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Theoretical English grammar.

Lecture 1.
The subject and aims of the theoretical
English grammar.

The main purpose of the theoretical course on english grammar is to introduce

the student to the many linguistic problems connected with grammatical structures
and to the modern methods applied in dealing with them.As there are many outstanding
problems in Modern linguistics.One of these concerns the relations between morphology
and syntax,on the one hand and paradigmatic and syntagmatic phenomena,on the other
hand.Recent discussion on this problem has immediate connection with the treatment of
the notion of "sentence".
The seminar hours of this course may include,besides analysis of modern texts
from the theoretical points of view,reports on the same problems and discussion of views
held by various authors.
As we mentioned that the purpose of this course is to present a systematic
study of the grammatical structure of Modern English.
In the course of the history of linguistics many different views of language and
languages have been put forward. It is not our task to discuss them here.Suffice it
(sн'fais-¤®бв в®з® бЄ § вм)to say that the treatment of a language as a system was
characteristic of the grammarians of the 17th century,for instance,the French "grammaire
generale de Port-Royal",a grammar published in 1660.Though this grammar was not a
linguistic work in any modern sense. This grammar was based on the assumtion
(н'sampsn-ЇаЁпвЁҐ,ЇаҐ¤Ї®«®¦ҐЁҐ) that the state of a language at a given period was a
system and could be treated as such. This view of language structure was then abandoned
(н'bandнn-®вЄ § вмбп ®в)in favour of purely historical outlook until the early years
of the 20th century.The Swiss scholar Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) laid
the foundation of a new linguistic theory acknowledging the study of a system of a given
language as such De Saussure's views were then developed and modified by various
schools of modern linguistic thinking. It is on the basis of this view that a theoretical
investigation of the grammatical system of a language at a definite point of its history
becomes possible and fruitful.
Modern linguistics lays a special stress on the systemic character of language
and all its constituent parts.It accentuates the idea that language is a system of signs
(meaningful units) which are closely interconnected and interde-
pendent.Units of immediate interdependencies (classes and subclasses of
words,various subtypes of syntactic constructions) form different micro systems within
the framework of the global macrosystem of the whole of language.
Each system is a structured set of elements related to one another by a common
function.The common function of all the lingual signs is to give expression to human
The nature of grammar as a constituent part of language is better understood the
two planes of language,namely,the plane of content and the plane of expression.

The plane of content comprises the purely

I.B.Ilish.The Structure of Modern English. L. 1971 p.6. semantic elements
contained in language, while the plane of expression comprises the material units of
language taken by themselves, apart from the meanings rendered by them.The two
planes are connected,so that no meaning can be realised without some material means of
The correspondence between the planes of content and expression is very
complex and it is peculiar to each language. This complexity is clearly illustrated by the
phenomena of polysemy, homonymy and synonymy.
The diserimation between two planes, taking it into consideration, you may say
that the purpose of grammar as a linguistic discipline is to disclose (®Ў аг¦Ёў вм, а
бЄалў вм) and formulate the regularities of the correspondence between the plane of
content and the plane oexpression in the formation of utterances out of the stocks of
words as part of the process of speech production. (Blokh.M.Y."A course in theoretical
English grammar".M.1983p 11).


Language incorporates the three constituent parts, each being inherent in it by
virtue of its social nature. These parts are phonological system,the lexical system and
the grammtical system.Only the unity of these three elements forms a language,
without any one of them there is no human language.
The phonological system is the subfoundation of language,it determines the
material (phonetical)appearence of its significative units.The lexical system is the whole
set of naming means of language,that is,words and stable word-gro-
ups.The grammatical system is the whole set of regularities determining the
combination of naming means in the formation of utterances ('atterнns-ўла ¦ҐЁҐ,ўлбЄ
§лў ЁҐ) as the embodiment of the thinking process.
Each of the three constituent parts of language is studied by a particular linguistic
discipline. These disciplines, presenting a series of approaches to their particular
objects of analysing, give the corresponding "descriptions" of language consisting in
ordered expositions of the constituent parts in question.
The relations between word -building,grammar and lexicology have not yet been
made quite clear, large three views have been expressed:
1.word-building is part of lexicology.
2.word-building is partly at least a matter of grammar.
3.word-building is a special sphere intermediate between lexicology and
According as one or another of these views is endorsed(-Ї®¤вўҐа¦¤
вм,®¤®Ўапвм),word-building is either ignored in a book on grammar, as something
lying beyond its sphere or it is treated of in grammar book to some extent at least.
The gramatical aspect of word-building, at least in English is rather
unimportant. The main penonena of word-building belong to the sphere of lexicology.

Lecture 2

In classical Greek and Latin the word "grammar"denoted "the methodical study
of literature",including textual( -⥪бвг- «мл©,ЎгЄў «мл©).and aethetic criticism (
-нбвҐвЁвҐзҐбЄЁ©, -ЄаЁвЁЄ ),etc,besides,the study of greek and latin languages.As it
indicates clearly that term was indeed equal to the term "philolgy in the widest modern
sense". In the Middle Ages grammar was the first subject of the "tririum",which
included also logic and rhetoric ( -аЁв®-аЁЄ,ЈаҐз-⥮аЁп Ё ЁбЄгббвў® Єа б-
®аҐзЁп) Until the 17th century the term grammar in English usage meant the study of
Latin-hence ( -®вбо¤ ,б«Ґ¤®ў ⥫м®) " a grammar school" was originally one in which
Latin was taught. (Poole R.Teaching English grammar.New York.1957.p 1-3)



The last years have seen a rapid development of various new methods of
linguistic investigation and there is a great number of views on this problem.Briefly
,there are three main positions in this field:
1.Some scholars think that the new methods now appearing mark the beginnings
of linguistics as ascience and that everything that was done earlier in linguistics
belongs to a "prescientific age".
2.Other scholars are sceptical about the new methods and think that they tned to
lead linguistic science away from its proper tasks and to replace it by something
incompatible with its essential character.
3.There is the view that the new methods mark a new period in the development of
linguistics that everything done in earlir periods should therefore be considered as
valueless and "prescientific" without going into details about this disussion we merely
state that the view mentioned last appears to be the most reasonable one. In discussing
grammatical categories we often mention oppositions,that is, pairs of grammatical
forms opposed to each other in some way. A simple case in point is the opposition
between the singular and the plural number in nouns,with their definite meanings:
one as against more than one.
We often find that of two members of an opposition,one has quite a definite
meaning, where as the meaning of the other is less definite.For instance, in the
opposition between the forms "was writing" and "wrote".The meaning of the form
"was writing" is quite definite, while that of the form "wrote" is hard even to
define.The terms usual for such cases are "marked" and "unmarked".The form "was
writing" is the marked and the form "wrote" the unmarked member of the opposition.
We must keep in our treatment of English grammatical structure many ideas
and terms inherited from traditional grammar,such as,the theory of the parts of speech
and parts of the sentence and at the same time point out what new light is shed on these
problems by recently developed methods and what change the formulation of the very
issues should undergo in the light of the new ideas.To say that a considerable number of
familiar statements about grammatical facts cannot be upheld without essential


