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 The politics in which he build on his conception of morality and justice to explore the best way to

run a state.
 City-states – satisfies fuller need of good life; more self-sufficient ( it has a greater level of
complexity and also because it involves a different kind of governance or rule); naturally prior as
partnership or community.
 Why people associate with city states? (to be answered by the question) Why is it that we form
city state?
- One of the reason is that it satisfies greater demands or requirements need of human nature or
things that we may not in fact be completely aware at the start that we do desire and need but
they are implanted within us. It is not just securing life but it is securing the good life. In order to
live well as opposed to just merely living.
 State is prior by nature to the individual because the individual when not separate is not-self-
sufficient that is why we have the city-state, village and household.
 Author: Aristotle
 Years: 335-325 BCE
 Genre: Political Science
 Original Language: Greek
 Main Idea: Over a housand thousand years ago, Aristotle’s Politics takes a look at different forms
of government from democracies to tyrannies. It analyze which are most potent in terms of
serving the needs of individuals and community and also the promotion of human virtue.
 Valuable worthwhile community exist because of virtue and that the politics serves as to further
the virtue.
 Depending on their inborn nature, people contribute different things to government.
 Cities are communities, and communities work to support one another.
 Forms of Government
- Positive forms of government according to Aristotle
 Polity – a mix of oligarchy and democracy; seeks to benefit the common interest
 Aristocracy – ruled by the wealthy elites; advantage held by only a few
 Monarchy – rule by an individual; can slide into tyranny.
- Corrupt forms of government according to Aristotle
 Democracy – rule by all; the poor have the most power; poor are most powerful
 Oligarchy – rule by the few; power not well distributed
 Tyranny – rule by a single, oppressive ruler; seeks to control the community
 Aristotle
- A Greek philosopher best known for his work on poetics, ethics, and politics. Aristotle wrote
theoretical works that up until today influence the thought of many people. He was an expert on
a wide variety of subjects, from biology to logic, and he is known as the father of political science.
 Biology, zoology (which he identified 500 species), physics, medicine, psychology, logic,
metaphysics, rhetoric, aesthetics, ethics, and politics (where all of these is taught in the
- Philosopher in Ancient Greece; studied at Plato’s Academy and became famous for writing on
ethics and politics.
- Aristotle had a total of about 200 original works but only 31 survived today.
- Types of governments Aristotle identifies: oligarchy, democracy, polity, aristocracy, monarchy,
and tyranny.
- “Man by nature is a political animal.” – Aristotle, The Politics, Book 1, Chapter 2
 Aristotle's Politics is separated into eight books, each discusses various parts of governance. The
word politics originates from the Greek word polis, the term for the Greek city-state or
community. Politics significantly affects and influence contemporary politics and set the
establishment for current emphases of democracy today. Composed over 2,000 years prior, the
content frameworks various types of government and addresses the most ideal ways for
community to sort out themselves in quest for good and excellence.
 Perspective and Narrator
- In Politics, Aristotle addresses readers in the first person and invites them into dialogue using the
first-person plural we.
 About the Title
- Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle uses the title word politics to include a range of relationships
between governments and people.
 State= Organic Whole

 Why do we need a government?

Governments provide the parameters for everyday behavior for citizens, protect them from
outside interference, and often provide for their well-being and happiness.

Yack, B. (1993). The problems of a political animal: Community, justice, and conflict in Aristotelian political
thought. Univ of California Press.

Aristotle, The Politics of Aristotle, trans. into English with introduction, marginal analysis, essays, notes
and indices by B. Jowett. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1885. 2 vols. Retrieved 8/31/2019 from the World
Wide Web: