributors, etc. Several suction lines
are mounted on a manifold.
The suction lines are fitted with valves to open or close the lines.
Check valves are used as non-return valves.
The liquid removed from a bilge well must not be allowed to flow back to that bilge well. A non-
return valve is placed in the suction line.
The pump capacity of the bilge pump is between 100 and 300 m3/ hour. A hole in the side of the
ship 5 meters below the water line means that a certain capacity, depending on the size of the hole
is needed to remove the amount of incoming water. The formula to determine the capacity needed

V = volume in m3/s incoming water

a = area of the hole in m2
D = depth of the hole below the surface
G = Gravity (9.81)
In the example this means that a hole of 5 × 5 cm makes up for 90 m3/hour and a hole twice that
size (7.1 × 7.1 cm) produces 180 m3 water/hour flowing into the ship.
V = (0,05 × 0,05) × (2 × 9,81 × 5)
= 0,0025 × 98,1
= 0,025 /second
= 90 m3/hour (0,025 × 3600)
Rammetekst slut.
Side 256

3.5 Main bilge line

The main bilge line is situated in the engine room and runs from the manifold to the suction side of
the pumps. The suction lines run from the manifold to the connected compartments. The bilge
arrangement in the engine room consists of one (compulsory) direct system and one indirect system.
The indirect system operates through a manifold. The suction side of the main cooling water pumps
has an engine room suction.
In the case of a major leak, the large capacity of the cooling water pump can be used as an
emergency bilge pump. The emergency suction valve is manually operated, with a large diameter
red hand-wheel above the floor plates.

3.6 Suction lines

The cargo holds are provided with 4 bilge wells, one in each corner of the hold. They are each
provided with a suction to the main bilge line. Which well collects the water depends on the list and

3.7 Bilge well

A bilge well has two compartments, separated by a bulkhead that extends half or three quarters of
the height of the well. A lid with small holes covers the well. As soon as the water reaches a certain
height, it flows to the well next to it.
The suction part of the bilge line is situated in that part of the well.

3.8 Ejector
An ejector creates a vacuum by the speed of the water flowing through it. This can be used for
pumping bilges, for instance in chain-lockers. The pressure of the water flowing through the ejector
is created by the fire pump, which can produce a higher pressure than the bilge and ballast pumps.
The bilge water goes overboard together with the driving water.

3.9 Bilge water separator

The MARPOL Convention forbids engine room bilge water from being pumped overboard.
All bilge water from engine / machinery spaces has to go through a separator to separate any oil
from the water. Under certain circumstances the water can then be pumped over-board. The oil
goes to a dirtyoil tank. These separator, with an oil-content-meter and alarm, is compulsory for
ships of more than 1000 GT.
The water pumped overboard may not exceed 15 ppm (parts per million) of oil. (see Chapter 6,

4. The ballast arrangement

The ballast system is used to pump seawater (weight) in or out of the ballast tanks. The rules for the
ballast system are less stringent than the rules for bilge systems.
Reasons for taking ballast on board or shifting ballast once it is on board are:
- to improve stability of the ship, especially when the ship is not carrying cargo
- to put the ship deeper in the water, to improve sea-keeping.
- to alter the trim
- to reduce bending moments or shear forces
- to control the list during loading and discharge. Many ships use an anti-heeling system for this
- to improve maneuvrability.

1. Cover with (right) small holes

2. Bulkhead
3. Bilge line
An anti-heeling system is used to minimize the list in port. Pumps with a large capacity (1000
m3/hour) are installed between two tanks (one port side and one starboard).
These pumps can transfer water from one tank to the other at great speed. The system is fully
automatic and much used on ships with cranes, on container vessels and Ro-Ro vessels to reduce
the list that can occur during cargo handling.
Fore and aft peak tanks, deep tanks, double bottom tanks, and wing tanks are usually used for
ballast water, depending on the ship's type.
Bulk carriers often use one of the holds for ballast, during a ballast voyage.
An advantage of using ballast instead of fuel in the double bottom is that welding is allowed on the
tank top.
The designer determines the ballast capacity to meet minimum operation draft requirements
imposed by Class / IMO. The duration of the voyage and the purpose of the ship is taken into
account when deciding on the available space for ballast and the capacity of the ballast pumps.
In small ships, the ballast pumps are usually suitable as bilge pumps.
This makes the ballast system an integrated part of the bilge arrangement, to the extent that a ballast
pump may even serve as main bilge pump.
Unlike the valves in the bilge arrangement, the valves in the ballast arrangement have to be two-
way valves as the tanks must be filled and emptied.
Double bottom tanks, and to a lesser extent in multipurpose ships, the wing-tanks can be filled
directly from sea through the sea inlet, without using the pump.
Nowadays the ballast system is often designed as a ring main.
Remote controlled valves are used to empty or fill the ballast tanks.
Ballast lines inside the double bottom may be made of synthetics.
The bulkhead penetrations have to be steel for fire safety.
Side 257

The bilge line system of a harbor tug boat. The pictures show the bilge lines, stiffening and
construction parts,
Figurtekst slut.
Side 258

Ballast line system
Figurtekst slut.
Ballast / salt water cooling water system seen from three views.
1. Ballast pumps, valves in engine room
2. Main ballast line to tanks
3. Crossover to side tanks
4. Ballast pumps
5. Pump inlet filters
Synthetics for piping systems.
More and more pipes on board are made of synthetics, not only for accommodation and sanitary
use but also in ballast systems.
The main advantage is the corrosion resistance of synthetics. Its light weight is another advantage.
The pipes are easier to handle on board as well as in the yard and the reduced weight allows the
ship to carry more cargo.
Disadvantages are sensitivity to temperature changes and lower strength compared to steel.
Classification Societies often state that "synthetic pipes may be used when they have no adverse
effect on the continuity of vital installations in case of fire or break-down".
When a vessel makes use of synthetic pipes it is compulsory that she carries means for their repair.
Rammetekst slut.
Side 259

5. Fire-fighting arrangement
Fire has probably caused greater loss of ships than grounding, collision or bad weather.
A good fire-fighting arrangement, conforming to legal requirements, is therefore a necessity.
The fire-fighting arrangement has to transport seawater to the fire hydrants. The system consists of
lines, pumps, valves with couplings, hoses, nozzles and spray installations. A minimum of three
fire-fighting pumps is compulsory on all ships.
One of these pumps, the emergency fire-pump, must be situated outside the engine room, with a
direct connection to the deck firemain.
An insulated valve must be placed between the engine room and deck firemain, so that in case of
fire in the engine room, the deck main can be pressurized using the emergency fire pump.
The emergency pump may not be driven from the engine room, but independently by a diesel
engine elsewhere or electrically from the emergency switchboard powered by the emergency
Both main fire pumps must have sufficient capacity and pressure.
This pressure should be enough to provide a minimum pressure of 4 bar at the highest point on the
ship. There must be enough hydrants to ensure that every location on the vessel can be reached by
at least two hoses.

Fire-fighting arrangement
Figurtekst slut.
1. Arrangement in the engine room
2. Arrangement on deck
3. Filter
4. Isolating valve
5. Hydrant
6. Supply from general service pump
7. Main fire pump
8. Suction
9. Emergency fire pump
10. Sea valve
Side 260

Bilge and ballast arrangement on a container feeder
Figurtekst slut.


(=2X DN125)



Side 261
1. Bilge arrangement
2. Ballast arrangement
3. Engine room bulkhead
4. Main bilge line, from distributor to ejector and overboard
5. Engine room bilge line, port side, starboard side, midship and aft. All are fitted to the main bilge
6. Suction distributor chest
7. Direct bilge arrangement from the engine room
8. Overboard (for bilge and ballast)
9. Ejector
Side 262

Figurtekst slut.
Side 263
Side 264


1 Ship resistance 264
2 Propulsion 265
3 Stabilizers 278
4 Rudders 279
5 Steering gear 283

1. Ship resistance
The engine power required to move a ship through the water depends on the propulsive efficiency
and the total resistance of the ship.
Resistance is a complex function of displacement, shape and speed.
The various components of resistance can be divided as follows:
a. Frictional resistance
The friction between the water and the ship's shell is the resistance.
The water in the boundary layer is accelerated by the ship's speed, dragged by the molecular
friction. This boundary layer is thicker, and the resistance higher when the shell is fouled.
Resistance is least directly after delivery of the ship.
During the ship's lifetime, the roughness of the hull normally increases, due to paintlayers covering
older paintlayers, damage, corrosion, etc. This results in a gradual drop in speed and efficiency.

The wake of the ship
Figurtekst slut.
b. Pressure (form) resistance
The ship's momentum pushes the water aside at the bow and as a result, the pressure of the water
increases. This increase in pressure also occurs aft. The pressure will drop where the boundary
layer is released.
c. Wave resistance
This is a result of wave systems along the hull that originate from the differences in pressure.
On certain ships the use of a bulb at the bow can significantly decrease the wave-making resistance.
The bulb generates its own wave system, which is designed to interfere negatively with the ship's
wave system. The two wave systems then neutralize each other.
d. Added resistance in waves
This type of resistance is caused by the pitching, heaving and rolling of the ship.
e. Air resistance
This depends on the vertical area above the waterline, which varies with the draught.
N.B. With regard to frictional resistance, the newest hull paint, so-called non-stick paint, is silicon-
This paint does not allow fouling of the paint and keeps the frictional resistance and fuel
consumption constant throughout the lifetime of the paint.
It is, however, a very expensive system, only paying off on large, fast ships.
Supplier without a bulb
Figurtekst slut.

Container ship with a well-designed bulb
Figurtekst slut.
Side 265

The propulsion system
Figurtekst slut.
1. Engine
2. Engine shaft and flexible coupling
3. Reduction gear box - reduces the number of revolutions of the engine (e.g.1000 rpm) to an
acceptable rotation rate of the propeller (e.g. 200 rpm)
The reduction is 5:1.
4. Shaft generator; this supplies the ship with electricity when the engine is running
5. Stern tube with bearing
6. Propeller shaft
7. Propeller

2. Propulsion
2.1 Propellers
For a ship to obtain a certain constant speed, a force needs to be exerted on the ship. The magnitude
of this force depends on the ship's resistance at that speed.
When the ship is moving through the water at a constant speed the force exerted on the ship equals
the resistance of the ship.
The force that moves the ship can come from an outside source like a towing line or the wind, but
generally it is generated by a power source (engine) in the ship itself.
The propulsion system usually consists of an engine or turbine, reduction gearing and if applicable,
a propeller shaft and propeller.
The efficiency of a propeller holds an important place in the design of the propulsion because its
efficiency and the ship's fuel consumption are directly related.
Looking at oil tankers, bulk carriers and container ships it can clearly be seen that the bulb reduces
the increase in pressure near the bow. The improved streamlining of the ship's underwater body
reduces the wave system around the ship. In suppliers and hopper suction dredgers, there is a large
wave system.
Rammetekst slut.
If the rate of flow of water (or air) is higher, then the pressure will be lower compared to the
pressure in parts of the water where the rate of flow is lower. Therefore, in waves, water in a trough
has a higher speed than water in a wave top. (see chapter 4 'design' and Bernoulli's law).
Rammetekst slut.
Efficiency depends on the flow field of the propeller, which depends on:
- the shape of the ship's underwater body
- the power delivered to the propeller
- the number of blades
- rotations per minute
- the propeller diameter
- the blade surface area and smoothness of the blade
- the ship's speed.
In general it can be stated that the highest efficiency in propulsion is achieved when the largest
possible quantity of water is moved with the smallest possible acceleration.
This means that the configuration of a propeller has to be such, that it produces a minimal excess
speed in the wake of the vessel.
Based on the shape of the after body the ideal propeller accelerates the water that is being dragged
in the boundary layer of the ship and produces a minimal and evenly spread excess velocity of the
water in the wake behind the ship.
For a given ship speed and power, if the diameter of the propeller increases, the rotations per
minute decrease; this generally increases efficiency and thus reduces fuel consumption.
Briefly said, the diameter of the propeller should be as large as possible so that a maximum
amount of wake, caused by the ship's hull, is used.
The choice of high efficiency with a large-diameter propeller and a low number of revolutions per
minute is easily justifiable, but requires a significant investment.
The propeller pitch is the distance in direction parallel to the propeller shaft that a point on the
propeller covers in one revolution in a solid substance.
Similar to a point on a corkscrew turning in a cork.
When rotating in a fluid a propeller will have a (small) slip.
Rotations or revolutions per minute are abbreviated as 'rpm'.
Rammetekst slut.
RPM and the number of blades influence vibrations on board and the resonant frequency of the ship.
Most small single screw ships use a 4-blade propeller, while 5-blade propellers are more common
on bigger ships where more power (20,000 kW) is necessary.
However, today, more and more ships use the 5-blade version, even when less power is needed, to
reduce vibration.
3-blade propellers are used on twin screw vessels and on ships with a high number of revolutions
per minute and low power (700 rpm, 600 kW).
Side 266

Fixed right-handed propeller on a bulker.
Figurtekst slut.

2.1.1 The shape of the blades

Every propeller is designed individually as a compromise between the level of efficiency and the
cavitation-related side effects such as the excitation of vibration or the danger of erosion damage
due to cavitation.
The remarks for each shape of blade apply to both fixed and controllable pitch propellers. Blade:
1. The standard blade. Still often used on ordinary ships although other shapes are chosen for
particular reasons.
2. Highly skewed, reduces vibration and noise.
3. Higher area (Fa/F), low pressure, thus reduces cavitation.
4. Typical blade for use in nozzles.
5. Also for use in nozzles, but produces less vibration and noise.
Fa = projected blade area.
F = area of the surrounding circle.
Rammetekst slut.
Different types of blades attached to a hub. This combination can never be used for actual
Figurtekst slut.

Left: A drawing of the upper fixed propeller blade of a right-handed propeller seen from above
Figurtekst slut.
1. Cross-section of propeller blade
2. Propeller shaft
3. Suction side
4. Pressure side
5. Leading edge
6. Trailing edge.
Ve = approach velocity = ship's speed - wake speed
U = speed of rotation of the propeller
ω × r = angular velocity × radius
V = resulting speed
A = lift
W = drag
P = resulting force
S = propulsion force (thrust)
T = shaft moment.

2.1.2 Pressure and suction sides of the propeller

The approach velocity of the water is a result of the ship's movement through the water. If the ship
has zero speed, this Ve = 0.
Approach velocity can be calculated by subtracting the wake velocity from the ship's speed.
The speed of rotation of the propeller and the approach velocity result in the speed (V).

Forces on the upper propeller blade when the propeller is rotating and the ship is moving
Figurtekst slut.
This V hits the propeller blade at a certain angle:
α = 9°-10° at service speed
The speed of the incoming water creates underpressure on the forward side of the blade (suction
side) and pressure on the aft side of the blade (pressure side).
The propeller blade acts similarly to a wing profile. Propellers are usually viewed from aft,
therefore the pressure side is also called 'the face' and the suction side 'the back'.
Side 267

Cavitation damage on a propeller blade on a CPP due to missing plug.
Figurtekst slut.

2.1.3 Cavitation
The propeller pressure of a rotating propeller is not just the result of the water-pressure on the
pressure side, but also of the underpressure on the other side of the propeller. Propellers that rotate
rapidly can create underpressure that is so low that water vapor bubbles form on the suction side of
the propeller. These gas bubbles implode again when the pressure rises, continuously on the same
spot. When this is located on the blade surface, it causes damage to the suction side of the blade.
This is called cavitation.
Severe cavitation results in:
- increase of blade roughness
- a reduction in propulsive force
- wear of the blades
- vibrations that bend the blades
- noise in the ship
- high costs.
A properly working propeller often shows light cavitation at the blade edges which is not harmful.

2.1.4 The influence of the propeller on maneuvring

Propellers can be divided into right-handed and left-handed propellers. Ships with a fixed-pitch
propeller usually have a right-handed version. A right-handed propeller can be recognized by
standing aft of the propeller, while looking at the face and holding on to the top blade with both
If the right-hand side of the blade is furthest away, it is a right-handed propeller. If the ship is going
ahead, a right-handed propeller rotates clock-wise.
When a propeller rotates, the ship has a tendency to turn to a particular side, even if the rudder is in
the midships position and there are no additional forces acting on the ship. This effect is called the
propeller effect or wheel effect (see section on maneuvring).
Propellers with adjustable blades (controllable-pitch propellers, abbreviated CPP) are often left-
handed. When the propeller is in the astern mode, turning anti-clockwise, the effect of the propeller
is the same as in a right-handed propeller going astern, also turning anti-clockwise. When moving
forward, they have the same effect as a left-handed propeller. When going astern, the efficiency of
the propeller can drop below 50% of efficiency when moving forward, depending on the type of
blade and propeller.

2.1.5 Alternative designs

Propellers with tip plates were invented around 1850, but have only recently been rediscovered.
Tip plates are attached to the blade tips.
The plates prevent the water from flowing too fast from the pressure areas to the suction areas of
the propeller, reducing vortices.

Propeller with tip plates
Figurtekst slut.

Model test of a contra rotating propeller
Figurtekst slut.
They also increase efficiency by reducing energy loss.
The improved hydrodynamics of water flow caused by tip plate propellers also contribute to the
reduction of vibration and noise from the propeller. Another development is the contra rotating
propeller. This system consists of two propellers placed one behind the other, driven by means of
concentric shafts (inner and outer shafts) with opposite directions of rotation. Both the number of
blades and the diametres differ.
A normal propeller introduces rotation into the water flow, resulting in a loss of energy. The
principal of the contra rotating propeller is that the second propeller prevents it.
The combined propellers can reduce fuel consumption by 15%.
Propeller Turning Sailing Direct Indirect
direction direction propeller propeller
effect effect
Aft Fore Aft Fore
right-handed right ahead starboard port
right-handed left astern port starboard port starboard
left-handed right astern starboard port starboard port
left-handed left ahead port starboard
Wheel effect of propellers
Side 268

2.2 Fixed pitch propellers

The propeller blades of a fixed pitch propeller have a fixed position.
Therefore the speed or direction of rotation of the propeller has to change for the ship to stop or go
This is achieved by a reversing gear box or a reversing engine.
A reversing gear box and fixed pitch propeller is economical in ships up to 1250 kW.
The diameter of fixed pitch propellers varies between 25 cm and 12 metres. The choice of a fixed
or a controllable-pitch propeller (CPP) depends on, among other things, the need for a shaft
generator and the need for easy maneuvring qualities.
Advantages of a fixed propeller over a controllable pitch propeller are:
- they are less vulnerable to damage
- the propeller does not revolve when not producing power, so it imposes less danger to mooring
boats and there is less risk of ropes getting entangled in the propeller.
Disadvantage of the fixed propeller over a CPP are:
- in adverse weather, the propeller may have too many RPMs, which can hamper propulsion
- fixed propellers also have a limited range of RPM for manoeuvring and power.

Installation of a controllable pitchpropeller with shaft attached
Figurtekst slut.
Fixed right-handed propeller of a container vessel (CT 80942) with a reversing engine. The
propeller weighs 95 tons, has 6 blades and a diameter of 8,95meter:
Figurtekst slut.

2.3 Controllable pitch propellers

The blades of this type of propeller can be turned around the blade-axis, thus changing the propeller
pitch. These propellers are complicated internally. The mechanism that adjusts the propeller pitch is
located in the propeller hob. It is activated from the engine room and remotely controlled from the
The most striking feature of the controllable pitch propeller is that it only rotates in one direction,
Stainless steel controllable pitch propeller. The blades are damaged.
Figurtekst slut.
the reversing clutch or reversing engine unnecessary.
Unlike the fixed pitch propeller, the controllable pitch propeller is an integrated part of the
propulsion system. This makes it possible for power and necessary propulsive forces to be
controlled by simply changing the positions of the blades.
The figure on the following page shows cross-sections of a propeller blade and the forces that act
on that part of a rotating propeller blade.
On the left are the cross-sections and forces when the ship is going ahead.
Drawing of a controllable pitch propeller with propeller shaft. The pitch adjustment of the blades is
done via oil pressure through the hollow shaft. The figures apply to a propeller with a diametre of
2.5 metres.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 269
All the vectors point backwards while the ship is going forward.
Now the blades are rotated towards the zero position. This means that the propulsive forces above
and below are equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction. The net propulsive force is zero, but
the propeller still absorbs a large amount of energy that is converted to turbulence of the wake.
To go astern, the blades are rotated even further, resulting in a forward propulsive force.
Safety precautions
1. The position of the blades can be changed manually without loss of propulsive force.
2. If the hydraulic system fails, the blades can be locked in the ahead position.
When a shaft generator is fitted which can also work as an electric motor with a power supply from
the auxiliary diesel generators, the electric motor can produce propulsion power, i.e. for emergency
propulsion in the event of major main engine problems.
Class does not require this system and/or the maximum speed it can obtain.
The system is sometimes used on small ships.
A shaft generator can produce electric power during maneuvring also, which is economically
The shaft generator can supply the electrical power for a ship as long as the main engine keeps
With controllable pitch propellers the generator frequency can be kept constant because the rpm of
the engine remains constant.
The engine drives the shaft generator via the reduction gear box.
Rammetekst slut.
Advantages of a controllable pitch propeller:
- it can propel the ship at all speeds, even at very low speed without stopping the engine
- it can change quickly from ahead to astern and vice versa
- improved efficiency on ships such as fishing craft and tugs with changing power demands
- it can easily be combined with a shaft generator
- it can stop a ship with maximum power
- in case of propeller damage, changing a blade is sometimes possible afloat, depending on the
ship's type and trim possibilities.
- CPP systems are vulnerable due to the hydraulic components and many sealing rings.
A damaged sealing ring can result in oil pollution.
- price
- inefficiency.
Drawings of a single propeller blade and its crosssections. The pictures show the controllable pitch
propeller; the upper blade is the blade in the drawings.
Figurtekst slut.

1. Propeller blade (tip speed 31,4 m/s)

2. Boss or hub
3. Watertight / oil tight seal
4. Stern frame
5. Propeller shaft, 240 rpm
6. Stern tube
7. Intermediate shaft (to engine shaft)
8. Reduction gear box (1:2.5)
9. Mechanically driven lubricating oil pump
10. Collar shaft (thrust)
11. Actuating motor, coupled to a mechanism of bars that serves the blades.
Side 270

2.4 Nozzles
The purpose of a nozzle is to increase the propulsive force. This increase results from the fact that
the propeller forces water to flow through the nozzle. This water flow has a higher velocity in the
nozzle than the water outside and the resulting pressure difference then creates the additional
propulsive force. The efficiency of the nozzle is at a maximum when the water can pass
This is why the top of the nozzle should always be as free as possible in relation to the aft body.
Not only does a nozzle increase the propulsive force, it also reduces noise and vibration levels.

CPP in a fixed nozzle
Figurtekst slut.

Fixed propeller in a nozzle rudder
Figurtekst slut.
Furthermore, the incoming water flow is more homogeneous in a nozzle, minimising local pressure
differences responsible for cavitation and vibrations.
The combination of a propeller in a nozzle is often called a ducted propeller. In principle, the
nozzle can be used on every type of vessel except on very fast ships like high-speed ferries where
they have no increasing effect on the propulsive force.
If the frictional resistance (caused by the nozzle) becomes larger than the increase in propulsive
force, the nozzle is not effective. Nozzles are often used on inland vessels, hopper suction dredgers,
tugs, fishing vessels and suppliers. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed or controllable pitch
propellers are the same for propellers with a nozzle and propellers without one. For shallow draft
ships the same thrust can be delivered with a smaller system diameter.
Nozzles are fitted as:
- fixed versions
- nozzle rudder propellers: the whole system including propeller can rotate around a vertical axis,
- nozzle rudders: Propeller fixed, nozzle can turn as a rudder (35° a 40° max.).
One particular type of fixed nozzle is the wing- or Schneekluth nozzle.
This nozzle is fitted in two halves, with different axis angles in relation to baseline and centerline.
The nozzle is antirotating and brings water to the top half of the propeller circle, where the velocity
of the incoming water in a full ship is low.
In spite of its modest dimensions, this still increases the propulsive force if the speed exceeds 12-18

Two rudder propellers which can rotate 360°.
Figurtekst slut.

2.5 Rudder propellers

The main characteristic of rudder propellers is their ability to rotate like a rudder, if unobstructed,
the full 360°. Rudder propellers are also called 'azimuthing thrusters' or 'Z-drives'.
To achieve this freedom of rotation, a right-angle underwater gear box is driven by a vertical power
This vertical shaft is centered in the rudder stock. A gear driven by a pinion is attached to the top of
the rudder stock. This makes the unlimited rotation possible.
Nowadays, rudder propellers can have a power up to 7500 kW.
There are several versions of rudder propellers, namely:
1. A fixed unit assembled in an assembly box - it can be equipped with a depth adjustment system.
When the ship is empty, the propeller can be lowered in order to get sufficient propulsive force
efficiently without the need for ballast.
2. Deck units - the diesel-drive units are placed on deck; the rudder propeller is attached to the
back of the drive unit. These types can also have a depth adjustment system.
3. A retractable unit. It can be withdrawn entirely into the ship and is only lowered when the ship
is at sea. When in top position, the propellers can then be part of a tunnel thruster and are then
called 'retractable thrusters'.
Not used for main propulsion.
4. Bow thrusters or stern thrusters. Also called tunnel thrusters. They are based on a transverse
propeller and a right-angle underwater gear box.
These are used exclusively to position the ship by a starboard or port side thrust.
When the ship's speed is above 6 knots, their influence is negligible.
Types 1 and 2 function as main propulsion units, while type 3 is an auxiliary propulsion unit.
Type 4 is for low-speed maneuvring.
Side 271

Tug boat equipped with two azimuthing thrusters and a bow thruster
Figurtekst slut.

Schematic presentation of the command path from bridge control to the rudder propeller
Figurtekst slut.
The most important advantage of a rudder propeller is its ability to give optimal thrust in any
rudder position. With the exception of the tunnel thruster, all rudder propellers can steer the ship
through 360°, thereby giving the ship excellent manoeuvrability.
Today, modern electronic equipment for satellite navigation can be employed to couple the rudder
propellers to the dynamic positioning system (DP-system).
This can keep a ship in a predetermined position irrespective of the influences of currents, waves
and wind.

Crosssection of a rudder propeller
Figurtekst slut.
1. Driveshaft from engine, with gears
2. Vertical driveshaft
3. Propellor shaft with gears
4. Kort Nozzle
5. Rotation point in ship's construction
6. Controllable Pitch Propeller
7. Hydraulic lines to CPP
8. OilFilled gearbox.
Retractable thrusters are often used for this purpose.
When the ship has arrived at its position, the azimuth thrusters are lowered and the ship switches to
Other advantages of the rudder propeller are the very compact engine room (because there is no
need for a long propeller shaft).
This results in lower installation costs as compared to a conventional propeller.
Rudder propeller installations are often used on passenger ships, cable ships, floating cranes,
suppliers, dredgers, barges etc.
Side 272

2.6 Electrical rudder propeller

(Brand names: Azipod, Dolphin, Mermaid, SSP)
The difference between the rudder propeller and the electric rudder propeller or podded propulsor is
that the latter has its propulsion engine located outside the ship's hull.
The electrical engine with adjustable RPMs is placed in a pod attached to the bottom of the ship.
Every pod has a propeller attached to it, driven by the electric motor inside the pod. There are two
main types: a fixed pod with a rudder or a 360° rotating pod without a rudder.
Both types can either push or pull. The propeller is then located at the back or front of the pod,
respectively. The electric rudder propeller does not require gear boxes, clutches, propeller shafts
and rudders.
The diesel generators can be placed anywhere on the ship, as long as there is space available, unlike
the ships with a mechanical drive where the engines are connected to the propeller by a long shaft
and other parts.
This makes this propulsion system a compact system that simplifies the design and construction of
the ship as compared to conventional propulsion systems.
Although the system was originally developed for icebreakers, it is now in use on suppliers, cruise
ships, tankers, ferries and ships with a DP-system.
Advantages are:
- it is possible to separate the power source and the propulsion system
- it can combine the power supply of the auxiliaries and the propulsion system
- few vibrations and little noise
- excellent maneuvring capabilities
- lower fuel-costs.
Arrangement of a diesel-electric propulsionsystem using electrical azipods, with the power supply
by diesel generators,
Figurtekst slut.

Large pod
Figurtekst slut.
1. Diesel engines
2. Generators sets
3. Main switchboards
4. Propulsion transformers
5. Frequency converters
6. Automation
7. Propeller
8. Azimuthing bearing (360°)
9. Bearings and shaft seal
10. Electromotor
Side 273

The turning circle of a ship with electrical rudder propellers as compared to the sister ship that
uses separate rudders and propellers
Figurtekst slut.

Drive via rudder propeller
Figurtekst slut.
Direct-drive engine to propeller
Figurtekst slut.

Diesel-electric drive
Figurtekst slut.
Aerial photograph of a ferry showing thruster wash
Figurtekst slut.

A cruise ship with two electrical rudder propellers that can rotate 360°.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 274

2.7 Propeller shafting

The stern tube contains the bearings in which the propeller shaft rotates. Usually, there are two
bearings, the after one being the longer. Close to this after bearing is the sealing system that keeps
the seawater out of the stern tube and the oil inside.
The forward end of the stern tube is welded to the after peak bulkhead, the after end to the stern or
propeller bracket.
After welding, the tube ends are machined in situ, in accordance with the alignment of the shafting
in relation to the gear box / main engine.
A sealing system must be able to withstand extreme conditions such as:
- circumferential speeds up to 5 m/s
- water pressure up to 3 bar
- axial and radial propeller shaft displacements of approximately 1 millimeter
- the ship's vibration
- 7000 hours of rotation-time per year, over 5 years
Shaft alignment can be complex.
In small ships it is usually a straight line, but in large ships with heavy shafting systems, the
alignment is calculated and bored in accordance with the flexible line of the installed coupled

2.7.1 Water as a lubricant

When water is the lubricant for the propeller shaft, the bearings are made of rubber. Water
lubrication can be achieved with both open and closed systems. In the open system there must a
flow, usually generated by a pump, through the stern bush from forward to shaft, thus preventing
sea-water from entering the ship. In the closed system, the water is pumped round the shaft, from
forward to shaft. This means that the water inside the stern tube always has a slight over-pressure as
compared to the outside seawater. The Navy prefers water lubrication because seals used with oil
lubrication are vulnerable to pressure shocks from, for instance, depth charges. The seals are then
blown inwards, and the sealing properties are lost. In some countries water lubrication is
compulsory for local shipping to protect the environment.
that part of a machine in which a rotating part rests
Rammetekst slut.
1. Propeller shaft
2. Steel bush or stern tube
3. Rubber bearing

In an A-bracket, outboard water lubricates the bearing system, either by natural flow or by force
feeding. Especially for abrasive inland river conditions an additional shrunkon sleeve can be
utilised to prevent wear of the shaft.
Figurtekst slut.
In open sterntube systems the same bearings and shaft liners are incorporated. In addition the
forward stern tube seals are mounted which feature an inflatable service seal and lubricating
Figurtekst slut.