There were two grammar theories which sought to teach how a sentence is
generated.These are the linear grammar and immediate constituent (ҐЇ®б।б⢥-
л©) grammar (IC gammar,phrase grammar).
The linear theory taught that a sentence is generated on a very simple model
consisting of three elements :S+V+O.
This model is quite familiar to the english teachers who begin their first lessons
explaining that in the English sentence subject stands first,then it is followed by a
verb (predicate) and then by an object.
The linear theory (model) is rather trivial as it has no power to generate
different sentence structures but the simplest.
It cannot even do this properly as it does not indicate the groupings of the
sentence.If a sentence is complex,the linear the ory will fail to construct it although the
sentence has but three elements: S-V-O and their groups of the constituents.
Besides, passive constructions, exclamatory sentences, negative or interrogative,
will all need other models


The IC grammar (phrase grammar) says that each linguistic form is to be

devided into two immediate constituent.The IC model is stronger than linear model
because it shows rules for the generating of the phrases,and the order of sentence
generating, including each phrase.
The set of rules showing how a sentence is generated are called " rewrite
rules". Each rule is numbered and the sign of the arrow means "rewrite": "The man hit
the ball".
1. sentence NP+VP
2. NPT+N (T is a determiner)
4. Tthe
5. N man, ball, etc
6. verbhit,took,etc. given this set consisting of six rules, one can generate an
English sentence or a number of sentences changing only "the N" and "the transitive V",
in accord -б®Ј« бЁҐ,ў ᮮ⢥вб-вўЁ©.
There is another representation of generation of a sentence on the basis of the
IC grammar.This is "derivationtree" diagram:



hit T N
the man
the b



The girl
aux v t n t

was giving the dog a bone

The derivation -Ёбв®зЁЄ,б«®ў®®Ўа § ў ЁҐ,¤ҐаЁў жЁп tree diagram gives
less information of how a sentence must be generated than the rewrite rules,became it
does show explicitly the order of the generation.
The IC model is more powrful than the linear model.Because the IC model
indicates the grouping of the IC and it shows the order in which the generating ofa
sentence must proceed.


The transformational grammar,a new linguistic theory,appeared in the fifties of

this century. The first profounders of the T-grammar were Zellig S.Harris and Noam
Chomsky. Both these grammarians belonged to the Desriptive school of American
linguistics:thus we may say that T-grammar was borninside the Dsecriptive linguistic
T-grammar has two fundamental problems:
1.the establishment of the domain -бдҐа of kernel sentences.
2.the establishment of the set pf transformation rules for deriving all the other
sentences as their transforms. A kernel sentence structure gives out a number ,and an
even much larger number,of derived transforms.
the work of the machine The machine does work
the machine^s work does the machune work?
the machine work what works?
the working machine the machine does not work.
for the machine work the machine didnot work,etc
the machines working
the machine working
the machine works

Lecture 3
The usual definition of morphology, which may be accepted as it stands,is
this:morphology is the part of grammar which treats of the forms of words. Asfor the
usual definition of syntax, it may be said to be this: Syntax is the part of grammar
which treats of phrases and sentences.
The definitiens are based on the assumption(ЇаЁпвЁҐ ᥡп) that we can clearly
distinguish between words and phrases.
The problem becomes more complicated if we take into account such formations
as has been often found, where one word "often" comes to stand between two elements
of the form of another word "find". Such formations will have to be consi dered both
under morphology and under syntax.
There is another way of approach(Ї®¤е®¤) to the problem of distinguishing
between morphology a syntax. For instance, could you take me in to town?
The word take which is used in the sentence can be con sidered from two different
view points.
On the one hand, we can consider it in its surroundings in the sentence, namely in
its connection with the word "you", which denotes the doer of the action, with the word
"me", which denotes the object of the action, etc. This would be analysing the
syntagmatic connections of the word "take".
On the other hand, we can consider "take" as part of a system including the
forms "takes, taking,took,taken",we can observe that this system is analogous,( «®ЈЁз-
л©) both in sound alternation and uin meanings, to the system forsake(Ї®ЄЁ¤ вм)
forsakes, forsaking, forsook,forsaken,and in a wider perspektive,to the system write,
writes, writing, wrote, written, sing, sings, singing, sang, sung, ets. This would be
analysing paradigmatic connektions of "take",and this gradually opens up a broad view
into the morphological system of the language. The connection between "took and wrote"
is entirely unsyntagmatic, as asequence "took wrote" is unthin kable.
It may be said that in a way, morphology is more abstract than syntax, as it does
not study connections between words actually used together in sentences, but connections
between forms actually found in different sentences and as it were extracted from their
natural surroundings.
In the another way, morphology would appear to be less abstract than syntax,
as it studies units of a smaller and, where as syntax deals with larger units, whose types
and varieties are hard to number and exhaust(ЁбзҐаЇлў вм) Analytical verb forms
mentioned above such as "have done, will go" ets. They are morphological facts in so far
as they belong to the system of the verb in question, as the auxiliary verb adds nothing
whatever to the lexical meaning expressed in the infinitive or participle making part of
the analytical form. But the same forms are fact of syntax in so far as they consist of two
or three or sometimes four alements and occasionally some other word, which does
not in any way make part of the analytical form, may come in between them. It is true
that in modern English possibilities of such insertions(ўбв ў«ҐЁҐ,¤®Ў ўЄ ) are not very
great, yet.
They exist and must be taken into account: we will not go into details here and
we will only point out that such words as often, never, perhaps,probably ets. They must
come between elements of an analytical verb form: has always come, will probably
say ets.
According to a modern view, the relation between morphology and syntax is not
so simple as had been generally assumed. In this view we distinguish between two angles
of research(в®зЄ §аҐЁҐ):
1 The elements dealt with; from this point we divide grammatical investigation
into two fields: morphology and syntax.
2.These elements are studied: from this view point we distin guish between
paradigmatic and syntagmatic study. So we get four divisions:
1. a) paradigmatic morphology.
b) syntagmatic morphology.
2. a) paradigmatic syntax.
b) syntagmatic syntax.
Paradigmatic morphology is what we used to call morphology and syntagmatic
syntax is what we used to call syntax.
Syntagmatic morphology is the study of phrases: "substantive+substantive";
"adjective+ substantive"; "verb+substantive"; "verb+adverb", ets.
Paradigmatic syntax is a part of grammatical theory which did not appear as such
in traditional system.
For instance:
1) My friend has come.
2) My friend has not come.
3) Has mt friend come?
4) My friend will come.
5) My friend will not come.
6) Will my friend come?
All these are considered as variation of one and the same sentence.


