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Academic 2 - Unit 5 - Adjective Clauses to Adjective Phrases

CLAUSE: A clause is a group of related words that contains a subject and verb.
PHRASE: A phrase is a group of related words that does not contain a subject and verb.

[a] ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: An adjective clause is a reduction of an adjective clause.


The girl who is sitting to me is Maria. It modifies a noun. It does not contain a subject and
verb. The adjective clause in [a] can be reduced to
[b] ADJECTIVE PHRASE: the adjective phrase in [b], [a] and [b] have the same
The girl sitting next to me is Maria. meaning.

[c] CLAUSE: The boy who is playing the piano is Ben. Only Adjective Clauses that have a subject pronoun, -
[d] PHRASE: The boy playing the piano is Ben. who, which, or that - are reduced to modifying adjective
phrases.
[e] CLAUSE: The boy (whom) I saw was Tom.
[f] PHRASE: (None) The adjective clause in [e] cannot be reduced to an
adjective phrase.
Academic 2 - Unit 5 - Adjective Clauses to Adjective Phrases

Changing An Adjective Clause To An Adjective Phrase

[a] CLAUSE: The man who is talking to John is from Korea. There are TWO ways in which an adjective clause
PHRASE: The man 0 0 talking to John is from Korea. is changed into an adjective phrase.

[b] CLAUSE: The ideas which are presented in that book are good. [1] If the adjective clause contains the be form,
PHRASE: The ideas 0 0 presented in that book are good. omit the pronoun and the be form, as in
examples [a], [b], [c], and [d].
[c] CLAUSE: Ann is the woman who is responsible for the error.
PHRASE: Ann is the woman 0 0 responsible for the error.

[d] CLAUSE: The books that are on that shelf are mine.
PHRASE: The books 0 0 on that shelf are mine.

[e] CLAUSE: English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters. [2] If there is NO be form of a verb in the
PHRASE: English has an alphabet 0 consisting of 26 letters. adjective clause,
it is sometimes possible to omit
[f] CLAUSE: Anyone who wants to come with us is welcome. the subject pronoun and
PHRASE: Anyone 0 wanting to come with us is welcome. change the verb to its -ing form, as in [e]
and [f].

[g] George Washington, who was the first president of the United If the adjective clause requires commas, as in
States, was a wealthy colonist and a general in the army. [g], the adjective clause phrase also requires
[h] George Washington, the first president of the United States, commas, as in [h].
was a wealthy colonist and a general in the army.

[i] Paris, the capital of France, is an exciting city. Adjective phrases in which a noun follows another
[j] I read a book by Mark Twain, a famous American author. noun, as in [h], [i], and [j], are called
“appositives.”

* If an adjective clause that contains “be” + “a single adjective” is changed, the adjective is moved to its normal
position in front of the noun it modifies.
CLAUSE: Fruit that is fresh tastes better than old, soft, mushy fruit.
CORRECT PHRASE: Fresh Fruit tastes better than old, soft, mushy fruit.
INCORRECT PHRASE: Fruit fresh tastes better than old, soft, mushy fruit.