Mounting both forward and aft seal on either end of the stern tube creates a closed water
lubricated systems. Forced water lubrication is a improvement.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 275

1. Stern
2. Rudder
3. Propeller cap
4. Propeller
5. Skeg
6. Aft stern tube seal
7. Shafting
8. Forward stern tube seals
9. Intermediate shaft bearings
10. Propeller shaft
11. Header tank for static oil pressure stern tube
12. Tank for forward seal.

2.7.2 Oil lubricated shafting

Approximately 70% of all ships use oil as a lubricant for the propeller shaft. In that case, the
bearing is usually made of white metal, and sometimes of synthetic material. White metal is
The disadvantage of synthetic materials is that they are bad transmitters of frictional heat from the
bearing and shaft. The oil-filled tube, with the shaft in centre, has sophisticated seals at both ends to
keep the oil in the tube and the water out.
The after seal at the stern of the ship consists of three rubber lip seals that are clamped in housings.
The tips of the seals run on a bush that protects the shaft from wear.
The first two lip seals prevent the water from entering the stern tube, and so prevent deterioration of
the oil. The third seal prevents the oil leaking to the environment.
Depending on the level of operation, the bush of a standard seal will be worn out by the rubber lip
seals after approximately five years.
After those five years, the bush will be moved longitudinally or milled to a slightly smaller
Bushes with hard coatings are also available, and have a much lower wear rate.
The after bush is bolted to the propeller hub and the forward bush is bolted to a ring that is clamped
around the shaft.
The oil in the stern tube is kept at a pressure of approximately 0.4 bar higher than the water
pressure. This is achieved by a header tank situated several metres above the load water line.
The higher pressure prevents water from leaking into the stern tube if the seals fail. This is very
important, because water will deteriorate the lubricating capacity of the oil.
Without lubrication the bearings will be destroyed and the complete shaft will need to be
The header tank is vented, to allow for expansion of the oil due to heating.
The warm oil rises through the return line, creating a natural circulation.
The small circulation tank just above the forward seal contains oil that provides lubrication and
cooling of the forward lip seals.
Side 276
1. Propeller boss
2. Propeller shaft
3. Chrome steel liner
4. Seawater seal rings
5. Oil seal rings
6. Stern frame
7. Aft bearing
8. Stern tube
9. Clamped ring
10. Oil tank
11. Fastening at stern tube
12. Air release valve
For filling the stern tube and header tank there is a fixed connection with the main lube oil storage
Apart from the standard seals, seals for different applications have different properties.
For example a Seaguard has a backup lip seal that is activated when the original oil seal fails.
All the major seal suppliers have a sealing system that keeps the oil pressure equal to the water
Air with the same pressure is vented between the oil and water lip seals.
This compensates for the pressure difference over the seals due to waves or loading, creating a
longer seal life.
Some of the venting air takes all leakage back into the ship to a drain tank. This creates a
guaranteed leak-free sealing system, protecting the environment.
The amount of fluid in the drain tank is a measure of the wear of the lip seals.
Seal maintenance can be scheduled based on the periodic checks of the drain tank level.
Side 277

2.8 Water jet propulsion

Water jet propulsion is based on the reaction force of a high-velocity water jet at the stern of a light
displacement ship, ejected astern.
The main principles of the water jet are:
- the impeller (propeller) draws in seawater through an inlet, usually in the flat bottom
- the same impeller boosts the water pressure for the water flow
- the water is pushed through a nozzle
- the nozzle converts the water pressure into a high-speed jet
- the acceleration of the water flow generates a thrust force that gives the ship its speed
- for astern power, the water flow exiting from the nozzle is reversed in the forward direction with
reversing plate(s).
The water jet has an electronic steering system. This means that the orders from the bridge are
processed instantaneously by micro-processors. This makes it possible for the water jet, engine and
gear box to be controlled directly from the bridge.
Yachts, passenger and car ferries, rescue and patrol boats and cargo ships can be equipped with
water jets.
The maximum speed of modern water jets lies around 70-75 knots (approximately 135 km/h).
The fastest ferries can reach a speed of approximately 50 knots.
The advantages of water-jets are:
- no rotating parts under water. This makes it safe to maneuvre in shallow waters
- less resistance, especially at higher speeds, because there are no fittings (e.g. the rudder) which
protrude below the ship.
- excellent manoeuverability. For instance, a jet-powered ship can navigate sideways
- less sensitive to cavitation than propellers on fast ships
- high propulsion efficiencies of up to 72%.

Cross-section of water jet
Figurtekst slut.
1. Inlet
2. Driving shaft
3. Impeller
4. Hydraulic steering cylinder
5. Jetavator, steering part
6. Hydraulic cylinder that alters the direction of the propulsion
7. Reversing plate, moved by the cylinder
8. Reverse section
9. Seal to prevent water from entering the ship
10. Combined guide and thrust bearing
11. Nozzle.
The water jet uses the same principle as an aircraft jet engine, but here water is the medium instead
of air.
The principle is based on Newton's
law F = m × a,
F = the force in Newton,
m = the mass of the water
a = the acceleration of the water.
Rammetekst slut.

Figurtekst slut.
Zero speed
Figurtekst slut.

Figurtekst slut.

Steering port
Figurtekst slut.

Steering starboard
Figurtekst slut.
Ship driven by water jet propulsion
Figurtekst slut.

Full speed ahead
Figurtekst slut.
Side 278

3. Stabilizers
Stabilizers can reduce the rolling of a ship by as much as 80 - 90%.
Fins with the configuration of a flap rudder mounted horizontally use the velocity of the water
streaming along the ship's side to reduce rolling.
They protrude from the bilge strake and rotate around a shaft.
The maximum rotation angle is approximately 25° up or down. When at an angle they produce
lifting forces similar to a rudder. When a ship is rolling, water flows along the sides in an
undulating way.
The fin is operated such that at any moment, a reaction force is produced, upward or downward,
contrary to the acceleration of the ship's side.
The angle of attack of the fin is adjusted to the flow direction, upward or downward, depending on
rolling speed and interval and ship's speed. The fin is oscillated by a hydraulic piston or vane-type
The angle of attack and the rotation speed and period are dictated by a computer, receiving signals
from sensors in the rotating shaft comparing the produced force with the required force, and from a
The working force is maximized, but cavitation is prevented.
They are used in passenger ships and yachts for the comfort of people on board, and in ro-ro ships
and container ships to reduce the acceleration forces on the cargo.
Some heavy cargo ships use stabilizers for the same reason.
A decrease in fuel consumption is also claimed.
Normal installation comprises one fin on each side, but 4 fins are also used installed.
When not in use the fins are retracted.
1. Bridge control unit
2. Main control unit
3. Pump motor starter
4. Local control unit
5. Fin
6. Stabilizer machinery unit
7. Oil header tank
8. Hydraulic power unit
4. Rudders
The function of a rudder is to develop a transverse steering force on the aft end of a ship, using the
reaction force of the water flowing along the ship and over the rudder. The rudder is usually located
in the water flow astern of the propeller. Depending on the type of ship, the area of the rudder
ranges from 1.5% to 10% of the underwater lateral area (length × draught).
The rudder should be shaped in such a way that the water flow can be deflected as effectively as
possible, in combination with minimum resistance.
These requirements can be satisfied by giving the horizontal cross-section of the rudder a wing
profile. In fact, the rudder is a vertical wing, on which a lifting force is generated by the water flow
in the same way that an aeroplane wing, propeller blades and nozzles obtain lift.
This is known as rudder force.
The drag should be as low as possible. The rudder force gives a turning moment around the ship's
centre of displacement, and rotates the ship.
For slow-speed manoeuvring the rudder should cover the propeller diameter as much as possible in
order to make optimal use of the water flow of the propeller.
The force that the steering engine must exert depends on the torque (force × distance) that must be
applied to rotate the rudder. This force is the resultant (N) in the drawing. The total moment
depends on:
- the position of the rudder stock compared to the point of application of N
- the distance between the rudder stock and the leading edge of the rudder (balance).
When the rudder is free-hanging (spade type), the rudder stock must also be able to absorb the total
bending forces of the rudder.
Depending on the rudder profile, the rudder stock is located 25 - 40% abaft the leading edge of the
Most rudders are hollow and empty. The inside is stiffened with horizontal and vertical profiles.
The next sections will describe only free-hanging rudders. In smaller vessels like fishing boats,
however, rudders are still supported in specially constructed heels.
Side 279

Conical keyless connection between the rudder stock and rudder blade
Figurtekst slut.
The rudder blade is fitted to the rudder stock by a disconnectable connection that can transmit the
torque. A connection method that is often used is the keyless fit.
The keyless fit of a rudder stock onto a rudder (or propeller shaft to a propeller) is based on the
expansion of the conical hole in the rudder (or propeller) hub by high oil pressure applied through
oil channels (10). Simultaneously, the rudder hub casting (7) with the conical hole is being pushed
onto the shaft by the hydraulic piston (11), which is built in the nut (9).
The required travel, and therewith the grip of the hub on the shaft, is precalculated. When the
required travel is achieved, the oil pressure on the hub is released, whilst the pushing force of the
hydraulic piston is maintained for a certain time. The nut has to be tightened up after releasing the
pushing pressure.
Rammetekst slut.
Horizontal cross-section of the rudder blade of a balance rudder
Figurtekst slut.
Rudder stock moment: N × a
V = velocity of waterflow
L = lift
D = drag
N = resultant force
- = underpressure
+ = overpressure
a = distance between the rudder-stock and the point of application of N
1. Transom
2. Shell plating
3. Rudder horn
4. Rudder stock
5. Hole for rudder pintle
6. (Mariner) Rudder
7. Rubber upper casting
8. New pintle bearing bush
9. Hydraulic nut
10. Oil channels
11. Built in push up piston
Side 280

Top view
Figurtekst slut.

Side view of the ship's centre line
Figurtekst slut.
Construction of part of the lower stern of a container feeder
Figurtekst slut.

Frame at aft perpendicular (frame 0)
Figurtekst slut.

Frame number 2
Figurtekst slut.
Side girder in stern
Figurtekst slut.
1. Transom
2. Steering flat
3. Aft perpendicular = rudder axis
4. Rudder
5. Rudder trunk
6. Space for the rudder stock
7. Ice protection
8. Rudder dome
9. Stern frame
10. Centerline wash bulkhead
11. Stern frame
12. Centreline propeller shaft
13. Side girder
14. Floor plate
Side 281
The most common rudder types are:
1. Spade rudder
2. Flap rudder
3. Mariner rudder

4.1 Spade rudder

In terms of construction, the spade rudder is very simple because it has no external supports. For
this reason it is a very cheap rudder and it is widely used, from yachts to fast ferries and tankers.
The rudder usually becomes narrower from top to bottom to reduce the bending moment in the
rudder shaft.

A spade rudder, freely suspended from the rudder trunk
Figurtekst slut.

4.2 The flap rudder

The flap rudder has a hinged flap at the back of the rudder blade.
This flap is moved mechanically by the flap guide at the top of the rudder in such a way that the
flap's turning angle is twice as large as the turning angle of the main rudder blade.
The steering methods of the flap differ per type of flap rudder.
When the maximum rudder angle is 45°, the flap has a maximum angle of 90° with respect to the
In this rudder position it is possible that 40% of the ship's propulsive force is directed sideways.
In combination with a bow thruster such a ship can manoeuvre sideways.
Current flows at maximum rudder angle
Figurtekst slut.
Advantages of flap rudders are:
- extra maneuvrability (that is, if the main rudder blade is as large as the spade rudder)
- course corrections can be performed with smaller rudder angles This means that the ship loses less
speed and therefore consumes less fuel.
Disadvantages are:
- price
- vulnerability
- the larger rudder forces require the rudder stock to be bigger

A flap rudder under a large cargo ferry
Figurtekst slut.

Flap rudder
Figurtekst slut.
1. Rudder blade
2. Hinge line
3. Flap
4. Rudder stock in rudder trunk
5. Flap actuator
6. Bearing
7. Rudder dome
8. Steering engine foundation
Side 282

4.3 The mariner rudder

The Mariner rudder is used on large ships like container ships, bulk carriers, tankers and passenger
The rudder horn is integrated in the ship's construction and the mariner rudder is attached to the
stern post with the ability to rotate.
This results in a robust rudder.
Disadvantages of this construction are that there is a larger risk of cavitation at the suspension
points and that the cast construction is more expensive.

Mariner rudder
Figurtekst slut.
1. Rudder blade
2. Rudder horn
3. Rudder trunk
4. Seal
5. Carrier
6. Vane type steering gear
7. Draft marks
8. Propeller hub
9. Propeller blade
10. Stern tube
11. A-frame
12. Skeg
13. Zinc anodes
Removal of complete rudder,
Figurtekst slut.

Fitting of pintles to new bushings
Figurtekst slut.

Alignment of rudder (weight approximately 120 tons) and stock in shop
Figurtekst slut.
Side 283

5. Steering gear
5.1 General
To alter course, the automatic pilot or the helm is used to activate the steering engine, which, in
turn, rotates the rudder stock and the rudder.
The rudder carrier supports the rudder stock and the rudder.
The rudder carrier also functions as a bearing around the rudder stock and seals the rudder trunk to
prevent seawater from entering the ship by a gland.
SOLAS demands that every steering engine be equipped with 2 sets of pumps with separate power
supplies, and, consequently, with 2 servo sets, serving the hydraulic pumps.
Both the ram and rotary vane steering engines operate by hydraulic power. Both types of steering
gear are equally common in shipping.
The magnitude of the steering or rudder moment is expressed in kNm (kilo-Newton meter).
In general the greatest rudder moment occurs at 30°-35°.

Double-acting cylinders in a ram steering gear of a small vessel
Figurtekst slut.
1. Rudder stock
2. Tiller
3. Ram (piston + cylinder)
4. Hydraulic lines
5. Electro-motor
6. Hydraulic oil storage tank, hydraulic motor is installed in the tank.

5.2 Ram steering gear

In a ram steering gear the rudder stock is rotated by a tiller that is controlled by rams. A ram
consists of a cylinder and a piston, the piston being moved by hydraulic pressure. The tiller and the
rudder stock are often linked by a conical connection.
Ram steering gears can have 1 ram, 2 rams or 4 rams. If, in the case of one or two rams, the
cylinders are double-acting the steering engine can still operate through one of the cylinders if the
other one fails.
A 4-ram system can be split in two and two for the same reason.
This is a SOLAS requirement.
Ram steering gear of a large ship
Figurtekst slut.
Side 284

5.3 Rotary vane steering gear

A rotary vane steering engine consists of a fixed casing, with a rotor to which wings are attached
inside the casing. The casing is provided with two similar fixed wings as on the rotor. This
arrangement divides the house into four chambers, two high pressure and two low pressure ones. A
valve block directs hydraulic oil at high pressure into the chambers simultaneously,
pushing/rotating the rotor and subsequently the rudder. If the rudder is rotated to the other side, the
high pressure chambers become low pressure chambers and vice versa. The rudder stock is located
in the center of the rotor; the rotor is pressed onto the conical section of the rudder stock. The wings
and the fixed division blocks are provided with spring-loaded plates which are the seals between
the high and low pressure oil chambers.
Advantages of a rotary vane steering gear engine over a ram steering engine are:
- takes up less space
- easier to build in
- has an integrated bearing
- has a constant rudder moment
- repairs are quite complicated
Rotery vane:
1. Rudder stock
2. Rotor with wings
3. Fixed division blocks with oil lines
4. Chambers (filled with oil)
5. Electric motor
6. Hydraulic pump
1. Rudder
2. Rotary vane steering gear with valve block
3. Electric motor with main hydraulic pump
4. Power units (to supply the hydraulic power to operate the valves in the valve-block)
5. Hydraulic oil tank
6. Emergency control console
7. Electric motor starter boxes
8. Bulkhead between engine room and steering gear room
9. Ship's bottom
10. Entrance from engineroom
11. Hydraulic oil lines and cross connections
Side 285

Flap rudder, disconnected from rudder kingpost, being lowered in dry dock. Note the temporary
welded flap securings.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 286

Figurtekst slut.
Side 287
Side 288

1 Basics of electricity 288
2 Electrical installations 293
3 Distribution systems 294
4 Ships operational requirements 296
5 Basic electrical design 300
6 Electro magnetic compatibility 301
7 Main components 303
8 Automation 308
9 Communication systems 310
10 Navigation equipment 311
11 Hazardous zones 312
12 Testing and commissioning 312
1 Basics of electricity
This chapter explains some basics about electricity and how a ship's electrical installation is
designed, installed, commissioned, tested and certified.
It is the gist of the publication: Ships Electrical Systems, also issued by Dokmar Maritime
Publishers BV.

Lightning, can have impressive effects
Figurtekst slut.
Electricity is a clean method of energy transport and consists of two basic types:
- Direct current (DC)
- Alternating current (AC)
A three (3) phase or rotating alternating current was developed from single alternating current.
The behaviour of electricity can be compared to that of water. Voltage can be compared to water
pressure and current to the water flow.
Voltage is measured when the system is at rest and is measured in volts. Current transports an
electrical charge from a high voltage to a lower voltage, and is measured in amperes.

1.1 Direct Current (DC)

Direct Current is the only type of electricity which is found in nature as static electricity which
becomes apparent for example:
- as lightning when large quantities equalize
- when a person gets a shock when touching an earthed metal door-knob, discharging static
electricity after walking on a synthetic carpet.
The ultimate transfer of static electricity is lightning too much and too fast to store, but none-
theless, an impressive display.
Normally direct current is produced by a chemical process in for instance:
- a battery
- fuel cells
- solar cells
Direct current can also be produced by a dynamo/DC generator.
Instead of Direct Current it would have been better to have used Direct Voltage for identification,
as current is the result of a potential difference, but history has decided differently.
Direct current can be stored in batteries and can later be used when needed, thus allowing for
differences in capacity of generation, storage and use.
The chemical process of charging a battery is reversible.
A battery consists of two or more metals, in a conductive environment (usually acid). The metals
dissolve, thereby ionizing and creating a difference in potential between them. Lead acid batteries
are the most commonly used type. The more expensive but longer-lasting nickel cadmium batteries
use alkaline for conductivity.
Rammetekst slut.
Side 289
Generator capacity is expressed in amperes, battery capacity in amperes per hour.
Some battery types allow for a discharge of a large current for a short period of time.
The power system of a conventional diesel electric submarine consists of diesel generator sets
producing DC power. When surfaced or at snorkel depth, batteries are charged. The stored power is
used in an electric propulsion motor.
Hybrid cars are also based on this principle, where the created energy is stored in a battery and
they use a combination of electric motor and a petrol or diesel engine.
The engine not only drives the wheels, but also charges the batteries by means of a generator. The
electric motor relies on the battery capacity without using the combustion engine.
Rammetekst slut.
A disadvantage of direct current systems is that the voltage from the generator, which is basically
alternating voltage, is transformed into direct voltage by using collectors (commutators) and carbon
These require extensive maintenance and become more complicated when the capacity is increased.
Also, the constant magnetic field created by direct current has to be transformed into a rotating
field by a collector and brushes. The switch gear is also complicated and expensive.
The advantages of a conventional direct current system are:
- simple coordination of multiple generators (parallel-running)
- simple storage of energy in batteries.
New technology, however, has provided other possibilities:
- brushless alternating current generators with built-in rectifiers that supply direct current
- motors made for rotating alternating current can draw current from a DC supply by using DC/AC
The DC generators supply power to electric propulsion motors and to batteries.
In modern ships, DC is mainly installed in small systems for temporary use such as:
- emergency lighting,
- escape lighting,
- safety and alarm systems.
The other systems are alternating current or rotating alternating current.
Conventional submarine
Figurtekst slut.

DC machine
Figurtekst slut.
Collector and brushes of a large DC machine either motor or generator
Figurtekst slut.
Side 290

1.1.1 Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS)

An UPS consists of a combination of:
- a battery charger charging a battery from an AC supply
- a battery
- a converter to make AC out of DC.
UPS units are often used for computers, where power interruption, or low voltage can lead to data
loss or disruption of a program. Depending on the type of system this can lead to injuries or
dangerous situations.
Most UPS units have a limited capacity, often not more than half an hour. The normal power
supply must be restored within that period or the computer systems must have saved the
information and safely shut down the program.
When supplying sensitive equipment, UPS units must have an output with a sinusoidal wave form.
The cheaper UPS units, which have a block wave form on the output, may damage equipment.

1.2 Alternating Current

Alternating Current (AC), in its simplest form, is produced by a permanent magnet on a shaft, with
the poles fitted transversally to that shaft, rotating inside a tubular coil called the stator.
The rotating magnets will induce a voltage with a frequency in the stator coil which is proportional
to the rotation speed.
The rotation speed is usually expressed in RPM or revolutions per minute.
The frequency of an AC generator depends on the number of magnet poles and the rotation speed
(RPM). The frequency can be calculated from f (Hz) = pole pairs × RPM / 60.
Example: a generator with 2 pole pairs driven at 1800 RPM will produce 60Hz.

1. Rotating coil
2. Static permanent magnet
3. Commutator
4. Pulsating direct current
5. Rotating permanent magnet
6. Static coil
7. Alternating current

To create more power in an AC generator, the permanent magnet, which is limited in size and
strength, is replaced by an electro magnet (see G3 in the diagrams on the next page). This electro
magnet is fed through a commutator (brushes on slip rings on the shaft) by DC from an external
source: the generator.
Commutators are not maintenance friendly due to wear and tear. For this reason more powerful
exciter electro magnets have been developed with-out a commutator.
An exciter is a rotating transformer with a non rotating electro magnet (now the stator). A system
of coils rotates inside this stator (rotor 2). The magnetic field in this stator develops an alternating
current in the rotating coils of rotor 2. This alternating current is rectified by diodes which are
installed on the rotor to convert it into direct current. This direct current is supplied to the poles of
the rotor of the AC generator (G 3) making this rotor a strong rotating magnet.
The desired voltage is developed in the stator around this magnet.

1.2.1 Ships' AC Generator

Similar to the bicycle dynamo, a small permanent magnet is fitted on the shaft of the exciter
creating a small voltage in the primary stator (G 1).
This alternating current is rectified and supplies a direct current to the exciter, being the first step in
generating the desired voltage.
This is the difference between a ship's generator and a shore generator.
In the shore generator the initial DC is supplied from outside. Early generators were single phase
with a two wire connection.
Alternating current goes from zero to maximum or minimum. This enables a motor to be
disconnected from the power cables relatively simply.
When the contact of the switch is opened in order to stop the current, an arc develops.
This arc disappears the moment the current goes through zero stopping the current.
Side 291

1. Permanent magnet
2. Primary coil, producing alternating current
3. Stator exciter winding
4. Exciter rotor windings
5. Rotating diodes rectify AC into DC
6. Electro magnetic poles of the rotor
7. Stator
8. Slip rings with brushes.
When the distance between the contacts is still relatively small when the voltage goes through zero,
the arc can reoccur when the voltage increases (sine curve).
This can be repeated a few times until the distance is too large for a new arc to start.
Extinguishing chambers that absorb the energy of the arc and / or blowers that blow the arc away
have improved the process.
Fast switch gear called limitors ensure a high short circuit performance.
Alternating Current is a very suitable transport medium for lighting, heating, and switching signals.
Single phase electric motors have an auxiliary winding to define the direction of rotation on start.
This winding is connected to the power supply via a condenser to obtain a slight phase shift. When
the motor is running this auxiliary winding is sometimes switched off. Single phase AC motors are
mostly small and mainly used in household appliances.
Short circuit capability is the maximum current that an electrical system can withstand without
being damaged by mechanical or thermal stress.
This includes all components that can be exposed to a short ciruit current such as rail systems and
circuit breakers.
The new generation of permanent magnets is so powerful that they can create very high voltages in
the stator.
With the 3-phase rotating current is rectified directly in the machine, the output is DC with a
voltage proportional to the RPM. This makes these generators suitable as battery chargers and the
DC current can be stored in batteries without additional equipment.
Rammetekst slut.
A generator with sliprings has no exciter. The direct current from the voltage regulator is directly
supplied to the sliprings
Rammetekst slut.
A stator is a tube of coiled copper wire. The rotor, a permanent magnet, rotate inside this tube. The
frequency of the voltage is expressed in Hertz (Hz).
Rammetekst slut.
Side 292

1.3 Rotating alternating current

A rotating or 3 phase electrical current is made up of three single phase currents.
The DC magnet of a 3 phase generator rotates inside a stator which consists of three windings,
spaced 120° from each other.
Three alternating currents are created in sequence in the windings. This rotating current makes it
possible to use an electric motor with a stator which has windings spaced 120° apart. The rotor of
an electric motor has been simplified into a cage of short circuited rods instead of windings. Such a
rotor is called a squirrel cage rotor.
The squirrel cage motor, without sliprings and brushes, is the simplest electric motor and basically
maintenance free.
Reversing the direction of the rotor's rotation is done by changing two phases in the stator, which
changes the direction of the driving magnetic field.
A further advantage of a 3-phase system is that when the load is equally divided over the phases,
the sum of the three phase currents is zero. The neutral connection will then not be loaded and can
be deleted which is for instance the case with electric motors.
Lighting systems can also be supplied from three phase power. Each phase is then used in
combination with the neutral. The phase/neutral voltage is the phase voltage divided by V3. For
example a 400V 3-phase system with a neutral can supply 230V to a lighting system.
A special lighting transformer is not required in this case which can be cost saving. When using a
phase/neutral supply system the loads should be equaly divided over the phases.
A disadvantage of this system can be that disturbances in the main power system are directly
transferred to the lighting distribution system. If that would be the case a three phase to three phase
with neutral transformer can be used.
Rammetekst slut.

Rotating current system
Figurtekst slut.
Side 293

2 Electrical installations
By definition Ships Electrical Systems have to be self supporting as there will be no direct external
support or aid when at sea.
Ships are like small towns with all systems included, like electrical power generation and
distribution, domestic systems, food processing, etc.
Systems also include automation, internal and external communications and nautical equipment.
Sufficient redundancy must be available in essential systems to continue operation in the case of a
single failure and to be able to reach port.
The way a ships installation is operated has it's impact on the design:
- a manned engineroom has less automation than an engineroom outfitted for unmanned operation.
- a wheelhouse equipped to navigate with only one man on the bridge has more equipment and
requires more redundancy in equipment.
When high powered electrical systems are installed together with low power sensitive electrical
systems in a relatively small space, they should not interfere with each other. They have to be
checked for electromagnetic compatibility, EMC. (See paragraph 6).

Observing the power and propulsion control
Figurtekst slut.
Side 294

3 Distribution systems
The early (3-phase rotating alternating current) electrical installations onboard ships were small, the
cables of relatively low quality and duplication of components or systems rare. To be able to
continue operation with a single earth fault, the systems were insulated, i.e. no connection between
neutral (star point or zero) and the ship's hull (earth).
This made it possible to continue operating the ship in the case of a single earth fault (1), while
searching for the fault.
A second earth fault (2) in a different phase would lead to a short circuit and tripping of both circuit
breakers in the supplies.
See the first two diagrams showing examples of a first and second earth-fault.
In shore installations the starpoint is always connected to earth, and any earth fault will result in
switching of the relevant group.
With large installations nowadays, the capacitive coupling of the cable network between phase and
earth is large.
The capacitive coupling of cables acts as a conductor for the alternating current. In large
installations this current can be substantial and can result in a heat source and the risk of fire any-
where in the circuit.
For this reason it is worth considering the use of a three phase with neutral system (four conductors)
for part of the electrical installation. In such a system an earth fault will be switched off directly.
See the second diagram on the next page for an example of a 3-phase, 4-wire neutral earthed
distribution system.
Another advantage of the 3-phase, 4-wire, neutral earth system is that the input filters fitted in all
sensitive equipment will function similarly to shore equipment. Input filters allow signals to pass to
the equipment.
This makes shore equipment suitable for marine use, in so far as the electric / electronic signals are
Sensitive equipment comprises computer systems, internal communication equipment, audio-,
video equipment and the like.
In the past electrical equipment for ships was specially designed for marine use with heavier
insulation and a more robust construction.
Nowadays, shore equipment is also adapted to withstand vibration, regular and irregular
movements, moisture, salt, dust, etc, found in the marine environment, and for installation in tight
spaces making it usable in ships.
Side 295
Side 296

4 Ship's operational requirements

This part gives further details of the following main criteria which have to be taken into account in
the design of a ship.
1. Type of service
2. Engine operation and control
3. Redundancy criteria (back-up)
The design of the electrical installation follows these main criteria.

Self propelled crane barge
Figurtekst slut.
Controlroom of the self propelled crane barge
Figurtekst slut.
Side 297

4.1 Type of service

4.1.1 Inland navigation

Ships that navigate only in rivers, canals, harbours, etc. have a restricted area of operation.
Help from the shore or tugboats is available at short notice.
Even those Inland Waterway Ships (IWS) that sail on the rivers and canals from Rotterdam to the
Black Sea can expect help at reasonably short notice.
This allows less stringent requirements for fire pumps, emergency batteries and fuel tank capacity,
compared with ships for wider service.
This also applies to requirements for communication equipment.
There are separate Classification rules and regulations for inland navigation. For dangerous cargoes,
there are special regulations (ADNR), which are similar to SOLAS rules for seagoing ships.
Tank ships navigating the river Rhine, for instance, are required to be equipped with backup
propulsion giving them an emergency speed of about 3 knots.
A number of basically inland ships are adapted for restricted coastal trade, for instance between
Rotterdam and Antwerp via the North Sea.
In addition to the emphasis on closing appliances, these ships also have to fulfil SOLAS (Safety Of
Life At Sea) and COLREG (collision regulations) requirements for coastal trade.
Navigation lights must comply with the rules for sea-going ships.