Every grammatical category is th eexpression of some general idea- some lagical
category. Thus grammatical category "plural" express "more-than-oneness" and
therefore falls under the wider lagical categories of "number" and "quantiti" and the
grammatical category "tense" correspound to the logical category "time". (Henry Sweet.
A new English Grammar. part 1. Oxford 1955. p10
The number category of english nouns is realised though the opposition of
categorial number meanings: plural/non plural (or singular). The plural opposite
(member) is marked. It is marked synthetically by inflection or mutation (Ё§¬ҐҐЁҐ).
E.g. book/boooks; man/men.
The grammatical category is a system of expressing a generalized grammatical
meaning by means of paradigmatic correlation of grammatical forms.
The ordered set of grammatical forms expressing a categorial function constitutes
a paradigm.
We may speak of a grammatical category if there is a special grammatical form
for its expression.
E.g. in Russian there are three primary tenses (present,past and future) which
are expressed by grammatical form. but the so-called secondary grammatical tenses are
absent in Russian, such as Present, past, perfect, Future in the pastin english, because in
Russian we have no special grammatical forms for their expression.
Grammatical categories are devided into morphological and syntactical ones.
Parts of speech with grammatical categories which are displayed in the forms of a word
are morphological ones. Syntagmatical categories are those which use combinations
of words and sentences.
The system of grammatical categories is historical in its nature. In the process of
the development of language some grammatical categories may disappear. For
example, in old English there were four cases: nominative, genetive, dative and
accusative. But in the course of time the original nominative, dative and accusative
merged (Ї®Ј«®й вм, ᮥ¤Ёпвм-бп) into one uninflected form, the common case. The
old genetive case is represented in Modern English by the inflected possessive case of
nouns (boy's, bird's) and some pronouns (one's, sombody's). Now Modern English has
two systems of cases, one for nouns, another for some pronouns. The means of
expression of grammatical categories, their meanings and use have also changed. In
place of the old case inflections certain prepositions are used in Modern English to
convey some of the meanings expressed in other languages by cases.

The morfeme is one of the central notions pf grammatical theory, without which
no serious attempt at grammatical study can be made.Definition of a morpheme (
-®ЇаҐ¤Ґ«ҐЁt пб®бвм) has been attempted (Ї®ЇлвЄ , Їлв вмбп, ЇаҐ¤ЇаЁЁ- ¬ вм) many
times by different scholars.The morphemes are the smallest meaningful units into which
aword form writers, it can be divided into three morphemes:
1. writ-expressing the idea agent performing the action indicated by root of the
2.-s indicating number, that is, showing that more than one person of the type
indicated is meant.
Two additional remarks are necessary here:
1. two or more morphemes may sound the same but we basically different,that
is ,they may be homonyms.
The morpheme -er , indicating the door of an action as in writer has a homonym
-the morpheme -er denoting the comparative degree of adjectives and adverbs as in
2. There may be zero morphemes, that is, the absence of a morpheme may
indicate a certain meaning.
If we compare the forms book and books,both derived from the stem book ,we
may say that while books is characterised by the -s morpheme as being a plural
form,book is characterized by the zero morpheme as being a singular form. Scholars
belonging to the Modern descriptive linguistics approach the problem from this angle:
if we compare the four sentences :the student comes,the student come,the ox
comes,the oxen come, The meaning and functin of the -en in oxen is the same as the
meaning and function of the -s in students.On this account the -s and the -en are said
to represent the same morpheme,each of them is a morpheme representing the
morpheme, and they are termed allomorphs of the morpheme.In the word goose the
form corresponding to students and oxen is geese where nothing is added ,but the
root is changed.Thus,the morpheme ,in this case ,has three allomorphs: y-s,y-en,
3. ooee,[u:-][i:].


In studying the morpheme we actually study the word in the necessary details of
its composition and functions.
It is very difficult to give a rigorous and atthe same time universal definition to the
word.This difficulty is explained by the fact that the word is extremely complex and
many-sided phenomenon.With in the framework of different lingustic trends and
theories the word is defined as the minimal free linguistic form, the elementary
component of the sentence, the articulate sound with meaning,the meaningfully integral
and immediately identifable lingual unit,etc.
American scholars -representatives of Descriptive Linguistics founded by
L.Bloomfield-recognized not the word and the sentence, but the phoneme and the
morpheme as the basic categories of linguistic description,because these units are the
easiest to be isolated in the continual text one to their "physically"minimal,elementary
segmental character: a) the phoneme being the minimal formal segment of language.b)
the morpheme, the minimal meaningful segment. According, only two segmental levels
were identified in language by Descriptive scholars:the phonemic level and the
morphemic level;la-
ter on a third level was added to these-the level of morphemic combinations.
Summing up what has been said in this paragraph we may point out that that the
morpheme is a meaningful segmental component of the word;the morpheme is formed
by phonemes; as a meaningful component of the word it is elementary.
The word is a nominative unit of language;it enters the lexicon of language as its
elementary component; This latter item entails some difficulty,as amorph is shown not
necessarily to be material entity,that is phoneme,or a combination of phonemes
,sometimes it may be achange of one phonemeinto another.
Similiarity,in the past tense of verbs the morpheme of the past tense has two
allomorphs: 1)-ed,-finished,listened.
2.the change of vowel,as{ai}{ou}-write -wrote; as[i}[н}-sing -sang,etc.
In grammar, we are of course concertned with the grammatical or
structural,meaning of morphemes.We do not here study the meaning ofthe root
morphemes,which are necessarily lexical,and as to derivation morphemes,which serve
to build words.We are only interested in themin so far as they are grammatically
relevant and that is the case if they show that the word belongs to acertain part of
speech,and if they serve to distinguish one part of speech from another.This
ghrammatical significance of derivation morphemesis always combined with their
lexical meaning.If we take a pair of
words:write-verb writer-noun.
The derivation morpheme "-r"a grammatical significance as it serves to
distinguish a noun from a verb,it has its lexical meaning,as the lexical meaning of the
noun "writer" is different from that of the verb "write" Inflection morphemes have no
lexical meaning of function. Ther is no difference in the way of lexical meaning between
"live and lived" "house and houses".However an inflection morpheme can acquire a
lexical meaning,which the singular form has not;the plural form "colours"has a
meaning,"flag",which the singular form 'colours"has a meaning,"flag",which the
singular form "colour" has not.Together with other nominative units,the word is used
for the formation of the sentence;the sentence is a unit of informationin the
ocmmunicative process.
In traditional grammar the study of the morphemic structure of the word was
conducted in the light of the two basic criteria:
1. positinal (the location of the marginal morphemes in relation to the central
2. Semantic or functional (correlative contributionof the morphemes to the
general meaning of the word) .The combination of these two criteria in an integral
description hasled to the rational classification of morphemes,that is widely used both in
research linguistic work and in practical lingual tuition.


