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SHORT STUDY NOTES OF FIQH - SHEIKH SALEH AL FOZAN

PREPARED BY: M. A. Ahmad E: opinionwithali@gmail.com


PART 1 - PURIFICATION

Chapter 1 Purification and Water

- A Hadith says - The Key to prayer is Purification.


- Minor Purity is Wudhoo and Major Purity is taking whole ritual bath.
- If water is not available one can use Clean Earth for Tayammum in both cases for minor and major purification.

- There are 2 Types of Water :


1 Pure Water : Is the water in its originial state or mixed with another pure obect provided it does not changes the
composition of the water and makes it another thing. E.g Rain Water, Water of Seas and Oceans, a flowing river .
2 Impure Water : It can not be used of minor and major purity. It is also the water of which its color, odour and taste
has changed due to another impure object.
- If the water is there but using it for purity purposes could endanger the life of people or animals then Tayammum
should be performed.

Chapter 2 Disbelievers Pots and Clothes

- Its permissible to use every pot except of :


- Pots Made of Gold or Silver : Pots having anything of gold or silver, inlaid or gold / silver plated or anything like
that which holds the pot is forbidden.
- This prohibition is for both male and females therefore not to use pots made of Gold or Silver for eating and
other purposes.
- If one knows that pot being used is the pot of the unbeliever he/she may can still use it but after washing them.

- Hides of Dead Animals : Majority of scholars agree that hides can used but after the process of cleaning them
which is called Tanning.

- Wearing Clothes of Unbelievers : Prophet and Sahabs used to wear clothes of the unbeliever. If they are impure
then they should be washed and cleaned.

Chapter 3 Things Ritual Impurity Prohibits Doing

- Touching Glorious Book Quran : No one should touch Quran in state of minor and major impurity unless the touch
is not direct.
- However it is allowed one can read or browse through Quran without touching it. And one may also carry Quran in
bag therefore without being in direct contact.

- Offering Neither Obligatory or Supererogatory Prayers : All scholars agree that it is not permissible for anyone to
offer prayer with minor / major impurity. Any prayer offered in state of ritual imprity is deemed invalid.

- Performing Tawaf : It is not permissible one to do Tawaf in major / minor impurity. Also women with menses
should not do Tawaf. Staying in mosque is also not allowed during major impurity.

Deeds Not Allowed Incase of Major Ritual Impurity

- Reciting the Quran : Prophet did not use to recite the Quran once he was in state of Janabah. The same rule is
applied for women in state of mensuration and post natal bleeding.

- Staying in the Mosque : One is not allowed to stay in the mosque if in state of Major Ritual impurity. However one
can stay of they perform normal ablution which lessens the state of Janabah. And Sahaba used to do it to stay in the
mosque. However if one wishes to pass through the mosque then he can pass without staying in it.
Chapter 4 Etiquettes of Answering Call to Nature

What to Do :
- A muslim going for his need should screen himself so that he/she not been sighted by other E.g Wall, Tree etc.
- A muslim should seek refuge in Allah once entering the area.
- Left hand should be used to remove impurity as right is used for honor and beautification.

Impermissible Acts
- Not to face or show back to Qiblah but should position avoiding both facing and backing the Qiblah.
- Not to splash urine therefore choose a smooth ground so that urine is not scattered.
- Should not touch orine or stool with left hand.
- Not to urinate in a place which is used by public as it will harm the public.
- Should not enter the toilet having anything with Allah name written on it or any Quranic Ayats. It should be covered
if someone enters toilet and it should not be exposed.
- One should also not speak while in the toilet as Allah hates such deed.

What to Do After Call of Nature


- One should perform Istinja / Istijmar after call of nature.
- Istijmar : It means to clean while using stones. One should not use bones or other animals dung.
- Istinja : it means to clean it with water.
- Its also OK to use stones first and then water to clean. For salah to be accepted one should clean oneself by Istijmar
or Istinja before performing ablution. Istinja is not pert of Wudho therefore can be perfmoed directly if Istinja
was done before.

Chapter 5 Siwak Tooth Stick and Acts of Natural Disposition

- Siwak : Hazrat Aishah RA reported that " Siwak is a way to purify mouth and satisfying Lord".
- The 5 Natural Acts of Disposition are : Circumcision, Istihdad, cutting of moustache short and leaving beard, cutting
of hair on arm pit and cutting nails.

- Siwak : It should be from a dry out date tree or a branch of Olive Tree. And should be used from right to left and one
should hold siwak in left hand.
- Istihdad : It comes from the word "Hadid" which mean Razor. It means shaving of pubic hair. Istihdad is a means of
purifying oneself. And one is free to perform Istihad either by razor or anything else.
- Circumcision : Its the cutting the loose foreskin of male genitals. It should be done early in childhood so that the
child could grow in healthiest way.
- Shaving Moustache and leaving Beard : It should be done to avoid polytheists. Beard is a sign of manliness and
just keeping moustache and shaving beard is an act of girlishness and of low men.
- Nail Cutting : Its sunnah of the Prophet but unfortunately youths today keep long nails as like of beasts. The
nail cutting is an act of purification and beautification.
- Shaving of Arm Pits : This is also a way of purification and getting rid of the bad odour which comes due to these
hair. They could be shaved or plucked.

Chapter 6 Ablution

- Conditions of Ablution : 1). Be a Msulim 2). Should have a strong Mind 3). Have discretion 4). Intetion to perform
Ablution 5). Use of Pure Water 6). Water should be legally gained 7). Instinja and Istijmar clealiness previosly
8). Removing any obstacle for Ablution.

- Acts of Ablution : 1). Washing the Whole Face 2). Washing Forearms including Elbows 3). Wiping Over Whole
Head 4). Washing Feet including Ankles 5). Sequence 6). Succession

- Sunnah of Ablution : 1). Using Siwak 2). Staring Ablution with Washing Hands 3 Times 3). Starting with rinsing with
mouth and nose 4). Inserting Wet Fingers in beard 5). Starting from Right to Left.

Chapter 7 Way of Performing Ablution

- Intention
- Tasmiyyah
- Start with washing Hand 3 times.
- Rinse mouth 3 times and rinse nose 3 times
- Wash face 3 times
- Wash hand upto elbows 3 times
- Wipe over head only once.
- Wash feet 3 times including ankles
- After performing Ablution invoke Allah to praise Him.

- Ablution should be performed well as Salah will not be accepted. Prophet ordered a person to perform Ablution
again and re-perform Salah as he saw that his Ablution was incomplete.

- Prophet used to perform Ablution by 1 mudd and take his ritual bath by 1 Saa or upto 5 Mudds.
- Prophet did not liked to waste water for Ablution. He prohibitted from doing it so.

- Excessiveness in wasting Ablution water leads to other consequences :


1). Incomplete Purification : May be some part of body which has not been washed properly.
2). Excessiveness in Worship : Ablution is an act of worhsip. And anything in excessiveness becomes Void.
3). Insinuation in Purification : One may get doubtful due to excessive use of water and actions wether he has
performed an Ablution act or not.

Chapter 8 Wiping Over The Khuffs

- Khuffs : These are the protection which are worn over feet or bandage or splints etc.
- Prophet used to wipe his wet hands over the Khuffs he had worn on both feet. It is the spritual cleanliness of the
impurities underneath it.
- Duration of Khuffs : To perform ablution over Khuffs should be 1 Day and 1 Night. However if the destination
is far then it is 3 Days and 3 Nights.

Condition of Wiping Over The Khuffs and The Like


- Person should be in a state of purity upon wearing them.
- Khuffs must have been acquired by legal means and should not be of silk for men.
- Khuffs must be thick enough to conceal underneath and must be high enough to cover the ankles. If not alike, then
its impermissible to wipe over such khuffs.

- A person may also wipe over the turban he is wearing for the state of ritual impurity. However wiping over khuffs
and turban is only for the minor ritual purity but for major ritual purity whole body needs to be washed.