4.1.2 Coastal or restricted service

Ships that only navigate relatively close to shore also have a restricted area of operation.
Communication equipment for Al, and sometimes A2, is required for short sea-voyages such as
from main land Europe to England. Al is within VHF reach of coast radio stations.
The requirements for emergency batteries and for fuel capacity for the emergency generator are
also less stringent.
Cargo vessel for inland waterways, with two push-barges
Figurtekst slut.

Coastal diesel electric ferry
Figurtekst slut.

4.1.3 Unrestricted service

Unrestricted service goes beyond the Inland and Coastal Service, but no further north or south than
70° latitude, where satellite contact is not guaranteed.
The applicable communication regulations are those for Area A3. 'Unrestricted' means that
assistance from shore at short notice is not necessarily available.
SOLAS requires compliance with the full spectrum of its rules with regard to:
- the fuel tank capacity of the emergency generator,
- battery capacity of emergency systems,
- A3 radio equipment.
In the Polar Regions, Area A4, radio equipment must have MF and HF capabilities as satellite
communication may not be available.

Container ship for unrestricted service
Figurtekst slut.
Side 298

4.2 Operation/engine control

Engine rooms of modern ships are normally not manned. The unmanned engine room is the norm,
which means that all equipment is automated.
Manual action is only required if there is a malfunction. The crew attends the engine room only for
maintenance and repairs.
The Class notation for such an engine room is UMS or unattended machinery space.
A manned engine room, which means that systems are monitored and controlled 24 hours a day,
requires more crew, with the obvious financial consequences.
The availability of such crew is another factor. The engine room is a noisy, hot and humid
Modern automation and control systems allow the engine equipment to be monitored and
controlled from a control room for at least part of the time.
All systems must be designed and installed so that no intervention by an engineer is required under
normal steaming or manoeuvring conditions.
During sea trials at the end of the building period, 4 to 6 hours of operation under varying
circumstances must be completed without alarms sounding and / or shutdowns.
When only one person is in the engine room, that person needs to be protected by a "dead man
alarm system". It is activated by the engineer when entering the engine room. The activation will
start a timer which is normally set at 27 minutes.
When the engineer resets an alarm or resets the dead man alarm system the timer will start another
27 minutes.
After 27 minutes without manual action, a pre-alarm in the engine room goes off.
If that is not acknowledged within three minutes, the general engineers' alarm goes off.
Resetting the timer is possible at various locations in the engine room. Switching it off is only
possible when leaving the engine room.
Unmanned engine rooms require:
- fire detection,
- automatic protection of diesel engines, gas turbines and steam turbines for propulsion and for
electric power generation,
- remote control of propulsion and steering gear from the bridge
- automatic starting and stopping of air compressors and other machinery which does not run
- automatic start of a stand-by pump if a running pump fails,
- starting of a standby generator if the working set fails,
- automatic restarting of equipment in order of importance after a black-out, including auxiliary
sytems such as lubricating oil, fuel, HT (fresh) cooling water, LT (salt) cooling water and
Engine control room of yacht with notation UMS
Figurtekst slut.
Side 299
Automatic start of an auxiliary generator and re-start of all essential consumers in case of a
blackout is a SOLAS requirement for all ships where the steering and/or propulsion is dependent on
This also applies to ships with a manned engine room.
When the load requires parallel operation of two or more generators a non-essential tripping system
must switch off the non-essential consumers if one of the running generators fails.

Bridge automation
One man on the bridge (Notation NAV 1) is a further development of bridge automation.
Besides bridge control of propulsion, navigational equipment is also automated. Paper charts are
replaced by electronic charts on a screen, which may also show radar information and the ships
Dead man safety is similar to that in the engine room. A timer has to be reset every 11 minutes. If it
is not reset within one more minute, a warning sounds in the officers' accommodation.
Like the dead man alarm system in the engine room, touching any button also resets the timer.
Similar systems are in use on inland waterway ships and railways, but with different time intervals.
Some flag states do not allow only one man on the bridge, and on passenger ships it is forbidden.
Further requirements:
- two radars (one with ARPA function)
- Automatic Identification System (AIS), transmitting in the VHF band:
• name,
• identification number,
• tonnage, cargo,
• loading and discharge port, course and speed.
- echo sounder with shallow water alarm,
- autopilot, with an off-course alarm independent from gyro
- navigation lights with fault alarm
- power supply failure alarms.
The Integrated Bridge, notation IBS, goes even further.
Screens can show the electronic chart with ship's position, radar picture and
AIS information.
Workstations allow for:
- voyage planning,
- engine room information with main and auxiliary systems,
- switching from one function to another.
However, when one function fails, the system automatically reverts back to basics:
- chart,
- radar
- alarms.
IBS requires a second DGPS and a second gyro compass.
Dynamic positioning ships, where keeping or reaching a certain position has real priority, are
equipped with even more backups: three gyros, a double vertical reference unit, double wind
measurement, double position sensors, etc. (see Dynamic positioning, paragraph 8.2).

Bridge control layout Mega yacht
Figurtekst slut.
Side 300

4.3 Redundancy (back up systems)

Some types of ships have redundancy, not only for a single failure of a pump or generator, but also
for the complete breakdown of an engine room due to fire or flooding. The most extensive form of
redundancy means complete duplication of engine rooms, including generators, switch-boards, etc.
Redundancy is also applied to cable routeing, for instance of power cables. The control of essential
equipment must not be on the same cable tray as the control cables of identical equipment.
Redundancy is analysed by a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). This is a list of the
possible failures and an analysis of their effects. It is not limited to electric components and
systems, but also includes fuel systems, cooling water, starting air, etc..
Redundancy is categorized by Class:
- Class 1: One single failure will not stop the operation of the ship. On normal ships this is the
usual criteria. Where there is only one computer system, manual operation has to be possible.
- Class 2: More stringent, requiring two switchboards, and with computerized operation, there
should be duplication with two computers, where each of the systems can operate individually.
- Class 3: Operation has to be maintained even in case of loss of a vital space such as an engine
room, a switchboard room or a thruster room. This also requires a second navigation bridge with a
second computer control system.
Redundancy is the quantity of spare parts and/or systems which have to be on board/installed to be
able to continue operation in case of failure.
Examples are duplication of:
- light from another power supply,
- power supplies to the steering gear
- generator connected to another part of the switchboard
- pump that automatically starts when the first pumps stops.
Rammetekst slut.

5 Basic Electrical Design

The basic design has to be submitted for Class approval, and consists of:
- load balance or power analysis
- short circuit calculation
- one-line diagram
- selectivity diagram
- lay-out plans.
The content of the function analysis is determined by Class and the Flag State.
The flag State is involved by IMO and SOLAS Rules.
In many cases the approvals for the Flag State are done by the Classification Society.

5.1 Load Balance

The load balance is a calculation of the total required electric power under every condition.
The type of ship determines the electrical load balance too. For example a cargo ship with electric
cranes for loading and off-loading cargo will require more electrical power in port than a ship
without cranes. Or a dredger with large electric sand pumps requires more power during
operational sailing than in port. The load balance determines the rating and number of generators.
The same calculations are used to determine the number and rating of transformers for lighting and
other low voltage systems, and the size of the connecting cables.
As not all consumers will be switched on at the same time diversity factors are used to determine
the actual electrical loads on which the cable sizes may be based.
The generator capacity is based on the maximum expected total electrical load.

5.2 Short Circuit Calculations

Short circuit calculations are necessary to establish the capacity of circuit breakers and the
mechanical strength of the switchboards. normally, low voltage switchgear is fabricated to a
maximum switch capacity of lOOkA.
This limits the maximum generator power to 5,000 - 6,000 kW at 400-480V, 50 - 60 Hz.
If more power is needed, the installation has to be split, or a higher voltage has to be chosen.
Normal high voltage rates for ships are: 4,120 V, 6,000 V, 6,600 V, 10,000 V and maximal 15,000
V. with 50 or 60 Hz.

5.3 One-Line diagram

The one-line diagram shows the main electrical components with their power ratings and
interconnections. The following components are shown:
- generators,
- circuit breakers,
- important consumers,
- connections with important sub-switchboards,
- connection with emergency switch-board.

5.4 Selectivity Diagram

The selectivity diagram gives the current / time switch graphs of the most important circuit
breakers. Selectivity is a method to adjust circuitbreakers, with the objective, in case of a short
circuit, to keep as much as possible of the installation alive.
The objective is to isolate a fault as close to its source as possible by tripping the circuit breaker
nearest to the fault.
The selectivity diagram shows the settings, and the differences in tripping times between the
various circuitbreakers.
When the main circuit breaker of a distribution box in the switchboard has to be kept 'in' (closed),
the breaker takes the total current. This would require the smaller switches in the distribution box to
have the same switching capacity.
Side 301
This is an expensive solution, so part selectivity is used whereby a circuit is selective up to a certain
short circuit current. Above that current the main circuit breaker in the switchboard, feeding the
total circuit, trips. Together, in series, the main circuitbreakers can cope with the full short circuit
current. In that case, essential consumers, being each others redundancy, need to be supplied from
different distribution boxes.

AC generator under maintenance
Figurtekst slut.

5.5 Lay-out drawings

Lay-out drawings show the locations of the main components and the main cablerouting. Especially
on ships with an electrical propulsion or a DP notation, cable routing is very important. Function
descriptions and detail diagrams must be self-explanatory and should address issues such as:
- parallel running of generators.
- synchronisation of generators.
- completeness of instrumentation
Furthermore the description of the automatic start of the standby generator, automatic restart of
essential consumers and all other features necessary for the power generation must be included.

5.6 Maintenance
When the ship is in operation, maintenance of certain electrical equipment can only be carried out
if it can be switched off.
Duplicated equipment can be dealt with while underway if the redundancy is not at risk. Much
maintenance has to be done by specialists, and therefore has to be carried out in port.
6 Electromagnetic compatibility
Electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC) is a technique to avoid electro magnetic interference
between different parts of an electrical installation. This involves shielding a source of harmful
radiation or protecting sensitive equipment from it.
EMC involves all equipment and systems on board. An EMC plan must be made during the design
Navigational equipment (radars, echo sounders, AIS) must comply with standards containing
specific requirements.
These standards deal with:
- protection against incoming radiation and conducted signals
- maximum outgoing radiation and conducted signals.
Safety margins are established for these criteria. Approved equipment produces less disturbance
than stated in the standard and is able to perform without problems in the designated environment.

Control system, EMC immunity test
Figurtekst slut.
Side 302

Container ship
Figurtekst slut.
1. Bridge wing console
2. S-band radar
3. AIS antenna
4. NUC lights
5. Magnetic compass
6. Whistle
7. Satcom antenna
8. X-band radar mast
The quality of the power supply to the equipment is also part of EMC. Maximum deviations from
voltage, current and voltage wave form are defined.
The ideal wave form, producing the least heat, is the pure sine-curve.
A perfect generator should produce such a curve, but in practice there is a certain deviation.
All electrical equipment has to perform without problems when supplied by a power source with a
maximum harmonic deviation of 5%. This means that the area difference of the supplied curve
must be 5% or less from the ideal sine-curve.
All equipment can withstand this, but making the whole installation fulfill this requirement is
When a considerable part of the installation consists of 'frequency driven rotating equipment', as for
instance in propulsion systems with a fixed pitch propeller driven by a variable RPM electric motor,
it might be less complicated to construct the equipment (or part of it), to allow for a higher
This requires generators, switchboards, converters, cabling, and motors to accept a higher deviation.
Sometimes string tests are necessary to prove this. A string test is a test with a generator, a
representative part of the switchboard, a converter and the electric motor, all under load. This is a
costly and time consuming test. It is better to produce an EMC plan to assess the expected
disturbance, and then to buy only equipment which accepts this rate of disturbance.
Equipment can then be tested individually and later connected together.
Only a restricted part then needs to fulfil the IEC standard.
An EMC study is complicated and time consuming.
It starts with making a list of the sensitive equipment and of the equipment producing disturbance.
Afterwards, the latter is evaluated on the strength of its electromagnetic fields. Disturbing fields are
produced by direct radiation and by cable conducted disturbance. They should not result in
interference in the applicable frequency range. Most equipment has been tested for sensitivity to
this kind of disturbance.
Side 303
Signal levels are standardized. Type-approved equipment has set levels for both incoming and
outgoing signals. The signal levels of type approved equipment are based on the equipment in its
original (metal) case. When equipment is taken out of its original case, for instance to be fitted in a
console, it looses its Type Approval and EMC properties.
Cables fitted to the equipment may form part of the type approval, and are then often supplied by
the maker. Deviations from the specification are not allowed. When necessary, EMC can be
achieved by fitting additional cable screening.
Earth connections have to be installed as per the maker's instructions. Navigational equipment has
to meet IEC 600945 Standard.
An EMC study results in an EMC plan and test matrix, describing all measures necessary to
achieve the required result.
Combining cables in groups according to the transported signal and dividing cable routes to prevent
interference, is an essential part of the EMC design.

7 Main components
7.1 Generators
A generator is equipment that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Most generators
are driven by diesel engines and produce rotating alternating current (50 or 60 Hz), in order to
supply power for electric motors.
Standardized RPM are for:
- 50 Hz: 500, 600, 750, 1000, 1500, and 3000,
- 60 Hz: 600, 720, 900, 1200, 1800 and 3600.
The high RPM engines are usually for small, portable generators or large steam or gas turbine
generators. Diesel engines normally have low RPM values and these values decrease with size.
Some examples of typical values for 50 Hz generators are a: 25 kW generator 3000 RPM
- 1000 kW generator 1500 RPM 6000 kW generator 600 RPM.
Power Take Off generators (PTO),
A PTO generator is driven by the ship's propulsion diesel through a separate gearbox on the
propeller shaft.
In the case of high speed diesel motors, the PTO is incorporated in the reduction gearbox.
PTO or shaft driven generators normally have the capacity to take the total electrical load of the
ship at sea. When the PTO generators supply the installation, the auxiliary diesel generators can be
switched off, which is cost effective when at sea. They are started again when the ship has to
Very large ships with slow-running, reversible diesel engines, sometimes also have a PTO. As
these engines may run with RPM as low as 100 to 120 they need a step-up gear to drive the PTO
Electrical energy produced by a PTO is cheaper than that produced by a diesel generator because
the larger main diesel is more efficient. The heavy fuel used in most main engines is cheaper than
marine diesel. The reduction in running hours of the auxiliary diesels reduces maintenance cost.

Drawing of a brushless generator
Figurtekst slut.
1. Bearing
2. Permanent magnets on rotor
3. Permanent magnet coil on stator
4. Stator exciter winding
5. Rotor exciter winding
6. Rotating diodes
7. Rotor poles
8. Stator windings
9. Fan
10. Heat exchanger water/air
Side 304

7.2 Electric motors

An electric motor is a piece of equipment that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
(see part 1.2, Alternating current). Three windings 120° apart are fed by rotating alternating current
and produce a rotating magnetic field. A squirrel cage rotor is positioned inside this rotating field.
A squirrel cage rotor consists of two steel rings, connected by a number of steel rods, at a small
angle. The rotating magnetic field creates an electric current in the rods, making the cage a magnet.
The magnet follows the rotating field, with a little slip.
When the rotor becomes a magnet through an outside electrical source, the motor is called a
synchronic motor. These have the same RPM as the rotating field.
In that case, the rotor has windings, and is provided with direct current via slip rings and brushes.
Motors with permanent magnet rotors do not have slip.
When the stator field of a permanent magnet motor is energized, the rotor cannot pick up the
rotation and needs to be started with a frequency converter. Such a converter produces a low
current with a low frequency initially, slowly increasing to full current at the net frequency.
Environmen Example Type Permitted
tal location protection
Condition Minimum Equipment
Switchgear Machines Other eqt
Danger of
Zone 0 Tanks and Intr safe No Not existing Measuring
holds type la equipment
Zone 1 Tankerdeck Explosion Yes Yes
Zone 1 Paintstore Explosion No No Light only
Zone 1 Battery Explosion No No Light only
rooms proof
Zone 2 Cardecks IP55 Yes Yes Above 45cm 1
Zone 2 Boatstores IP55 Yes Yes Above 45cm 2
on yachts
Danger to Dry spaces IP20 Yes Yes
No Cabins IP20
al damage
Corridors IP20
Bathrooms IP34 No No Light only
Dripping Engine TP23 Yes Yes
water controlroom
Light Navigation IP23
mechanical, bridge
Engrm IP23
Switchboard IP23
Splash water Engineroom IP44 No Yes
Moderate Bathrooms IP44 Safe sockets
Galley IP34
Laundry IP34
Spraywater Engrm IP55 No Yes
or dust below
Solid water Foreship and IP67 No Yes
Underwater Submercible IP68 No Yes 3
1 10 3 Depth to
Airchanges be specified
per hour
2 Also gas
Protection classes
Electrical equipment for use on board ships is produced in various protection classes depending on
location and environment. From simple dripwaterproof to submersible and from 'open' to explosion
proof (see table),
A squirrel cage rotor
Figurtekst slut.
1. Connection box
2. Shaft
3. Ballbearing
4. Squirrel cage rotor
5. Stator windings
6. Ventilator for cooling
Side 305
Motors are produced for horizontal or vertical use in various housings. These configurations are
standardized, making them easily replaceable. However, the dimensions are not standardized
DIN (German) is the standard in Europe. Asia uses JIS (Japanese).
JIS motors for horizontal use have higher feet than DIN.

High voltage cables
Figurtekst slut.

Additional fire protection around cables
Figurtekst slut.
Cable and pipe tunnel
Figurtekst slut.

7.3 Cables
Cables are the means of transporting electric current between the components of an electric
installation. Most of the time cables are the most expensive part of a ship's electrical installation,
mainly due to the enormous number of man hours involved in:
- installing cable trays and glands through bulkheads, decks etc.
- pulling the cables
- mounting of same on cabletrays
- making connections with to the equipment
- testing.
Cables are available in various types. The cheapest are PVC insulated cables, with the following
- are flammable
- produce toxic gasses when burning (from halogens in the PVC)
- produce smoke
- have a maximum allowable core temperature of 60 °C.
Class rules prohibit PVC cables in accomodation areas due to their unsafe properties.
Most power and lighting cables used in electrical installations on board are nowadays XLPE-
insulated with a maximum core temperature of 85 °C. XLPE cables have 25 % more current
capacity than the same size PVC cables and are low smoke and do not produce toxic gasses.
XLPE is short for Cross Linked Poly Ethene.
Another category is fire resistant cables. By simply wrapping a cable in mica it will resist a
temperature of 1000 °C for an hour. These cables are used for safety systems, such as the general
alarm and fire detection circuits. In general these cables are used for systems that must remain in
operation under emergency conditions.
Some examples of these are :
- firepump circuit from the emergency switchboard
- emergency lighting
- fire fighting systems such as FM200 or CO2
This includes the associated warning systems and cables from fire control units to alarm bells and
public address systems in different fire zones.
The intention is that fire in a zone does not stop the alarm bells, fire alarms, public address
loudspeakers and fire detection in an adjacent zone. Cables to emergency systems like emergency
lighting, etc. also have to be of this construction.

7.4 Switchboards etc.

Switchboards, sub-switchboards and section switchboards and other switchgear are necessary to
connect / disconnect generators and consumers to and from the main distribution system.
Switchboards distribute the current and protect generators, cables, sub-switchboards and consumers
against damage from high voltage, over-current or short circuits. Switchboards are used and
operated by ship's technicians.
Repairs and maintenance have to be left to specialists.
One of the main differences between a shore or industrial switchboard and a ship's switchboard is
the level of protection required against liquids depending on the location in the ship. Ships can
move unexpectedly, so protection of people against contact with live parts is essential, even in the
case of the simplest maintenance or repair work.
Doors have to lock themselves in the open position to prevent them closing due to the ship's
movements, especially where contact with live parts could occur.
Normal maintenance includes replacing a fuse or resetting a circuit breaker.
Switchboards have to be fitted with insulated handrails on the outside. Insulated handrails may also
be required at the back of some switchboards when there are live parts.
Side 306
A ship's switchboard is made up of individual vertical compartments, at least one per generator and
two for consumer groups. Flame retardent partitions, like steel plates, must be fitted between the
compartments to prevent damage in one compartment in case of arcing due to a short circuit in
The main bus bars must have provision to split the switchboard to enable volt free maintenance on
one part while the other part(s) remain live. Most of the time these divisions are made with bus tie-
breakers. All essential, and therefore duplicated, consumers have to be divided over two parts of the
switchboard, so that operation can continue when one of the switchboard parts is powered down.
Galley and ventilation systems must also be treated as essential consumers and must have supplies
from both sides of the switchboard. When parallel operation is possible, two ways of synchronizing
have to be available, and a check synchronizer has to be installed to prevent switching at the wrong
The compartment where the switchboard is split with a bus tiebreaker often accommodates the
main synchronizing equipment.

Synchronizing panel
Figurtekst slut.
Equipment in the central synchronizing panel of a switchboard:
1. voltmeter - main bus bar
2. voltmeter - incoming generator
3. synchronoscope
4. frequency meter - main busbar
5. frequency meter - incoming generator
6. generator breaker in/out pushbuttons
7. generator selector switch.

Generator panel
Figurtekst slut.
Equipment in a generator panel
1. ammeter R-phase
2. ammeter S-phase
3. ammeter T-phase
4. voltmeter with phase selection
5. kW Meter
6. frequency meter
7. signal lamps
8. circuitbreaker in/out buttons
9. automatic / manual operation switch
10. standstill heating switch
11. standby signal lamp.

High voltage switchboard
Figurtekst slut.
1. Compartment generator 1
2. Compartment generator 2
3. Rail dividing compartment
4. Bow thruster compartment
5. Consumers compartments
Side 307

7.5 Circuit breakers and contactors

A large air circuit breaker is designed to switch a short circuit on and off a limited number of
The moving contacts are pushed against fixed contacts by a heavy high speed spring, brought under
tension by a separate motor.
This type of switch is not designed for an electric motor, as these require switching hundreds of
times without maintenance to the switch.
The smaller types of circuit breakers, in particular the type which limits the current, cannot be
This type of switch opens when the current is exceeded.
The switchoff value is the same as the automatic opening value.

Large withdrawable air circuit breaker (5000A) with electronic protection unit. A small standard
circuit breaker with a rating up to 63A is shown in front.
Figurtekst slut.
A contactor, or magnet-switch is designed to switch the starting current of an electric motor
hundreds of times.
The connecting part in this case is pulled against the contacts by a solenoid.
Capacities for switching in and out depend on circumstances. Sometimes the maximum value for
one time only is specified. The switch then becomes in fact a fuse.

7.6 Type approved equipment

This is equipment that has been tested and approved for the marine environment as described in the
regulations of the Class societies.
The marine environment is described as follows:
- ambient temperature max. 45 °C. (Other values possible in case of restricted service)
- seawater temperature 32 °C
- humidity 95 %, not condensing
- trim +/- static, +/- 5°
- pitch, +/- 5 °
- heel, +/- 22.5 ° Static
- roll, +/- 22.5 ° with a full cycle of 10 sec.
- vibration depending on location of equipment
- shock depending on location of equipment.
Apart from the foregoing, other tests are carried out:
- production of hazardous or interfering radiation (electronic equipment)
- sensitivity to radiation from other equipment (electronic equipment)
- sensitivity to deviation in voltage and frequency (PC's)
- sensitivity for voltage interruption (PC's, also a check of an automatic safe restart of the program)
- production of harmonic distortion; most equipment is designed for a supply voltage with a
maximum distortion related to the sine-curve of 5%. If higher, the additional heat production can
damage the equipment.

Large contactor
Figurtekst slut.
All equipment needs to be selected from a list of type tested equipment. All Class societies have
such lists. If a particular apparatus is not on the list the tests have to be carried out, which may be
time consuming.

7.7 Starting equipment

Starting equipment connects consumers to the power supply. Starting equipment can also be used
to reduce high starting currents that may cause voltage dips in the circuit that may affect other
consumers. This can be a star delta starter, starting transformer, or a frequency converter (soft
Starting equipment is also used to reduce the torque in a shaft. When an electric motor driving a
gearbox is started in star delta mode, using a starting transformer or frequency converter, the force
on the teeth can be reduced considerably, thus preventing mechanical damage. Non-rotating
equipment, such as large transformers, sometimes need starting equipment, too. Large transformers
need power to magnetize the metal core. The current to supply this power may exceed the settings
of the circuit breaker in the power supply and may also cause a voltage dip in the circuit. A remedy
is to supply the transformer with power via a resistor to pre-magnetise the core. After some seconds
the main power is then switched on.

Small Contactor
Figurtekst slut.
Side 308

7.8 Emergency power and emergency generator

On small ships the emergency power for emergency lighting and emergency communication for a
limited time period is usually supplied through batteries. On larger ships and ships which are
allowed to accommodate more than 32 passengers, the time period is too long. This would require
too much battery capacity. An emergency generator system, separate from the ships normal power
generation, is then used.
An emergency generator usually has the same characteristics of voltage and frequency as the main
generators. It is located in a separate space from the main generators and has to be independent of
any equipment outside that space. The fuel tank, starting batteries or starting air bottle, starting-
relay box, emergency switchboard with transformers and lighting board, therefore have to be
installed in the same space. This eliminates the chance of the emergency power failing due to
problems in any other space, and ensures availability of emergency power as long as possible.
The capacity of this generator is based on the systems that depend on it. The cables from the
emergency switchboard to these systems are routed outside the space containing the main
generators and switchboard.
The emergency generator has to be above the freeboard deck and aft of the collision bulkhead. The
emergency generator is provided with two independent starting systems. These may be a hand start
air compressor with an air vessel for an air start generator or a second set of batteries for an electric
start emergency generator.
A spring starter or hydraulic accumulator are other options.
The emergency switchboard supplies energy to the emergency consumers, such as navigation
lighting, emergency lighting, fire pump, steering gear, internal and external communication and the
navigation equipment and to start a main generator.

8 Automation
8.1 General
As ship's systems became increasingly complicated automation systems were introduced to
simplify control.
Nearly all automation systems nowadays are based on computers with tailor made software and
sophisticated man-machine interfaces. Large amounts of data from measured values can be stored
and analysed allowing for trending and automatic fine tuning of systems.
Automation systems aid fault finding, change valve positions or start a standby pump based on
pressure, temperature or flow measurements.
Planned maintenance can be based on registered running hours, power consumption or product
Automation is also used to carry out operations which are too complex to do manually. An example
is a Dynamic Positioning system (DP) where a ship is kept in position with the aid of eight azimuth
thrusters. Accurate manual control of these thrusters would be virtually impossible. An automation
computer would do this task without a problem using various inputs to calculate the desired
direction and thrust for each thruster.
The desired level of automation is based on a number of factors:
- owners requirements
- function of the ship
- cost
- requested number of crew
- skill level of crew
- complexity of the installation
- Class, IMO, and laws of the flagstate.
A cost analysis has to made first in the design phase.
A complete automation system is also referred to as "supervisory control and data acquisition
system" or in short SCADA system.
This system may comprise:
- Human-machine Interface (HMI) with monitors, keyboards, etc. including process graphics.
- a supervisory computer
- programmable logic controllers (PLC)
- remote terminal units (RTU)
- communication infrastructure connecting various components.
Two-wire serial data transfer is used more and more for the connection of sensors. This type of data
transfer in combination with intelligent sensors can reduce cable costs significantly.
Redundant hardware and software can be used to increase reliability of an automation system.
Essential systems must also be operable manually.
Side 309
Technical developments can be made so quickly that Class and Flag State Rules cannot keep up to
date. This requires flexibility in applying the rules.
Software must be well documented, including additions and changes.
Some examples of automation of various systems:
- cargo tank measurements like level, calculated content in m3 and temperature.
- cooled container alarm showing malfunction of the cooling system to continuous temperature
measurement, CO2 content and storage of data.
- generator operation and power management, from an automatic starting standby motor and restart
of essential equipment after a blackout, to automatic start of an extra diesel in case of increasing
power demand.
- switching off less important equipment, in case of insufficient available power, and restarting
when power is available again.
- remote control of propulsion, from a simple manual control per propeller to a complex joystick
operation indicating direction to a number of thrusters.
Scada packages allow touch screen operation with pulldown menus.
Analysis and automatic logbooks can be produced, only to be signed by the engineer.

8.2 Dynamic Positioning

Dynamic positioning or DP installations are state-of-the-art position control systems, with satellite
navigation and physical measurements as input.
These systems keep a ship in position or moving along a preset track. It is possible to control a
ship's speed using water depth as a parameter. A command such as "move transversally 25 meters
away from quay, afterwards make turn 180° anticlockwise with the stern as pivot point", can be
Such a manoeuvre is perfectly executable for such a system and there is no limit to automation, but
a balance between cost and benefit has to be considered.
The rapid development of computer screens, presentation and software packages, computers,
programmable logic controllers, communication bus systems and intelligent data base and data
programs make the impossible, possible.
With every advance, the question remains how to control the installation manually with partial or
complete non-functioning automation. It is therefore advisable to make an FMEA (failure mode
and effect analysis) for such control systems to gauge the effect of a mal-function. The FMEA
comprises not only automation, but also the supply system, including high-voltage, switchboards,
transformers, UPS provisions, fuel, cooling water, starting air, etc.