Criteria applied in discriminating parts of speech:

a) meaning (semantic).
b) form (formal).
c) function (functional).
d) Ch. Fries's scheme of word classes.
The problem of parts of speech is one that canses great controversies both in
general linguistic theory and in the analysis of separate languages.
The term "part of speech", as well as correspounding terms in Russian, German,
French and other languages, though firmly estab lished, is not a very happy one. Part of
speech is a type of word differing from other types in some grammatical point or
points. The verb is atype of word different fromm all other types in that it alone has the
grammatical category of tense. It is perfectly reasonable to ask:
"What is the past tense of the word live?" The answer of course is lived. It
would make no sence to ask what is the past tense of the word city? The word "city" has
not got any past tense or any tense whatever. Tense is one of the distinctive features
characterizing the verb as against every other type of word.
The theory of parts of speech, though considered by most scholars to be a part of
morphology, cannot do without touching on some syntactical problems, namely on
phrases, and on syntactical functions of words.
To regard (а бᬮваЁў вм) the theory of part of speech as essentially a part of
morphology, involving some syntactical points would be scientific one.
The words of language, depending on various formed and semantic features are
devided into grammatically relevant sets and classes.
The frovolitimed grammatical classes of words are called "parts of speech. The
word is distingguished not only by grammatical, but olso by semantico-lexemic
properties. Scholars reter to parts of speech as lexico-grammatical series of words or as
"lexico-grammatical categories". (define-гбв ў«Ёў вм) (explanatory-®ЎкпбЁвҐ«мл©).
The term "part of speech" is purely traditional and convertional, it cannot be
taken as in any way defining or explematory. this name was introdused in grammatical
teaching of ancient Greece, where the concept of the sentence wasnot yet explicitly
identified in destinetion to the general idea of speech. In grammatical teaching of
Ancient Greece there was not strict differentiation between the word as a vocabulary unit
and the word as a functional element of the sentence.
In modern linguistics, parts of speech are discriminated on the basis of the three
criteria: "semantic", "formal", "functional".(д®а¬ вл©,ўҐил©,)
1.The semantic criterion presupposes the iralunation of the generalized meaning,
which is characteristic of all the subject of words constituting a given part of
speech.This meaning is understood as the "categorial meaning of the part of speech".
2.The formal criterion privides for the exposition of the specific inflexional and
derivational(word-building) features of allthe lexemic subjcts(Ї®¤ЈагЇЇл) of a part of
3.The functional criterion concerns the syntactic role of words in the sentence
typical of a part of speech. These three of categorial characterization of words are
conventionally reffered to as "meaning", "form" "and "function".
According to the described criteria, words on the upper level of classification are
divided into notional and functional parts of speech.
To the notional parts of speech of the English Language belong the noun, the
adjective, the numeral, the pronoun, the verb and the adverb.
a) The features of noun are the following:
1. The categorial meaning of substance(бгЎбв жЁп);
2. The changeable forms of number and case; the specific suffixal forms of
3. The substantive functions in the sentence (subject, object, substantival
pridicative), prepositional connections: modification by an adjective.
b) The features of the adjective are following:
1.The categorial meaning of property (бў®©бвў®) (qualitative and relaitive);
2.The forms of the degrees of comparision;
3.Adjectival functions in the sentence (attribute to a noun, adjectival predicative).
c) The features of the numeral are following:
1.The categorial meanings of number (cardinal and ordinal);
2.The narrow set (д®а¬ )of simple numerals: the specific forms of composition
for compound numerals.
3.The functions of numerical attribute and numerical substantive.
d) The features of pronoun are following:
1.The categorial meaning of indication (гЄ § ЁҐ, Ї®Є § -ЁҐ).
2.The narrow sets of varions stoitus (Ї®«®¦ҐЁҐ) with corresponding formal
properties changeability and word-building.
3.substantival and adjectival functions for different sets.
e) The features of the verb are following:
1.The categorial meaning of process;
2.The forms of the verbal categories of person, number, tense, aspect, voice,
mood;tte opposition of the finite and non-finiteforms;
3.The functionof the finite predicate for the finite verb; the mixed verbal functions
for the non-finite verb.
f) The features of the adverb are following:
1.The categorial meaning of the secondary property;
2.The forms of the digrees of comparision for qualitative adverbs: the speciffic
suffixal of derivations;
3.The functions of various adverbial modifiers.
Unchangeable words are traditionally treated under the heading (§ Ј®«®ў®Є) of
functional parts of speech. To the functional series of words in English belong the
article, the preposition , the conjunction, the particle, the modal word and the
The article expresses the specific limitation (®Ја ЁзЁҐ) of the substantive
(ўҐйҐб⢥ле) functions.
The preposition expresses the dependencies and interdepen dencies of substantive
The conjunction expresses connections of phenomena (пў«Ґ-ЁҐ,䥮¬Ґ).
The particle unites (ᮥ¤Ёпвм, ®ЎкҐ¤Ёпвм) the functionalwords of
specifyingand limiting meaning.
The modal word expresses the attitude of the speaker to the reflected situation
and its parts.Here belong the functional words "probably, perhaps, unfortunately,
fortunately, luckely etc"
The interjection, occypying a detached position in the sentence, is a signal of
Modern principles of parf of speech identification have been formulated as a
result of painstaking rezearch conducted on the vast materials of numerous languages.
The three criteria characterization of parts of speech has been deviloped and applied to
practice with the at most consistenly.
V. V. Vinogradov in connection with his study of Russian grammar, A.
A.Smirnitsky and B.Ilyish in connection with their study of English grammar have
ilaborated (а §а Ў вл-ў вм)these criteria.
The principles of syntactic (syntactico-distributional) classification of Endlish
words were worked out by I. Bloomfield and his followers Z. Harris and especially Ch.


The syntactico-distributional classification ofwords is bazed on the study their

combinability by means of substitution testing.
The testing rezults in diveloping the standart model of four main "pasitions" of
notional words in the English sentence: The noun-n, verb-v, adjective-a, adverb-av.
Pronouns are included into the corresponding positional classes as their
substitutes. Words standing outside the "position" in the sentence are treated (ва Єв®ў
вм) as func-tion words of various syntactic values.
For his materials Ch. Fries chooses tape-recorded conversations comprising (§
Є«оз вм ў ᥡҐ) about 250.000 word entries('entri-ўбвгЇ«ҐЁҐ) for 50 hours of talk.
The words are used as substitution test-frames (бвагЄвга ).
Frame A. The cocert was good (always). Frame B. The clerk remembered the tax
(suddenly). Frame C. The team wont there.
As a result of tests on the sited (sait-жЁвЁа®ў вм) "frames" form words (parts
of speech)are established into four classes:
Class 1.A concert, coffee, container, difference, ets.
B clerk,Husband, supervisor etc, take, found etc.
C. team,husband, woman etc.
Class 2.A. was, seemed, became,etc.
B. remembered, wanted, saw,etc.
C. wint, came, ran,lived, worked, etc.
Class 3.A. good, large, necessary, foreign, new.
Class 4.A. there, here, always,then, sometimes.
B. suffixiently, especially, soon.
C.there, back, out, lagerly, etc.
All these words can fill in the positions of the frameswithout affecting their
general structural meaning: "thing and its qualityat a given time"-the first frame. "actor-
action-direction of the action"-third frame.
Functional words are exposed in the cited process of testing as being unable to
file in the positions of frames without destroging them structural meaning.