Chapter 9 Things Nullifying Ablution

- Direct Nullifiers : Anything alike urine, stool, anything coming out of anus and sexual organ.
- Indirect Nullifiers : These are the matters that makes ablution suspicious e.g Sleeping, fainting, insanity etc.
- Sperm and pre-seminal fluid also nullifies purity.
- Major scholars agree that vomitting, blood. Nasal bleed and alike does not nullifies ablution. However if one
perform ablution again its better.
- Eating meat of camels, little or much nullifies ablution.
- If one doubts his state of ritual impurity though he was in state of ritual purity before then person should continue
his prayers as if he was in state of purity. Therefore certainty of ritual purity should not be doubted over suspicion
of ritual purity.

Chapter 10 Riutal Bathing

Six Cases or Condition for Obligatory Ritual Bath


- Ejaculation - Ejaculation during sleep or seeing spots of semen once waken up.
- Sexual Intercourse
- Embracing Islam : When a dis believer embraces Islam he should perform Major ritual bath.
- Mensuration and Post Mensural Bleeding
- Death
How to Perform Complete Ritual Bath
- Intention to take Ritual bath
- Say Tasmiyyah
- Washing of Hands thrice
- Washing of Genitals
- Performing full ablution
- Washing of Head throughly so that water reaches the scalp.
- Pouring water over ones body and then rubbing it to make sure water reaches all parts of body.

- Its is important ofor women to undo her hair braids to take ritual bath after post natal bleeding and mensuration.
Though it is not necessary in the state of Janabah.
- Men should take out their rings, wrist watches etc to let water reach the every area of the body.

Chapter 11 Dry Ablution

- Tayyamum : It’s done as substitute of the Water if water is not available or is scarce by clean earth.
- By performing Tayyamum a person can do all acts of ritual and rites E.g performing Tawaff, performing prayers and
reciting Quran etc.

Cases Where Tayyamum Can Be Performed


- Unavailibility of Water
- Availibility of Water but in scarce quantity.
- Probability of Harm by using Water
- Inability of usinf Water due to Illness
- The fear of catching Cold

Things Nullifying Tayyamum


- Whatever things which requires minor ritual purity.
- Whatever things which requires major ritual purity.
- When water has been found.
When theer is no longer a legal excuse E.g Illness etc.

Chapter 12 Removal of Impurity

- Things which are connected by floor or ground can be washed and cleaned once E.g Walls, water basins, rocks etc.
- If a dog licks anything which is used by a believer then he should wash it 7 Times and the first time should be from
clean earth.
- If the trace of any impure object could no be found then the whole suspected area should be washed to make sure
the area is clean and no traces of impurity have been left behind.
- Baby or infant urine can be washed away by a sprinkle of water therefore not necessarily washing it all away.

3 Kinds of Impurity
- Major Impurity : When a dog or swine or any other Haram animal licks anything used by a beleiver.
- Minor Impurity : Its like of a Infant's or Babys urine.
- Moderate Impurity : All other impurities.

- Leftover of legally edible animals are pure so as the leftover of Cats.

Chapter 13 Mensuration and Post Natal Bleeding

- Its forbidden to avoid all phusical acts of prayers E.g Tawwaf, performing prayers, holding Quran and alike etc.
- Its forbidden to have sexual intercourse while woman is mensurating.
- It is impermissible to divorce a woman during her mensuration.

Prayers Concerning Mensuration


- A woman does not has to make up for prayers which she has missed during mensuration. But she has to make up
for Fast if she had missed any during mensuration.
- If a woman discharge stops at the End of the day then she has to make up for Zuhr before Asr prayers of that day.
If a woman discharge stops at the end of night then she has to perform Maghrib and Isha of previous nights.
Istahdah
- Istadah : It’s the irregular vignal bleeding due to rupture of a vein .

Determining Istahdah
- When a woman has regular period and she can distinguish between her regular period time against other bleeding.
- When a woman can disinguish between the blood by its color, thickness etc against the discharge of period and
Istahdah.
- Woman with no regular period or distinguishable blood can consider 6-7 days of the month and take ritual bath.

Actions for Istahdah and Mensuration


- To perform major ritual bath after discharge period is finished.
- Wash her genitals and put cotton alike to stop bleeding and tie firmly so that it does not falls.

PART 2 - PRAYERS

Chapter 1 Obligation of Five Prayers

- Prayers were decreed on the night of Miraaj and Israh. It is the most primary pillar of Islam and one who denies it
is considered an Apostate .
- If a person reaches at the time of congregational prayer he should perform it.
- A child should be asked by the age of 7 to perform prayers though its not necessary but by the age of 10 a child can
be beaten if he is not performing prayers.
- Prayers should be performed in their prescribed timings and combined if a person is travelling.

Chapter 2 Call To Prayer Adhan and Iqamah

- Abdullah Ibn Zaid saw the wording for Azaan in his dream which was later confirmed by divine revelations.
- Prophet said that a person who gives Azaan and Iqamah will have longest necks during the Day of Judgement.
- A person calling azaan should be an honest person as he is entrusted by people as they would perform prayers,
break their fast and start fast. He should also be the person with loud voice.

Performing Azaan
- One should face Qiblah.
- One should insert index finger while saying Azaan.
- One should not add any other words after or before Azaan as its considered Bidah.
- Its Sunnah to repeat after Azaan and once Azaan is over a supplication should be made which is ordained for Azaan.

Chapter 3 Prayer Conditions

There are 5 Conditions of Prayers :


1). To be performed at its specific Time.
2). To conceal one's Awrah
3). To avoid impurity.
4). Facing the Qiblah
5). Intention for Prayers.

Timing of Prayers :
- Zuhr : It is on decline of the Sun which means when the object shadows is casted on the East. Zuhr times end when
the length of shadow is the same as the height of the object.
- Asr : Its starts when Zuhr timing finishes and continues till the sunset.
- Maghrib : The timing of Maghrib starts when the Sun completely disappears and no longer been seen. Neither from
a plane, hill or mountain. The timing of Maghribs ends until the red twilight ends at Maghrib.
- Isha : Timing starts when red twilight disappears from the sky and continues till the half of nght.
- Fajr : Timing starts when color of a white and black robe can be distinguished and Fajr timing ends on sunrise.

Awrah : A man's Awrah is from his naval to his knees. And for woman all her body is Awrah. All areas concerning
the Awrah should be concealed while performing prayers.
How to Identify Qiblah
1). Informing the person about the Qiblah if a person knows the whereabouts of Qiblah.
2). Following Qiblah observed by Masjid and or any other area where prayers are performed.
3). By knowing the formation of stars therefore Astrology.

Chapter 4 Etiquettes for Heading to the Mosque

- Prophet mentioned that when any believer approaches mosque for prayers he should approach it calmly and in
solemnity and should not make any haste.
- Each step towards Masjid Allah raises level of Iman and Allah comes a step closer and 1 sin is forgiven.
- On coming out of the mosque one should put his left leg first whilst going in he should put in his right leg first.
- One should glorify Allah SWT as much as he can and do not do any reward less actions.
- A believer should stand up when Iqamat is said and must do his best to stand in the first row. As reward for the first
row is highest.

Chapter 5 Prayers : Integral Parts and Acts of Sunnah

These are Integral Parts of all prayers performed :


1). First is to stand while performing obligatory prayers.
2). Do Takbir.
3). Reciting Surah Fatihah.
4). Bowing in every Rakah.
5). Bowing
6). Raising up from bowing
7). Prostrating
8). Raising from prostrating and sitting erect.
9). All actions to be performed in tranquility
10). Sitting for Tashhud
11). Reciting Tashahhud
12). Invoking Allah to confer His blessing on Prophet PBUH.
13). Observing succession in all the above mentioned actions.
14). Formally finish the prayers by doing Taslim.

Verbal Acts of Sunnah


1). Saying Bismillah Tamim.
2). Recitation of some part of the Quran after Fatihah.
3). Invoking while bowing and prostrating,

Physical Acts of Sunnah


1). Raising ones hands while saying Takbir.
2). Put ones right hand over the left hand.
3). To keep looking the prostration position whilst performing salah.
4). Whilst sitting head to aligned with back not bowed down.

Chapter 6 Manner of Prayers

This chapter explains the above detailed Integral Parts of Salah with reference to the Prophet PBUH. Therefore how
he used to perform Salah.