8.3 Alarm, observation and control systems

Alarm, observation and control systems are available in all kinds of configurations.
The simplest consists of a ten-channel unit for the input of 10 digital alarms, with a common outlet
for a visible or audible group alarm by means of a horn and light.
A 'stop horn' button and a 'reset' button complete the system. Alarm and observation systems are
meant to observe and register automatically all important parameters and deviations of an
installation. This saves time in making watch rounds, and the values are registered more frequently
and accurately. These systems, however, can never replace the engineer who walks around and
notices a small leak in a fuel line.
An incoming alarm is shown on a display as a flashing light with a nameplate.
When the alarm is accepted by pushing the 'acknowledge' button, the warning light stops flashing,
but remains lit. When the cause has been dealt with, the light goes out.
By pushing 'stop horn' only, the horn stops, but the alarm light continues flashing. This remains true
when the value of the relevant alarm becomes normal again, and is 'out of alarm'. When the same
alarm goes off again, the horn does not sound.
More or less extensive systems are installed depending on the notation 'manned' or 'unmanned'
engine room, and the size of the installation. They often consist of various decentralized input-
output units connected by a redundant network, but still present the incoming alarms as a simple
flashing light with a nameplate and a horn.
Group alarms can be sent to the wheelhouse advising, for example, reduced speed.
The more sophisticated systems show this on a display or in a workstation, in text or as a graph.
Essential control systems have to be assembled from type approved components. The system then
has to be tested and certified in the workshop.

Thruster control console with 12 control handles of 12 individual thrusters
Figurtekst slut.
Side 310

8.4 Voyage Data Recorder (VDR)

Data recorders similar to the black boxes in air crafts are installed to help to establish the cause of
an accident or near-miss. The bright orange floating recorders store the essential data of the last 24
hours. The data comprises:
- engineroom data with alarms,
- navigation information,
- radar pictures,
- voice recordings of the conversation on the bridge.
The recorder is normally positioned on the deck above the wheelhouse, free floating when
submerged When the data recorder is manually activated or floating, a beacon signal is transmitted
to enable it to be found easily.

9 Communication systems
Decreasing staff makes communications systems more and more important.
Portable equipment has been developed which, in addition to the usual talking and listening
functions, includes a number of alarms that can be read and acknowledged. There are systems
which allow people ashore, through satellite communication, to read the status of the automation,
This allows them to advise on necessary repairs.
Telephone, email, and data communication via satellites have become common practice.

9.1 Internal communication systems

Talk-back systems, a microphone-speaker combination, have been replaced by portophones
(walky-talkies) nearly everywhere. Automatic telephone systems are powered from electrical UPS
systems and are thus acceptable for emergency communication. Public-address systems are used to
address passengers and crew members.
Side 311

9.2 External communication systems

The ship-shore communication equipment required is related to the area where the ship operates.
Area A1 is the area close to shore, within range of VHF coast radio stations.
Area A2 is further away from shore and encompasses the North Sea within range of a MF DSC
coast station.
Area A3 is worldwide, apart from the polar regions. It is covered by Global Maritime Distress and
Safety System (GMDSS) satellites. Unrestricted Service ships allowed to make long voyages, are
required to fulfil A3 requirements.
Satellite communication is available through Inmarsat (International Marine Satellite), Inmarsat is a
public company. The system provides communication facilities with breakin possibilities for
emergency communication. There are various standards in communication. As most ships do not
have a radio operator any more, there is a compulsory shore maintenance and repair system.
Duplication of equipment is required. Inmarsat is based on 3 geostationary satellites, (some
duplicated), positioned at a height of 35,000 kilometers above the equator, which together offer
worldwide communication.
Area A4 covers both polar regions. The Inmarsat satellites range from 70 degrees north to 70
degrees south latitude. Therefore, the old fashioned long range radio equipment has to be added to
the GMDSS system. Direct (hand-held) worldwide telephone systems are also operational, working
on a large number of low earth orbit (LEO) satellites, such as Iridium and Globalstar, both
American initiatives.
The Arab world has its own system, Thuraya, covering the region where the Arab languages are

10 Navigation equipment
The electrical aspect of the navigational equipment is the power supply. The essental navigational
equipment has to be supplied from the emergency switchboard, to ensure power when the main
supply fails.
The equipment required depends on the size of the ship:
- one or two radars,
- two independent satellite positioning systems
- an echo sounder with recorder
- a log, speed and distance indicator
- magnetic compass,
- a gyro compass
- an automatic pilot.
Modern wheelhouses are equipped to be operated by one man only who can navigate the ship and
keep watch. The view from the chart table has to be unobstructed.
A good view from the communication console is also important.
An alarm system protects the navigational equipment and other associated nautical tools like radar,
echo-sounders, gyro compasses, automatic pilots, etc.
The radar is fitted with the ARPA function, which can be set to give a warning signal when another
ship comes too close, or when the present course could result in a collision. The echo sounder must
have an audible shallow water alarm. When the ship deviates from the programmed course, an
audible alarm goes off. There is a dead man's alarm, used when only one man is on the bridge. The
maximum time delay is 11 minutes. When no acknowledgement or reset is activated within 12
minutes, the captain and other navigating officers are alerted.
Side 312

11 Hazardous areas
A hazardous area is one where concentrations of flammable gases, vapours, or dust may occur. To
prevent an explosion, due to arcing contacts or high surface temperature of equipment, only
specially designed and tested electrical equipment may be installed.
Examples of Hazardous areas are:
- tanks of a tanker, and the deck above
- area near the loading or discharge hose connections (the manifold)
- pump room
- car decks of a ferry, where vehicles with petrol or diesel oil in the tanks are parked
- helicopter tank facility on an offshore vessel
- paint store
- cargo holds with dangerous goods.
The cheapest solution is to avoid fitting electrical equipment in such areas.
A zoning system is applied to hazardous areas to indicate the level of danger. Zones are identified
with number 0, 1 or 2.
Zone 0 comprises spaces and locations where explosive gas is continuously present.
Examples are the cargo tanks and the adjacent ballast tanks in a crude-oil tanker, product carrier, or
chemical tanker, when these ships are carrying cargoes with an ignition temperature (flash point)
below 60 °C.
Zone 1 comprises spaces where explosive gas is periodically present during normal operation.
Examples are:
- spaces around cargo tanks of tankers carrying cargo with a flashpoint below 60 °C.
- spaces with a single bulkhead or deck between a space which is Zone 0
- pump rooms and spaces with cargo pipelines
- spaces on deck within 3 metres of a cargo tank opening, a cargo
The paint locker is also a hazardous area
Figurtekst slut.
valve, cargo line flange and inlet and outlet openings of cargo pump room ventilation
- six meters from overpressure valves of cargo tanks, and the space above a tank, to a height of 2.4
Zone 2 comprises spaces where under normal operation an explosive gas mixture is not present or
only for a limited time.
Tank level indicators have to be intrinsically safe (blue cables), and control equipment has to be
explosion proof. Zone 2 applies to dry-cargo ships and to car decks in car ferries, 45 cm above the
deck when they are sufficiently ventilated.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and the gases from kerosene are heavier than air and can flow to a
lower space. It is therefore important to have gas tight cable and pipe transits from the potentially
hazardous areas to the spaces below.
Gases are categorized in the following groups:
Group I: Methane, as may be expected in a mine,
Group II: General industrial gases from flammable liquids and combustible solid materials,
Group II a: Propane,
Group II b: Ethylene,
Group II c: Hydrogen.
The gases noted are typical for each group.
Group IIC is the most severe group and gases in this group ignite easily.
Flammable materials like gases are also categorized by their (auto) ignition temperature. There are
six temperature classes defined as follows:
T 1: < 450 °C,
T 2: < 300 °C,
T 3: < 200 °C,
T 4: < 135 °C,
T 5: < 100 °C,
T 6: < 85 °C.
The surface temperature of electrical equipment like electric motors determines if they can be used
in specific hazardous areas.
The energy level of intrinsically safe (IS) circuits is so low that it cannot produce a spark that could
ignite a flammable gas. This is however dependent on the design of the IS circuit taking into
account the cable capacity and other parameters. To avoid induction of energy from other power
cables, IS cables and equipment are installed separately and identified with a blue colour.
Rammetekst slut.
Side 313

12 Testing and Commissioning

Commissioning of a ship is the process of insuring that all systems and components are designed,
installed and tested according to the operational requirements. At the end of the commissioning
phase the ship should be fully operational.
In practice, the commissioning process involves the step-by-step inspection and testing of every
individual function, such as instruments and equipment, up to subsystems and in the end complete
As the electrical installation is part of every larger system on board its completion is vital for the
commissioning of those systems. Nowadays, without electricity nothing will work.
Before commissioning, all equipment should have been tested during the Factory Acceptance Test
(FAT). This will avoid costly and time consuming alterations on board.
The Harbour Tests (HAT) and Sea Trial Acceptance Test (SAT) complete the commissioning.

12.1 Factory acceptance test

Factory acceptance test (FAT), is the final test of equipment before it leaves the factory. It concerns
single components and whole systems. Complete control and alarm systems have to be temporarily
installed in the workshop, tested and accepted by owners and Class.
Both main and auxiliary switchboards also have to be tested and certified. Alarm, observation and
control systems have to be combined in representative modules, tested and certified.
Large electric motors, generators and diesel engines have to be load tested and certified. High
voltage components such as generators, switchboards, transformers and frequency converters first
have an insulation test and then, a high voltage test and another insulation test.
Generators, transformers, converters and large motors undergo a heat run to measure temperature
rise and assess the capacity under load. Essentially, all equipment is subject to a function test.

12.2 Harbour acceptance test

After the installation of the equipment, while still at the shipyard, the harbour acceptance tests
(HAT) are carried out. Components and systems are connected to each other, and to the ship's
supply, and are tested again when finally installed. Also interference tests between systems have to
be carried out.
Systems from different manufacturers are checked for compatibility. Load tests of diesel generators,
which have to run parallel and in load sharing or power management systems, via the switchboard
are also carried out. Propulsion motors possessing a gearbox with a controllable pitch propeller in
combination with bridge control, have to be tested extensively. Individual generator sets are often
tested using a water brake.
All alarms, alarm systems and controls have to be checked. Watertight doors, fire detection,
communication, lighting and emergency lighting, automatic start of standby pumps, etc. must also
be tested.
12.3 Sea trials
The sea trial or sea trial acceptance test (SAT) will be carried out after the Harbour Acceptance
Tests are completed. Sea Trials will show the ships performance under operational conditions and
include verification of speed, manoeuvring and emergency stops.
Reliability of the installation is determined during a continuous test run of six hours, whereby
alarms are checked, fuel consumption is measured and data collected for later reference.
Fire detection is tested at sea by means of a smoke generator to establish that smoke is detected
when the ventilation is working at full power.

Steering trials of a navy ship
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Side 314

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Side 315
Side 316


1 Construction materials for ships 316
2 Corrosion 318
3 Paint 318
4 Painting 320
5 Fouling 324
6 Cathodic protection 326
7 Dry docking 328
8 Maintenance, repairs and conversion 333

1. Construction materials for ships

This chapter is not about materials science, but about the materials used in the construction of ships,
and their characteristics.
The emphasis will be on corrosion, prevention and maintenance.
1.1 Wood
Until the end of the 18th century, wood was the only construction material for ships. Some of these
ships had longer lives than their steel successors. Mine hunters have been built of wood for longer
than any other large vessel.
The only wood still found on modern ships is used for dunnage, deck covering, stairs and interior
finish, especially on cruise ships.
Though there are some very hard woods that do not rot, most have to be protected against rotting.
Wood used on decks does not get slippery and, unlike metals, is not weakened by fatigue.
To avoid excessive corrosion a wooden overlay on a steel deck must be laid with great care. Water
must not be allowed to become entrapped between the wood and the steel.

1.2 Steel
Since early 1800 the construction of vessels gradually evolved from wood, via composite building
(wooden planks on steel frames) to 100% steel.
Composite building is a mixture of iron framing and wooden side shell and deck, which allowed
the builders to build vessels up to approximately 90 meters in length.
The "birth" (1830) of the steam engine for ships speeded up the use of iron throughout the
construction of the vessel.
An important milestone was reached with the building of the "Great Eastern" between 1853 and
A ship with a length of 200 meters, a beam of 25 meters and a depth of 17 meters.
From 1875 the steelmaking process gradually improved to what it is today.
So far, steel is still the most popular material for the construction of ships because of its:
- technical and economical benefits
- strength
- suitability for welding
- adequate resistance to brittle fracture
- availability and low cost.

1.2.1 Steel-making process

Various types of steel are fabricated on the basis of iron (ore) and/or scrap materials, in a
steelmaking process in which the material is heated to approximately 1600 °C.
The refining process is then initiated. During this process certain excessive elements such as carbon,
sulphur and phosphor are removed in the form of "slag".
Depending on the quality and type of steel needed, the refining process is completed within the
chosen steelmaking process (basic oxygen converter, electric furnace & open hearth process).
The differences in strength, toughness, hardness and weldability are obtained by the addition of
particular elements during the steel-making process in combination with the heat treatment during
the fabrication of the plate material, forgings and castings.
Additions can contain carbon, silicon, manganese, nickel, vanadium, chrome, etc.

1.2.2 Steel types

Steel used as a construction material for ships and other structures can be subdivided into groups:

a. Plate materials and profiles

- Mild Steel (MS)
Yield strength 235 N/mm2
- High Strength Steel (HS)
Yield strength 265 - 390 N/mm2
- Extra High Strength Steel (EHS)
Yield strength 420 - 690 N/mm2
Yield strength is the maximum stress without creating plastic deformations. It is used by designers
to establish the dimensions of the actual structural member.
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Side 317

Flat bars and bulb flats, being lifted using a chain
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b. Steel forgings
Typical examples of forgings are propeller shafts, rudder stocks, engine components such as
crankshafts, piston rods and crossheads etc.

c. Steel castings
Castings are fabricated for complex configurations such as stern frames, complex rudder
components, anchors, pump casings, etc.

1.2.3 Stainless steel

Stainless steel is an alloy of steel, chrome (Cr) and nickel (Ni) and sometimes other elements.
The surface of the steel is a neutralization layer, which is an oxidized skin, the color of the metal.
This protects the material beneath it from oxidation (corrosion). Stainless steel is more noble than
ordinary steel and will therefore corrode less.

1.3 Aluminium and its alloys

Aluminium is a very soft metal, but by choosing the right elements to form alloys, the strength and
stiffness can be increased significantly. It is also nonmagnetic, making it suitable for mine hunters.
Even though it is not a noble metal, corrosion is limited because the metal is covered by a very
dense oxide layer that protects the rest of the metal. If chemicals or electric currents remove the
oxide layer, then corrosion will take place rapidly. The main advantage of using aluminium is its
low weight. Despite the fact that aluminium is much softer than steel, it is much more difficult to
work with.
A drill sticks easily, it is much more difficult to smooth, a grindstone quickly clogs and it is
impossible to weld it with common welding apparatus.
Aluminium is used, for example, for complete upper parts of passenger ships, for light high speed
craft and the main construction of mine hunters.

1.4 Copper and its alloys

Brass is an alloy of the moderately noble copper and the less noble zinc. Aggressive water like
seawater dissolves the zinc leaving the remaining copper very porous.
Therefore brass is never used for parts that may come in regular contact with seawater. Brass is
suitable for use in nipples, thermometers, manometers and many other shiny appliances. The
binnacle fittings for the standard compass are often made of brass.

Bronze (gun metal)

Bronze is an alloy of the moderately noble copper and the less noble tin. Bronze is seawater
resistant and is therefore used in propellers, valves, coolers and almost all other parts that come
into contact with seawater. Today, the ship's bell may be made of bronze, but better alloys have
been developed for propellers.
Bronze is still common in heat exchangers and pumps. It is more noble than steel (iron) and can
therefore affect the ship's steel. In very aggressive water, tin tends to slowly dissolve. This causes a
manganese-bronze propeller to roughen slowly.

Materials for propellers

Today every propeller factory has its own alloys for the different applications of propellers. Usually
these alloys are similar to bronze, but with a more complicated composition.
In almost all cases the alloys contain little or no iron (non-ferous alloys) and behave as more noble
than steel, which can cause corrosion of the steel. In exceptional cases, the propellers are made of
stainless steel. The strongest today is a copper-nickel-aluminium alloy.

Materials for heat exchangers

The housing, pipes and tube plates of a tube heat exchanger are almost always made of copper
containing non-ferous alloys. In plate heat exchangers, the plates are made entirely of stainless steel
or titanium. In both cases, the alloy used is nobler than steel, which can be degraded by it. Heat
exchangers are found in the piping systems inside the ship, but also in a sea-chest, a box in the
ship's shell that is open to seawater.

1.5 Synthetic materials

There are so many synthetics that it is impossible to treat them all in one paragraph.
In general, synthetics are not sensitive to corrosion. However, ultraviolet radiation in sunlight and
ageing can both degrade the compounds. Synthetics are a-magnetic and cannot be welded. In yacht-
building synthetics are common.
On larger ships, synthetics are used for piping systems because they do not conduct electricity and
are not liable to corrosion.
Paint is largely synthetic.
Most ropes are of synthetic fibers.
They are sometimes flammable, but are always weakened by heat more than metals.
Metals like iron and aluminium can burn like torches and cannot be extinguished. Luckily metal
constructions do not catch fire easily.
Side 318

Glass-fibre Reinforced Polyester

(GRP) is a commonly used synthetic construction material in the marine world.
It is a composite material, consisting of woven or chopped glass fibres bound together by polyester.
Other combinations of fibre and binder material are also used, but mainly for high-tech applications.
GRP is mainly used for parts where weight or non-corrosive properties are important. It can be
made into complex shapes using moulds. Because the mould is expensive, GRP products are
usually standardised parts, produced in large series. Complete hulls of smaller ships (e.g. lifeboats,
fast rescue boats, yachts, minesweepers) are built in GRP.

2. Corrosion
2.1 The corrosion process
From metallurgy it is known that iron is extracted from iron ore in blast furnaces by removing the
oxygen from ore with a carbon-excess (coke).
Corrosion is the reverse of this process; the metal recombines with oxygen or, sometimes, with
other compounds. In many cases the result is a dense oxide-layer that protects the metal underneath.
However, in the case of iron the oxide is converted to a ferro-hydroxide by water.
This gives the underlying metal no protection against further corrosion. Corrosion can be
accelerated if organisms are present on the metal surface.
Outboard, this fouling increases the ship's resistance and inboard it can clog piping systems and
exhaust boxes.
Corrosion can also be accelerated by an electric current, and structural stress.
The remainder of this chapter will be devoted to steel corrosion, because steel is highly sensitive to
To protect the ship against corrosion, the following measures or combinations of them are taken:
- applying a protective layer (paint)
- cathodic protection by using impressed current or sacrificial anodes
- the choice of materials to reduce potential electrolysis.
- applying antifouling paint.

2.2 Protective layers

A protective surface layer can counteract, stop or reduce the extent of the corrosion process. One of
the following methods can be chosen:
- temporary protective layers like conserving oil or grease. This method is mostly used in spare
- inorganic top coats like an anodized layer (a very strong oxide layer) or enamel.
- organic top coats like epoxy paint (2-component) or conventional paint (1-component).
The first coat used is a primer to initially protect the steel against corrosion.
Ships usually have paint as the protective layer.

3. Paint
3.1 General
Paint is a liquid product that is applied to objects in a, usually, relatively thin layer. During and
after application it creates a film that tightens into a thin continuous layer.
On drying this film becomes a solid, hard or tough layer that protects the surface it is covering from
corrosion. Paint is also used to embellish objects. Paint can be divided into:
- conventional paint
- physical drying paint
- oxidative drying paint
- chemically active paint or binary paints.

3.2 Conventional paint

Real old-fashioned oil paint was made from linseed oil and turpentine.
These were later replaced by synthetic components. Single pack paints, that behave similarly to oil
paint, are called conventional paints. The paint can be used immediately after the can has been
opened and the contents stirred. Leftover paint can be stored in the closed can for future use.
The conventional paints dry because:
- the solvent evaporates (physical drying)
- the binding agent reacts with oxygen from the air (oxidative drying and / or polymerization).
Examples of conventional paints used on board:
- alkyd paint, chemical drying
- acrylic paint, physical drying
- vinyl paint, physical drying
- modified alkyd paint or alkyd resin, chemical drying.
In general, conventional paints contain the following components:
- binder / resin
- pigment
- solvent
- additives and fillers.
Today, more and more environmental restrictions are being implemented related to the use of zinc
chromates, lead, tar, etc.
Corroded construction parts
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Side 319
Chlorinated rubber systems and vinyl systems are no longer used because of the high content of
volatile organic compounds (e.g. toluene, benzene). Restrictions, however, vary from country to
Water is used in both one- (acrylics) or two-component (water-based epoxy) water-based
These coatings, however, are not solvent free. In solvent-free coatings (epoxies) thinner is not used.
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Binding agent
The purposes of the binding agent in the paint are:
- coherence of the paint
- connecting the pigment
- adhering the paint to the substrate
- influencing characteristics like gloss, elasticity, mechanical strength, wear resistance, resistance
against chemicals and sunlight.
Binding agents can be composed of drying oils, synthetic resins, latex or a combination of these.

Pigments are solid powders that give the paint its color and coating properties. Furthermore, the
pigments often also prevent corrosion. Examples of these are:
- zinc-chromate (yellow),
- zinc-phosphate,
- zinc powder (grey),
- aluminum flakes in primer,
- glass flakes,
- lead seal (in red lead, orange).
Pigments can also be additives that contribute to characteristics of the paint like gloss, filling,
scouring and strength.

Solvents and thinners

Solvents and thinners are volatile liquids or mixtures of volatile liquids that dissolve and dilute the
binding agent.
After the paint is applied, they evapourate out of the solution.
In general the vapours are harmful to health and the environment.
These compounds are almost always flammable and can form explosive mixtures with air.
There are strict regulations for ventilation and breathing protection when working with these
compounds in enclosed spaces.
It is difficult to distinguish solvents from thinners; the words solvent and thinner are often
Thinner is a much used dilutent.
A solvent is used for the cohesive substance. Thinner only dilutes the paint. It all depends on the
kind of paint. Chlorinated-rubber paint can be dissolved but also diluted.

Fillings and additives

Additives are used to influence the characteristics of the paint like a matt surface, a rough surface
(antislip paint), protection of the underlying material against heat, prevention of sagging and
counteracting film forming.

3.3 Two pack paint

In two-component paints, the film forming and drying are caused by a chemical reaction between
two components.
A better name for these types of paints would be "chemically active paint".
The components are the:
- base component
- hardener.
The temperatures of the surroundings and the material to be painted have an important influence on
the rate of the reaction.
In dual-component paints, the two components are delivered and stored in two different cans.
After the base component and hardener of the epoxy paint or polyurethane paint have been properly
mixed, the mixed material should be left to stand prior to application.
This time is called "introduction period"; normally this takes about 20 minutes and is given on
the data sheet of the coating supplier.
Modern two pack systems no longer needs this introduction time. Leftover paint hardens and
becomes useless.
Examples of these types of paint are polyurethane and epoxy-paints.

3.4 Comparing the two paint systems

The choice for a conventional or binary paint is governed by a large number of factors.
The physical and chemical properties of binaries are superior to the conventional paints.
But a tougher layer, longer gloss and greater resistance to water and chemicals are not equally
important to every shipping company.
Some arguments that can influence the choice of paint-system are:
- the price of the paint
- price of the pre-treatment
- purpose of the ship
- is the painting done by the crew or a specialist, during a voyage or during docking.
This last point depends on:
- the number of crew members
- where will the ship be sailing:
• in tropical areas the crew can do a lot of maintenance;
• in arctic areas maintenance cannot be performed afloat, but only in a dry dock.

Mixing with a mechanical or high speed mixer until the paint has a uniform colour
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Side 320

4 Painting
4.1 Pretreatment
For a good painting result it is important that the steel that is going to be painted, is pre-treated.
Painting should be done in conditions where changes of temperature and humidity are small.
This is why more and more ships are painted in closed air-conditioned spaces. The pre-treatment is
the foundation of good protection for the steel. The better it is cleaned, the better the result will be.
A good paint-system on a bad substrate is of little value.
The base material can be cleaned in the following ways:
- with hand tools
- mechanical cleaning (with machines)
- chemical cleaning, especially degreasing
- thermal cleaning
- sandblasting / gritblasting
- waterjets.

Hand tools
Manual cleaning is done with scaling hammers, scrapers, sandpaper and wire brushes. This
pretreatment method is very labour-intensive and qualitatively not very highgrade.
It is mostly used for local repairs of the paint-layer and sometimes for the treatment of welds and
places already treated with an abrasive wheel.

Mechanical cleaning
This is done with mechanical scaling hammers, rotating wire brushes, abrasive wheels and abrasive
discs. Onboard, needle scaling hammers or chipping hammers are used almost exclusively. Of all
the types of mechanical scaling hammers, these are the best, although it is not very fast. The
roughened surface gives a good anchoring for the paint layer.
Rotating wire brushes, abrasive wheels and abrasive discs can yield the same result as the needle-
scaling hammer, with the difference that the surface may become polished.
If the metal surface is too smooth, the mechanical bonding between the metal surface and coating
will be poor, leading in most cases to premature
Badly protected welded seams which may be caused by insufficient cleaning after welding prior to
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Local gritblasting. In some countries sandblasting is still used, in most countries, however, it is no
longer allowed due to health (lung) problems.
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Advanced technique for gritblasting, with special care to prevent excessive inconvenience caused
by 'dust'.
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failure of the coating system.
Almost all methods of cleaning with mechanical devices require breathing and hearing protection.
The waste from old paint layers should be collected and disposed of properly.

If the mill scale is not properly removed, it will eventually fall off
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If holes or cracks are not welded properly they may cause problems with cleaning and pre-
treatment. This in turn can cause small blisters, that cause detachment of the paint layer.
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The paint layer is loosening due to a bad base or incorrect pretreatment
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Rotating wire brush
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A pneumatic scaling hammer
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Chemical cleaning
Chemical cleaning removes the layer of paint and rust. For local paint jobs, paint-stripping
compounds are used. In manufacturing, the cleaning is done either with acids or by sanding. In all
cases the cleaned material should be thoroughly rinsed with fresh water.
Side 321

Thermal cleaning
For local removal of paint, a heat paint stripper can be used. The heat softens the paint, which can
then be removed with tools.
The heat stripper is not used on large areas because of the fire-hazard and the toxic vapours that are
released by heating.

Gritblasting is done by blasting granular materials at high speed with high-pressure air against the
steel. The material is cleaned thoroughly and the surface is roughened, which is essential to achieve
a good mechanical bonding with the coating.
The roughness can be adjusted by adjusting the size of the grit material during the gritblasting.
The surface becomes covered with microscopic pits that are good for the adhesion of the paint layer.
The first layer of paint should be applied immediately after gritblasting to prevent moisture in the
air forming a new layer of rust on the bare steel. Gritblasting is not done on a large scale in service
because it requires special equipment. It can be done in drydock though. This method is suitable for
treating large areas; 20 m2 per hour is feasible.
Another advantage of gritblasting is that it can be used to remove the rust from complicated
structures, where other tools cannot reach every nook and cranny. However, removing thick layers
of paint or rust with this method takes a lot of time and is therefore not efficient.
In the dry dock, gritblasting is usually limited to the outside of the shell and possibly the tanks.
When gritblasting, it is important to pay attention to personal safety-protection for the ears, eyes
and lungs.

Waterwashing and hydroblasting

Of these cleaning methods water-washing is the preparation method most used. The installation
consists of a high-pressure pump, hoses and a gun or lance.
Upto a pressure of 350 Bar it is called low-pressure waterwashing. It is very successful in removing
salt deposits, loose paint, algae, and other relatively loose dirt and deposits.
From 350 to 700 Bar it is called high-pressure waterwashing. With these pressures it is possible to
remove firmly adhered growth like barnacles, and to break intact blisters in the paint.
From 700 to 1,700 Bar it is called waterblasting or hydrojetting, often used in combination with a
gun with a rotating cutting head. Rust and barnacle bases are removed.
From 1700 to 2,350 Bar it is called ultra-high pressure waterblasting. Again even better results.
This method is gradually superseding gritblasting due to the environmental impact of gritblasting.
The cost of grit disposal is taking it out of the market. Special installations can produce more than
2,500 Bar, which will remove millscale. 4,000 Bar will cut steel.
All these depend on the surface quality and the requirements. Waterblasting production in sq.m/min
or hour, is relatively low, set against grit blasting. The skill of the blaster is important. When
blasting, a mist cloud obstructs the view, and causes missed spots.
Advantages of waterblasting against dry-blasting
- better removal of salt deposits.
- little dust.
- no damage to surrounding areas
- feathering possible, the blasted area can meet the existing coating gradually. This means no hard
- the water pressure warms the water, and so the surface.
This reduces the flash-rust and leaves a dry and clean surface.
- the dry dock can be cleaned with water. Paint remains can be swept-up. No large quantities of
heavy grit to be disposed of.

- no anchoring pattern in the treated steel, only the old pattern will remain
- water accelerates oxide development. For some kinds of paint this is not acceptable
- production is considerably less than dry blasting
- tools are vulnerable to damage, and difficult to repair.
Dry blasting requires simple tools and an ordinary air-compressor.

Figurtekst slut.
Salt contamination. The ships environment is salty. Salt (chlorine and sulphate) deposits on bare
steel prior to painting will produce an iron-chloride solution, leading to corrosion of the steel. High
pressure fresh water washing and proper drying thereafter prior to painting, will reduce this
Rammetekst slut.

4.2 Applying the paint layer

Before the paint is applied one has to make sure that:
- the surface is free of moisture, dust and grease
- the surface shows no signs of condensation and there is no opportunity for the forming of
- the surface temperature should not exceed 40 °C, or fall below the minimum processing
temperature of the paint. Some paints can be used even at -10 °C. Care to be taken that there is no
ice in the pores of the steel
- the right paint is prepared; the two pack paint is mixed in the proper proportions
- the paint is stirred well before use, preferably with the aid of a mechanical mixer
- the correct tools are being used: brush, roller or spray.
The paint spray is only used for large areas. Spraying makes it possible to distribute the paint
evenly, and the layer thickness can be greater than when a brush or roller is used.
Side 322

4.3 Thickness of the layer

The thickness of the paint layer can be expressed as the wet layer-thickness or the dry layer-
thickness, usually reported in microns or mm, 1 micron (1mµ) = 0.001mm.
This shows that if a paint with a high content of solids is used, fewer litres will cover more m2.
If the paint is applied by airless spray, the loss of paint in the form of mist can be 20% -30%, and a
lot more when it is windy.
The spray-loss factor is influenced to a large extent by:
- shape of the structure
- weather during application
- experience/skill of the painter
- cleaning and use of remains of the 'empty' paint cans.
Based on the use of epoxies, to achieve proper protection of the steel the following minimum
thickness is recommended:
- inside accommodation: 100 microns
- outside, vertical areas under salt attack: 250 - 300 microns outside horizontal areas under salt
attack: 200 microns underwater, without antifouling: 200 - 250 microns inside cargo tanks (epoxy
systems) 300 to 400 microns.
The material that is going to be painted should be at least 3 °C warmer than the dew point of the
surrounding air.
This can be tested by breathing against the surface. If it produces condensation, it must disappear
within minutes.
The dew point is the temperature at which condensation starts, because at that temperature the
maximum water-vapor pressure is reached. The relative humidity is then 100%.
If the temperature then drops below the dew point, the water will condense on the coldest surfaces.
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The stripes in the brush"trail" should even out by themselves. This is not the case shown here.
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Painting the deck with a brush
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Welding or burning on the other side of the steel will cause damage to the paint-layer.
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If the paint is applied too thickly it will sag.
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Painting with a brush. If the painting is done in a closed space, breathing protection is necessary.
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Applying paint with a roller
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Side 323

4.4 Types of paint

Finish paints
Finish paints are the final coatings and include antifouling paint.
Finish paints can be categorized by use i.e. bottom, boot topping, topside, deck, tank, etc.

Shop primers
Shop primers are used as temporary protective layers directly after the steel plates have been rolled,
cut and shotblasted.

Requirements for shop primers are:

- quick drying, fast acting
- allow welding wthout removel
- no influence on the quality of the welding
- suitable as a base for the final paint layers.
- no production of harmful fumes during welding.
Today only two pack shop primers are used.
The shop primers give the gritblasted steel several months protection, depending on the local

Zinc containing Ethyl Silicate or Zinc Epoxy

Only used if there is a great risk of mechanical damage.
The zinc sacrifices itself when the layer is damaged.
It is applied as a single layer with maximum thickness of 75 or 50 microns respectively.
It is often used on tank tops and in hatches.

4.5 Painting systems

A steel-conservation system is built up with a protective primer, the coating and the finishing layer.
This system combines active (see section 5) and passive corrosion prevention.
Passive corrosion protection means that the metal is sealed off from the influence of water, air and
chemicals. Each type of paint protects passively to different degrees.
The permeability of a dry paint film depends on the type of paint, but even more on the layer
thickness and the number of layers.
The higher the number of layers and the higher the total thickness, the less is the permeability.
Two methods of working outboard:
- the old fashioned staging plank where the sailor has a safety harnass and safety line.
- a specially constructed cage hanging from the ship's crane, where the sailor inside is also
provided with an independent safety line.
In general the selected coating system and the area of the vessel (underwater area / topsides / ballast
tanks, etc.) determine the number of coating layers.
Both should wear a life jacket.
A watchman on board keeps watch on both.
Side 324

5. Anti-fouling
The main purpose of anti-fouling is to keep the underwater shell free of marine growth.
It also prevents organisms from damaging the paint layer and the steel underneath.

5.1 Fouling
Fouling is an umbrella term for water plants (algae and weeds) and animals (barnacles, polyps,
mussels, anemones). The number of organisms that result in fouling of the hull is as high as 4000 to
5000. The fouling can be divided into two categories according to the size of the adult organisms:
- macrofouling, made up of animals and plants
- microfouling. This is a slimy mass, a sticky mix of bacteria and other microorganisms. The
adhesion of microfouling is weaker than the adhesion of macrofouling.

5.2 The ship's shell, the ideal surface for fouling

Spores and larvae easily deposit onto slow-moving rough surfaces.
A smooth surface in combination with high speed is a less ideal foundation. Some chemicals and
metal-ions like those from copper are toxic to these organisms.
The growing organisms get their nourishment from the water flowing along the hull. A ship that is
moving slowly (0-10 knots) has the ideal combination of a solid surface and a good supply of food.
The growing process of fouling is quite intricate.
It depends on geographical, climatological, and oceanographic circumstances, the season, nature of
the material and the trading pattern.
For instance, the trading pattern of a container ship (short berthing time) differs from the pattern
of a dredger (alternating high and low speed, long and short stops) which again differs from the
pattern of a supply-vessel (long stops, interrupted by intensive steaming).
Fouling increases the ship's resistance and reduces the speed by 10 or 15% for the same engine
power. To keep the original speed, the engine-power has to be increased by 23-38%. The fuel
consumption then increases by 25-40%.

5.3 The purpose of anti-fouling

Fouling leads to many problems affecting efficient operation, as it increases the ship's frictional
- loss of speed and/or increase of power required to maintain speed. Fuel cost can go up by as much
as 40%.
- increased dry docking frequency, and longer stays in dry dock
- reduced maneuvrability
- increase of engine-wear
- increase of NOx and SOx emission
- higher cost of in-water examination for Class, or no acceptance of this examination, possibly
resulting in a dry docking
- blockage of sea-inlet gratings, and thus less cooling water for the engine(s)
- damage to paint substrate and consequently corrosion of the hull.
From this, it is clear that the application of antifouling is useful.
The cost of application is easily offset against the additional cost of fuel and loss of time.
Anti-foulings contain biocides, which kill the larvae of marine growth such as barnacles and other
shells, and algae. The biocides normally used are copper or copper derivates.

Self-polishing anti-fouling
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Mussel fouling
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Fouling in places where the anti-fouling has been lost
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Green algae fouling
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Acorn shells, mussels and other shells
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Side 325

5.4 Types of anti-fouling

Self Polishing Copolymers

Self-Polishing Copolymer (SPC) anti-foulings release biocides by a hydrolysis or ion exchange
reaction of an acrylic polymer with seawater. This reaction only occurs near the surface of the
coating and unlike the rosin systems, seawater penetration into the bulk of the film is prevented.
This gives greatly increased control over biocide release.

Controlled Depletion Polymers

Rosin-based antifoulings work because they allow seawater to penetrate the paint film, allowing
biocide release by a process of diffusion. Rosin-based antifoulings may have low or high quantities
of rosin. Those with a low level are known as Contact Leaching Antifoulings. They are
mechanically tough, have no polishing characteristics and commonly have a maximum inservice
lifetime of 24 months. The high rosin products are softer, dissolve slowly in seawater and are
known as Controlled Depletion Polymer (CDP) antifoulings; although it is also referred to as self
polishing antifouling, which is wrong. Self Polishing Antifouling or Hybrid systems
By carefully combining pure SPC technology with rosinbased CDP technology, it has been possible
to produce technology which combines the CDP features of surface tolerance and attractive volume
solids, together with the SPC benefits of polishing rate control, control of biocide release and
reduced leached layer size. In terms of performance this SPC/CDP antifouling is midway between
the SPC and CDP technologies.

Non-Stick Paint / Foul Release Coating.

Development on this type of coating is ongoing and its evolution makes it available for more and
more vessel types. The coating is based on silicone elastomer or fluoropolymer chemis try which
represents the very latest advances in foul release technology formulated to provide an amphiphilic
surface, making it very difficult for fouling organisms to adhere to the coated surface.
Foul release coatings are generally two or three component products, depending on the supplier.
Foul release coatings are biocide free, this technology works on a foul release basis by providing a
very smooth, slippery, low-friction surface onto which fouling organisms have difficulty attaching.
Any which do attach, normally do so only weakly and can usually be easily removed. Benefits
include reduced fuel consumption, reduced CO2 emissions and no leaching of biocides into the sea.
With options for all vessel types foul release coatings are a significant development that can have a
positive impact on the environmental profile and fuel efficiency of the global fleet.

5.5 Economy
Decisions about the application of expensive paint systems are mostly taken depending on who is
paying for the fuel. Companies using their own ships in their own trade, such as large container
ships and passenger ships, pay for their own fuel. So do tankers and bulk carriers on voyage
charters. However, the latter ships often engage in time-charters, and then the charterer pays for the
When fast ships, like container ships, passenger ships or navy ships are painted with fouling
release paint, it is use ful to paint the propeller as well. Normally, it pays of, when calculated
against fuel cost, to polish a propeller twice a year to reduce the rotation friction. By painting it
with this type of paint, this polishing can be skipped.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 326

6 Cathodic protection
To understand how cathodic protection works, it is necessary to look at the corrosion process in
more detail. In this undesired chemical effect, the material can react with different chemicals in the
The reactions can be divided into:
- chemical reactions
- electro-chemical reactions
These reactions take place exclusively at the surface of the metal. It is possible for microscopic pits
to be formed by corrosion on the metal's surface. The corrosion can also occur in existing cracks.

6.1 Chemical reactions

In almost all chemical reactions there is a charge transfer between the reactants. If this exchange of
charge is a local effect, then the reaction is called a chemical reaction, and the resulting corrosion is
chemical corrosion. An example of this is the reaction between bare steel and oxygen from the air.
A thin oxide layer which rapidly covers the metal, is formed at the surface. All metals form such an
oxide layer. The characteristics of this first (dry) layer are of great importance to the further course
of the corrosion process, and to the adhesion of the paint layer.
If water comes into contact with the iron oxide, the compounds react to produce iron hydroxide
(rust). The rust is very porous, and therefore oxidation continues.
The first oxide layer of stainless materials is not affected by water. A lack of oxygen arises between
the metal and the oxide layer which is the reason that the oxide layer cannot develop any further.

Galvanic corrosion
Figurtekst slut.

6.2 Electro-chemical reactions

Many compounds have the tendency to dissolve charged particles (ions) into water.
Ions can move freely in water.
Compounds that always behave in this way are acids, alkalines, soluble salts, metals and some
A consequence of the ion-mobility is that chemical reactions and the incidental electrical current
are not necessarily local. They can spread over a much larger area.
These electro-chemical reactions do not just come to a halt.
Every metal in contact with water has the tendency to generate positive ions.
This makes the water more positive and the metal more negative. If a metal is less noble, it will
have a stronger tendency to generate these ions and thus become more negative. Alternatively, if
the metal is more noble, then it will have a weaker tendency to generate positive ions and will thus
be less negative.
In general:
- gold is more noble than copper
- copper is more noble than tin
- tin is more noble than iron
- iron is more noble than zinc
- zinc is more noble than aluminum.

6.3 Sacrificial element (galvanic corrosion)

When two different metals are in contact with each other and with water (even a small amount), the
less noble metal will have a lower electrical potential than the more noble metal. This potential
difference and the contact between the metals generates an electric current between the two metals,
flowing from the precious to the less noble metal.
The continuous flow of current to the less noble metal causes it to generate more ions that dissolve
into the water. This way the metal slowly disappears into the water.
Side 327
This dissolving of metal ions is called an anodic reaction and the metal that is dissolving is called
the anode.
Electro-chemical corrosion can also take place if a metal is not composed homogeneously.
Brass objects (alloys of copper and zinc) in seawater are very sensitive to this; the zinc dissolves
leaving a porous copper. This process is called de-alloying. Bronze (an alloy of copper and lead) is
less sensitive. If there is no intervention, the anodic material (zinc) will continue to dissolve until
all of it is completely removed.
Electro-chemical reactions on ships can occur in the following places:
- between the propeller and the surrounding steel
- between copper-containing parts (e.g. heat-exchangers) and the steel parts of a piping system.
- between aluminum parts and steel parts of the ship.
Electro-chemical corrosion mainly occurs at places where the paint is damaged, for example by soft
contact with a muddy river bottom, by ice, after contact with debris in the water or alongside a jetty,
and the normal wear through mooring and departure, tugs coming alongside etc.
Turbulence, speed, higher temperatures and salinity of the water increase the corroding process.
Eliminating the corrosion current can prevent electro-chemical corrosion. This goal can be
achieved in several ways:
- insulating the metal from the water by painting it. This prevents the metal from contact with the
oxygen and the electrolyte.
This works if the paint layer stays intact. As soon as the layer is damaged, the corrosion begins.
- reversing the current by using a sacrificial anode of a very base metal
- eversing the current by creating an opposite potential, (ICCP system:Impressed Current Corrosion
Sacrificial anodes on the propeller nozzle and rudder
Figurtekst slut.

6.4 Sacrificial anodes

Cathodic protection using sacrificial anodes is called passive cathodic protection. Blocks of zinc
and/or aluminum are connected to the ship in different places by welding of castin steel strips.
These anodes have such a low potential that they "suck" the current out of the ship's exposed steel,
faster than currents can enter the skin via the copper-containing parts.
The protection works by the wastage of the sacrificial anodes as they are less noble. As long as
there is anode material present the anodes work.
If the paint-layer below the waterline is damaged, there will be an electric current from the water
into the metal. If the damage is extensive, then the anodes will dissolve faster.
When the anodes have been dissolved, the other metals (ship's steel) will start to dissolve.
Sacrificial anodes have the following:
- low investment costs
- the limited and unpredictable lifespan of the anodes; they may last 1 to 5 years.
- floating ice, irregular dissolving and other damaging factors can diminish the protection quite
unexpectedly. This can lead to damage to the steel.
- there is a chance of overprotection, especially when the anodes have just been applied. This can
damage the paint-systems.

6.5 Impressed current

In the impressed current cathodic protection system (ICCP), a large positive current is applied to
the hull and passed through the adjacent water. As a result, current flows into the ship's steel where
it has a direct unprotected contact with the seawater inducing a cathodic reaction that protects the
steel against corrosion. To achieve this, a rectifier is connected to the ship's steel as the negative
exit. The positive exit is connected to two or more anodes in the ship's shell. These insulated
anodes are embedded in the shell to prevent damage by floating objects and are made of inert
materials (inert is another word for non-reactive).
Sometimes the very noble (but very expensive) metal platinum is used, but more often the anodes
are made from a mixture of high-grade metal oxides (MMO, mixed metal oxides). Oxides cannot
oxidate again.
The selected oxides do not dissolve in water. If the anodic reaction has no metals to consume, the
reaction will produce small bubbles of oxygen, which are not harmful to the shell. The strength of
the impressed current can range between 10 A and 600 A, the exact value depending on the size of
the ship, the amount of damaged paint layer, the speed of the ship and the salinity of the seawater.
The voltage can be as high as 20-30 V, depending on the number and positioning of the anodes.
Where the shell is in direct contact with the seawater, this voltage reduces to 1.5-2.5 V. The salinity
of seawater effects the required potential.
Side 328

Principle of impressed current corrosion protection system
Figurtekst slut.
The ICCP-system has the following
- requires a minimum of maintenance
- high reliability
- action can be controlled at any moment
- an automatic regulator can adapt the current with the use of reference electrodes if a change in the
water composition (fresh, brackish, salt) or damage to the paint layer requires this.
- the high investment costs (compared to a sacrificial system) will be recovered in approximately 6
- the costs of acquisition are significantly higher than those of a sacrificial system
- if the ICCP-system is incorrectly tuned it can cause extensive damage to the ship below the
- some paint systems are damaged quickly when the ICCP-system is overprotecting (the current is
too high).
Some remarks on cathodic protection and related matters:
- ICCP-system is mostly used on ships with a length exceeding 40 meters
- fast ships like patrol vessels and hydrofoil boats are always protected by the ICCP-system
- aluminum ships cannot be protected passively
- in ships with a lubricated propeller shaft, the shafts should be equipped with a strong current
collector. If this is not the case, the current will flow from the propeller to the bearings or gear
wheels of the engine or gear box. This can cause extensive damage.
- if the current collector is tuned incorrectly and the shaft have faulty earthing, the gear wheels and
the bearings can be damaged very quickly.
- if the rudder is to be part of the cathodic protection system the rudder stock has to be equipped
with good earthing
- stainless steel, for instance in the propeller shaft, is protected against corrosion by a dense oxide
layer called the neutralization layer. If this layer is damaged it will not fully restore itself. The new
layer is not impermeable, so corrosion cannot be stopped. A wrongly tuned ICCP installation can
destroy the neutralisation layer of the stainless steel if it comes into contact with seawater. This
does not happen with a lubricated propeller shaft.

Special paint layer around the anode
Figurtekst slut.

7. Dry docking
7.1 Why dry docking?
- The SOLAS Convention requires it (Chapter 1, Reg 10-V). This chapter states that every ship
should be dry docked for inspection of the underwater parts at least twice every 5 years. The
maximum time-lapse between two dry dockings should not exceed three years. Only when special
provisions have been made during construction may one of the dry dockings be replaced by an in-
water survey.
- Demanded by the bureau of classification. The demands from the Classification Societies are
generally in compliance with SOLAS requirements.
- To repair damage below the water-line as a result of for instance:
• collision
• running aground
• bad or no maintenance
• propeller-shaft seal leakage
• rudder damage
- Inspection when the ship is going to be sold.

7.2 Methods of dry docking

- floating dock
- graving dock
- patent slip
- lift and subsequent horizontal transport of the ship
- Floating dock
A floating dock is, in fact, a pontoon with a vertical sponson on both sides in the longitudinal
direction. The pontoon and a part of each dock wall are divided into a number of tanks.
To dock a ship the following has to be done:
- the tanks are filled with water so the dock submerges sufficiently for the ship to safely enter it
- the ship navigates into the dock
- the tanks are emptied, the dock rises to the surface and the ship is lifted out of the water.
The front and/or the back of the sponsons are usually equipped with hingeable walkways to provide
access to both sides.
Side 329
On top of the sponsons are:
- pump control room
- traveling crane for handling, loading/unloading of parts
- capstans and bollards to control the ship's movements into the floating dock.
Electric motors are located in the upper part or dry room of the sponsons. They operate the ballast
pumps that are located low in the tanks.
The manual controls of the inlet and outlet valves are also located in this compartment. Opening the
inlet valves fills the tanks and lowers the dock. To raise the dock, the pumps are started and the
outlet valves are opened.
The ship rests on the keel blocks that are placed on the tank top of the dock. These keel blocks are 1
- 1.25 meters apart and each can carry a weight of 100-200 tons, height 1.5 - 2 meters.
Bilge (side) blocks are used to support the ship in the dock.
They keep the ship upright and are placed towards the turn of the bilge. All side blocks have to be
placed in such a way that the forces they exert on the ship's hull are absorbed by the reinforcements
present in the ship, like side girders and longitudinal bulkheads.
The center line bulkheads and the web frames of the dock also have to be taken into account.
The positions of the blocks, the rise of bottom, the bottom tank drain plugs and other important data
have to be indicated on the docking plan of the ship. The rise of floor makes it necessary for the
side blocks to have the correct height so that the weight of the ship is distributed over the keel and
the side blocks. The dock master is responsible for the placing of the blocks as indicated by the
ship's docking plan.
- Graving dock
The graving dock entrance is closed by a caisson or gate.
The dock floor slopes slightly towards the entrance. The pump room is located near the gate.
Most characteristics of the graving dock are the same as those of a floating dock. The acceptable
trim of the ship is more limited than in a floating dock. The difference between the slope of the
dock and the trim should not exceed 1 metre, to prevent high loads in the stern area of the ship.
1. Keel blocks
2. Side blocks
3. Dock sponson

Repair department of a dockyard ↑

Figurtekst slut.
Side 330
Side 331
Length o.a. 139.95 M
Length p.p. 134.70 M
Rule lenght Bur.Ver. 132,31 M
Breadth moulded 21.00 M
Depth moulded 10.60 M
Draft summer freeboard CA. 8.06 M
Design Draft 6.90 M
Deadweight (6.90mtr) appr. 11700 ton
Deadweight (8.06 mtr) appr. 14800 ton
Draft scantling 8.10 M
Total engine output 5400kW
Service speed 14 Kn
Gross tonnage approx. 8550 GT

Cargotanks 100% appr. 16000 m3
Slobtank appr. 380 m3
Washwater / ballast tank appr. 247 m3
Ballast water appr. 6014 m3
Potable water appr. 99 m3
HFO appr. 714 m3
Gasoil appr. 97 m3
Side 332
- Patent slip
The patent slip lifts the ship out of the water.
Trolleys placed on rails roll into the water until they are underneath the ship. The trolleys are pulled
back up again taking the ship with them. The patent slip is used mostly for ships with a length of up
to 140 metres. It is a fast and cheap method of dry docking a ship.
Often more than one ship can be raised on the slipway, and repaired or painted together.
- Shiplift
A shiplift consists of one or more platforms that can be raised or lowered by a number of winches
located on both sides of a platform or on piers. Sometimes locking mechanisms are used to hold the
platform at quay level and to take over the load from the winches.
Usually a shiplift system is used together with a transfer system, consisting of ship support beams
(trestles or cradles), including wheel-bogies with hydraulic jacks.
To dry dock a ship, the transfer trestles are positioned on the lifting platform at quay level, and the
platform is lowered into the water.
After the ship has moved over the platform, the platform is then raised by the winches, and the
vessel is docked by hoisting it to quay level. Now the transfer system, complete with wheel-bogies,
moves the ship horizontally, in both longitudinal and transverse directions to the dockyard. The
winch systems are mostly electrically driven and may incorporate variable speed control and trim
and list adjustments for the platform.
Transfer systems generally include hydraulic systems for vertical adjustment and the ideal "fluid
bed" for the support of the vessel.
Horizontal movement also comprises hydraulic drives.
Nowadays there are shiplifts with 100-winch systems.

7.3 Preparing for dry docking

As mentioned before, the dock master has to determine the position of the ship in the dock and the
side blocks in accordance with the docking plan. If possible, the ship should have no cargo on
If there is still cargo on board, then docking can only take place in close consultation with the
Classification. The structural integrity of the ship may require additional blocks to be placed.
In the case of a large ship, an extremely heavy ship, or a ship with an abnormal shape, a proposal
for the block positions is made and submitted for approval to the Owner's representative and if
applicable to the Classification Society.
Every dry dock has its own block pattern, and this has to be adapted as far as practicable to the
ship's construction. The block preparation is controlled and measured prior to the actual dry
The ship should enter the dock with a trim decided by the dock master. A floating dock can trim to
suit the ship. The maximum allowable trim differs per dock.
7.4 Dry docking
Once the ship has entered the dock, the dock master is responsible for the dry docking.
The ship must be moved exactly above the centre line blocks, before the dock is pumped.
The ship is positioned correctly by dock winches attached fore and aft, to port and starboard. The
dock master controls the winch operators.
The exact middle of the dock is indicated by a plumb line suspended from a cable between the sides
of the dock. Another method is to use a measuring rule to determine the distance between the edges
of the dock and both the ship's sides forward and aft. The ship will touch the blocks when the draft
of the side sponsons equals the ship's draft. The draft of the sponsons is the draft above the keel
blocks. The ship is "on the blocks" when it touches the keel blocks.

Ships on a patent slip
Figurtekst slut.

Shiplift. One lift-system can have many ships dry at the same time
Figurtekst slut.
The stability of the ship decreases when the weight exerted by the ship on the blocks increases.
The apparent rise of the centre of gravity 'G' is faster than the rise of the metacentre 'M', in other
words: G catches up with M. Bilge blocks or side props have to be placed before the stability
becomes zero (GM = 0).
A critical moment for the floating dock arises when, during the last phase of pumping, several
decimeters of water are still present on the dock floor and start to move. A large free surface area
can start to move. Before the water level falls below the ship's intakes all water cooled engines and
auxiliaries have to be shut down. If the ship has air cooled auxiliaries, these can keep supplying the
ship with power. Otherwise, shore power must be used.
A requirement of the shipyard is that the ship is connected to the shore based fire-fighting
installation by means of hoses connected to the onboard international shore connection.
Side 333

7.5 Refloating
Before the dock is submerged to undock the ship, the presence of all the plugs, grills, anodes, inlet
and outlet valves, manhole covers etc. has to be confirmed.
The ship should leave the dock, if possible, in the same ballast condition as when she entered. This
means that ballast tanks, if emptied for any reason, have to be refilled using the dock pumps. An
equivalent ballast condition can be calculated. When the ship is afloat again, the engine room
compartment, all bilges and tanks have to be checked for leakage. Repairs to double bottom tanks
and side shell must be tested prior to undocking.

8. Maintenance, repairs and conversions

8.1 Maintenance
Ship maintenance is usually divided into hull and engine maintenance.
Major hull maintenance is normally done in dry dock. A ship has to be dry docked twice every five
years. This is basically for examination of the underwater parts by Class.
When no repairs are to be carried out, it means only examination, cleaning and repainting of the
ship's outside hull.
Maintenance of decks, and everything inside the hull is usually done by the ship's crew.
When the ship is high and dry in dry dock the outside of the hull is cleaned with high-pressure
water jets to remove dirt and fouling, to prepare it for repainting.
Oily spots, if any, are removed with special solvents. Rust spots are cleaned using sand-discs,
gritblasting or hydro (water) blasting.
After cleaning and drying, the vessel has to be examined in dry dock by the Classification surveyor,
normally accompanied by a representative of the owner and of the shipyard in order to determine
the condition of the underwater parts.
Emphasis shall be put on rudder and propeller, tail shaft, dents, damage, paint-condition, corrosion,
fractures, weldings, and inlet and outlet pipe stubs. Defects affecting Class are to be dealt with.
Minor defects not required by Class to be repaired, can be left as they are, as per owner's choice.
No underwater defects are to be neglected, to prevent unforeseen repairs during operational time.
The original paint system of the spots is restored, after which the entire outside hull can be painted
as required by the owner.
When the roughness of the underwater hull has become too great due to numerous layers of paint
and local touch-ups, the entire underwater area is blasted to remove all the rust and paint, to start
the paint system anew. The paint supplier gives advice, and supervises the cleaning and painting.
The paint system is chosen according to the age of the ship, size, speed, cost and the requirements
of the trade.
It may be from simply one coat of tar to more expensive systems such as vinyl, chlorinated rubber,
epoxy or polyurethane undercoats followed by various coats of sophisticated anti-foulings.
To have the Docking Survey credited for Class, the following underwater parts of the hull have to
be examined:
- tail shaft and propeller
- the tail shaft seal
- the rudder and rudder stock
- propeller shaft wear down
- clearance of rudder bearings have to be measured
- sea-inlet boxes are to be opened up, cleaned and painted internally. It is mostly the same
procedure as for the outside hull
- anchors and chain cables.
The tail shaft and propeller have to be examined and the tail shaft wear down measured. If all is in
order or dealt with, the legal part is completed.
Side 334

Preparing propeller and tail shaft for proper fit on tapered end of a keyless propeller in the
workshop, Afterwards shaft and propeller are installed on board.
Figurtekst slut.
Anchors and chain cables are lowered. Blasting and painting in progress.
Figurtekst slut.

Standard tailshafts have to be withdrawn every 5 years for examination of the shaft and stern
bearing. This requires the propeller to be lifted off and suspended to one side during the work.
Controllable-pitch propeller shafts and keyless propeller shafts do not need to be withdrawn at five
year intervals, they can be left for a longer time.
When the clearance of rudder bearings has become too big, the rudder has to be lifted and the
relevant bearings renewed.
The larger the ship, the heavier the rudder. For a VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier) the rudder may
weigh 100 tons or more.
Rudder stocks, which are often lifted to enable lifting of the rudder, follow the same pattern.
Special lifting gear is required.
Anchors and chain cables are lowered and laid out, and measured to establish any loss of
thickness due to corrosion and/or wear.
When the measurements fall below requirements the chains must be replaced. Inspection and
measurements of anchors and chains is required at least every five years.
While the anchors and chains are in the dry dock, it is customary to clean the chain lockers, which
themselves have to be examined for Special Survey by Class.
Another standard item of the dry dock repair list is opening and overhaul of sea-inlet and overboard
valves. They need cleaning, inspection, disc-grinding of seats and repacking of spindle glands at
least once in five years.
Side 335

Exchange of crank shaft,
Figurtekst slut.

Rudder condition when vessel just dry in dry dock. Access plates of rudder-pintle-nuts missing(tost)
and rudder itself heavily fouled.
Figurtekst slut.
The same rudder after cleaning, painting and fitting of new access plates.
Figurtekst slut.
Most of the engine maintenance is done while the ship is in service, much of it at sea. Items which
can only be done when the ship is stopped are done in port.
The Classification Societies require the ship owner to present each surveyable item once every five
years. Surveyable items are engine parts or systems essential for the safe navigation of the vessel
and are listed on board and ashore. The survey can be done at the end of the five year special
survey cycle, or on a continuous basis during the whole period.
Under certain circumstances parts of the survey can be done by the ship's chief engineer when he or
she is suitably qualified. Details of what was seen and done have to be submitted. Some engine
parts need more attention than once in five years: coolers, pistons, turbo-chargers, etc. Maintenance
of items which are too large or too difficult, or which simply cannot be done afloat, is done in
This is usually a specialized repair yard rather than a new-building yard.

8.2 Repairs
Repair yards have totally different equipment from new-building yards. Their drydocks are deeper
because a ship in operation is heavier and consequently has more draft than an empty newly built
Also cranes do not need to have the lifting capacity of those in a new building yard. They need
height rather than lifting capacity.
The workshops are also equipped differently, with machines for small and sometimes big repair
The workers have to have different skills from new-builders, and have to be more flexible and used
to changes. Repair yards are often in different locations from the new-building yards. To minimize
deviation from the normal trade routes, they are found in the big loading and discharge ports or en
route between common discharge and loading ports, especially for large tankers and bulk carriers.
Side 336

Damaged bow
Figurtekst slut.

A new bow
Figurtekst slut.
The bow brought in the position.
Figurtekst slut.

The new bow attached
Figurtekst slut.
Repair yards are used for normal maintenance work, but must also have the flexibility to carry out
When a problem is observed during the dry dock inspection there has to be capacity to deal with it
immediately. Therefore, repair yards need to have more than one dry dock, and specialize in certain
sizes and types of ships.
Typical repairs are common to certain ship types. Bulk carriers always have work to be done on
hatch covers, crude tankers to pipelines in the tanks and pump room, and to valves, hopper dredgers
to bottom-flaps, container ships to container guides, etc.
A repair yard always has departments for hull, machinery, pipe repairs, electrical repairs,
woodwork, cleaning and painting.
Specific and/or specialist jobs are often subcontracted to separate companies.
Common repairs to hulls are steel renewals in dry dock and afloat, such as repairs to a dent caused
by collision with a jetty, steel renewals resulting from grab discharge, local corrosion or from
Grounding damage can vary in size from a small dent to a whole flat bottom. Fire damage also
often involves steel repairs.