1.The oppositon of notional and functional words.
2.The four cardinal classes of notional words.
3.The interpretation of functional words as syntactic meditors.
Comparing the syntactico-distributional classification of words with the
traditional part of speech division of words you can see one of the major truths as
regards the linguistic mechanism arising from the comparisonof the two classifications
is the explicit and unconditional division of the lexicon into the notional and functional
parts.The open character of the notional part of the lexicon and closed character of the
functional part of it receives the strict status of a formal grammatical faeture.
The unity of notional lexemes finds its essentual demonstration in an inter-class
system of derivation that can be presented as a formal four-stage series permeating the
lexicon and reflected in regular phrase correlations: a re-
cognising note -a notable recognition-to note rtecognisngly-to rrecognize notably.
Some grammarians (‚.Ќ.†ЁЈ ¤®,ˆ.Џ.ˆў ®ў ,‹.‹.ˆ®дЁЄ,'®ў-६Ґл© Ј«ЁбЄЁ©
п§лЄ.Њ.1956)state that words should be divided into two categorieson the following
principle:some words denote things,actions and other extralinguistic phenomena,these
would be notional words;the other words denote relations and connections between the
notionaal words,these would be the formal words or form words.
However, this view appears to be very shaky.Actually the formal words also
express something extralinguistic.E.g. prepositions express relations between things:
The letter is on the table
The letter is on the table.
Her,two different relations between the letter and the table,which are denoted by
the prepositions.In a similar way conjunctions denote connections between
extralinguistic things and and phenomena.In the sentence "the match was postponed
because it was raining",the conjunction "because "denotes the causual connection
between two processes. In the sentence "It was raining but the match took place all the
same" the conjunction "but" expresses a contradiction between two phenomena,the rain
and the match.
It follows that the prepositions and conjunctions "on and in ", "because and
but"express some relations and connections existing independently of language.And
so these prepositions and conjunctions are in so far,no less notional than nouns or verbs.
The term "formal word" would seem to imply that the word denoted has some
function in building up a phrase or a sentence.This functionis perfrmed by both
prepositions and conjunctions.From this point of view prepositions and conjunctions
should be singled out.
But this definitionof a formal word cannot be applied to particles.A particle
doesnot do anything in the way of connecting words or building a phrase or a sentence.
There does not seem to be any reason for classing particles with formal
words.Ithis view is endorsed we have only two parts of speech,which are form words,
prepositions and conjunctions.

1.The nounis the main nominative part of speech.
The noun in Modern English has only two grammatical categories number and
case.The existence of case appears to be carefully analysed.
The Modern english noun has not got the category of grammatical
gender,which is to be found in Russian,French,German and Latin not a single
noun in M.E.shows any peculiarities in its morphology due to its denoting a Male and
Female being. The words husband and wife do not show any difference in their forms
due to the pecularities of their lexical meanings.
In such pairs actor and actress, prophet- prophetess: the difference between nouns
is apurely lexical one.


NUMBER. most other languages,distinguishes between two numbers,singular and
plural.Some languages have a third number,the dual.Among these are ancient Greek
Sanskrit and Lithuanian.
The singular number shows that one object is meant,and the plural shows that
more than one object is meant.The opposition is"one-more than one ". table-tables,dog-
dogs.However,language facts are not always so simple as that.
First of all,it is to be noted that there is some difference between,say,three three
and three hours. Three houses are three seperate objects existing side by side,three hours
are a continious period of time measured by a certain agreed unitof duration.
f we turn to such plurals as "waters"(the waters of the tlantic)or "shows"(A
Daughter of the Snows,the little story y Jack London).We shall see that we are drifting
further way from the original meaning of the plural number.In the irst place,no numeral
could be used with nouns of this ind.We could not say "three waters or three snows"or
so. hat is the real difference in meaning between water and waters,snow and snows,then?
The plural form in every case servesto denote a vast stretchof water(an ocean), or
of snow,rather of ground covered by snow.So we see that between the singular and the
plural an additional difference of meaning has developed.
1.The number of cases in English.
2.There are no cases at allin English nouns.
The problem of case in M. English nouns is one of the most problems in
English grammar.The most usual view is that
English nouns have two cases: a common case-a boy,a man a
genitive case(or possessive)- a boy^s,a man^s
There are a number of views (other views)of existence of cases in English.
Case is the category of a noun expressing relations between the thing denoted by a
noun and other things,or actions and manifested by some formal sign in the noun
itself.This sign is always an inflection,and it may also be a "zero" sign,that is the
absence of any sign may be significant as distinguishing one particular case from
another.Case isthe part of the mor phological system of a language.
Some scholars,mainly germans,propound that Modern English nouns have four
cases:nominative,genitive,dative and accusative,of which the genitive can be expressed
by the "-S-"inflectionand by the preposition"of", the dative by the preposition to and
also by word order (Max Deutsch-bein.System der Neuenglishen.Syntax,1928,15 c) Up
to now we have seen the form -^s as a genitive case, and in so far we have stuck to the
conception of a two-case system in Modern English nouns.

Lecture 7.