Chapter 7 Prayers Detestable Actions

1). One should not turn around during Salah until there is a case of Fear. If one turns around and backs Qiblah
without any justified reason then the prayers become invalid.
2). It is also detestable to look towards sky during prayers.
3). It is detestable to close one's eye during prayers as it is Jewish practice.
4). It is also detestable to lean on the wall whilst standing during prayer.
5). It is detestable to put one's forearm on ground whilst prostrating.
6). To perform prayers where there could be distraction and where paintings are kept resembling idolatory
7). Its is detestable to perform prayers while there is a need to attend call of nature or under extreme cold or hot
climate.
8). Prayer should also not be performed whilst in presence of food.

Chapter 8 Prayers Desirable Actions

1). To keep something which is erect and 1 cubic high infront to perform prayers to screen people from not passing
infront of them.
2). To rectify Imam if the imam makes a mistake while reciting Quran.
3). Its allowed to kill 2 things whilst performing prayers : Snake and Scorpions.
4). Its allowed to say Subhan Allah during prayers as to warn or to draw attention due to fear or etc.

Chapter 9 Prostration of Forgetfulness

Prostration of forgetfullness should be performed in 3 cases :


1). When someone inattentively performs something extra.
2). When someone inattentively performs less.
3). When one is uncertain whether he has performed extra or missed some integral part of Salah.

First Case : Actions Performing Something Extra Inattentively


1). Performing extra bowing or prostration.
2). Standing while it should had been to sit.
3). Recites something else like Quran in Sajdah

In this case 2 Prostrations should be done for forgetfullness. If one remembers whilst performing a rakah he should
immediately perform 2 Sajdahs of forgetfullness.

Second Case : Performing Less Inattentively


Actions Nullifying Rakah or Salah
1). Missing opening Takbir nullifies Salah.
2). If one remembers missing act during the Rakah should prostrate first and then continue performing Salah. If the
person finishes the rakah first then that rakah becomes null and has to be performed later.
3). If one remembers the missed act after completion of Salah then that rakah needs to performed again.
4). If one remembers missed action after completion of Salah but after a long time then one should reperform
prayers.
5). Incase of forgetting Tashhud or Taslim one only needs to perform 2 prostration of forgetfullness.

Third Case : Uncertainty in Salah


1). If one doubts on the number of Rakahs performed in Salah then he should stick with lesser one. E.g If one thinks
whether he performed 2 or 3 rakahs he should stick with 2 rakahs to perform 2 rakah more.
2). Similarly if one is confused in which rakah did he joined the congregational prayers 2nd or 3rd then he should
take 2nd rakah to complete his Salah.

One should perform 2 Prostrations of Forgetfullness after completion of Salah.

Chapter 10 Zikr Remembrance of Allah in Prayers

- Its sunnah to invoke Allah for forgiveness thrice after every prayers.
- After Zikr its preferred for a muslim to recite : Surah Ikhlas, Falaq and An-Nas and Ayat ul Kursi.
- Its also desirable to say tasbih and tahmid 33 times each. A person is preferred to use fingers though he can also
use rosary for counting with no any beliefs attached to it.
- After Zikr a person should ask dua in secret.
Chapter 11 Voluntary Prayer

- Types of voluntary prayers are : Witr, Tarawih, Rain Prayers etc.


- Through voluntary prayers one steps closer to Allah SWT.

Chapter 12 Witr Prayer

- Time of performing Witr is whole night but after Isha prayers.


- Rakah for Witr can be as many as 11 or 13 but doing Taslim after every 2 Rakahs.
- A normal way to perform Witr is perform 2 Rakhas and end with Taslim and separately perform 1 Rakah.

Chapter 13 Taraweeh Prayers

- Taraweeh in Arabic means 'Intervals of Relaxation'. It was due to muslims taking a gap for relaxation between
Taraweeh prayers.
- According to Hanbali and Shafi School of Thought a person can perform 20 Rakahs for Taraweeh.
- According to Maliki it could be 11, 13 or 36 Rakahs.
- Sahabas used to perform different Rakahs for Taraweeh though there is no definite number of Rakahs associated
with Taraweehs.
- Some Imams lead Taraweeh prayers heedlessly and do not pray with Tranquility. This is wrong as a prayer of 10
Rakahs performed with tranquility is better then 20 Rakahs prayers performed heedlessly.

Chapter 14 Sunnah Ratibah - Prayers Performed with Obligatory Prayers

- There are 10 Rakahs as Sunnah Ratibah which are as follows :


Zuhr : 2 or 4 Rakahs before Zuhr Prayers and 2 after Zuhr Prayers.
Maghrib : 2 Rakahs after Asr
Isha : 2 Rakahs after Maghrib
Fajr : 2 Rakahs before Fajr .

- Its desired to perform Sunnah Ratibah at home due to the following :


1). Screening act of worship from people 2). Keeping the practice to pray at house alive 3). More perfection in
prayers.
- On journeys it was observed that Prophet offered 2 Rakahs before Fajr and Witr in Isha.
- If someone misses Sunnah Ratibah prayers due to illness or business or sleep he can perform them later as its
considered better.

Chapter 15 Duha Forenoon Prayers

- Duha prayers can be as short as 2 Rakahs. And it could be as long as 8 Rakahs.


- Prophet used to perform it regularly and sometimes leave it.
- Timing of Duha prayers is when sun is about a spears length from Horizon or one can wait until it starts becoming
hot.

Chapter 16 Prostration of Recitaion

- Its releated by Ibn Qayyim that anyone reading the verses of Postration and anyone listening to the verses musy
prostrate.
- Prophet used to Prostrate on verses of prostration and Sahabas use to prostrate as well.

Chapter 17 Non Regular Prayers

- These are non regular prayers performed by the Prophet during nights.
- Prayers during the night is the most exellent act of worship in non regulatory prayers.
- Its is mentioned that a muslim should start praying his night prayers by 2 short Rakahs.
- Night prayers should be performed at home as its better and prayer acts should be prolonged therefore bowing,
standing, prostrations etc.
- Prophet mentioned that anyone who performs night prayers should pray Witr after performing night prayers.
Chapter 18 Times When Prayers Are Forbidden

- First Time : When dawn breaks until the Sun rises.


- Second Time : When the Sun rises until it reaches the height of a spear in ones eye.
- Third Time : When Sun is at its height at mid day and until it reaches the meridien.
- Fourth Time : It starts from Asr until the Sun sets.
- Fifth Time : Starts when the sun starts settings and until it sets.

- Permissible prayers during these times are : Funeral prayers, eclipse prayers, mosque greeting prayers and Tawaaf
prayers.

Chapter 19 Congregational Prayers

- Allah has ordained congregational prayers for muslims. And it has many virtues : Shows unity, muslims get to know
each other well and their affairs, connected with each other with kindness etc.
- Prayers in congregation are 27 times more rewared then prayed alone.
- Prophet asked all men to perform congregational prayers in mosques unless someone has a valid reason to do so.
- There should be atleast 2 people in any congregational prayers. Its also advised that muslims at work to observe
congregational prayers at work premises.
- Women are allowed to perform congregational prayers with following conditions : Should not be perfumed, must
be covered and should stand behind men.
- It is prohibited that congregational prayers are led by someone else then Imam assigned.
- If someone has already performed prayer and is in the mosque and hears the Iqamah for the prayers which he has
already performed he should perform it again in congregation.
- Once Iqamah for congregational prayer has been anounced no other Salah should be performed. If someone is
already performing a salah should complete it and join the congregational prayers. If its deemed that the person
will miss his congregational prayers then he should cut his salah short.

Chapter 20 Latecomers to Congregational Prayers

- Rakah is only counted when a person catches the Rakah during bowing position.
- The latecomer has to complete his missed Rakahs by standing on second Taslim.
- Latecomer and all people who arepraying behing Imam should recite Surah Fatiha behind Imam when Imam is
reciting secretly.

Chapter 21 Women Attendance in Islam

- It is detestable to stop women from going to mosques. And when they go they should not be perfumed.
- Nowadays West calls upon women to be equal to men. Whereas men should work out and women should work in
the house. This maintains the balance of the society. If women also goes out for work like men then who will
perform domestic tasks. This way society will collapse.