Repairs to shell plating often involve the question of shape.
Nearly all ships have different forms, and when a hull plate is not in the flat bottom or ship's side,
the curved shape has to be restored.
When the new building offsets (tables measured from the original new building mould), are
available, the relevant part of the hull can be drawn up in a mouldloft, and the shape can easily be
established from this full-size drawing.
Or, when the damage is on the portside, measurements are to can be taken on the starboard side.

8.3 Computerized shape techniques

When there is damage to the ship below the waterline, the ship has to dock at a repair yard for
survey of the damage.
After the survey, the parts that have to be replaced can be fabricated, e.g. the shell plating with the
stiffenings and other strengthening parts. Then they can be installed.
The most time-consuming factor is the retracing of the original form of the hull, which can cause a
relatively long period in dock.
Modern laser techniques can shorten the time needed to measure the shape.
By measuring a number of spots on one side, at known coordinates, the shape can be calculated for
the other side, thus making a full size drawing of the lines unnecessary.
When the yard uses a modern, 3D CAD/CAM computer program the process can be carried by
computer. This is more and more the case in modern shipyards.
Depending on the extent of the damage the ship may be able to proceed on her voyage and the lay
time reduced as far as possible.
Only when the sections that have to be replaced are fully constructed, will the ship have to go to a
dry dock for repairs.
This way the sailing time lost is as little as possible, which is the primary goal of the ship owner.
Side 337

Bottom damage
Figurtekst slut.

Part cut out
Figurtekst slut.
Ship's shape
Figurtekst slut.

New part lowered..
Figurtekst slut.

… and brought into position to be attached
Figurtekst slut.

8.4 Conversion
Ship conversion is more related to ship repairs than to new building. Existing ships are sometimes
modified into something totally different from the original:
- bulk carriers are converted into drill ships or pipe layers
- tankers are given a second life as FPSO's
- cargoships, Ro-Ro ships or tankers are lengthened
- an existing stern with engine room is coupled to a completely new fore body;
- original steam propulsion is changed to diesel propulsion;
- passenger ships are upgraded with more cabins, from emigrant transport into cruise ship, or from
ferry into floating hospital, etc.
A special field of work relates to offshore oil and gas exploration and production. The continuous
change in requirements for certain jobs means that drilling units, storage systems, or transport
barges often have to be modified before they can carry out the next job. This work is also normally
done at a repair yard.
Sometimes new building capacity is used to make new parts, for instance for a new mid-body
section for a lengthening.

A passenger ship being lengthened to increase capacity
Figurtekst slut.
Side 338

Figurtekst slut.
Side 339
Side 340

1 General 340
2 Fire protection, detection, extinction 341
3 Lifesaving appliances 353
4 Precautionary measures 358
5 Markings 360
6. Communication, safety 361
7 Pyrotechnics 362

An overview of the index of SOLAS
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1. General
1.1 General
Safety on board ships is an important issue. Normally at sea and often very far from any possible
assistance, there is nobody who can be called upon for help.
Of course, the ship should be of good design, well maintained in seaworthy condition with
sufficient stability, watertight and weather tight and properly equipped.
However, safety on a ship is not guaranteed by availability on board of the compulsory safety items
and systems. Safety cannot be bought. Most of the accidents on board ships are the result of human
Prevention through recognition, rectification and avoidance of unsafe actions and/or situations at all
times and at all places on board by all personnel is of utmost importance.
All ships and their offices ashore have to be certified under the International Safety Management
Code (ISM Code) and the crew has to work in accordance with the Safety Management System
The SMS is a set of rules describing in detail how to apply safety in general and how to use safety
Courses and regular drills are held in order to ensure that the crew is safety-conscious.

Training in how to walk and climb while using a BA-set (breathing apparatus)
Figurtekst slut.
The crew is trained to use the right equipment in the event of an accident.
In a crisis situation people are not logical thinkers. They tend to act instinctively using the things
they learned during the courses and drills.
When situations have not been addressed and the crew are unfamiliar with the situation they tend to
panic. In the case of fire, especially on tankers, inadequately trained people have jumped overboard,
often with fatal consequences.
Chapter I: General provisions
Chapter II-1: Construction - Structure, subdivision and
stability, machinery and electrical installations
Chapter II-2: Construction - Fire protection, fire detection and
fire extinction
Chapter III: Life-saving appliances and arrangements
Chapter IV: Radio communications
Chapter V: Safety of navigation
Chapter VI: Carriage of cargoes
Chapter VII: Carriage of dangerous goods
Chapter VIII: Nuclear ships
Chapter IX: Management of the safe operation of ships
Chapter X: Safety measures for high-speed craft
Chapter XI: Special measures to enhance maritime safety
Chapter XII: Additional measures for bulk carriers
Appendix: Certificates
Side 341

1.2 Regulations
Regulations concerning safety on ships are formulated by the IMO Marine Safety Committee
(MSC), responsible for the SOLAS-Convention.
The sub-committee on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch-keeping (STCW), have
regulated the certification of seafarers in the STCW Convention,
The SOLAS Regulations apply to all ships over 150 GT for radio and over 500 GT for radio and
safety equipment. Ratification by the relevant flag states means that the states will adopt the
regulations in their national laws.

2 Fire protection, detection and extinguishing

2.1 Purpose
The most important issue of course, is protection. Protection through construction is, as said above,
addressed in Chapter II-1. It prescribes the positions of bulkheads, materials for subdividing
structures, in combination with the use of non-flammable materials, fireproof doors, fireproof
insulation etc. The three elements for combustion are: flammable material, heat and oxygen, which
should not be allowed to combine and create fire.

2.2 Combustion process

Combustion is a chemical reaction caused when a flammable compound reacts with oxygen. This
compound forms a chemical bond with oxygen under the release of heat and the formation of new
This process is known as oxidation. Combustion is happening everywhere unnoticed, for example
in the human body or in corrosion, such as the rusting of iron.
An actual fire will only occur in the presence of a combination of all of these factors. If one of
these factors is removed, there will be no fire and if there already is a fire, it will be extinguished.
Fire prevention and fire fighting are based on this principle. The necessary

The fire triangle
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factors are shown in the fire triangle. If just one side of the triangle is taken out of the equation, the
fire will cease.

The ignition
The heat that is necessary to start the fire must possess certain elements. For a solid or a liquid to
ignite there has to be some vapor or a gaseous product. This is the case when the compound is
heated until enough vapors and gases have been generated to form a flammable mixture.
To ignite a liquid, there has to be gas above the liquid. The liquid itself cannot burn, though the gas
can when there is oxygen and the temperature is sufficiently high.
The lowest temperature at which this situation occurs is called the flashpoint.
However, it is possible that when the flashpoint is reached, the combustion will cease after ignition.
The reason for this is an incomplete mixing of gas and air. The lowest temperature at which
combustion will continue after ignition is called the ignition temperature.
At this temperature, enough vapor is formed to sustain combustion; the heat is in equilibrium. To
sustain combustion after ignition a sufficient amount of heat has to be released. This is the case
when more heat is produced than can be absorbed by the surroundings.
Combustion is also possible without ignition from outside. If enough heat is pumped into the fuel,
the temperature may become so high that it will ignite spontaneously.
The lowest temperature at which this can occur is called the (spontaneous) combustion

Combustion of a liquid
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Ignition and combustion of a solid
Figurtekst slut.

The fire pentacle

From the preceding section, it is apparent that the fire triangle alone does not suffice; the
oxygen/fuel ratio is also very important in the ignition and sustaining of a fire.
Additionally, a fire cannot start without a catalyst.
If there is no catalyst in the vicinity of the fuel then (over-)heating can still start the combustion
process because the fuel will form its own catalyst. The general catalyst in combustion is water
vapour, present in the atmosphere.
If the two factors oxygen/fuel ratio and catalyst are added to the fire triangle a fire pentacle is

The fire pentacle
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Side 342
A catalyst is a compound that accelerates a chemical process without being consumed.
An everyday example of this is the combustion of a sugar cube. You cannot light a sugar cube with
a match or lighter. However, when you put some ash on the cube, you will be able to set fire to the
The ash is working as a catalyst. In essence, a catalyst reduces the energy needed for a process in
comparison with the process in the absence of the catalyst.
Rammetekst slut.

Fire classes
Fire classes highlight the characteristics of combustion depending on the type of fuel.
The fire class is used to determine which method of fire-fighting is most suitable for the particular
A Solids Wood, paper, textile, plastics
B Liquids Liquefying goods, oil, petrol,
alcohol, stearine, fat, tar, paint
C Gases LPG, butane, propane
D Metals Magnesium, aluminum,
titanium, zirconium, sodium,
Overview of fire classes and the types of fuels

Foam trolley
Figurtekst slut.
2.3 Fire-fighting
When there is a fire, all attempts must be made to extinguish it. There are various means of fire-
fighting, such as:

2.3.1 Removal of heat

This can be done by:
- Solid Water. When the water is evaporated by the heat of the fire, it takes a large quantity of
energy from the fire. When there is sufficient evaporation, the fire will die.
- Foam. A mixture of water with foam-making liquid. The process and result is the same as above.
- Mist. Mist consists of very fine droplets of water. The effect is the same as solid water.
- NOVEC 1230 and FM 200

2.3.2 Removal of oxygen

Without oxygen a fire cannot continue. The percentage of oxygen can be reduced by adding
another gas (CO2) without oxygen.
- CO2. When released into a closed space, it will form a mist pushing the air, depending on the
quantity of CO2, out. When the oxygen is below 8 %, a fire can not normally exist.
Close the space completely where the fire is. The oxygen present will be used untill the percentage
is too low to maintain a fire.

2.3.3 Removal of flammable material

Closing a valve in a pipeline where oil emerges onto a very hot surface, deprives the fire of its fuel.
1. Carrying handle
2. Control lever
3. Outlet pipe
4. Snow horn
5. Blow-out pipe

2.4 Fire-fighting means

2.4.1 Portable fire extinguishers
The first line of defence on board is usually the portable fire extinguisher (dry-powder, CO2 or
Dry-powder extinguishers, usually with 6 kg powder, are placed in the engine-room and other
easily accessible spaces.
The powder is suitable for three categories of fire:
A in solids
B liquids
C gases.
Usually extinguishers are filled with a mixture of the three powders, making them versatile. The
extinguisher consists of a closed container with powder and a compressed gas (carbon dioxide)
When the extinguisher is operated a pin pierces the cartridge, which pressurises the container and
blows the powder out.
CO2 portable extinguishers are used for electrical fires, for instance in a switchboard.
Spare charges for the extinguishers or a sufficient supply of all types of fire extinguisher are
required to be stored on board. Larger capacity systems have to be available for a fire too big to be
dealt with by portable extinguishers.

A. Cross-section of a powder extinguisher
B. Cross-section of CO2-extinguisher
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Side 343

2.4.2 Water
a. Main fire line system and hoses
The most versatile, easiest and cheapest medium available for extinguishing a fire.
Therefore, ships are provided with:
- fire pumps
- pipe-line system for water under pressure to reach every location on a ship
- hydrants at regular distances
- hoses.
When hoses are connected to the appropriate hydrants all parts of the ship can be reached.
The pipe-line system must be supplied by two fire pumps situated in the engine room, each having
sufficient capacity and pressure for the whole system.
An emergency fire pump, independently driven, is located in a separate fireproof compartment.
This pump has sufficient output to supply two hoses.
A hose with a jet/spray nozzle must be stowed near each hydrant.
The hydrants and the hoses are provided with fast-fit standard connections. Several systems such as
Storz, Guillemin, NOR, Instantaneous, Nakajima, ROTA, Morris, are used in ships.
The International Shore Connection is a standard connection which the local fire-brigade can use
to supply water to the ship's fire main. Every ship must have one.
Disadvantages of using water:
- ship stability can be endangered due to large quantities of water
- water itself can also result in damage
- water is not suitable for all fires.

b. Fixed pressure spraying system

Various systems have been developed to spray water in or over areas, which are vulnerable in case
of fire, such as public spaces in passenger ships.
- Drenching
Ro-Ro vessels have open sprinklers throughout their car decks, operated from a central fire-
control room.
1. Standard ship's fire line connections
2. International Shore Connection for the fire line. (SOLAS requirement)
Figurtekst slut.

Hydrants, fire hose connections
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When a fire alarm goes off the fire is located by the related alarm head and, after inspection by an
officer or via closed circuit TV, the valve of the relevant area of the car deck can be opened
The capacity is much higher than ordinary sprinkler systems. The cargo, trucks, trailers and
vehicles are much more dangerous than a cabin.
Deck scuppers must have the capacity to drain the water so as not to cause loss of stability due to
the free surface effect. This system is also called a Deluge system.
- Sprinklers
One or more sprinkler heads are fitted in the deck head of each cabin. These heads are connected to
a pipeline supplied by a pressurized vessel filled with water. A glass bulb in the sprinkler head
closes the pipe.
When heat develops in the space, the bulb breaks, water flows out and is diverted by a rosette into
an umbrella shaped water spray. When the water in the pressure vessel drops, a pressostat starts a
fire pump providing the system with water, to keep the flow going. The pressostat also triggers the
fire alarm.

Sprinkler with heat detector. If a rise in temperature causes the liquid to expand, it will break the
glass and open the nozzle. Subsequently, the water is driven out in the form of spray. The colour of
the liquid indicates the working temperature, for example 68 °C.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 344

c. Foam
Water can be mixed with chemicals, so that when expelled through a nozzle and mixed with air,
foam is developed.
There are three systems:
- high-expansion foam,
- pre-mix ordinary foam and
- foam made in a proportionator.
The foam-forming chemical is normally synthetic protein type. The mixing rate is 1,3 or 6%.
Both low and high expansion foam can be used in spaces like engine rooms. It can fill the whole
space through a system of nozzles, strategically placed, without doing much harm to the equipment.
The water is also coolant.
Ordinary foam, pre-mix or mixed with water is applied via a proportionator, which is a venturi tube.
The foam liquid is injected into the narrow part of the tube.
This is used on tankers to lay a blanket over the deck. It separates a fire from the air, and thus from
oxygen. Foam in small quantities can be used via Foam Applicators, usually available in an engine
The applicator is a small drum of foam liquid connected to the throat of a venturi tube, which is
connected to a fire hose.
When spraying water, the foam liquid is sucked up and mixed with the water, producing foam.

Fire on the fore ship of a large crude tanker. Foam has been used in an effort to extinguish the fire
Figurtekst slut.

d. Water mist
Fresh water is pressurized through very fine nozzles so that the water comes out as a fog. Whereas
sprinklers splash everything from above with water, the fog fills the entire space with mist.
The 'local water mist system' is a means of extinguishing that creates an extra safety measure
between a manual extinguisher and a 'total flooding system', like CO2.
It has to be fitted near equipment which is at greater risk of fire, such as the main and auxiliary
engines, boilers, separators, etc. Each section is separately operable and protected by smoke and
flame detectors.
When one detector detects smoke or flame, an alarm is activated.
When a second detector alarms, the system activates. The control unit opens the valve of the
section, starts the fire mist pump, and the equipment is blanketed with water mist emitted from
special nozzles.
The system can be activated in three ways:
- automatically,
- manually - locally by a pushbutton
- remotely - from a panel outside the engine room.
Besides the compulsory fixed water based local application fire fighting system the water mist can
also be installed as a "total flooding system" for the engine room. Since the introduction of water
mist many new building cruise vessels have water mist for accomodation protection instead of
conventional sprinklers.
The pump installed for the accomodation can often be used for additional engine room protection.
Deep fryers in the galley are also provided with this kind of extinguishing.
- minimal water damage
- large water surface area" making fog very effective at cooling
- oxygen depleted by the steam which forms
- can be activated repeatedly.
- bilge system necessary to discharge water
- water could cause some additional damage.
Side 345

principle diagram of a "local water mist system"
Figurtekst slut.
No. Description
01 For example Main engine
02 For example Aux. engine
03 Module cabinet, alarm and control system
04 Remote Release Panel
05 Fire Alarm Panel
06 Pump Starter Box
07 Locable Non Return Valve
08 Pump
09 Strainer
10 Test and drain valve
11 Pressure Gauge
12 Section Valve
13 Local Release Panel
14 Optical - Acoustic Alarm
15 Flame-Detector
16 Smoke Detector
17 Nozzle
Side 346

2.4.3 Fixed gas systems

a. CO2 (Carbon dioxide)
Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems fill a space with a gas that reduces the oxygen content or is an
anti-catalyst that will extinguish fire.
It reduces the oxygen content to a level at which fire cannot exist. Such a system can only be used
in closed compartments.

The paint locker has to be provided with an independend fixed fire extinguising system.
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The pilot bottle and the main bottles are activated.
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1. CO2-bottles
2. Pilot bottle
Carbon dioxide, although very effective as an oxygen reducer, is very dangerous to people.
A large number of fatal accidents has caused a search for less harmful alternatives. For a number of
years Halon was used, but being a CFK, was abandoned due to environmental concerns as agreed at
the Kyoto conference 1996. Replacements, are CO2, NOVEC 1230 or FM 200.
The system consists of a battery of CO2 bottles under high pressure (200 bar). When released at the
calculated required quantity an atmosphere is created with insufficient oxygen to allow combustion.
The bottles for a cargo hold are part of the engine room's equipment. The content of the bottles has
to be checked yearly, by weighing or by a level check.
Advantages of CO2
- no consequential damage
- transport over long distances through pipelines possible
- a relatively low cost material.
- high risk to personnel
- large quantity of gas needed
- cylinders have to be stored in an isolated space, outside the protected space
- many safety devices needed
- the action is not repeatable.

Release into engine room

Before CO2 gas can be released, various safety measures have to be taken including:
- a head count to ensure that no people are left in the engine room
- all openings to the open air have to be closed, usually manually.
CO2 can be released from more than one position:
- from the CO2 room
- remotely from a cabinet somewhere else in the accommodation preferably in a special safety
room or on small ships, outside, and on larger ships, from the fire-fighting control room.
When the door of the locked cabinet containing the release system is opened, the CO2 alarm is
triggered, and claxons and flashing lights start in the engine room.
The total content of gas i.e. the number of bottles of 45 kilo each, is based on the volume of the
largest space to be flooded.
VOL% CO2 Symptoms after breathing CO2
0.03 Normal CO2-concentration
0.5 TLV and MAC-value
1.8 Increase in lung ventilation by 50%
2.5 Increase in lung ventilation by 100%
3 Light stupefaction, less accurate hearing, faster
heartbeat and higher blood pressure
4 Increase in ventilation by 300%, heartbeat and
blood pressure
5 Symptoms of poisoning after 30 minutes;
headaches, dizziness, transpiration
8 Dizziness, stunning and unconsciousness
9 Breathing difficulty, drop in arterial blood
pressure, congestion, death within 4 hours
10 Disorientation and dizziness
12 Immediate unconsciousness, death within
20 Narcosis, immediate unconsciousness, death by
TLV = Threshold Limit Value
MAC = Maximum Allowable Concentration
Congestion = accumulation of blood
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Side 347

CO2 total flooding system
Figurtekst slut.
1. CO2-release station
2. Emergency release station
3. CO2-pilot cilinder
4. Shuttle valve
5. High pressure time delay
6. CO2-cilinder
7. Check valve
8. Manifold
9. Safety valve
10. Pressure gauge
11. Shore connection
12. Section valve
13. Smoke detecting cabinet
14. Fan unit
15. Ball valve 3/2-ways
16. CO2-nozzle
17. Acoustic alarm sounder
18. Key box
19. Pilot piping
20. Distribution piping
The quick closing valves of the various oil tanks in the engine room can be operated from outside
the space.
All oil pumps can also be stopped from outside the engine room.
Side 348

Scheme FM 200 / NOVEC 1230
Figurtekst slut.
1. Control cabinet
2. Ventilation remote stop
3. Alarm switch
4. Cylinder with valve and pneumatic activator
5. Pneumatic Control lines to starboard and port
6. Discharge nozzle
7. Engine room ventilation
8. Low pressure alarm

b. Alternative gases
Gases as FM200 and NOVEC 1230 are used on smaller ships with smaller engine rooms.
These gases are chemical compositions.
There is no breakdown of ozone (as with Halon), but it still contributes to global warming (as does
These gases are stored as a liquid under low pressure and nitrogen padding. The fire extinguishing
is based on cooling; the temperature is brought down to below flame point.
A side effect is anti catholatic.
In larger engine rooms CO2 is more attractive from an economic point of view.
- less harmfull to personal compared with the use of CO2.
- No special CO2 room
- high refilling cost
- when released into an engine room on fire, toxic gases maybe formed.

2.5 Detection
For successful fire-fighting, early detection is of utmost importance. When a person notices fire or
smoke, he has to raise the alarm immediately. Buttons which set off alarms are installed throughout
the ship.

2.5.1 Engine room / accommodation

A key aspect of fire protection is to identify a developing fire in the earliest possible stage.
A fire detection system provides a means to identify a developing fire through either manual or
automatic methods, and secondly to alert to a fire condition and the need to take actions

Control Panels
The control panel is the "brain" of the fire detection and alarm system. It is responsible for
monitoring the various alarm "input" devices, such as manual and automatic detection components,
and then activating alarm "output" devices such as horns, bells, warning lights, shutdowns etc.
There are two main control panel arrangements; conventional and addressable systems.
Conventional fire detection and alarm systems were for many years the standard method for
providing emergency signaling. In a conventional system one or more circuits (loops) are routed
through the protected space or area. One or more detection devices are placed along each circuit
If "fire alarm" is initiated by one of the detectors the alarm will be reported on the control panel as
fire in a certain area.
Addressable or "intelligent" systems, unlike conventional alarm methods, monitor and control the
capabilities of each alarm initiating and signaling device through microprocessors and system
Each intelligent fire alarm system is a small computer overseeing and operating a series of input
and output devices.
Like a conventional system, the address system consists of one or more circuits that radiate
throughout the various spaces. Also, like standard systems, one or more manual alarm initiating
devices may be located along these circuits.
The difference between system types is in the way in which each device is monitored.
In an addressable system, each initiating device (automatic detector, manual station, sprinkler etc.)
is given a specific identification or "address". This address is correspondingly programmed into the
control panel's memory with information about the type of device, its location, and specific
response details, such as which alarm devices are to be activated.
Side 349

Fire Detectors
When present, people can be excellent fire detectors. A trained person is able to sense multiple
aspects of a fire, including the heat, flames, smoke, and odours. For this reason, most fire alarm
systems are designed with one or more manual alarm activation devices to be used by the person
who discovers a fire. Unfortunately, a person can also be an unreliable detection method since they
may not be present when a fire starts, may not raise an alarm in an effective manner, or may not be
in perfect health to recognize fire signatures. It is for this reason that a variety of automatic fire
detectors have been developed.

Smoke detectors
Two basic types of smoke detectors are manufactured currently.
- The photo electric (optical) smoke detector uses an optical beam to search for smoke. When
smoke particles obstruct the beam, a photo electric cell senses the decrease in light intensity and
triggers an alarm. This type of detector reacts most quickly to smouldering fires that release
relatively large amounts of smoke.
- The second type of smoke detector, known as an ionization chamber smoke detector, employs a
radioactive material to ionize the air in a sensing chamber. The presence of smoke affects the flow
of the ions between a pair of electrodes, and triggers the alarm.

Heat detectors
The heat detector employs two independent methods of detection.
The rate-of-rise method detects fires that grow in intensity rapidly. This method responds to
abnormally fast temperature increases.
The fixed-temperature method detects fires that build temperatures to a high level at a slow rate.
This method responds to a specific temperature setting.
Schematic representation of fire alarm system and fire-fighting system
Figurtekst slut.
1. CO2-cilinders
2. Manifold
3. Ball valve 3/2-ways
4. Pipes for CO2-supply and sampling
5. Smoke detection panel
6. Fan unit
7. Repeater panel

Flame detectors
Ultraviolet (UV) detectors work with wavelengths shorter than 300 nm. These detectors detect fires
and explosions within 3-4 milliseconds due to the UV radiation emitted at the instant of their
ignition. False alarms can be triggered by UV sources such as lightning, arc welding, radiation, and
sunlight. In order to reduce false alarms a time delay of 2-3 seconds is often included. Infrared (IR)
flame detectors work within the infrared spectral band. Hot gases emit a specific spectral pattern in
the infrared region, which can be sensed with a Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC), a type of
thermographic camera. False alarms can be caused by other hot surfaces and background thermal
radiation in the area.
Manual Alarm Call Points
Manual alarm call points are designed for the purpose of raising an alarm manually. Once
verification of a fire or emergency condition exists, the alarm signal is raised by operating the push

2.5.2 Cargo Holds

Fire in the cargo hold can be detected by using a "Sample Extraction Smoke Detection system".
This smoke detection system consists of a smoke detection panel, repeater panels on the bridge or
the fire control room (for remote display of alarms and warnings) and a fan unit for drawing the air
from the cargo holds. The smoke detection system is used for continual smoke monitoring in cargo
For this a network of pipes continuously draws air samples simultaneously from each cargo hold,
which are then fed to the smoke detection panel.
In most cases the same pipes are used for the CO2 fire extinguishing system.
A repeater panel is installed on the bridge and/or fire control station for remote display of smoke
alarms and fault warnings. It is connected to the smoke detection panel in the CO2 room.
Side 350

2.6 Structural fire protection

Another important matter in fire-fighting is to try to isolate a fire within certain boundaries. Such
boundaries are steel divisions, rated A-0 to A-60, depending on their importance and the
flammability of the divided spaces. TV means that the division is made of steel and is gas tight.
The figure after the TV stands for the time the division should withstand a fire so that the
temperature does not rise more than 200 °C on the other side of the division.
B-Class divisions are used inside A-Class boundaries and are only non-combustible, not gastight.
Therefore smoke can pass through.
In SOLAS Chapter II, various matrixes are given for the quality of divisions in cargo ships and
passenger ships.
A stairwell next to an engine room for example, has to have an A-60 boundary.
A steel bulkhead without fire retardant insulation is called A-0. When an approved fire retardant
insulation of sufficient thickness is applied, it can be an A-60 boundary.
The arrangements and requirements depend on the type of ship and, for cargo ships, the
configuration chosen. When sprinklers are chosen for the accommodation, the A-class boundaries
are less stringent than when there are no sprinklers or fog systems.
Cargo ships have 3 possible configurations:
IC- all bulkheads and divisions between non-combustible materials are A or B-Class. No sprinkler,
fire detection or fire alarm systems required
IIC- bulkheads and divisions have no requirements, but sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm
IIIC-fire detection and fire alarm, no restrictions on the type of bulkheads, but spaces must be
smaller than 50 m2
For all three configurations, the boundaries between engine room, control stations, straircases,
corridors and the accommodation must be of non-combustible materials and insulated.
In general, the requirements in cargo ships are less stringent than in passenger ships. In cargo ships
all crew members have to be trained in fire fighting. In passenger ships the crew is trained, but the
passengers are normally not.
In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers the hull, superstructure and deckhouses must
be subdivided into main vertical zones, with A-60 bulkheads as boundaries not more than 48 metres
apart and, as far as possible, in line with the watertight subdivision of the hull.
The requirements for bulkheads, floors, divisions and ship type are provided in a number of
The spaces are categorized by SOLAS as follows:
- control spaces
- corridors
- accommodation spaces
- stairways
- service spaces (low risk)
- machinery spaces category A
- other machinery spaces
- cargo spaces
- service spaces (high risk)
- open decks
- Ro-Ro cargo spaces / special category spaces.

The red lines indicate A-60 divisions
Figurtekst slut.
Side 351

2.7 Personal protection for firefighters

Every cargo ship has to be provided with at least two firefighting out-fits, complete with breathing
apparatus. The suit is heat-resistant, with boots, gloves and helmet.
When there is smoke the Breathing Apparatus (BA) is used.
The BA comprises a compressed air bottle and a smoke mask.
A normal tanker has 4 BA sets, chemical tankers, more.
Modern ships are provided with a fire control station. In big ships this is a room in the
accommodation, accessible from outside, with a fire door to the rest of the space.
The fire control station, depending on the type of ship, comprises the following:
- a display of the fire alarm system,
- a cabinet containing the quick-closing valve controls
- stop buttons for mechanical ventilation
- the smoke extraction cabinet
- the remote control cabinet for the CO2 fire extinguishing system
- a fireman's outfit including a breathing apparatus set
- other related equipment
The fire control station is normally also the mustering point for the fire-fighting team.

Light-weight aluminum fireproof suit.
Figurtekst slut.
1. Mouthpiece
2. Pressure regulator
3. Manometer for bottle pressure
4. Mask
5. BA Set (Breathing Apparatus) without bottle.
The fire control plan
This is a general arrangement drawing of the ship, showing all safety appliances. Copies are posted
at various places on board.
In port or at a ship yard a copy is kept in a red container near the gangway for the shore fire brigade.

Cylinder containing safety plan, easily accessible to firefighters
Figurtekst slut.
2.8 Fire alarm
The fire alarm can be activated manually by pushing a button behind glass in a little red box.
The alarm buttons are installed throughout the ship. When fire has been detected by a detection
system, it activates the alarm.
Resetting of the alarm can only be done at the main display, usually on the bridge.
The display indicates which button, in which zone or detection-loop, was activated. A zone or loop
can be isolated when repairs are carried out especially if smoke at that location is inevitable (engine
room workshop).

2.9 Muster list

A muster list, with names and functions of everyone on board listing emergency tasks, is updated
every voyage.
It is posted at various places throughout the accommodation, in the wheel house and engine room.
Side 352

3. Lifesaving appliances
3.1 Regulations
Regulations for lifesaving appliances are laid down in the SOLAS Convention. (see chapter 6).
Chapter III of SOLAS addresses life-saving, backed up by the Life-Saving Appliance Code.
The Marine Safety Committee has issued a document with the testing regulations.