The definition of pronouns as a seperate (®б®Ўл©) part of speech has caused

many difficulties.More than once in the history of linguistics the very existence of
pronouns as a part of speech has been denied.However,attempts of this kind have not
proved succesful and in present day grammars. Both English and Russian,pronouns are
recognised as a part of speech.We usually find in grammars a classification of pronouns
into personal, possesive, interrogative, indefinite, relative(®в®бЁвҐ«мл©)
CASE.In dealing with the category of case in pronouns,we must bear in mind that
they need not in this respect be similar to nouns.Some of them may,and indeed do,have
peculiarities(®б®ЎҐ®бвм,е а ЄвҐа п зҐав )which no noun shares.
Some pronouns distinguish between two cases which are best termed nominative
and objective (instead of nominative we might say subjective) nom. i,he, she,(it),we,
(you),they who. obj. me, him, her,(it),us,(you)them, whom.
A number of pronouns have no category of case (something,anything,
nothing,everything,some, any,no,my,his,mine,hers)
A number of pronouns have a different case system,they distinguish between a
common and a genitive case in the same way as the nouns,they are
somebody,anybody,one,another,and a few more.
The case system in pronouns of the somebody type is identical with that of the
nouns of the father type. It is well known that the form "me",which is an objective case
form,is not only used in the function of object (direct or indirect),but also as a
predicative,in sentences "It is me".The sentence " Itis I"though still possible,is rarely(
।Є®)used;it has acquired
1.‹.‚.˜…ђЃЂ.Ћ з бвпе аҐзЁ ў агббЄ®¬ п§лЄҐ.ˆ§Ўа лҐ а Ў®влЇ® агббЄ®¬г
п§лЄг 1957. б.68. a kind of archaic flavour( ае ЁзҐбЄЁ©,гбв ॢ訩;ўЄгб,ЇаЁ- ¤ ў вм
ўЄгб)as its stylistic peculiarity has become inapp ropriate in colloqual speech.As to the
other pronouns of this group,the sentences "its him,it is her,it is us,it is them,with the
objective case form used as a predicative.
NUMBER.It will be easily seen that the category of number has only a very
restricted field in pronouns.It is found in the pronouns these-this,that-those,other-
others.We need not dwel here on the very peculiar means which are used to form the
plural of "this" and of " that".We can limit ourselves to the statement that the by which
each of two words forms its plural is quite individual and analysable from the view
point of the modrn language.
As to the pronouns i-we,he,she,it-they,it must be stated that thereis no grammatical
of number here."we"is not a form of the pronoun "I",but a seperate word in its own
right.In a similar way "they is a form of he,or she,or "it",or of all them,but a seperate
Ther is no grammatical category of number either in the pronouns:my-
our;his,her,its-their,mine-ours,his, her,its-their,mine-ours,his,hers-theirs.
A peculiar difficulty arises here with reference to the pronouns "myself(ourself)-
There is no category of gender.The pronouns he, she, it; his, her, its;
himself,herself,itselfare all seperate words.
TYPES. Ennglish pronuns of the same phonetic unit are used to express different
meanings in different contexts. So the question arises if there is a case of polysimy that
is different meaning of the same word or of homonomy, that
is different words sounding alike. We may state the following cases:
that-demonstrstive, that-relative.(®в®бЁвҐ«мл©)
who-interrogative, who-relative.
which-interrogative, which-relative.
myself(and the other self-pronouns)-reflexive(ў®§ўа ⮥) and the same
pronouns intensive.
The demonstrative "that" has a plural form "those", where as the relative "that"
remains unchanged in the plural.
The "that" which remains unchanged in the plural cannot be the same word as the
"that" which has the plural form "those. So we come to conclussion that there are two
different pronouns: that-relative. that/those-demonstrative (paralled to "this").
The numeral. O Jespersen has quite rightly remarked that the numerals have been
treated by grammarians in a different way from other parts of speech (O. Jespersen. The
Philosophy of Grammar. M.1968. p.37).there is only the function of numerals to be
considered, and also possibilities of their substantivization.
The most characteristic function of numerals is that of an attribute preceding its
noun. However a numeral can also perform other functions in the sentence(subject,
predicative and object): We are seven , of the seven people, i was looking for. I found
only three.
In ordinal numeral can also be modified by an infinitive denoting the action in
which the object mentioned occupies a definite plase: He was the first to come.


The essence of the words asleep, afload, astir, ablaze, afraid and their position
in the system of parts of speech is still under discussion.
Syntactical functions. The main function of the statives is that of predicative and
in that case they are preceded by a link verb "be", but occasionally-fall, keep, ful. E.g.
The child was fast asleep; something is afloot; he soon fell asleep; he felt ashamed of
Statives are also occasionally found in the function of objective predicatives
after the verb find or have and a noun or pronoun as in the sentences: He found his sister
Phrase "be+stative" may sometimes be synonymous with the continuous form of
the corresponding verb. E.g. He was asleep-he was sleeping.
Typical Russian statives as "¦ «м, «Ґм,вҐа«®,е®«®¤®" are never translated by
statives into English: ¬Ґ ҐЈ® ¦ «м-I pity him or i feel some pity for him. Ґ¬г «Ґм Ўл«®
ўбв ў вм-he fell to lazy to get up; §¤Ґбм ⥯«®-it is warm here; Ґ¬ге®«®¤®-he is cold
or he feels cold.
The existence of statives as a separate part of of speech is not universally
recognised either for the Russion or for the English language.Prof.L. Barkhudarov
arrives at is that words (stative words) of this type are adjectives, which of course is the
traditional view. However these arguments are not binding (baind-§ ўп§лў вм,
ЇаЁўп§лў вм)

Lecture 8
1.The is the most complex part of speech.
2.The class of verbs by semantic and lexico-grammatical features.
3.The finite forms of the verb.
4.The aspective meaning of the verb.
Grammatically the verb is the most complex part of speech.The complexity-(
б«®¦®бвм) of the verb is inherent (ЇаЁбгйЁ©,Ґ®взҐв«Ёўл©) not only in the
intricate (§ Їгв -л©,б«®¦л©)structure of its grammatical categories,but also in its various
subclass divisions,as well as in its falling into two sets of forms profoundly different
from each other:the finite set (form)and the non finite set(form).
The complicated character of the grammatical and lexico- g rammatical structure
of the verb has given rise to much dispute and controversy.
Class of verbs falls into a number of subclasses distinguished by different
semantic and lexico-grammatical features: a) set of national verbs.
Semi-notional and functional verbs serve as markers of predication in the priper
sense,since they show the connection between the nominative content of the sentenceand
reality in a strictly specilized way.These "predicators" include auxilary verbs,modal
verbs,semi-notional verbid,introducer verbs and link verbs.
a) Auxialary verbs constitute grammatical elements of the categorical forms of
the verb.These are the verbs: be, have, do, shall, will, should, would, may, might.
b) Modal verbs are used with the infinitive as predicative markers expressing
relational meanings of the subject attitude type,i.e.ability, obligation, permission,
indivisability etc.They also express relational probability probability: the groups be
likely,be probable.
1.Tom may stay for the tele view if he willTom is permitted to stay.
2.The storm may come any minute,you had better come the deckThe storm is
likely to come any minute.
The modal verbs can,may,must,shall,will,might,need, difective in forms,for
example:The can prepare the play-ground themselves -The boys will be able to prepare
the play -ground themselves.
c) Semi-notional verbud,intrducerverbs are distributed among the verbal sets: of
discriminatory relational semantics (se-em, happen,turn out,etc) of subject-active
relational semantics (try,fail,manage,etc),of phrasal semantics (begin,continue,stop,etc)
They began to fight;
d) The phasal predicator "begin"and the infinitive of the notional verb "fight",the
two lexemes making one verbal part;
The transitive verb " begin"forms the predicate of the sentence.
e) Link-verbs introduce the nominal part of the predicate which is commonly
expressed by a noun,an adjective,or aphrase of or similar semantico-grammatical
character.It should be be noted that link-verbs althogh they are named so, are not devoid
of meaningful content.Performing their functions of
connecting(linking)the subject and the predicative of the sentence,they express the
actual semantics of this connection.
The linking predicator function in the purest form is effected by the verb
"Be".Therefore "Be"as a link verb can be referred to as the "pure link-verb".The
common specifiyng link verbs fall into two main groups:
1) those that express perceptions.
2) those that express nonperceptional,or "factual"link-verb connection.
The main perceptional link-verbs are: seem,appear,look,feel,taste;
The main factual link-verbs are: become,get,grow,remain,keep. e.g. The letter
seemed to have remained unnoticed.
I began to feel better. you shouldn^t try to look cleverer than you are. As is to be
seen from the comparison of the specifying link-verbswith the verbid introducer
predicators described above,the respective functions of these two verbal subsets are
cognate,though not altogether identical.