Chapter 22 Imamate in Prayer

- Imam is a person who leads the prayer. Usually he is the person with authority in society, in house etc.
- Imam should be someone who is well versed in Quran and its grammer, eloquency and recitation.
- If people are of same knowledge of Quran then one who has more knowledge in Islamic Juristpudence should lead
the prayers.
- If people are equally versed in Quran and Jurisprudance than one who is the eldest in age should lead prayers.
- If the Imam is appointed by the rular or the government and all people agree to take him as their Imam the he is the
worthiest amongst all.
Chapter 23 Invalid Imamate

- It is not permissible to make someone an Imam who is disobedient and commits major sins being considered lower
than Shirk.
- Imamate of one who is unable to bow or to sit erect is not valid.
- Imamate of the person sitting is valid until he is ill and his illness is going to recover soon. Incase this is not the case
then a person who can stand and be the Imam should take up Imamate.
- A person with continous state of impurity due to illness also can not be Imam and lead prayers.
- If one performes prayers being Imam thus people following him prayers will become valid but Imams prayers will
remain invalid.
- Imamate of the person who is illiterate is not valid. Illiterate means a person who does not knows Surah Fatiha.
- Imamate of a person who is disliked by majority of people is also not valid. Dislikeness should be from coming
short of his religious duties.

Chapter 24 Duties of Imam

- Imam should give full responsibility of this position as possible as he can as for it he will be rewarded.
- He should understand the conditions of people following him in prayers and should not make prayers difficult for
them.
- It is detestable that lightening of prayers to such an extent that the people following Imam are not able to perform
their Salah correctly.
- Such Imams who do not perform their duties should be rebuked by people so that they come back on track. And he
should be dismissed from this position if he does not comes to his senses.

Chapter 25 Prayer of Those Having Legal Excuses

- People having legal excuses are those who are sick, disabled, travellers and those who fear and due to which can
not establish prayers.

- Prayers Performed by Sick People : It is allowed for a muslim to sit and perform his prayers due to these reasons :
1). Unable to Stand 2). Difficulty in Standing 3). He fears standing will increase his illness.
- A sick person should face Qiblah if not he can lay back and his legs should face Qiblah for prayers. He can perform
his prayers in the condition and reward will not be reduced.
- A sick person can shift his position as per he wants if he is standing and thinks he can not stand then he can sit. If he
is sitting and thinks he can not then he can lie and face Qiblah. Or vice versa for all positions.

- The Prayers of Riders : A msulim can be accused as long as if he is hurt by descending from animals :
1). When there is mud and its raining 2). Chances he will lose his counter parts in journey 3). He cannot remount the
animal back 4). He fears he will be attacked by animal or an enemy.
- It is obligatory for muslims to face Qiblah if possible.

- Prayers of Traveller : A traveller is excused for shortening his prayers in half Rakahs except Maghrib.
- A muslim should start shortening his prayers as soon as he leaves his city or town.
- It is permissible for traveller to combine Zuhr & Asr together and Maghrib with Isha together.
- It is permissible for every mulim who is afflicted with wound or so to combine prayers while travelling and can not
purify himself separately for every Salah.

- Fear Prayers : This prayer is for every muslim who is fighting legally with the Mushrik and the Oppressors.
- Muslims group should be divided into 2 parts while first groupcompletes their prayers and while other protects
their back. Once the first group is done the 2nd group should pray and first group would protect their back.
- Fear Prayers are of 2 Conditions : 1). When enemies are those whome muslims are permitted to fight 2). When its
sure that muslims will be attacked by the enemy.
- Fear prayers are shortened when muslims are travelling.
- During the fight it becomes difficult to perform fear prayers due to stabbing, retreating, attacking etc in this case the
muslims are advised to perform prayers while riding and facing Qiblah as most as he can and prostrate and bow by
actions of his head but should not delay his prayers.
Chapter 26 Jummah Prayers

- Friday is the best days amongst all days of the week. And Allah ordained it to be the prayer day for all muslims.
- Friday sermons are kind of reminders of Allahs blessing on muslims.
- On Fridays its stressed to take bath for removing bad smell and dirt. And to apply perfume.
- Those going early for Friday prayers are entitled to sit in front rows and its illegal to occupy spaces in front rows for
those who are coming late.
- During sermon its permissible for Imam to speak to people on religious rulings and even talk to them on religious
matters.
- Muslims must not greet other muslims while preachers is saying sermon.
- Muslims are requiered to look at the preacher while he is giving sermon.
- Jummah prayers are not bound on travellers, sick or person who cant find mosque. But they should perform Zuhr
prayers on Friday if possible.

- Friday sermon should include these aspects : 1). Focus on the topics of Noble Quran 2). Advice to fear Allah
3). Follow good instructions 4). Briefly treat the diseases of the society in light of Quran and Sunnah.

Chapter 27 Two Feast Id Prayers

- It is considered Bidah if any other event is celebrated apart from these 2 feasts which are ordained by Quran,
Sunnah and the scholars.
- If any country people abort performing Eid prayers then the rular should fight against them as it’s the manifestation
of Islam.
- At Makkah Eid prayers should be peformed in Masjid Haram and in other places should be in open places like
grounds.
- The due time for Eids are when Sun rises at spear length from the Horizon.
- Its Sunnah to perform Eid Al Adha early to give enough time to perform sacrifice and Eid Al Fitr to be performed at
later time to give people enough time to pay their Zakat-Fitr before performing Eid Al Fitr.
- First 3 caliphs used to perform 2 Rakahs of Eid prayers before giving sermons for the Eid.

- The sermons of Eid should consist the following depending on the Eid Prayers : 1). The rulings of paying Zakat and
its importance in Islam 2). The rulings of Sacrifice in Islam and its importance.
- If a person misses any Eid pray then he should pray on his own with additional Takbirs just as its is performed. The
takbirs ins 1st Rakah are 7 and in the 2nd Rakah its 5 Takbirs at the opening of each Rakah.
- The takbir for Eid should be pronounced loudly in houses, grounds, mosques etc.

Chapter 28 Eclipse Prayers

- Eclipse sign is Allahs warning sign by which he warns his people. Prophet prayed out of fear and mentioned to his
companions that eclipse could be a sign of severe torment on people and he mentioned people to do things which
could prevent it.
- Prophet had forbidden and denied the belief that eclipse occurs due to death or birth of somebody as it happened
when Prophets son Hazrat Ibrahim RA passed away.
- In eclipse prayers one should perform at the time when elipse starts to happen and if one finds out after ecplise is
finished then one does not needs to perform.
- Secondly one needs to perform prolonged prayers and recite Quran aloud during prayers. The 1st Rakah should
have a long surah recited and in 2nd Rakah a long surah should also be recited but shorter then the first surah.
- In both Rakahs prolonged bowing and prolonged prostrations should be performed but not too long.
- After Salah imam should preach people and warn them against the wrath of Allah and seek forgiveness.
Chapter 29 Rain Prayers

- This prayers is established to seek Allahs help and ask for rain. It is to be performed at the times of drought which
harms people and animals.
- Rain Prayers are desired t o be prayed where Eid prayers are ususally prayed therefore in open grounds.
- The performing of Rain prayer is same as Eid prayer therefore additional Takbirs in 1st and 2nd Rakah. Its 7 Takbirs
in first opening of Rakah and 5 Takbirs in 2nd Rakah.
- During the sermons Imam should soften the hearts of prayers and ask them to seek refuge and for forgiveness and
mentioned them that sins witheld the blessings of Allah in this case is Rain.
- After sermon Imam should confer blessing on Prophet and his family. And then invoke Allah glorifying Allah and
asking for Rain. It should be done in humblesness and showing neediness.

Chapter 30 Death & Burial

- The person who is in last stages should be instructed to say the Kalimah and recite Tauheed at all times.
- Sunnah is to invoke Allah to show kindness to the deceased, wash deceased body, pray the last ritual, be kind to his
family and so on.
- Visiting sick people is act of Sunnah. Sick people should be visted often and when someone visits them they should
recite Suran Nas, Falaq and Fatiha as cure to sickness. Its also recommended to give some money in charity for the
sick.
- Its sunnah that a person should be reminded of Allahs mercy when he is at the death door. And dying person should
have high hopes from Allah.
- It is Sunnah to recite Quran over the dying not the dead person. As reciting over the dead person is Bidah.