3.2 Lifeboats
Lifeboats on cargo ships have to be installed on each side of the ship, each side capable of
accommodating everybody on board.
Alternatively, a freefall lifeboat may be installed on the stern, large enough to accommodate the
whole crew.
If there are lifeboats on both sides, one boat is designated as man over board boat, or rescue boat.
With a freefall lifeboat, an additional man over board boat is compulsory.
On passenger ships, there must be capacity for each person on board.
The inventory of the lifeboats is laid down in SOLAS and has to be checked regularly.
The main items are food, water, first-aid kit, medicines, searchlight, diesel fuel for 24 hours, two
bilge pumps, distress signals, fishing gear, tools such as axes and engine tools, spares, etc.
For the past few years lifeboats have been totally enclosed.
The lifeboats on tankers have to be provided with an internal air supply in compressed air bottles,
so that the boat can pass through burning oil on the water. A sprinkler system is installed to cool the
outside of the boat.
Every lifeboat must have a diesel engine, started by batteries and backed up with a manual start.
Lifeboats have to be capable of being lowered and launched when the ship is listing up to 20° and
with a trim of 10°.
An enclosed lifeboat must have sufficient stability to right itself. Lifeboats and davits are made to
various designs. No ship's power is needed to lower a lifeboat.
Freefall type. The installation is positioned right aft in the ship, ensuring that trim and list have a
mini mum influence on launching.
1. Fire hose box, near hydrant
2. Freefall lifebuoy with light and smoke signal
3. Lifebuoy
4. Rescue boat (man over board boat)
5. Life raft (crane launched)
6. Crane for MOB-Boat and Life raft
7. Freefall lifeboat
Launch of a freefall boat from a height of 15 meters
Figurtekst slut.
Side 353

Left and above: lifeboats launched with stored power davits
Figurtekst slut.
Hydraulic pivoting davit. Lowering is by gravity
Figurtekst slut.

A sprinkler system protects the lifeboat and its occupants against fire
Figurtekst slut.
Side 354
1. Drain plug
2. Cooling water pipes (closed system)
3. Grab lines
4. Reflective tape
5. Fender
6. Release hook for painter
7. Lug for life boat suspension
8. Propeller in nozzle rudder
9. Platform for boarding and lifting people from the water
10. Sprinkler system
11. VHF antenna
12. Dome
13. Handle to release lifeboat from falls
14. Bilge pump
15. Fuel tanks
16. Food tanks
17. Freshwater tanks
Side 355
Prior to launching, the whole crew enters the boat, seats and secures themselves. Boat securings
are released, whereafter the cox moves a lever up and down which pumps the release hook
hydraulically. At this point, the diesel engine is already running so that the boat can navigate away
from the ship immediately after launching.
The seats in the boat are positioned facing astern to prevent injuries due to impact.
Apart from falling, the free fall boat can also be lowered using the recovery crane. It is usually an
A-frame for testing or maintenance and provided with a winch for recovery.
The "auxiliary launching facility" is powered by hydraulic jacks and an electric hoisting winch.
The lifeboat must have sufficient buoyancy to detach itself from the launching system should the
ship sink or roll over
The most common lifeboat/davit combinations are 'gravity davits' at either side of the ship.
The boat lowers by its own weight, after removing a number of securings and sea fastenings, by
simply lifting the brake handle of the winch.
Another launching method is with "stored power davits".
These are used mainly on passenger liners because they do not require much space.
The lifeboats hang in the davits. During launching, the telescopic davits extend outboard until the
boat is clear of the ship. It can then be lowered into the water.
The davits are extended by a hydraulic system that obtains its stored power from batteries.
In passenger ships, the lifeboats may be used as tenders to transfer passengers between ship and
For example: a life boat can be certified for 120 people when in use as a lifeboat and for 150
passengers when in use as a tender.
Enclosed lifeboats must be fitted with an on-load hydrostatic release.
Unhooking the boat is only possible when the boat is in the water and hydrostatic pressure on a
membrane in the bottom allows the release lever to move.
Testing of lifeboats and davits
The davits have to be load tested every five years.
Usually this is done by loading the lifeboat with a weight, equal to the weight of the people the boat
is designed for, plus 10%.
This means number of people × 82.5 kgs plus 10%.
The weights are often water bags.
The load test is a dynamic test.
The boat is lowered by lifting the brake, after which the brake is applied again.
Boats, hooks, davits and the on load release system, have to be thoroughly examined yearly.
This is normally done by the manufacturers or another approved firm.
Boats and davits are also important items for the yearly survey of Safety Equipment, by flagstate or
A portal crane is only used to lift the free fall lifeboat back on board. When freefall testing (which
has to be done every 3 months) is not practicable, the crane is used for controlled launching by
lowering the boat into the water.

Load test of a hydraulic pivoting life boat davit
Figurtekst slut.
Side 356

3.3 Man Overboard Boat / rescue boat.

Man Overboard Boat / Rescue boat (MOB-boat). When there is a freefall lifeboat, there has to be a
separate MOB-boat with a crane.
The compulsory inventory includes survival suits for 3 crewmembers. Ships carrying passengers
must have a fast rescue boat capable of being lowered into the water with the ship at a speed of 5

Rescue boat (MOB) davit. The MOB should always he connected to the davit, ensuring that it can
he launched quickly in case of emergency by using the two operating triangles.
Figurtekst slut.
1. Life raft
2. Releasable Boat Cradle
3. Man Overboard Boat (MOB)/ Rescue boat
4. Automatic Release Hook
5. Lowering Handle
6. Slewing Handle
7. Starter box including operating push buttons.
8. Winch Drum
9. Limit Switch
10. Brake lever
11. Hydraulic Power Pack

Hydrostatic release for left right
Figurtekst slut.
1. Lashing strap around raft
2. Pelican hook
3. Connecting line
4. Painter
5. Weak link
6. Ring
7. Hydrostatic release unit
8. Expiring date of certificate

3.4 Life rafts

In cargo ships, inflatable life rafts are located on each side for the whole complement.
Davit launched rafts are required when the embarkation level exceeds 4.5 metres above "lightest
seagoing condition of the vessel" or the weight of the liferaft exeeds 185 kg.
Rafts of the throw overboard type maybe deployed. These must have a line attached to the vessel.
A normal cargo ship with lifeboats, has the 'throw overboard' type.
With a freefall lifeboat, one of the rafts must be davit-launched, usually the MOB davit. This
allows the life raft to be lowered in the inflated condition. The davit has a special hook, which
cannot be opened when there is a load on it or vibrations.
A throw-overboard life raft must have its painter connected to the ship and secured with a band
held by a hydrostatic release. If the ship sinks, the release opens and the raft floats.
The end of the painter secured to the ship has a 'weak link', so that it breaks free.
If the raft is launched manually, pulling the painter triggers the pressurized bottle and inflates the
Large ships have an additional 6-person life raft forward and some very large container ships with
midships accommodation, another one aft.
Side 357

A launched raft
Figurtekst slut.

The sinking ship pulls the painter and the raft inflateds.
Figurtekst slut.
Above: The last (weak) connecting line breaks and the survivors can climb into the inflated life raft,
Left: life raft that can be lowered from a davit
Right: Life buoy with light
Figurtekst slut.
3.5 Life jackets
Life jackets are provided for everyone on board. They must have a light and whistle.
They are usually stored in the cabins, but sometimes in boxes near the lifeboats.
A few extra life jackets are stored in places where people work - in the engine room, bridge ana
A life jacket has to be made of watertight and fire retarding material with sufficient buoyancy.
It has to turn an unconscious person who is face down in the water, upright and has to keep his
mouth 12 cm above the water.
They have to be fitted with reflective material.
Smaller life jackets are provided for children. Inflatable life jackets must have two air chambers
and must be serviced every year.

3.6 Life buoys

A number of life buoys, depending on the ship's length, are positioned around the ship and stowed
on the siderails.
Some are provided with a light and/or line.
There has be a life buoy with a man overboard float on each bridge wing. When released it drops
by gravity into the sea. It has a smoke float and a light signal.
Side 358

3.7 Immersion suits (survival units)

Everybody on board cargo ships, including bulk carriers, has to have an immersion suit.
Hypothermia is the most dangerous threat to people in lifeboats especially in open lifeboats, which
are still in use on older ships.
An immersion suit has to be worn together with a life jacket.
The insulating quality of immersion suits has to be such that the body temperature does not drop
more than 2 °C after 6 hours in water with a temperature between 0 and 2 °C.

A survival suit has to be worn in combination with a life jacket to stabilize the head in case the
person wearing it is unconscious.
Figurtekst slut.
Training matrix for seafarers according to the STCW'78 as amended, including the Manila
amendments (2010)
Side 359

4 Precautionary measures
4.1 Training
To work professionally with all the above equipment, the ship's crew needs to be properly trained.
Before signing on, everyone must have a certificate of competency.
This certificate can only be obtained when the individual is in possession of the proper diplomas,
sufficient sea service and a number of certificates obtained after fulfilling certain safety courses.
ARPA Automatic Radar Plotting Aids
betw. between
BRM Bridge Resource Management
eng. engine-room
ERM Enging-room Resource Management
GOC General Operator's Certificate
ML Management level
nav navigational near coastalnear coastal voyages
OL Operational level
par paragraph
Reg regulation
ROC Restricted Operator's Certificate
STCW Standards of Training, Certification and
the trainings, or specific parts of the trainings
below, seafarers shall provide evidence of
having maintained the required standards of
competence every five years.
GENERAL: - Basic Training TANKER: - Basic trainings
- Survival craft and rescue boats (other than fast - Advanced trainings
- Fast rescue boats
- Advanced Fire Fighting
PASSENGER: - Crowd management MEDICAL: - Medical first aid
- Crisis management and human behaviour or - Medical care
passenger safety
- Cargo safety and hull integrity
Side 360

4.2 Tests and drills

To respond quickly and efficiently in case of accident, people need to be trained. Regular drills,
fire-drills, and abandonship drills, are compulsory. It is important that the drills are as realistic as
On completion of the drill an evaluation should be made where the shortcomings of the group or
individuals are discussed and if necessary, theory is reviewed.
The drills are entered in the ship's logbook. Drills with life rafts are impractical on board and are
therefore conducted ashore. The same applies to using distress signals.
Exercise How many times?
Abandon ship monthly
Firefighting monthly
Man over board monthly
Emergency Steering once every three months

4.3 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Various safety measures have to be taken during normal daily work. Personal safety items for
normal work are safety helmet, ear protection, eye protection, gloves, safety shoes, coveralls,
lifebelt, etc.
Working with cargo requires the relevant safety measures related to that cargo, especially when
working with chemicals. Often special suits, gloves, boots, breathing apparatus, etc. are required.
Abandon ship drill
Figurtekst slut.

Fire drill
Figurtekst slut.
1. Helmet
2. Safety glasses
3. Chin strap
4. Harness
5. Safety hook
6. Safety belt
7. Positioning line
Side 361

4.4 Tankers
Tankers have special safety measures, with additional firefighting systems, such as:
- a foam system to cover the deck
- fire and / or explosion prevention by inert gas above the cargo
- alarms for full tank or risk of overfill (95% and 98% full)
- special safety measures for the cargo pump room.

5 Markings
Many items are identified by signs, often stickers.
All safety gear, wherever stored, has to be indicated by a sign. Escape routes are also identified by
Instructions on how to use the life rafts must be displayed near the rafts, i.e. showing preparation
and launching.
Markings should be clear, simple and easy to understand. For instance, on ships carrying
passengers, station numbers are useful for orientation of the passengers on the ship.
However, the markings are important for both crew and passengers in case of emergency.
The markings show the exits and the location of lifesaving appliances. This is made easier by the
use of arrows on the walls or a lighting system for passageways and staircases. These escape route
markings (green) in the accommodation are compulsory under IMO regulations. Not only the
escape route must be marked, but also safety measures. The markings on these should be photo-
This means that they glow in the dark.
Many pipes run through the engine room and the ship.
A large variety of liquids is pumped through these pipes and each pipe should be clearly marked to
indicate which liquid it contains.
This is not only important for the crew, but also for people less familiar with the ship.
Testing the foam pump on a tanker
Figurtekst slut.

Entrance door with name and technical marking
Figurtekst slut.

Pipe with color code and arrows indicating the direction of the liquid flow
Figurtekst slut.
To achieve this all the pipes have a colour (either paint or coloured tape) that represents the liquid
in that pipe.
There are many large and small rooms and spaces on a ship. In general each has a door or an
entrance hatch.
It is important to know what is in a space before the door or hatch is opened, especially at night or
in bad weather.
This is why every door or hatch is marked with the name of the space, sometimes with a technical
Color code for pipes
Figurtekst slut.

Figurtekst slut.
Emergency lighting system
Figurtekst slut.
Side 362

6 Communication safety
6.1 Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)
A GMDSS installation is legally required by the SOLAS 74 Amendment in which the distress and
safety radio traffic is regulated.
All passenger liners and ships larger than 300 GT are obliged to have GMDSS. GMDSS ensures
that, irrespective of the ship's location, reliable shore to ship and ship to shore communication is
possible in an emergency using radio and/or satellites.
All information regarding transmitting, receiving, and the frequencies used, can be found in the
"Admiralty List of Radio Signals", Volume 5.
GMDSS includes the NAVTEX receiver, which receives and prints weather forecasts and warnings
as well as distress messages, and the watertight GMDSS walkie-talkies for distress communications.

6.2 Search And Rescue Transponder (SART)

Life rafts and lifeboats are difficult to see on radar because of their poor radar-reflecting properties.
To overcome this problem, a device (SART) has been developed that, on receiving a signal,
answers by transmitting a signal of the same frequency.
This makes the life raft or lifeboat visible on the radar screen. When the ship is evacuated, one
individual, indicated on the Muster List, is responsible for bringing the SART from the bridge, to
the life raft or lifeboat.
The SART has a range of approximately 30 miles.

6.3 Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)

The EPIRB is valuable when a ship sinks so fast that the crew does not have time to send a distress
As in the case of the life raft, the water pressure will activate a hydrostatic release and the EPIRB
will rise to the surface.
As soon as the EPIRB is activated it will start to transmit the MMSI-number* of the ship to a
satellite which, in turn, will warn a ground station. The ground station then warns the nearest coast
guard station. (*MMSI= Maritime Mobile Ships Identification)
The coast guard will direct ships and aircraft as soon as the approximate position of the ship in
distress is determined.
When the EPIRB starts transmitting, a bearing can be taken and the position can be determined.
Left: walky talky for ship to aircraft communication Right: SART
Figurtekst slut.
Side 363

6.4 Voyage Data Recorder

Ships of 3,000 GT and upwards are required to have a Voyage Data Recorder (VDR).
This is an apparatus which stores in a secure and retrievable form, navigational data, such as
position, movement, speed, course, command and control (recordings of voice on the bridge, etc.)
leading up to and continuing after an incident or accident.

7. Pyrotechnics
These are a visual form of emergency communication:
Parachute Signals, must be available in or near the wheel house (12) and in each lifeboat (4).
They are rockets, which can be fired by hand and can be seen from a great distance.
The general meaning is: I need help.
Hand flares, in lifeboats (6) and rescue boat (4). These are very bright handheld burning torches
used to attract attention or indicate location.
Smoke signals, in each lifeboat (2). A tin can, to be put in the water after activation. It remains
afloat and produces a thick orange smoke, clearly visible from the air.
Line throwing apparatus, 4 rockets in or near the wheel house. When fired, draw a long thin line
behind them as a first step towards establishing a stronger connection. The thin line is used to heave
a heavier line connected to a hawser.
Line throwing apparatus
Figurtekst slut.

Smoke signal
Figurtekst slut.

Parachute light
Figurtekst slut.

Hand torch
Figurtekst slut.

Hand flares
Figurtekst slut.
Side 364

Figurtekst slut.
Side 365
Side 366

1 Introduction 366
2 Intact stability 366
3 Effect of damage on the stability 372
4 Assessment of damage stability particulars 375

1. Introduction
Why does a ship float in spite of being constructed from heavy materials such as steel? The reason
for this is that the gravitational force that pulls the ship downwards is balanced by the upward water
pressure on the hull.
Of course a prerequisite for this is that the ship is watertight below the waterline. When the weight
of the ship becomes so large that the upward pressure is less than the actual weight, the ship will
The water around the ship exerts a force on the ship, perpendicular to the water surface.
If the ship floats, this force equals the weight of the water displaced by the ship.
This is called Archimedes' law which states that an object that is totally or partially submerged in a
liquid, experiences an upward force that equals the weight of the displaced liquid.
Rammetekst slut.
The magnitude of the upward force depends on the volume of the ship's underwater body.
The displacement resulting in an upward force is called buoyancy.
If the ship has only buoyancy (B) and no reserve buoyancy above the waterline, then the slightest
increase in weight of the ship would cause it to sink.
It is therefore very important that the ship possesses a certain amount of reserve buoyancy.
The reserve buoyancy comprises the hull volume above the waterline, and also the accommodation,
deckhouses and other deck structures.
All the spaces that contribute to the reserve buoyancy must be watertight or able to be closed
Stability is the ability of a totally or partially submerged body to float upright, and when forced
from the upright position, to come back to the upright position when the reason for the list no
longer exists.
Rammetekst slut.

2. Intact stability
2.1 Gravity (G) and bouyancy (B)
Ships are designed to float upright, and thus, must have stability.
A distincion is made between longitudinal stability and transverse stability. Longitudinal stability is
normally sufficient, therefore, will not be taken into consideration. When the word stability is
mentioned, it refers to transverse stability.
Stability for small list angles of heel less than 6° is called initial stability.
When a floating body is forced into a heeled position without adding or removing weight, a
buoyancy wedge (2) is formed and filled at the lower side of the body, and at the high side a wedge
(1) is lost.
When the volume of the submerged part does not change, both wedges have the same volume.
Due to the apparent water movement (from wedge 1 to wedge 2), the centre of buoyancy (B) of the
whole submerged part has moved.
B is the centre of gravity of the displaced liquid, and is the point at which the vector representing
the buoyancy has its origin.
Side 367
The locations of B at varying angles are all on a virtual curve.
A ship can be forced to a heel in any direction, not just transversely or longitudinally.
Only two models are considered transverse and longitudinal, which are at right angles to each other.
The following pictures show a transvers section of a ship.
In the figure below, we see the points 'G' for Gravity and 'B' for Buoyancy, both origin of a vector,
representing the forces of weight and buoyancy.

With a strong wind from a transverse direction, the ship lists slightly, resulting in a transformation
of the buoyancy, and relocation of vector B towards the low side of the ship, but at right angles to
the waterline.
Point M, or the metacentre, is found where the buoyancy vector crosses the centreline of the ship.
For every angle of list and displacement, there is 1 metacentre point. With a larger angle of heel,
the position of M can vary considerably in comparison to M for small angles. In this case, it is
called the false metacentre.
MB = Metacentre -> Bouyancy
VCG = Vertical Centre of Gravity
VCB = Vertical Centre of Bouyancy
Rammetekst slut.
Metacenter (M):
The point from which the ship is virtually suspended.
The height of M is important to initial stability.
Rammetekst slut.

2.2 MB, KG and KB

The vertical distance between M and B can be determined using the formula:

I = transversal moment of inertia of the waterline area = = 1/12 LB3 [m4] (only in case of a
rectangular barge.)
V = Volume submerged part of the ship [m3]
L = length of the submerged part of the ship [m]
B = breadth of the submerged part of the ship [m].
MB can be found for every draught (T) in the ship's hydrostatic tables or can be calculated.
VCG (= KG)
The distance from the center of gravity of the complete ship to the keel 'K' (VCG) is (initially) a
figure produced by the building yard.
Each added weight afterwards, results in a change of VCG (unless added at the level of G).
Added weights include cargo, stores, fuel, drinking water, ballast, personal belongings and
everything else not belonging to the empty ship.
VCB (= KB)
KB can be found for each T (draught) in the hydrostatic tables of the ship.
The tables are found in the Hydrostatic Particulars, supplied by the building yard and have to be
carried on board (stamped and signed by the flag State and approved for the particular ship).

This cargo hold of a multi purpose ship is being loaded with piles for the offshore industry. The
length of one pile, is as long as the cargo hold. Division bulkheads are removed. This type of pile is
used to attach a jacket to the seabed.
The first piles are loaded in the hold, G moves down and KG decreases. After one layer of piles,
causing a gradual decrease of KG, the next layers will increase KG.
If the hold is filled completely KG will have an acceptable value.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 368

2.3 GM values
GM can have three values:
- GM positive: M above G
- GM negative: M below G
- GM zero: M and G are at the same location. (KM = KG)

GM is positive
Figurtekst slut.

GM is nagitive
Figurtekst slut.
2.4 The location of G in relation to M (GM)
When the afore mentioned distances are determined, the distance between G and M (GM) can be
This distance is decisive for the length of the 'righting arm' which is decisive for the 'righting
moment' or 'stability moment'.
The value of GM comes from the formula:
GM = KB + BM - KG
GM = KM - KG
Rammetekst slut.
The above alternatives are only applicable for small angles of heel i.e. less than 6°, the initial

2.5 The importance GZ

A ship under heel, illustrated in the figure on the following page.
The cause of the list is external - a wave or wind pressure.
This results in B moving to the low side of the ship.
The stability moment is shown as: (∆ × GZ).

The figure (above, right) shows that the magnitude of stability moment depends on the horizontal
distance between the two forces (buoyancy and displacement), the socalled static lever of stability,
These levers can be calculated for different angles of heel.
When set against a baseline, a curve is produced, the 'curve of levers of static stability', or the
stability curve. The values are usually given in meters.
The stability curve gives a clear picture of the ship's stability and has to meet legal requirements.

A couple is a system of two identical opposing forces working on a body along parallel lines.
The magnitude is "force × lever".
In the case of a ship this is:
∆ × GZ
Rammetekst slut.
Relation between waterline area and M
From the formula MB = I/Vol it is apparent that the location of M, with a constant ship weight,
completely depends on the waterline area.
When a ship heels, the breadth of the waterline increases, and thus area of the waterline, resulting
in an increase of MB.
In this way, a small negative initial MB, becomes positive, preventing the capsizing of the ship.
The opposite can occur when for instance by ballasting a forepeak the trim changes, resulting in a
decrease of waterline area.
Fast ships normally have a smaller waterline area fore than aft.
Rammetekst slut.
∆ = displacement
Rammetekst slut.
Side 369
Side 370
Side 371

2.6 Notes on stability

2.6.1 Influence of depth on stability

The figures below demonstrate why Depth (D) and freeboard are important for stability.
Both ships have the same GM-value, but a different stability range, 34° and 47° respectively.
The beam of both ships is the same. The depth of hull nr. 2 is greater than the depth of hull nr. 1

2.6.2 Influence of GMo

The minimum and maximum values of GMo largely depends on the type of ship. Ranges between
0.5 m and 8 meter are normal.
When the GMo value is below or above these values this can negatively affect stability.
Ships with a small GMo have a long rolling period, which is more comfotable for people on board.
But too small a GMo, can result in capsizing after a collision.
Passenger ships have a small GMo value to achieve a long rolling period.
Ships with a large GMo are usually ships with heavy cargo, (steel, ironore) low in the hull with the
cubic capacity of the cargospace hardly used.
When the cubic capacity is used completely - with grain or coal - the GMo will be smaller.
The high accelerations due to a large GMo value are uncomfortable and can result in shifting of

To prevent too much stability after loading, the steel rolls are distributed in the lower hold and
tweendeck, to put the position of G at an acceptable height, reducing the GM value.
If all the steel is stowed in the lower hold, a short, abrupt roiling period could result, making life on
board very uncomfortable and even causing damage to ship and equipment.
Figurtekst slut.

Higher ships have higher stability
Figurtekst slut.
Side 372
Rolling period:
The period of time taken to roll from port to starboard and back to port, or counterwise.
The rolling period varies from 30 seconds for passenger ships to 8 seconds for wide ships or ships
with a low KG, due to heavy cargo low in the ship.
Partly filled tanks (cargo, ballast, fuel), result in a virtual higher KG, and a smaller GM.
This can be dangerous for small ships with a too small stability, but adding comfort on large ships
with too large stability.
Rammetekst slut.

2.6.3 Influence of Beam (Breadth) on GM

Ships with a large beam and shallow draught such as barges, have a large GMo. Slender, narrow
ships such as container ships or passenger ships with a large draught, have small initial stability.
(Preferably in combination with a high freeboard).
As mentioned earlier, the initial stability GMo, has nothing to do with the stability at greater angles.
An extreme example is the float of a fishing rod.
This float has a very small initial stability, but will never capsize.

2.6.4 Negative influences on stability

- Heavy cargo on deck
- Ice on deck or superstructures, masts, etc, due to freezing spray or fog (icing) in arctic regions
- Loading or discharging heavy pieces of cargo with the ships own cargo gear
- The emptying of tanks low in the ships hull (double bottom tanks)
- Liquid free surface(s).
The last item, the liquid free surfaces will be explained in part 3. This is the most important reason
for stability problems, with a great number of casualties.
In the design-stage all possible circumstances, such as loading and ballast conditions and adverse
weather conditions are carefully reviewed and calculated with respect to stability.
Spray over the bow becomes ice when it is cold outside, The weight of the ice adds weight to the
ship, at an undesirable location. In severe conditions,- A increases substantially, and GK becomes
larger, Small ships can easily be endanger in bad freezing conditions.
Figurtekst slut.

3. Effect of damage on the Stability

For cargo handling longitudinal and transverse bulkheads are unwanted features on dry-cargo ships.
Loading and discharging are hampered, and there are limitations on cargo with extreme dimensions.
Bulkheads are however necessary to limit the amount of floading from leakage, for instance after a
collision. If incoming water spreads slowly and evenly through the ship, there would not be
immediate danger.
However, it is normal following a collision that the water floods quickly into the ship, often from
port to starboard or reverse.
The extent to which a compartment can be filled with water is its permeability.
The effect of incoming water on stability will be:
- maximum if the compartment is empty (permeability = 1)
- minimal if the compartment is completely filled with, for instance Styrofoam or a liquid,
(permeability - 0).
The permeability of an engine room is approximately 0.85. The higher the permeability of a
compartment, the more volume can be flooded and the lower the remaining buoyancy.
Rammetekst slut.
This creates a listing moment, with an impact depending on the quantity of the water and the
distance it can flow unobstructed, mainly in the transverse direction.
The severity of the situation depends greatly on the distance it can flow transversely and the
permeability of the space.
The magnitude of a moment is determined by a force (weight) and the distance of that force to a
fixed point.
- A child (30 kilos) and his father (60 kilos) are sitting on a seesaw. The distances to the turning
point of the seesaw are 2 and 1 metres respectively. In spite of the difference in weight, both the
father and the child exert the same moment on the turning point of the seesaw. (30×2 and 60×1
respectively). The seesaw is in equilibrium.
- If a weight of 100 tons is moved 1 metre on a ship, the same effect on the trim can be achieved by
moving 1 ton a hundred metres. In both cases the moment is 100 tm.
This illustrates how even a limited amount of liquid can cause a large moment on the ship if the
liquid is allowed to move freely over the full width of the ship.
Rammetekst slut.
Side 373

Explanation of the abbreviations used in the above drawings:
G = Center of gravity
Bo = Center of buoyancy (no list)
Bφ = Buoyancy when heeled to port or starboard (external force)
Bφ = Buoyancy by list to port or starboard (internal force)
Mo = Initial metacentre
GM = Metacentric height
KM = The height of initial metacenter above the keel
K = Keel
∆ = Displacement (D)
F = -Displacement (-D)
φ = heeling angle
GoG" = virtual loss of GM
GZ = GZ lever, righting lever the horizontal distance between the center of gravity and the vertical
through the center of buoyancy.
I = moment of inertia of the free surface area of water on deck
Figurtekst slut.
Moment of static stability
= ∆ × GZ = ∆ × GM sin cp
Rammetekst slut.
The distance that G moves depends on the length and width of the hold where the liquid is freely
The (virtual) movement of G can be calculated using the formula:

This formula shows clearly the influence of the width (to the third power) on the movement of G.
See drawing 3.
In drawing nr 4 the width of the tank is halved by a longitudinal bulkhead. The negative influence
on the stability is considerably reduced and is only 1/4 (= 2 × (1/2)3) of the original distance GG"
Where two bulkheads are installed, i.e. 3 tanks beside each other, the effect will be reduced to 1/9 ×
Leakage of one or more compartments can have the following consequences:
- heel
- increase in draught
- change in trim
- change in stability.

A Ro-Ro ship which has capsized due to the free surface effect
Figurtekst slut.
Side 374
As a result of this weight increase on one side of the ship, a large list can develop in a short period
of time.
A ship can capsize in a few minutes. In recent years a number of fatal accidents have occurred to
Ro-Ro ships.
In the following figures the water flowing from port to starboard has a freesurface effect.
This can be considered as a weight causing a heeling moment working on the ship.
(1 m3 = approx. 1 ton = 1000 kg.)
The presence of bulkheads will limit the flow of water, and will in general have a beneficial effect
on damage stability.
On the other hand, bulkheads (or decks, for that matter) may hamper loading and discharging
operations, for instance in Ro-Ro ships or heavy cargo vessels.
In those cases the ship designer faces the challenging task of optimising both the cargo carrying
capacity, and the damage stability behaviour.
In tankers, the presence of bulkheads is required anyway to separate the various cargo parcels and
to reduce the influence of the free surface effect in the, sometimes, only partly filled tanks.
The conflict between damage stability and cargo capacity usually does not exist in tankers.
The drawings on the left show the effect of a liquid free surface on the cardeck of a Ro-Ro ship,
and its effect on the stability curve.
Side 375

4. Assessment of damage stability particulars

In the previous section it is shown that, given a particular loading and flooded space, the residual
stability in the damaged condition can be calculated. A number of methods exists to determine
whether a vessel can be considered as safe in the damaged condition.

4.1 Submersion and trim

The most elementary, and oldest, method is to determine additional submersion and trim as a result
of the flood water.
The idea was that if the additional submersion is not too excessive, or in other words if there is
sufficient reserve buoyancy, the vessel may be considered as safe.
In general, the reserve buoyancy was considered to be sufficient if the deck edge is not immersed,
or even safer, if a certain safety distance to the deck remains.
The line parallel with the deck line, at the safety distance below it, is called the margin line.
Because the determination of submersion and trim was quite laborious without computers, a reverse
concept was used, which is called the floodable length.
These floodable lengths can be computed for a particular ship's hull, and is an aid to determine the
bulkhead locations in such a way that the vessel, if damaged, will not sink below the margin line.