The verb is apart of speech which includes words expressing actions or states
connecived (ў®бЇаЁЁ¬ ⥫мл©)as prosesses.
The various forms that a verb cantake are subdivided under two main
headings:finite and nonfinite(verbals).
In the form the verb has the function of the predicate in the sentence.It is limited
by or bound to some subject with which it agrees in person and number:you are a
teacher,he is not a student.
The finite forms of the verb indicate the following
categories:person,number,aspect,tense,mood and voice.
In modern English ther are six classes of the verb.Each of these of the verb
appears with its own obligatory constituents(б®бв ўл©)without which it would be
1.Transitive verb. a transitive verb normally has to have a direct to be
complete;For complete:
This girl likes-uncompleted sentence.
This girl likes the dog-completed sentence
Kate hugged the baby(®ЎЁ¬ вм).
The dog found the bone(Є®бвм).
2.Intransitive verb. The intransitive verb, as its name suggests is a class of verb
which does not take one object.In fact an intransitive verb requires nothing else to
complete the verb phrase.For example:the lady cried.
She moved.
However, there are other constituents which can occur with this class of
verb.Such constituents are optional (Ґ®Ўп§ ⥫мл©) rather than obligatory.In the other
they can appear and not as adverbials(place,time,etc).
The baby cried in the night.
3.Ditransitive verb.Another class of verb which occurs with an object is
ditransitive.However,this type of verb requires two objects.One of these is the direct
object,the other is an indirect object in the sentence.For example: Raytold the children a
In the sentence the verb "tell" is followed by two noun phrases,the children and
a story.A story is the direct object of the verb "the"in the past indefinite tense.The
children is the indirect objectof the verb.
She gave me a look-She gave a look to me.
Ken made the party a cake-Ken made a cake for the party.
In these sentences with ditransitive verbs two objects are obligatory,not
optional.To and for are preposition which have joined with noun phrases the
children,me,the party to form prepositional phrases.
4.Intensive verb.Intensive verbs belong to small group which includes verbs
like,be, appear,become,look and so on. These verbs have in common the noun-phrase
Sally became a doctor.
George is in the garden.
She seems unhappy.
Another class of verb to appear with a complement is called complex-
transitive.with this type of verbthe complement relates to the object,not the subject.
The voters elected Mary a president.
Kate thought John a fool.
with this type of verb two elements are obligatory to complete the verb phrase,in these
cases,two noun phrases.
6.Prepositional verb. a prepositional verb is one which requires a prepostional
phrase in order to be complete. Verbs as glance,lean,refer fall into this class.In fact they
are so closely linked with a preposition that is easy to think of them as verbs consisting
of two parts as in glance at,lean on,refer to.They are certainly incomplete without a
prepositioal phrase.
Kate leant on the table.
The children glanced at the pictures.
The function of the prepositional phrase in these sentences are prepositional


The aspective meaning of the verb,as different from its temporal meaning,reflects
the inherent made of the realizationof the process irrespective of its timing(а бзҐв
There two sets of forms in the M.English verb which are contrasted with each
other on the principle of use or non-use of the pattern "be+first participle":
writes-is writing
wrote-was writing
will write-will be writing
has written-has been writing
These two sets of forms clearly belong to the same verb "write"and there is some
grammatical difference between them.
What is the basic difference between "writes" and "is writing"or between "wrote"
and "was writing"? The basic characteristic of "is writing" is this:it denotes the action
proceeding continuously at a definite period of time,within certain time limits.On the
other hand,"writes"denotes the action not thus limited but either occuring repeatedly
or everlasting,without any notion of lasting duration at agiven moment.
There is some difference in this respect between the sentences:The earth turns
round the sun.
The sun rises in the East.
The action mentioned in the first sentence goes on without interruption,wher as
the action mentioned in the latter sentence is repeated every morning and does not take
place at all in the evening.
Now,the question must be answered,how should this essential difference in
meaning between the two sets of forms be described.
The best way to describe it would seem to be this:it is a difference in the way the
action is shown to proceed.Now this is the grammatical notion described as the
category of aspect with reference to the slavonic languages (Russian,polish,Greck)and
also to ancient greek ,in which this category is clearly expressed.
As is well known, not every verb is commonly used in the form
"be+firstparticiple".Verbs denoting abstract relations such as "belong" and the verbs
denoting sense of of perception or emotion such as "see,hear,hope,love",seldomappear in
the form.Thus,the verbs "see, hope, like, fear". and others, denoting perception or
feelings(emotions)may be found in this form.E.g.It was as if she were seeing herself
for the first time in a year.
The form "be+first participle"is very appropriate here as it does not admit of the
action being interprited as momentaneous and makes it absolutely clear that what is
meant is a sense perception going on for some time.


1.Tense is one of the typical functions of the funite verb.

2.O.Jespersen denied the existence of a future tense in English
3.The perfect as a tense category (O.Jespersen).
4.The perfect as a way of expressing the category of "ti-me-relation".
The immediate expression of grammatical time, or "tense" Lat. tempus) is one of
the typical functions of the finite verb. it is typical because the meaning of process,
inherently embedded in the verbal lexeme, finds its complete realization only if presented
in certain time conditions.
When speaking of the expression of time by the verb, it is necessary to strictly
distinguish between the general notion of time, the lexical denotation of time and the
grammatcal time proper, or grammatical temporality (M.Y.Bloch. A Course in
Theoretical English Grammar. M.1983. p.137).
In Modern English, the grammatical expression of verbal tense is effected in two
correlated stages. At the first stage, the process receives an absolutive time
characteristic by means of opposing the past tense to the present tense. The market
member of this opposition is the past form. At the second age, the process receives a non-
absolutive relative time characteristic by means of opposing the forms of the future tense
t the forms of no future marking. The two stages of the verbal time denotation are
expressed separately, by their own oppositional forms.
The category of tense may be defined as a verbal category which reflects the
objective category of time and expresses on this background the relations between the
time of the action .
In English there are three tenses (past, present, future) represented by the forms
"wrote, writes, will write, lived, lives, will live".
Some doubts have been expressed about the existence of a future tense in English.
O.Jespersen discussed this question more than once (O.Jespersen. The Philosophy of
Grammar. M.1958. p50.)
The reason, why Jespersen denied the existence of a future tense in English was
that the English future is expressed by the phrase "shall/will+infinitive" and the verbs
"shall and will" which make part of the phrase preserve, according to Jespersen, some
of their original meaning (shall are element of obligation and will are element of volition
(®Ўп§ ®бвм, ®Ўп§ ⥫мбвў®, ¦Ґ« ЁҐ, ў®«п). In Jespersen's view, English has no
way of expressing "pure futurity" free from modal shades of meaning that is it has no
form standing on the same grammatical livel as the forms of the past and present
tenses. However, this reasoning is not convincing (гЎг¤Ёвм).
This is especially clear in the sentences where the verb "will" is used as an
auxiliary of the future tense and where at the same time, the meaning of volition is
excludedby the context. E.g. I am so sorry, I am afraid I will have to go back to the
hotel. The verb "will" cannot be said to preserve even the slightest shade of the meaning
of volition here. It can have only one meaning-that of grammatical futurity (Ўг¤г饥,
A present tense form may be used when the action belongs to the future, as in the
following example: "MMaria is coming, my lad", he said, "she is coming to-morrow".
So it might also have been expressed by the future tense: Maria will come, my lad,
she will come to-morrow. But the use of the present continuous tense adds another shade
of meaning, which would be lost if it were replaced by the future tense: Maria is arrival
to-morrow is part of a plan already fixed at the present.
The tense view of the perfect is presented in the works of H. Sweet, G. Gurme,
M. Bryant and some other foreign scholars. The tense interpretation of the perfect was
endorsed by the well-known course of English Grammar by M.A.Ganshina and N.M.
Vasilskaya. A.I. Smirnitsky's conseption of the perfect may be called the "time-
relation"(ўаҐ¬Ґ п ®вҐбҐ®бвм). Prof. A.I. Smirnitsky explained that an explicit
demonstration of the fact that the perfect form by means of its oppositional mark,
builds up its own category, from both the "tense" (present-past-future) and the
"aspect" (continuous-indefinite).
The functional content of the category of "time-correlation" (ўаҐ¬Ґ п ®вҐбҐ-
®бвм) was defined as priority expressed by the perfect form in the present, past or
future contrasted against the non-expression of priority by the non-perfect forms.