Rulings of Sickness and Dying :


- There is no harm in receiving lawful treatment by the hands of professional doctors.
- Its highly recommended to complain to Allah and ask for ones fast recovery.
- Its is prohibited to use forbidden things for recovery. E.g Magic, asking Jinns to help.
- It is recommended to make the dying person desiring Allahs mercy but rather making him afraid of Allahs
punishment.

Rulings on the Deceased :


- To cover and close his eyes once the person has passed away as when soul is taken eyes follows it.
- To cover the deceased person atonce.
- When a person he should be buried soon before body changes and starts to odor.
- Debts of the deceased should be settled as quick as possible wether it was for Allah or of people.

Rulings on Washing Body of the Deceased :


- Washing the body of the deceased is mandatory it’s the Sunnah.
- Washing the dead body of a man should be a man and a woman for a woman.
- Person who washes the body should be well knowledged of how to wash the body.
- It is permissible to wash a body of spouse if he or she wills. If deceased wished that his body should be washed by
a person then that person will be taken into first consideration.
- Deceased person body should be washed by his father the closest person then his grand father and then his closest
kins who loves him more provided that they have knowledge of how to bath the person. Its in case if the person
is male and for female it should be a woman.
- It is permissible for a man and woman to wash the body of a child under 7 Years old male or female.
- It is impermissible for a muslim to attend the funeral or procession of a disbeliever.
- Water used should be legally obtained and it could be cold or hot to remove dirt from the body.
- The deceased should only be seen by the washer and by no one else and deceased should be in a covered area.
- After washing the body should be in a slope position to drain down water from the body.
- Washer should gently keep the head of the deceased high and gently push the abdomen to push out any urine or
stool from the body gently. Then washer should wash the impurity, wash his hands and wash the genital and anus
of the deceased person.
- After this washer should make intention to wash the body of the deceased person and start with Tasmiyah and
make ablution of the deceased first.
- For washing nostrils and teeth washer can put his wet fingers on nostril and teeth and wipe it its considered fine.
- Washer then should wipe the head and beard with soap or sidr.
- After Ablution washer should start from all right side of the deceased therefore right neck, right shoulder, chest,
abdomen, thighs and legs.
- After washing right side washer should turn the deceased and wash his right side first from back top to down.
- Then washer should start the left side first from fron top to bottom and then left side from back top to bottom.
- Body whould be atleast washed once but its recommended that the body should be washed 3 times. And upto 7
times if the dirst remains. Its desirable to use camphor so that body cools down and fragrance remains on body.
- After this the washer will cut the nails of the person, hair under arm pits, cut his mostache etc and it is to be put
with the deceased in his shroud.
- Sometimes it difficult to wash the body of the deceased person due to illness or burned, or lack of water available
then in such cases Tayammum can be performed in the same manner prescribed above.
- Incases it is difficultt to wash few areas of the deceased person and if there is no one present at the time E.g
husband, father or nearest kin then washer can wash all other parts of the body and perform Tayyamum on
other areas of the body.
- It is desirable to have a ritual bathing following the washing of the deceased though it is not obligatory.

Rulings on Shroud :
- It is desirable to use white clean shroud for the deceased. Shroud should cover the whole body.
- A man should be covered in 3 shrouds and woman in 5 cloths : A shirt, a veil, a loin cloth and 2 shrouds.
- For children, for male 1 shroud is enough provided it covers the whole body. For a female child 1 shirt and 2 shroud
are enough.
- It is desirable to incense the shorud with rose water so that shroud remians incensed.
- A perfumed piece of cloth should be stuck between the buttock covering anus and shroud should be tied around
that area by cloth belt. Other similar perfumed pieces should be tucked in his eyes, nostrils, ears, knees therefore
perfumed cotton pieces should be tuck in all areas which were used for prayers. Perfume should also be applied to
head and face.
- After this washer should wrap the first shroud which is intact with skin therefore left side over right side. And right
over left.
- The 2nd and 3rd shroud should also be tied the same way.
- Then the cloth belts are tightened so as not to loosen untill the grave.

Rulings of Funeral Prayers :


- It is recommended to attend the funeral of a muslim. People from neighborhood should attend the funeral and also
attend the procession.
- Condition of the Funeral Prayer : 1). Intention 2). Facing Qiblah 3). Concealing one's awrah performing it 4). Ritual
purity of both performing it and attending it 5). Avoiding any impurity 6). Both performing and deceased should be
muslims 7). Attending funeral procession if they are in the neighborhood. 8). Legally accoutable.
- Integral Parts of Funeral : 1). Standing upright 2). Saying 4 takbirs 3). Reciting Surah Al Fatiha 4). Asking Allah to
confer his Blessings on Prohet 5). Asking forgiveness for the deceased 6). Performing these integralparts in
sequence 7). Saying Taslim.
- One who misses a part for funeral prayer should continue from where he gets and then finish the remaining part.
- If one misses the funeral totally then can perform the prayers on his grave.
- One who are not in town or were absent can perform the Absent Funeral Prayers.
- As for stillborn the funeral prayer will be performed over it if not then stillborn can be buried without funeral
prayer.

Rulings on Funeral Procession and Burial :


- Its recommended to signify honor and concern fo rthe deceased.
- It’s the act if sunnah when procession is carried in a car or on an animal when graveyard is distant. The procession should
not be very fast but in a state of tranquility and quiteness to be observed.
- Women are forbidden in graveyards.
- Its sunnah to dig graves wide and deep.
- Keep the face of the deceased person facing the Qiblah side. As it is our Qiblah during life and after death.
- Put sand, stone or a brick under the head and the person should be close to his front wall. Afterwards the grave should be
closed with bricks and clay to hold together. Nearby earth to be used to pile up on grave.
- It is desirable to stand at the grave and make supplication after the burial has taken place.
- It is Bidah to recite Quran at the graveyard as it has not been established by the Sunnah and by the actions of Sahabis.
- It is prohibited to build over graves and plaster them. Its also prohibited to light graves.
- It is prohibited to walk over graves, pile garbage on them or use them as drainage ditch.
Rulings on Condolence and Visiting Graves
- It is the act of Sunnah to console the bereaved person and ask them to pray for the deceased.
- It is desirable to make food for those who are breaving.
- It is prohibited to gather at one place for condolences, hire reciters, prepare food etc.
- It is desirable to visit graves with an intention to pray for them, confers Allah SWT blessing on the deceased. But it is
prohibited to invoke the deceased a a medium for Allah SWT which is Shirk.

PART 3 - ZAKAH

Chapter 1 Zakah: Legality & Virtue

- Its unanimously agreed by scholars that Zakat is the third pillar of Islamd and whomsoever refuses then he is a disbeliever.
- Paying Zakat is an act of benevolence toward the people, means of purifying a property from defilement, a protection
against destruction and worship of Allah SWT.
- Zakat on property is: 1/5th on Buried Wealth
- 1/10th Zakat on that land which needs more efforts like watering, irrigating etc
- 1/20th Zakat on properties which needs more efforts.
- 1/40th Zakat which involves more efforts and difficulties as in trading money or commodities.

When Zakat needs to be paid


- When Complete year passes for cattle, money or commodities.
- When grains become hard and when fruits show sign of ripening.
- For Honey when honey reaches the amount liable for Zakat therefore by honey trade.
- Zakatul Fitr when the sun sets after breaking the last fast of Ramzan but before the Salat of Eid al Fitr

Conditions of Muslim who should give Zakat


- Be a free person
- Be a Muslim - Owner should be a muslim and the owner of the property
- Reaching the Nisab which means if the propoerty of whatever kind reaches the level on which Zakat becomes
necessary he or she is liable to pay.
- Established owner of the property which means no other has ownership of the property. Debt of Mukatab will not be
charged for Zakat.
- Elapse of full lunar year on the possession of the property.
- For creditors when the amount given to the debtor has been with him for over a year and when it is received by the
creditor. But if the debt is given to a rich debtor then the creditor should give Zakat on the amount each year.