4.2 Damage stability

It gradually became apparent that a vessel could have sufficient reserve buoyancy, but nevertheless
be unsafe because of insufficient stability in the damaged condition.
Later on it became common practice to determine the residual stability, in the form of GZ curves,
for each possible damage case.
Basically, such calculations are identical to the calculation of stability for the intact vessel, but
because their number is much higher, they are rather laborious.
Suppose that the damage stability has to be assessed for five loading conditions. When 12 damage
cases are identified a total of 60 full damage stability calculations have to be produced.
There is no argument that the computer has become a welcome partner for this task.

4.3 Probabilistic damage stability

Even the full stability calculation for the damaged condition suffers from a crude assumption about
the extent of damage.
Fixed damage dimensions are assumed for these calculations, for instance a length of 10% of the
vessel's length, or a penetration of 20% of the breadth of the ship. Ships are then designed around
these results. But that implies that if a slightly larger damage occurs in reality, more compartments
will flood, and the vessel may capsize or sink.
In 1960 it was proposed to stop assuming fixed damage dimensions, but to accept instead that
damage of any size may occur, and to take the probability of occurrence into account.
This approach is based on statistics, on probabilities, and is called probabilstic damage stability.
The outcome of a probabilistic assessment is not an answer to the question of whether the vessel
may be considered safe. Instead it is the probability of survival in case of damage.
In order to distinguish the probabilistic calculations from the 'ordinary' damage stability calculation,
the latter are nowadays called deterministic damage stability calculations, because they are based
on pre-determined damage assumptions.
The SOLAS-treaties must be incorporated into the national laws.
The IMO-regulations are optional. However, in practice most nations also incorporate the IMO-
regulations into their national laws.
In the past, many mathematical methods have been used to determine the number of bulk heads in a
These are called damage stability calculations.
Rammetekst slut.
Side 376

4.4 Damage stability rules and regulations

After the Titanic disaster, the SOLAS Convention was initiated.
In order to guarantee a certain degree of safety for passenger vessels, criteria with respect to
submersion and trim were adopted, with a margin line distance of 76 mm (3 inch) below deck.
The experiences of the Second World War showed that these SOLAS rules were not adequate
because of the assumption that a ship sinks vertically.
Instead, many ships first capsized before sinking, so the SOLAS rules have been extended with
criteria for stability in damaged condition.
From the 1970's, deterministic damage stability criteria also came into force for oil tankers, gas
carriers and chemical tankers.
Probabilistic damage stability criteria were adopted in 1974 for passenger vessels (although not
mandatory, but as an alternative to the SOLAS criteria) and became applicable for dry cargo
vessels with a length of more than 80 meters in the 1990's.
From the first of January 2009, a new SOLAS chapter came into effect, which imposes
probabilistic safety criteria on all passenger and dry cargo vessels.
Moreover, for passenger vessels some additional deterministic criteria apply. From SOLAS 2009,
the submersion and trim method, and the floodable lengths are no longer applied for sea-going

4.5 How to take damage stability into account on board

It is simply too time-consuming to manually calculate the stability in the damaged condition for
each loading condition. Basically, there are three options to verify onboard whether a particular
loading condition complies with the applicable criteria:
- If the vessel intrinsically complies, that means if the designer or the building yard has shown that
for all possible loading conditions the vessel complies with the criteria, no further assessment of the
particular situation is necessary. However, this situation seldom occurs.
- The damage stability criteria (either deterministic or probabilistic) can be reworked into a
maximum allowable Vertical Center of Gravity (VCG).
In that case, tables or diagrams of maximum allowable VCG's are available on board, while the
actual VCG can be calculated from the intended loading condition.
If the actual VCG is lower than the maximum, the vessel complies with the damage stability
- Some loading computers are capable of doing a direct calculation of damage stability in a
reasonable time. If such an instrument is available, the damage stability is 'simply' determined
together with other safety calculations, such as intact stability and longitudinal strength.
For more information on loading computers we refer to the book Shipstability, by the same author,
where a chapter is dedicated to the subject.
Car deck of a Ro-Ro with doors to reduce the extent of any liquid flooding the deck.
Figurtekst slut.
1. The door in closed position
2. The doors in stored position
Side 377

access to the ship 195
Accommodation 174
Accommodation ladder 195
Aframax 56
Air conditioning 175
Aircraft Carriers 60
Air draught 28
air pollution 128
Air resistance 264
Alarm system 252
Alternating Current 290
Aluminum 317
Amphibious support vessels 60
Anchor chain 222
Anchor equipment 219
Anchor Handling Tug 79
Anchor Handling Tug Supplier 19
Anchor pockets 224 Anchors 220, 334
Anchor winches 225
Annual Survey 121
anodes 327
Anti-Fouling 324
anti-heeling system 256
Archimedes 366
Area A1 311
Assembly 116
Audits 123 Automation 252, 308
Auxiliary vessels 66
Axe bow 68
Backacters 65
backlash 229
balanced anchor 220
ballast system 256
Ballast Water Management 129, 130
Barges 65
base 323
Base Line 27
battery 288
beam 26, 183
beam trawler 62
bending moment 96
bilge keel 165
bilge line, - pumps 255, 256
Bilge radius 29
Bilge Well 256
Bilge wells: 164
Binding agent 319
Birthday 122
bitter end 226
blades (propeller) 266
Block coefficient 32
block-section 89
boil-off 59
Bollards 228
boundary layer 264
bow doors 191, 210
Bow lines 229
Bow thrusters 270
box-shaped 145
Brass 317
Breadth 28
Bridge 177
Bronze 317
building contract 84
bulb 264
Bulbuous bow 89, 169
Bulk carriers 55
Bulk crane 204
Bulkheads 42, 106
bulwark 167
Buoy positioners 65
Buttocks 33

Cabins 177
Cable-laid slings 234
Cable laying ships 65
Cables 228, 305
Camber 29
Capacity Plan 42
Capesize 55
capstan 225, 227
Cargo Capacity 30
Cargo holds 144
Cargo lifts 213
cargo runner 201
Car & Passenger Ferry 14
catalyst 341, 342
Catamaran 68
Cathodic protection 326
Cattle ships 55
cavitation 266, 267
centrifugal forces 201
Certificate of Class 122
chain cables 334
Chain locker 167, 226
chain stopper 224
charterer 198
Chart Radar 178
chase vessels 79
Chemical reactions 326
Chemical tanker 16, 46, 57
circuit breaker 307
Classification 122
Cleats 188
Clipper ship 22
clutch 225
CO2 342, 346
Coastal trade liners 51
cofferdam 56, 158
Combustion air 248
Combustion process 341
Commissioning 90
Committees 116
Communication 176
Communication Safety 362
Communication system 178, 310
Companion hatches 192
Condensation 255
Construction Aft 42
Construction Plan 41
Construction water line 26
contactor 307
container fitted 145
Container ship 12, 52
contract 84
contra rotating propeller 267
Controllable pitch propellers 268
Conventions 117
Conversion 337
cooling medium 247
Copper 317
core 228
Corrosion 318
Couplings 249
crane cabin 200, 204
crane jib 200
Crane Vessels 73
creep limit 229
Crew boat 79
crossover line 164
Crude oil (tankers) 56
Crude Oil Washing 125
Cruise ships 59
Cutterdredgers, 64

Damage stability 375, 376
dangerous goods 119
Dangerous zones 312
dead man's brake 184
Deadweight 30
De-aeration devices 193
Deck line 27
Decks 41, 106
Deck scuppers 343
Deep water line 26
deflection 102
Deformations 187
Delivery 91
Depth 26, 28, 371
design (phase) 85
Detection 348
dew point 322
Diagonal loads 105
Diagonals 33
Diesel generator 250
Dimensions 28
Direct Current 288
dirty-oil tank 256
Displacement 30
Diving Support Vessel 79
Docking Plan 42
Docking Survey 333
Documents 131
double acting 201
Double-bottom 158, 41
double hull 56
DP-system 72, 271
Draught 26, 28, 29
Drawing office 85
Drawings 37
Dredgers 63
Drenching 343
Drilling Ship 72
drills 360
Drum 227
Dry docking 328, 332
Dry docking loads 105
dry-film 322
Duty-deck 177
dynamic 94
dynamically positioned 72
Dynamic positioning 309

Ecdis 178
ejector 256
Electrical installations 293
Electricity 250, 288
Electric motors 304
Electrochemical reactions 326
electromagnetic compatibility 293, 301
Elevators 213
EMC 301
emergency fire pump 343
Emergency power 308
End connections 233
engine control 298
engineering 85
Engine Room 124, 156, 238
Entrances 191
Environment 175
Side 378
Escort tugs 66
Ethylene tankers 59
Evaporator 252
exciter 290
Exhaust gas 248
Exterior doors 192

fairleads 228
Fast craft 68
Feeders 52
Feeder ships 147
Fire 341
fire control plan 351
fire control station 351
Fire-fighting 259
Fire-fighting Means 342
firefighting outfits 351
fire pentacle 341
Fishing vessels 20, 62
fitting out 89
Fixed pitch propellers 268
Fixed Platform 74
flag State 117, 118
Flap rudder 281
flashpoint 341
Flemish eye 234
Floating dock 328
Float. Prod. Stor. and Offloading 76
Floor plates 158
flukes 224
Foam 342, 344
folding hatch covers 184, 191
forecastle, - peak 167, 169
Form coefficients 31
Fouling 324
Foundations 156
Four-stroke engine 241
freeboard 27, 28
freefall lifeboat 352
Free surface effect 373
Fresh water 252
Frictional resistance 264
Frigates 60

Galley 177
galvanic corrosion 326
Gangway 195
Gantry cranes 189, 208
Garbage 128
Gases in Bulk 119
Gas tanker 46
Gear boxes 249
General Arrangement Plan 37
General Cargo Ship 45
generator 250, 303
Glass-fiber 318
Gravity 366
gravity davits 355
Gritblasting 321
grommet 234
Gross Tonnage 30
guarantee 91
guide roller 224
gypsy wheel 225

Hand flares 363
handling gear 198
Handy size 55
Harbor tugs 66
Hatch covers 182
hatches 182
hawse pipe 224
Heat exchangers 251
Heating 251
heating coils 159, 164
Heating coil system 57
heavy cargo 206
Heavy Lift ships 54
High-grade cables 230
hogging 97, 102
Hoistable car decks 213
Hoisting diagram 207
hoist-limit 202
holding tank 128
hook blocks 202
hook rotator 205
hooks 202
hopper 63
hose crane 205
hose test 188
Hull-form 33
Hybrid cars 289
hydrants 343
Hydraulic crane drives 202
Hydroblasting 321
Hydrodynamic calculations 84
hydrostatic release 356
Hypothermia 358

Icebreakers 66
ignition 341
ILO-convention 199
Immersion suits 358
IMO number 119
impeller 277
implode 267
Impressed current 327
Inboard ramps 213
incinerator 127
inclination limit switch 202
inclining experiment 90
Inert gas system 56
Initial Survey 121
Inmarsat 179
Insulation 175
Intact stability 366
Integrated bridge 178
Interior doors 192
Intermediate Survey 121
Inter. Maritime Organization 116
ISM Code 122
ISO 123
ISPS Code 123

jacket 73
Jack-ups 71
jet propulsion 277
jib 200
keel blocks 329

Landing craft 61
laser techniques 336
Launching 89
Laundry 177
Length between perpendiculars 28
Length overall 26
Lifeboats 352
Life buoys 357
Life jackets 357
Life rafts 356
Lifesaving appliances 352
Lifting capacity 201
Lighting 175
Lightship weight 30
Light water line 26
line engines 241
lines plan 27, 33
Line throwing apparatus 363
Liquefied Natural Gas 58
Liquid Cargoes 56
livestock 55
LNG tanker 16, 239
Load control 201
loading program 99
Load Line 26, 118, 120
logistics 91
Logistic support vessels 60
Longitudinal strength 94
louvers 193
low crane 206
Low-speed crosshead engine 244
LPG / LNG tankers 58
LRU 123

Maintenance 176, 301, 333
Manhole Covers 193
mantle 228
Mariner rudder 282
Markings 361
MARPOL 116, 119, 120, 124
mast cranes 206
Measurement Treaty 29
Mega Yacht 10
Membrane Tanks 59
Mess 177
Metacenter 367
Midship Section 40
Midship Section coefficient 31
Mine countermeasure vessels 61
Mist 342
MOB-boat 356
Module 73
Mooring gear 226
Moulded dimensions 27
Mountings 255
Multipurpose ship 8, 13, 51, 145
Mushroom shaped vents 194
Muster list 351

Navigation equipment 311
Navigation Light Arrangement 42
Navy vessels 60
Net Tonnage 30
Noise Nuisance 175
Nozzles 266, 270

Offshore equipment 69
Offshore Support Vessels 18
Oil tankers 124
Ordinates 33
Ore Bulk Oil 55
osmosis 252
outline specification 83

Paint 318
Painting 320
paint spray 321
Panamax (ships) 52, 55
Panel 106
Panting 105
Parachute Signals 363
Side 379
Passenger Ships 59
Patent slip 332
Patrol vessels 61
pedestal 200
Periodical Survey 121
Permeability 372
Perpendiculars 26
Piggy back hatchcover 187
Pigments 319
Pilot boats 67
Pipe laying barges 78
Planes 107
Platforms 74
Platform Supply Vessel 79
Plimsoll Mark 27
pod 272
Polar Regions 297
Polyamide 230
Polyester 230
polyethylene 230
Polyolefines 230
Polypropylene 230
pontoon hatch cover 182, 191
Port State Control 117
Post panamax ships 52
Pounding 105
power-take-off 249, 303
preliminary sketch 83
pressure valves 194
Prismatic coefficient 32
Probabilistic damage stability 375
production phases 89
Product tankers 57
Propellers 265
proportionator 344
Proportions 29
Propulsion 238
Protective layers 318
Pumps 251
Pyrotechnics 363

Quarter ramps 210

Ramps 191, 210
Ram steering gear 283
Refrigerated ships 54
Refrigerated vessel 43
Reg. of Ship's Lifting Appliances 199
Registers 213
Register ton 29
remote controls 200
Repairs 335
rescue boat 356
resistance curves 88
resting pads 188
Retractable thrusters 271
Reverse osmosis 252
Rigging 228
Rise of floor 29
rockets 363
Roller (fairleads) 228
Rolling-period 372
Rope 228 Ro-Ro vessels 53, 210
Rotary vane steering gear 284
Rotating Alternating Current 292
Rubber sealing gaskets 188
rudder bearings 334
Rudder propellers 270
Rudders 278
rudder stock 283

Sacrificial element 326
Safeguards 201
Safety 174, 340
safety devices 184
Safety hook 233
safety net 195
Safety Plan 42
Safe Working Load 199
sagging 95, 97
SART 362
Scantling Plan 41
sealing system 182, 274
seal rings 276
sea trial 90, 91
Seismic Survey vessel 70
selectivity diagram 300
Self tensioning winches 227
Semisubmersible Drilling Unit 72
semisubmersible ships 54
separator 256
Sewage 128
Shackles 233
shaft generator 249, 250, 269
shafting 248, 274
Shearing forces 94
Sheer 29
Shell Expansion 41
Shell plating 106
Shiplift 332
Shuttle tankers 77
Side blocks 329
Side doors 191
Side loaders 208
Side-rolling hatch covers 186
Side sponson 329
single work 201
Skeg 153
Slewing cranes 200, 205
sliding blocks 187
Slings 234
sloshing 167
Sludge 246
Smoke signals 363
snapback 229
SOLAS 116, 118, 120, 340
Solvents 319
Spade rudder 281
Special area 125
Spring lines 229
Sprinklers 343
spurling pipes 226
Stability 366
Stabilizers 278
Stabilizing pontoons 207
Stack pack hatch 187
standard design 82
standardized ship 82
Starting equipment 307
startingmotor 248
Static 94
stator 291
statutory certificates 122
Statutory demands 199
Steel 316
Steel castings, - forcings 317
steel divisions 350
Steering gear 283
Steight supplier 18
Stern 150
Stern Doors 191
stern thrusters 270
Stiffeners 107
Stiffening 106, 169
Stores 177
stores crane 190
Straight ramp 210
Stress distribution 102
stresses 105
stringers 107, 171
Submarines 61
Suction Lines 256
Suez max 56, 148
Suezmax ships 55
Support vessels 61
Surveys 121
survival suit 358
Switchboards 305
swivel 222
Synthetic materials 317
Synthetics for Piping 258

Talurit clamp 232
tank 147
Tankers 27, 147, 148, 361
Tank top 106
Tank vent 193
Tankwash system 56
tapered pins 183
tender 83, 84
testing equipment 215
Thimbles 233
thinners 319
Timber Mark 27
tipping moment 201
Tip plates 267
Tonnage 118
Torsion 105
Trailing sunction hopper dredger 63
Training 359
Trawlers 62
Trim 28, 375
Tugs 66
Turnbuckles 233
Tweendeck hatch covers 191
two components 319
Two pack paint 319
Two-stroke engine 241

U-gantry 208
Ullage 147
Ultra Large Crude Carrier 56
ultrasonic detection 188
umbilical cord 79

Valves 253
V-engine 241
Verticals 33
Very Large Crude Carrier 56
Vibration 105
Vibrations 175
visor 210
Volumes 29
Voyage Data Recorder 310, 363

wake 264
warping drum 226
Warping Head 227
Water jet propulsion 277
waterline area 368
Water lines 33
Waterplane coefficient 31
watertight compartments 158
Watertight doors 192
Waterwashing 321
Side 380
Wave resistance 264
Weathertightness 188
Weathervaning 77
Web frames 107
Wedges 188
weights 29
well 256
wheel effect 267
winches 225, 227
wing tanks 158
wire clamps 234
wire rope 231
Wood 316
Workships 65
workshops 335

Yachts 67

Zinc Epoxy 323
Two tankers at a loading and discharge berth. The VLCC on the right is equipped for loading from
a FPSO, as can be concluded from the deckhouse on the bow. The smaller tanker left is probably a
combinationtanker, not only for crude oil, but also for products, as can be concluded from the
external deckstiffening.
Figurtekst slut.
Side 381

AC Alternating Current
AHT Anchor Handling Tug
AHTS AnchorHandling Tug Supplier
AIS Automatic Identification Sys-
tem Am Area of the midship section
Ap Aft Perpendicular
ARPA Automatic Radar Plotting Aid
Aw Area of the waterplane
B Bouyancy
BC Bulk Chemical Code
BM Bending Moment
Bmld Breadth or beam
BWM Ballast Water Management
CAD Computer Aided Design
Cb Block coefficient
Cbft Cubic feet
CI longitudinal centreline
Cm Midship Section coefficient
Colregs Intern. Reg for Preventing Collisions at Sea
COW Oil Discharge and Monitoring Equipment
Cp Prismatic coefficient
CPP Controllable Pitch Propeller
cst Centistoke
Cw Waterplane coefficient
Cwl Construction (Scantling) water line
DC Direct Current
DMA Distillate Marine Fuels
DOC Document of Compliance
DP Dynamic Positioning
DSV Diving Support Vessel
DT Dynamic Tracking
DWT Deadweight
EMC ElectroMagnetic Compatibility
EMSA European Maritime Safety Agency
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating
Radio Beacon ESC Enlarge Ship Concept
FAL Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic
FAT Factory Acceptance Test
FEU Forty feet Equivalent Units
FMEA Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
Fp Fore Perpendicular
FPSO Floating Production Storage and Offloading
FSM Free Surface Moment
FSO Floating Storage and Offloading
FSS Fire Safety System Code
G Gravity
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
GPS Global Positioning System
GRP Glassfiber Reinforced Polyester
GT Gross Tonnage
HAT Harbour Acceptance Tests
HFO heavy fuel oil
HHP high holding power
HSC High Speed Craft
HSSC Harmonized System of Survey and Certification
Hz Hertz
IACS International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate
IBS Integrated Bridge System
ICCP Impressed Current Cathodic Protection
IGC International Grain Code
IGC International Gas Code
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMO International Maritime Organization
INF Irradiated Nuclear Fuel
INMARSAT International maritme satellite
IOPP International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate
IRWC Independent Wire Rope Core
ISM International Safety Management
ISO International Organisation for Standardization
ISPS International Ship and Port Facility Security Code
KM Keel - Metacentre
kW kilo Watt
LCB Longitudinal Centre of Bouyancy
LCG Longitudinal Center of Gravity
LEG Liquefied ethylene gas
LMC Lloyd's Machinery Class
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
Loa Length overall
LPG Liquefied petroleum gas
Lpp Length between perpendiculars
LRIT Long Range Identification and Tracking system
LSA Life Saving Appliances Code
MAC Maximum Allowable Concentration
MARPOL Marine Pollution
MBL Minimum Break Load
MDO marine diesel oil
MEPC Marine Environment Protection Committee
MGO marine gas oil
MMSI Maritime Mobile Ship's Identification
MOB Man Over Board boat
MSC Maritime Safety Committee
NDT nondestructive testing
NT Nett Tonnage
OBO Ore Bulk Oil carrier
ODME Oil Discharge and Monitoring Equipment
PFSO Port Facility Security Officer
PSV Platform Supply Vessel
PTO Power Take Off generators
QMS Quality Management System Rad Radial
Ro-Ro Roll-on/Roll-off
ROV Remotely Operated Vehicle
RPM Revolutions Per Minute
SALM Self Anchoring Leg Mooring system
SALS Self Anchoring Leg system
SART Search and Rescue Transponder
SAT Sea trial Acceptance Test
SBT Segregated Ballast Tanks
SF Shear Force
SHHP Super High Holding Power
SMC Safety Management Certificate
SMS Safety Management System
SOLAS Safety Of Life At Sea
SPM Single Point Mooring system
SSCV Semisubmersible Crane Vessels
SSO Ship Security Officer
STCW Standards of Training and Certification of Watchkeeping
SWL Safe Working Load
T Draught
TCG Transverse Center of Gravity
TCLL Thousand cycle load level
TEU Twenty feet Equivalent Units
TLP Tension Leg Platform
tm tonmetre
TM Torsion Moment
TSHD Trailing Sunction Hopper Dredger
ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier
UMS Unmanned Machinery Space
UPS Uninterrupted Power Supply
VCG Vertical Center of Gravity
VDR Voyage Data Recorder
VDR Voyage Data Recorder
VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier
VTS Vessel Traffic Service
WLL Working Load Limit
WS Warrington Seal
Side 382

Reproduced with kind permission of:

ABB Industry Oy, Helsinki, Finland 153, 272
Aerophoto, Eelde, The Netherlands 329
Ajax Fire Protection Systems BV, The Netherlands 342, 347
AkzoNobel, Rhoon, The Netherlands 325
Alphatron Marine BV, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 178/179
Amports, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 50, 51, 53, 59, 78, 198,
Anthony Veder Rederijzaken BV, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 47
Becker Marine Systems, Hamburg, Germany 281, 285
BigLift Shipping BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 36, 206, 207
Blohm Voss Industries Gmbh, Hamburg, Germany 272,
Borstlap Rene, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 288-313,
C-Nautical, Sappemeer, The Netherlands 227,
Cedervall, Sweden 277
Coops & Nieborg BV, Hoogezand, The Netherlands 183, 188, 190
Cornells Vrolijk's Visserij Mij BV, IJmuiden, The Netherlands 62,
Cornelissen, Danny ( 4, 26, 53, 63, 66, 67, 114-115, 128, 144, 177, 199, 216-
217, 234, 252-254, 293, 302, 323, 375
Corrosion & Watercontrol bv, Moerkapelle, The Netherlands 326
Crosby, United Kingdom 233,
Damen Shipyards, Gorinchem, The Netherlands 65, 68, 69, 79, 154, 155, 257,
Das Robert, Villeneuveloubet, France 8-9, 10-11, 14-15, 20-21, 22-23
Das Rudolf, Ursem, The Netherlands 16-17, 166,
Deerberg-Systems, Oldenburg, Germany 126/127,
Delta Marine, Raisio, Finland 153,
Dokkum Klaas van, Enkhuizen, The Netherlands 62, 99, 123, 128-129, 160, 162, 163, 165, 176,
183-184, 190, 192, 193, 218, 224, 226, 246, 279, 280, 312, 343, 346, 351, 353,
Econosto, Capelle aan de IJssel, The Netherlands 194,
Engeland Martijn van, DELFTship, ( 31 - 33, 34, 42, 95, 98,
Fairmount Marine BV, Rotterdan, The Netherlands 66,
Flying Focus, Castricum, The Netherlands 91
Fotografie van Leeuwen (, 24, 29, 31, 32, 48/49, 55, 56, 65, 67, 70, 72,
77, 163, 167, 186, 224,
The Netherlands 236-237, 262-263, 266, 268, 270, 279, 281-282, 314/315, 329, 333-337, 352
Germanischer Lloyd, Hamburg, Germany 102-104,
GustoMSC, Schiedam, The Netherlands 54, 71-76,
Hapag-Lloyd, Hamburg, Germany 12/13
Hartman Seatrade, Urk 31,
Hatlapa, Uetersen, Germany 225, 283, 284
Heerema, Leiden, The Netherlands 72,
Heien Larssen, Drammen, Norway 343
Hendrik Veder BV, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 235,
Hoffmann Hans, The Netherlands 125, 352,
Holland America Line, Seattle, USA 89, 195, 273
Horrocks, Gary, The Netherlands 119
Huisman - Itrec, Schiedam, The Netherlands 206
IHC Holland, Kinderdijk / Sliedrecht, The Netherlands 63, 275, 276
Intergraph 6-7, 239
International Paint (Nederland) BV, Rhoon, The Netherlands 173
Intership Navigation Co Ltd, Cyprus 13,
Jo tankers, Spijkenisse, The Netherlands 16/17,
Jong, Menthe de, Gouda, The Netherlands 358/359
Jotun BV, Spijkenisse, The Netherlands 319-322, 324-325
JR Shipping BV, Harlingen, The Netherlands 26, 372
Kahn Scheepvaart bv, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 83, 371
Katen Hans ten, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 105, 193, 220, 222, 226, 230, 235, 269, 313, 360
Kawasaki, Japan, The Netherlands 273,
KGW, Schwerin, Germany 226,
Klooster, J. v.d. (, The Netherlands 51, 53,
Koomen, Kees Greup, The Netherlands 373
Lankhorst, Sneek, The Netherlands 229, 230, 231, 232, 233,
Side 383
Liebherr Maritime Benelux BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands 196-197, 200
Lloyd's Register, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 67, 223, 333,
MacGregor, Sweden 203, 205, 210, 211
Maersk Data Transport, Denmark 100,
MAN B&W, Copenhagen, Denmark 90, 238, 241-248, 250,
Mapron Engineering BV, Dordrecht, The Netherlands 274,
MARIN, Wageningen, The Netherlands 85, 88,
Meijer, Hans. United Kingdom 65, 172, 192, 193, 327, 358
MSN, Hoogezand 258, 259
MX, Brandbeveiliging Almere, The Netherlands 347-348,
NAPA OY, Helsinki, Finland 157, 172, 367-371
Ned-Deck Marine, Barneveld, The Netherlands 353, 355, 356
Niestern Sander bv, Delfzijl, The Netherlands 38-39, 40, 41, 91, 99, 158, 329, 330
NileDutch, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 53
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai, Tokyo, Japan 118,
Oord, van, Rotterdam The Netherlands 64,
oceAnco, Alblasserdam, The Netherlands 10-11
Promac BV, Zaltbommel, The Netherlands 268-269
Proofload, Oss, The Netherlands 215,
Rederij Clipper Stad Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 23
Rexroth Bosch Group, The Netherlands 328
Roest, Stefan, Delft, The Netherlands 88
Rolls-Royce, Ulsteinvik, Norway 16-17, 271, 281,
Royal Navy, Den Helder, The Netherlands 60-61, 67
Rubber Design, Heerjansdam, The Netherlands 175,
SAL, Steinkirchen, Germany 54, 145, 207, 214, 364/365
SARC BV, Bussum, The Netherlands 35, 36, 376
Scheepswerf v.d. Werff & Visser, Jimsum, The Netherlands 20, 21
Seatrade Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands 43, 54, 169, 191, 229, 351, 359,
SEC, Groningen, The Netherlands 218, 220, 222, 224, 225, 228,
ShipConstructor Software Inc. Victoria BC, Canada 108-113, 148-149, 172,
Siemens, Hamburg, Germany 273
Sigma Coatings Marine Division, Uithoorn, The Netherlands 147,
Slot, Klaas Alkmaar, The Netherlands ( 29, 57, 58, 62, 72, 122, 129,
166, 194, 212, 221, 222, 317, 233, 334, 338-340, 343, 357, 359, 361, 383
Smit, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 66, 230,
Spliethoff Beheer BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 45, 209,
Spronsen, Dave van. The Netherlands 52
Spruit, Bas, Delfzijl, The Netherlands 99
Svitzer Wijsmuller, IJmuiden, The Netherlands 94, 101, 344, 363
Sijtsema, Ubbo van, Scharmer, The Netherlands 106, 107,
Thyssen, Hamburg, Germany 278,
Tribon Solutions AB, Malmo, Sweden 164, 256,
TTS, Goteborg, Sweden 185, 187, 191, 209, 212, 213
Ulstein, Sea of Solutions/SapuraAcercy, The Netherlands 73
Ulstein Group, Norway 18, 70, 79
Umoe Schat-Harding BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands 353,
UniSea Shipping Group 235
Vladimir Docekal, Holeson, Czech Republic 204
Volharding Shipyards, Hoogezand, The Netherlands 90
Vroon BV, Breskens, The Netherlands 55,
Vuyk Engineering Groningen BV, Groningen, The Netherlands 84, 146, 150, 151, 152, 156, 157,
159-163, 165, 168, 170, 259-261
Wagenborg Shipping BV, The Netherlands 92-93, 117
Wartsila Propulsion, Drunen, The Netherlands 240, 266, 277
Wijnne & Barends BV, Delfzijl, The Netherlands 37, 145, 185
Winel BV, Assen, The Netherlands 192, 195,
Winteb, Winschoten, The Netherlands 194,
Wortelboer BV, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 221, 222,
Yeung, Capt. M.C., Hong Kong, China 55, 69
Side 384