1.The category of mood is the most controversial category of the verb.

2.The indicative mood.
3.The imperative mood.
4.The other moods (subjunctive, conditional).
A lot of definitions have been given of the category of mood. one of them given
by Academician V.Vinogradov is this: "mood expresses the relation of the action to
reality, as stated by the speaker".(‚.‚.‚Ё®Ја ¤®ў. ђгббЄЁ© п§лЄ, 1972. б.581). This
definition seems plausible on the whole , though the words "relation of action to
reality" may not be clear enough. What is meant here is that different moods express
different degrees of reality of an action, one mood represents it as actually taking plase,
while another mood represents it as merely conditional or desired.
There are other ways of indicating the reality or possibility of an action, besides
the verbal category of mood. Modal verbs "may, can, must" and modal words "perhaps,
probably, etc" which fall under the very wide notion of modali-
ty, which is non confined to grammar, but includes some parts of lexicology and of
phonetics (intonation) as well.
The indicative mood. The use of the indicative mood shows that the speaker
represents the action as real: Two additional remarks are necessary here:
1).The mention of the speaker (or writer) who represents the action as real is most
essential.In what sense could we say, for instance, that sentence-David Copperfield
married Dora-represent real fact.
2).Some doubt about the meaning of the indicative mood may arise if we take
into account its use in conditional sentences such as following: I will speak to him if i
meat him. It may be argued that the action denoted by the verb in the
indicative mood (in the subordinate clauses as well as in the main clauses) is not here
represented as a fact but merely as a possibility (I may meet him, and i may not).
However this does not affect the meaning of the grammatical form as such. The
conditional meaning is expressed by the conjunction and of course it does not alter the
modal meaning of the sentence, but the meaning of the verb form as such remains
what it was . E.g.She spoke to him last night. She came in a moment ago. She saw him
this morning.
The indicative mood is widely used in Moddern English. As has already been
stated the verb in the indicative mood has three primary tenses and three secondary
perfect tenses, two aspect forms-common and continuous and two voice forms-active and
passive:1) E.g.We have finished our work-our work has been finished.
2) They are building two houses at the end of the street-two houses are being built
at the end of the street.
3) Who brought the parsel? -By whom was the parcell brought?
4) They asked her some questions.
She was asked some questions.
Some questions were asked her (less common)
The imperative mood. the imperative mood in English is represented by one
form only "come, write, read", without any suffix or ending. It differs from all other
moods in several important points. It has no person, number, tense, aspect distinctions
and which is the main thing, it is limited in its use to one type of sentence only, that is,
imperative sentences. A verb in the imperative has no pronoun acting as subject.
However the pronoun may be used in emotional speech as: "you live me alone", she cried
out loudly.
A serious difficulty connected with the imperative is the absence of any specific
morphological characteristics: with all verbs, including the verb "be", it coincides with
the infinitive, and in all verbs except "be", it also coincides with the present indicative
apart from the third person singular. Even the absence of a subject pronoun "you" which
would be its syntactical characteristic is not a reliable feature at all, as sentences like:
You sit here!-occur often enough. The emphatic imperative is formed with the help of
the auxiliary verb to do, following by the infinitive:
Do tell me what he said. Do be silent. Do bring my book to-morrow.
The other moods. It is a very difficult set of problems, namely thouse connected
with the subjunctive, conditional, or whatever other name you may choose to give these
In practical English Grammar by M. Ganshina and N. Vasilevskaya we find the
oblique moods. There are four oblique moods in Modern English, of which two are
synthetical and two analytical.
1.The synthetical moods are subjunctive I and subjunctive II.
2.The analytical moods are the conditional and the suppositional.
The synthetical moods. Subjunctive I represents an action as problematic, but not
as contradicting reality. It is used to express order, request, suggestion, supposition,
purpose. E.g. If the the weather be fine to-morrow, we shall go to
the country. Subjunctive I has no tenses, the same form being used for the present, past
and future. He ordered that we be present.
The form of the third person singular has no -s (-es) inflexion: I have, he have,
we have, you have, they have; I speak, he speak ets.
The subjunctive II represents an action as contrary to reality. E.g. I wish he were
with us. Subjunctive II has two tenses the present and the past.
The present subjunctive II. і The past subjunctive II.
I were, spoke, were speaking. і I had been, I had spoken.
He were, spoke, were speaking.і I had been speaking.
She (it) were, spoke. і He had been, he had spoken,
We (you,they) were, spoke, і he had been speaking.
were speaking. і She(it) had been, she
і (it)spoken, she had been
і speaking. We (you, they) had
і been, we (you, they) had been
і spoken, we (you,they) had
і been speaking.
The present subjunctive II is homonymous with the past indicative. The past
subjunctive II is homonymous with the past perfect indicative.
The analytical moods.
1. The suppositional mood represents an action as problematic, but not necessarity
contradicting reality.
The present suppositional mood.
I (he, she) should speak.
We (you, they) should speak.
I (he, she) should be speaking).
We (you, they) should be speaking.
The past suppositional mood.
I (he, she) should have spoken.
We (you, they) should have spoken.
I (he, she) should have been speaking.
We (you, they) should have been speaking.
2. The unreality of an action represented by the conditional mood is due to absense
of the necessary circumstances on which the realization of the action depends.
The conditional mood is mainly used in the principal clause of a complex sentence
with a subordinate clause of unreal condition. E.g. If he were at home, he would help us.
If i were at home, i should see her.
Conditional mood has two tenses: the present and the past.
The present conditional mood.
I should speak. He (she) would speak.
We should be speaking. You (they) would be speaking.
The past conditional mood.
I should have spoken. He (she) would have spoken.
We should have been speaking You (they) would have been speaking.


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