Chapter 2 Grazing Animals & Livestock

- Zakat is only levied on grazing animals if they are used for producing milk and reproduction.
- The livestock must be fed on pasture land or herb field etc.
- If fodder is purchased for the grazing animals then no Zakat on them.

Zakat on Camels
- 1 sheep for every 5 camels, 2 sheep for every 10 camels so on and so forth.
- 1 one year old She-Camel if not available then 2 year old Male-Camel if number of camels reach 25.
- 1 two-year old She-Camel if number of camels reach between 36 to 45.
- 1 three-year old She-camel if the number of camels reach between 46 to 60.
- 1 four-year old She-Camel if the number of camel reaches 61-75.
- 2 two-year old She-camel if the number of camels reach 76 - 90.
- 2 three-year old She-Camel if the number of camels reach 91 - 119
- 1 two-year old She-Camel for every 40 camels if the camels reach above 120 camels or,
1 three-year old She-camel for every 50 camels if camels reach above 120 in number.

Zakat on Cows
- 1 male or female calf to be given for 30 cows.
- 1 two-year old cow for every 40 cows.
- If the number of cows surpasses 40 then the above principles would apply respectively for each 30 or 40 cows.

Zakat on Sheep
- 1 six month old sheep 40 sheeps or 1 one-year old goat for every 40 goats.
- 2 sheep if sheeps reach more then 120
- 3 sheep if sheep reach 201 in number
- If over 200 sheeps then 1 sheep for every 100 sheeps e.g. 4 sheeps for 400 sheeps and 5 for 500 sheeps
Sheep which is not Accepted for Zakat
- A defective sheep therefore which is not fit for sacrifice
- A pregnant sheep or sheeps which feed their babies
- A worst quality animal
- Generally, Prophet PBUH has disallowed to take the best of animals for Zakat one should give a medium one.

Zakat on Joint-Ownership
- If there are 2 owners for 40 sheeps. One person has 1 sheep and the other 39 sheeps then after 1 year both will pay
Zakat. The 1 sheep owner will pay 2.5 percent of the value of 1 sheep and the other 97.5% of 1 sheep as for each 40
sheep the zakat is 1 sheep.

Chapter 3 Grains, fruits, minerals and Rikaz

- Grains includes the likes of wheat, flour, barley, rice and other cereals etc. Due time of Zakat is when ripe and hard.
- Fruits are the likes of raisin, dates, apples etc ehich can be wieghed and stored. Due time of Zakat is when ripened.
- For grains no Zakat is levied if less then 5 Wasqs.
- For fruits the owner should possess Nisab at the time due of giving Zakat and should reach Nisab which qualifies for Zakat.
- However there is no Zakat if the Nisab is possessed bby means of wages in returns of harvesting it, buying it or having it
picked after the harvest is over.
- 1/10th of Zakat if the land is irrigated without efforts e.g. irrigation done through flood or running stream of water etc
- 1/20th or 5% if land is irrigated by efforts therefore brining water by hand etc

- Honey Zakat is when it reaches 30 Sa's which is approx 65 Kgs


- The Zakat is 1/10th of profits or yields. Zakat is only payable when the person owns fields e.g. flower fields, lands etc.

- For minerals like gold or silver or similar elements the Zakat is 2.5% of the value when it reaches Nisab.
- Rikaz which is 'Buried Treasure' 1/5th of Rikaz should be given to Public Treasury.

- In general, thereis no Zakat on Vegetables. Usually vegetables have low shelf life can't be stored for long time.

Chapter 4 Gold & Silver

- It is prohibited to hoard gold or silver either above or below earth therefore piling of gold or silver.
- Zakat of gold is on 85 grams and levied at 2.5% of the Gold value
- Zakat on silver is on 595 grams

Permission to Wear Gold or Silver

- Men can wear silver rings but have been abstained to wear Gold by the Prophet PBUH but in some certain rare they can.
- For women it is allowed to wear both Gold or Silver as they desire.
- Zakah is not imposed on Gold or Silver if used as ornaments or lending. Apart from these two, Zakat will be imposed
accordingly.
- Zakat is applicable when the jewellery reaches Nisab level.

Rules on Plating Wall with Gold or Silver and Making Utensils

- It is prohibited to plate a ceiling or wall with Gold or Silver or plate a vehicle or its keys with gold or silver.
- It is also prohibited to plate pens or its inkwells with gold or silver as it considered extravagant and vanity.

Chapter 5 Trade Goods

- Any goods allocated for trade purposes in order to make profits are subjected to Zakat
- Zakat becomes liable when trade is carried on for one whole lunar year.

Zakat Becomes Liable Under These Terms of Trade

- When the owner acquired the porperty by transaction, gift, rent etc
- Owner intends to use for trade or profit.
- Value of trade goods must reach Nisab evaluated in Gold or Silver.
- A lunar year must lapse on Nisab in order to qualify for Zakat.

Valuation of Trade Good for Zakat

- The value of trade goods which are present at the end of lunar year qualify for Zakat.
- 2.5% of trade value of goods is to be paid for Zakat irrespective of the amount paid for purchase.
- There is no Zakat on houses, furniture or automobiles which are used for personal use.

Chapter 6 Zakat ul Fitr

- Fitr means 'Breaking the Fast' therefore needs to be paid at the end of Ramazan.
- The wisdom nehind this is it purifies muslim of any ill-acts done during fasting and laso helps the needy or poor.
- Zakat al Fitr is obligatory on every muslim regardless even a new born baby is included.
- Quantity of this Zakat is 1 Sa'a be it from wheat, barley, dates etc
- It is desirable to pay after breaking the last fast but pay before Eid prayers. It is also permissible to pay 1 or 2 days
before Eid prayers.
- If this Zakat is given by the person on behalf of someone whom he already supports then it is fine. However if the
person on whose behalf this Zakat is given is not supported then his permission is requiered otherwise it is not permissible.

Chapter 7 Giving Zakat

- It is recommended that the pwner of the property should give zakat by himself in order to make sure that it reaches
the required and needy people.
- It is permissible fo rthe Imam to appoint a Zakat collector and its fine giving the Zakat to the collector.
- It is permissibile for the giver of Zakat not to disclose that the help is Zakat if the taker is usually in Zakat need.
- If the reciever of Zakat is usually not in Zakat need but if the giver want to give him then he should point this to him that
it is Zakat.
- Sending Zakat collector helps the authority to collect Zakat, distribute it amongst the needy and also helps muslims to
complete their obligations.
- It is permissible for the giver to give Zakat in advance which would be due on them regardless its cattle, garins, gold or
silver etc.

Chapter 8 Entitled Recipient of Zakat

- It is permissible to give Zakat for charitable works like building mosques or school.
- Allah has defined 8 categories to whom Zakat should be given:
- 1st: The poor who needs Zakat. Poor includes who do not have enough to meet the living or can not work enough for it.
- 2nd: The needy who are better then poor who can reach half of their needs.
- 3rd: The Zakat collectors who collect Zakat from the eligible people and distribute it accordingly. The Zakat collectors are
usually employed by the Government and they get salary from public treasury.
- 4th: Those 2 categories who give their hearts for Islam. One is a muslim an dthe other is a disbliever who is expected to
become muslim. Or those muslim to strengthen their faiths.
- 5th: Those indebted slaves who can not get their freedom and can not pay their debts.
- 6th: Those under debts. These are 2 categories : One who takes on debt in order to settle debts of others. And the other
is to settle the affairs of two tribes who are hostile to each other on property etc. this is done to reduce chances of
bloodshed. Second category is: one who ransoms himself in order to save his life from disbeleivers.
- 7th: Zakat sent in the cause of Allah therefore for Jihad
- 8th: A stranded traveller who becomes stranded and loses his provision before his journey is completed.

Chapter 9 Desirable Charity

- Apart from Zakat, Quran emphasizes to give desirable Charity to other who are needy.
- It is recommended to give Charity in such a way that the left hand doesn’t knows about the charity given by right hand.
- It is recommended to give charity in the 2 sacred mosques.
- It is recommended to give charity at the time when one needs it and its desirable to be given in Ramazan.
- It is recommended that the charity to be distributed within relatives, neighbors etc.
- It is obligatory to clothe the unclothed, gove water to thirsty, entertain guests as all becomes part of charity.

PART 4 - FASTING

Chapter 1 Ramadan: Obligation & Timing

- The wisdom of fasting is that it purifies it's soul from immorality and vice. Fasting blocks the evil ways of Satan.
- Fasting reduces the desires of worldly and personal pleasures. It abstains from food, water, sex, immoralities etc.
- Fasting starts from day break and is obligatory in the month of Ramazan for 28 to 30 days depending on moon sighting.
- Fasting is NOT obligatory on insance and children. If children observe then it will be supererogatory.
- Ill people and travellers can oberserve their fast on later days if they could not observe fasting during Ramazan.
- Women who are having mensturation and post natal bleeding can also observe their fast on later days.
- Others who are healthy are obliged to observe the fasts during the month of Ramazan.

Chapter 2 Beginning and End of Fasting Day

- It desirable to have Suhr in morning even by drinking water.


- Men in state of Janabah and women who have finished their mensuration can extend their ritual bath after dawn break
but are allowed to observe fast.
- For those who stay up late night, eat some and sleep sometime before the dawn breaks are involved in these dangers:
- 1. They start fasting before its due 2. Might miss the Fajr prayers 3. Might perform Fajr after they wake up therefore
which is a grave sin in front of Allah SWT.
- If a muslim intends to observe fast and wakes up after dawn breaks and continue to observe it, it will be valid.
- Fast can be broken if a trustworthy person says he has seen sun set or on call of prayer.
- It is Sunnah to break fast by some dates if there is not any then water can be used. If no water or dates then break fast
with whatever is available in food or beverages.
- It is desirable to break fast first then go for Maghrib congregational prayers and then continue his meal once done with
with is congregational prayers.

Chapter 3 Things Nullifying Fasting

- Sexual Intercourse: Sex breaks the fast. Once broken person has to observe not only fast of that day but to expediate it.
1. Either free a slave, if not then 2. Fast for continous 2 months if not this then 3. Feed 60 poor people equivalent to half
Sa'a amount.
- Ejaculation: If ejaculated due to kissing or other acts then only that days fast needs to be observed without observing
expediation. However if ejaculation occurs due to wet dream then only ritual bath needs to be done whereas his fast
remain valid.
- Delibrate Eating or Drinking: Fast breaks when water or food or alike goes inside the throat and then to abdomen. If any
nutritients gone through veins or by transfusion then it also nullifies fast. It is considered equivalent to food.
Therefore sunch injkections should be delayed until fast break.
- Getting Blood out of Body: Getting blood out of body like blood transfusion, cupping etc nullifies fast. However taking
small sample of blood for test also voluntary blood discharge through nostrils or wournd or from tooth does not breaks
the fast.
- Vomiting: Intentional disgorging of what is in mouth or stomach nullifies fast. But if it unintentional then there is no
need to make up for that fast. Eyeliners and eye drops should also be avoided during fast. Behavior like lying, backbiting
should be avoided. Miswak however can be used and is advised to use it.
Chapter 4 Making Up for Missed Days of Ramazan

- Its advisable to make up for missed fasts as soon as possible and keep consecutive like Ramazan fasts.
- One should hurry to make up missed fasts preferably in Sha'ban it is not advisable to extend the duration to keep fast
until next ramazan unless there is some legal excuse.
- If there is an excuse then it is obligatory to make up for the fast before the following next year Ramazan.
- If the person has no legal excuse to make fo rthe missed fast then he is not only suppose to make up for the missed fast
but also feed poor with half Sa'a for every day missed.
- If a person dies before making up for his missed fasts there is no responsibility on him as he passed away during the period
where it could be extended until next Ramazan.
- But if the person dies without any excuse then there should be expediation to make up for his missed days from his
wealth.
- In case he dies without performing missed fasts then his kin can keep missed fasts on behalf of him only in case of Vow.

Chapter 5 Breaking The Fast: Illness or Old Age

- Per hadith in Bukhari old people who can not observe fast can feed one poor person for each fast missed.
- For hopelessly sick people the ruling is the same as old but healthy people. Therefore they are also suppose to feed one
poor person.
- Those who can break their fasts are travellers, mensurating or breast feeding women or those in post natal bleeding.
- It is also allowed to break the fast of a person who is extremely sick and fasting may cause further harm. It advisable to
break their fast and they can make up later. It could also become obligatory to break fast if life is endangered.
- It is also allowed for a muslim to keep supererogatory fast during the day time if he wishes so per Sunnah of Prophet PBUH.

PART 5 - HAJJ

Chapter 1 Obligation of Hajj (Pilgrimage)

- Allah SWT refers those who can afford to do Hajj but abandon this act of worship as disbelievers.
- Hajj was prescribed in 9th year of Hijri and Prophet PBUH performed Hajj in the 10th Hijri.
- It is permissible to perform Hajj on behalf of parents if they are very old per a hadith.
- There are 5 prerequisits to perform Hajj they are: 1. Be a muslim 2. Be Sane 3. Has reached puberty 4. Can afford it and
5. Be free
- When a Hajj is performed before puberty it is necessary to perform again after being adult therefore reaching puberty.
- Child under the age of discretion can perform Hajj with a guardian and the guardian can stop the shild whenever he wishes
and perform those acts on behalf of the child.
- If the child has reached the age of discretino he can perform as many acts as he can with his guardian and the guardian
can perform those acts which child can not.
- If someone is financially able but physically not able to perform Hajj then he can appoint someone to perform Hajj on
their behalf. The one performing should get full financial support to perform Hajj but must not get any fee for the service.
- One also has to settle all debts and give his financial dues before performing Hajj.

Chapter 2 Women's Hajj and Ruling of Performing Hajj on Others Behalf

- A woman should be accompanied by a mahram to perform Hajj. A Mahram is unmarriagable person like brother, nephew.
- When with Mahram then the woman is responsible to cover full cost of her mahram to perform Hajj. Otherwise she is
not obliged to perform hajj unless she has full financial means to cover both costs.
- Woman is only allowed to travel one day and one night without Mahram.
- If woman could not perform Hajj when she managed to agree with a mahram but later she loses them then she should find
another Mahram and supposing if she dosen't then she should find someone who could perform Hajj on her behalf.
- If a financially able person dies before performing Hajj the their child should perform on their behalf and the cost should
be covered by the wealth of the person who passed away.

Chapter 3 Virtues of Hajj and Its Preparations

- The best and accepted act of jihad for women is the acceptance of Hajj.
- One should abstain themselves from all sins and should free themselves by ills and return rights which are due to others.
- One should make sure that the money they have obtained for Hajj is by lawful means. And should have enough for entire
trip and must not borrow from others.

Chapter 4 Miqats of Hajj

Site of entering in the State of Ihram


- Prophet PBUH identified certain places as Miqat the reason is that Makkah house of Allah is so glorified that one can not
pass without the state of Ihram, intention for Hajj or Umrah, as a sign of Honor and Glorificatino of Allah SWT.
- One who do not pass through the identified places for Miqat then should make intention when they are parallel to those
places.
- Before boarding planes the pilgrims should have performed ritual bath and have worn Ihram. They should declare
intention to wear Ihram and say talbiyah on plane.
- If one does not wears Ihram at the designated Miqat site but wears reaching the airport then the person has to slaughter
an animal as expediation.
- Ihram only means declaring the intention to perform Hajj or Umrah. Person can make intention when plane is over any
known Miqat place this can be done by personal judgement or by asking hosstesses etc.
- If one forget to make in tention then one should go back to Miqat once landed in Jeddah. If not makes intention from
Jeddahs miqat once landed in Jeddah then one should expediate a sacrifical animal like a goat or sheep or distribute 1/7th
of cow or camel and should not take anything from it.

Chapter 5 How to Assume Ihram

- Ihram restricts certains which are desirable before this state which is: sex, clipping nails, cutting hair etc.
- It is desirable to have bath and cleanse oneself. For women its important to take bath after their bleeding state.
- One should removes hair like of arm pits or pubic hair as in state if Ihram clipping of hair is prohibited.
- It is desirable for someone to wear perfurme before assuming Ihram.
- A male pilgrim should wear white cloth which is unstitched as Ihram and should take off all stiched clothes. This clothing of
Ihram reminds ones death, keeps oneself alert, avoids comitting forbidden acts etc.
- Ihram can be observed anywhere on the site of Miqat its not necessary to change yoru clothing there. The intention can
also be made from home.
- There are 3 kinds of Ihram, they are: 1. Tamattu : Meaning that the muslim is choosing Ihram to perform Umrah in season
of Hajj. 2. Ifrad : It assumes that the pilgrim is assuming Ihram to perform Hajj only. 3. Qiran : This Ihram is for both.

Chapter 6 Acts Prohibited During Ihram

- Hair Cut: It is prohibited to cut hair from any part of the body without legal excuse.
- Clipping Nails: It is prohibited to clip nails or toe nails unless it is already broken.
- Covering Head: Male pilgrim is prohibited to cover his head by a turban or hood in state of Ihram. It is permissibile to use
umbrella or tree as a shelter.
- Wear Sewn Clothes: It is prohibitted to wear sewn clothes during Ihram. Also wearing anything like socks, shoes which fits
the parts of bodies is prohibitted. For women in state of Ihram she can wear anything she like to cover herself. Except
face.
- Wearing Perfurmes: It is prohibitted to wear perfumes once in the state of Ihram.
- Killing Game Animals: It is prohibitted to kill game animals but can slaughter domestic animals like chicken, goat, cows etc.
- Get Married or arrange marriage: It is prohibited to get married or arrange marriage for someone in state of Ihram.
- Sex: It is prohibited to have sexual intercourse during the state of Ihram.
- Touch Wife: It is prohibitted to kiss or touch wife lustfully as it can lead sex.

Chapter 7 Rites of Tarwiyah and Arafat Days

- There are 3 types of Hajj: 1. Ifrad 2. Qiran 3. Tamattu


- Ifrad: In Ifrad the pilgrim performs arrival tawaf, stones Jamaratul Aqabah on Feast day, shaves his head, then performs
Tawaf Ifadah with sayee.
- Qiran: The Hajj Qiran it is as same as Ifrad but the pilgrim sacrifices an animal as well.
- Tamattu: The pilgrim does Umrah first then continues performing the Hajj
- Residents of Makkah and its surrounding places can assume Hajj from 8th Zil Hajj.
- Those leaving from Makkah on 8th Zilhaj should spend their time in Mina performing 5 prayers there. Best time to reach is
when sun reaches Meridian.
- After Fajr prayers of 9th Zilhaj pilgrim should reach Arafat. It is important to stand within the boundaries of Arafat.
- At Arafat the pilgrim perform Zuhr and Asr together therefore shortening his prayers.
- A pilgrim should remain at Arafat until sunset, if he doesn’t remain then he has to sacrifice an animal to expediate it.
- Day of Arafat begin from Noon of 9th Zilhaj and ends on the dawn of 10th Zil Haj.

Chapter 8 Acts of Muzdalifah and Mina

- Muzdalifah coimes from the word 'Izdilaf' which means closeness to Arafat.
- From Arafat to Muzdalifah a pligrim should glorify Allah SWT thorughout and on reaching Muzdalifah shiould pray Maghrib
and Isha combined shortening the prayers.
- It is Sunnah to spend night at Muzdalifah and offer fajr prayers. However the weak pilgrim can head for Mina during night.
A pilgrim who enters Muzdalifah in midnight must not leave before Fajr.
- Pebbles can be picked from Muzdalifah or Mina and should be as large as beans.
- The time of stoning starts from Sunrise and end until sunset. The pebble thrown should fall within the fence.
- It is the act of Sunnah to throw pebbles at Jamaratul Aqabah as soon pilgrim arive in Mina.
- It is preferable to do sacrifice after the stoning of Jamarat Aqbah. Then shave his head which is better then shortening hair.
- The partial release is after performing 2 of these 3 acts: 1. Throwing pebbles at Jamarat al Aqbah 2. Sacrifice 3. Tawaf
Ifadah.

Chapter 9 Days of Tashriq & Farewell Tawaf

- After completion of Tawaf Ifadah a pilgrim should stay at Mina for 3 nights the Days of Tashriq, if in hurry then 2 nights.
- All prayers to be performed at their time but to be shortened.
- Pilgrim should throw pebbles on each day of Mina on 3 Jamaraahs on each day when Sun declines.
- Old, sick or pregnant women can ask someone else to throw pebbles on their behalf.
- In case of mensuration, a woman can stay at Arafat, Mina, Muzdalifah but can not perform Tawaf as ritual purity is needed
however for Say'ee she can do Say'ee as ritual purity is not a pre-requisite.
- Farewell tawaf should be performed once all Hajj acts have been completed, its as per Sunnah.

Chapter 10 Sacrifical Animals

- Best sacrifical animal is a camel then a cow and then a sheep which are edible animals.
- The health of the sacrifical animal is more important then the value.
- It is not permissible to sacrifice animal before it reaches the age: A Camel is 5 years, Cow 2 years, Goat 1 year and Sheep 6
months.
- A camel & cow can have 7 participants and it is not permitted to have a sick, blind, lame or skinny animals for sacrifice.
- The animal is to be sacrifice after Id prayers and the meat to be distributed in 3 parts: 1/3rd each for charity, gift and self.
- One observing the sacrifice should not cut their hair or trim nails from 1st of Zilhaj until the sacrifice has been done.

Chapter 11 Aqiqah (Sacrifical Animal for New Born)

- The Aqiqah is done to Glorify Allah SWT for his Blessings on the father. Its fathers duty to do Aqiqah for the child.
- 2 ewes for a boy and 1 ewe for a girl to be sacrificed. By Aqiqah it is believed a child grows up as well mannered and good
natured.
- it is recommended to do Aqiqah and name the child on 7th day after their birth but one can do a day after or before.
- Name given to the child should be good and it is detestable to give an inappropriate name e.g. Abdul Ali, Kulayb, Hazan etc.
- There is no share in the animal for Aqiqah as it is for one new soul.

PART 6 - JIHAD

Chapter 1 Jihad

- It is considered as 6th pillar of Islam by some scholars. It is done to Glorify Allah SWT establish His deen, principles and
order. It includes fighting the enemy vigorously
- Other types of Jihad are: Self control, striving against Satan, seeking, learning and teaching religious knowledge etc.
- Jihad is a great voluntary act of worship with great reward. Jihad has 3 levels: By hand, money, tongue and heart.
- Jihad becomes individual duty in these cases: 1. In the Battle field 2. When enemoes attack muslim country 3. When
muslim is needed to help fight other muslim enemies 4. When a muslim is called by the ruler to fight in cause of Allah.
- It is obligatory for a muslim ruler to check and exclude those who are not fit for battlefield including equipment. Should
exclude the faint hearted, those who can not be trusted or dissuade other fighters.
- Main reasons why Jihad is conducted are: 1. To get rid of false objects of worship 2. To eliminate in justice and enforce
rights to right people 3. To humiliate disbelievers and to take revenge.
- It is important to call the enemy first to Islam if they disagree to it then fight them.
- These are the rulings of Jihad:
- 1. Seek permission of parents first for Jihad. Check whether they agree or not.
- 2. Not to kill a child, a woman, old, a monk, a blind unless he is insisting other to fight muslims and the slaves captured.
- 3. Muslim are permitted to take the spoils and even ransom and divide with whomever they witnessed in battle.
- 4. It is prohibite dto embezzle the booty of war and if someone does then the person is to be punished by the ruler.
- 5. The booty to be distributed in the following: 1/5th to Allah and for His messenger and the other 4/5th within the cavalry
and infantry whi actually fought the battle.
- 6. A Peace treaty can be permitted if it is in the interest of muslims or if muslims become weak. However if the ruler thinks
enemy would not abide it the muslim ruler can break the truce.
- 7. It is permissible to make a Covenant with the People of The Books against Jizya that is to grant them protection to their
places of worship and culture.
- 8. Jizya should not be taken by a child, woman, insane person, blind, old or needy man who can not afford it.
- 9. It becomes obligatory on the muslim ruler to fight and protect the People of The Book if they give them Jizya.