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CVR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

(UGC Autonomous Institution) Affiliated to JNTU Hyderabad


Vastunagar, Mangalpalli (V), Ibrahimpatnam (M),
Ranga Reddy (Dist.), Hyderabad

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A SOLAR SUPPORT STRUCTURE


AND DAILY TILTING MECHANISM

– 501510
BY :
• S.SAIKRISHNA(13B81A0375)
• ACHARLA SRINIDHI(13B81A0395)
• K.SHONALIKA GOUD(13B81A0392)
PROJECT GUIDES:-
INTERNAL GUIDE:
Mr. P.V.RAMANA
EXTERNAL GUIDE:
Dr. KIDAMBI RADHASWAMY

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CONTENT
 ABSTRACT
 INTRODUCTION OF SOLAR
 DESIGN CONIDERATIONS
 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAM
 SUPPORTS AND SPROCKET
 MOTORS AND SENSORS
 EVALUATION AND ACCEPTANCE
 SCOPE
 PROTOTYPE
 CONCLUSION

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ABSTRACT
• Solar energy is the most used renewable
energy in which solar rays from the sun falls
on the photovoltaic cell to generate the
electricity. The main aim is to design the
support structure, transmission mechanism
and tilting of the panel automatically on the
daily basis depending on the wind pressure
analysis and manual adjustment in the
seasonal tilt and design considerations of the
solar firm.
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INTRODUCTION OF SOLAR ENERGY
• Solar Energy is the fast growing renewable
type energy source available on the earth.
• Commercial concentrated solar power plants
were first developed in the 1980s. The
392 MW Ivanpah installation is the largest
concentrating solar power plant in the world,
located in the Mojave Desert of California.

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DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF A
SOLAR FIRM
• Type of solar panel
• Space availability
• Power generation
• Usage of technology
• Clearances
• Effectiveness
• Material selection

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OUTPUT POWER ESTIMATION OF A
SOLAR INSTALLATION
Typical 3 bedroom flat number wattage
• lights 12 15 180
• fans 5 70 350
• tv’s 1 60 60
• a/c’s 3 1000 3000
• geyser 1 1000 1000
• mixie 1 400 400
total wattage 4990
load factor 0.5
required wattage 2495
number of flats in building 40
wattage for building 99800 planned wattage 100000
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ESTIMATION OF NUMBER OF PANELS
• no. of panels/tube 16
• total no. of panels required 400
• no of tubes required 25
• next even no. 26
• number of rows 2
• number of tubes per row 13
• total wattage planned 100000 W
• wattage per panel 250W
• no. panels required 400
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SELECTION OF A SOLAR PANEL

•Mono crystalline type solar panel


•Wind load-0.506KW
•Clearance-0.05m
•No of panels on each beam 16 8
ARRANGEMENT OF SOLAR PANELS
ON THE TUBE
• no. of panels/tube 16

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SELECTION OF BEAM

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SELECTION OF THE TUBE
1. First consideration is estimation of the length
• 8 panels each side gives a total of 16 panels on a
tube.
• So = 8*810 mm = 6480 mm = 7m
2. Next consideration is the loads that are acting on
the tube as follows:
• Wind load
• Weight of the panels
• Self weight of the tube
• Weight of the supports
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Wind load and other loads
• Wind analysis here has been done based on the data presented in the
Hyderabad’s environmental portal.
• Designing time warranty is 25 years.
• Maximum wind speed as per the past 25 years = 90 KM/hr = 90,000 m/3600
seconds
• Equivalent pressure of air is 25m/s
• Wind pressure is = 400 N/m^2
• Calculating the force acting on one single panel:
• Area of the panel is = 1.26 m^2
• Force on one panel = 400*1.26= 505 N
• 2)Weight of the panel is 19.5 kg =191 N
• 3)Weight of the tube is = 1078N
• Total load acting on the tube
=(16*505)N+191N+9500N=8080N+191+1078=9500N =>10000N (approx)

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Theoretical calculations for the tube
selection
• Total load acting on the tube
=(16*505)N+191N+9500N=8080N+191+1078=9500N =>10000N (approx)
• Therefore W = 10000N/7 = 1428 0r 1500N or 1.50 KN
• Max BM ( M )= (Wl^2)/8 = 1.50 * 49/8 = 9.18 k N-m
• Torque T = 4KN * 1.58/2 KN-m = 3.16
Equivalent BM :

= 7.24 kN-M
• Assumed bending stress on the beam as f = 1000 kg/m^2
• = 10 KN/cm^2
• M/I = f/y => M/f = I/y= Z(where Z is the section modulus)

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Theoretical calculations for the tube
selection
• Therefore,

• M/f = 100*72.4 / 10 = 72.4 cm ^3

• Next step is to find out the section modulus for various cross-sections as shown below:

• Firstly a tube of a certain cross-section is randomly selected from the tata catalogue (as shown in
the fig:) and calculated its required section modulus. Then based on the previously assumed value
the material quantity is said to be increased or decreased as shown below.

• 200 * 200 * 4 = I/y= 3238.12 / 8.74 = 370 cm ^ 3(this can be further reduced as shown below)

• 200 * 200 * 4 = I/y= 3238.12 / 8.74 = 370 cm ^3( can be reduced further)

• 150 * 150 * 4= I/y= 801/6 = 133.4 cm ^ 3(can be reduced further)

• 130 * 130 * 4 = I/y = Z= 634/5.16=126 cm^3 ( This material is sufficient so this tube is OK)

• From the catalogue below 130*130*4 are the required dimensions of the beam that has been
selected

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Tata catalogue:hollow square tube

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BEAM SPECIFICATIONS
• Beam type is Solid square tube/beam
• Material – Stainless steel (cold rolled)
• Length of the beam = 7m
• Width of the beam= 80mm
• Thickness=1.6 mm
• Inner width=76.8 mm
• Inner depth=26.8mm
• Dimensions-132*132 mm
• Thickness-4.80 mm
• Section area-23.83 cm2
• Unit weight-18.71 kg/m
• Moment of inertia-
* Ixx-634.39 cm4
* Iyy-634.39 cm4
• Radius of gyration-
* rxx-5.16 cm
* ryy-5.16 cm
• Elastic modulus-
* Zxx-96.12 cm3
* Zyy-96.12 cm3 16
STAINLESS STEEL
•BENDING MOMENT
•Max B.M=5-KN

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STAINLESS STEEL

•DEFLECTION

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ALUMINIUM
•DEFLECTION

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FIXATION OF SUPPORTS AND
SEASONAL ADJUSTMENT
• Support are placed on either side of the beam
which are fixed to the ground and the rod
which is in between the beam and supports
helps to rotate the beam.
• These supports are generally used to placed
the at an inclination.
• Calculated heights of the supports:
1. 1st side =2.9m
2. 2nd side =1.85m
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SEASONAL ADJUSTMENT

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SOLAR FIRM DAILY TILT MECHANISM

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DAILY TILTING MECHANISM
• It is assumed that in a day of 12 hours from morning 6 am to evening 6 pm
the tubes are said to be tilted.
• Panels should rotate 240 degrees in 1 day.
• No. of movements per day (12*4)=48 hours.
• So for every 15 minutes it should be rotated by 5 degrees.
• Input torque at the gear box =0.21 kg m
• Reduction ratio at the gear box is 1:70
• Torque at the output axis of the gear box =14.789 kg m
• Sprocket ratio at the bottom axis to the gear box shaft=1:2
• Torque required for bottom axis sprocket=1.138 kg m
• Sprocket ratio from top to bottom=1:3
• Torque at the bottom of the 26 tubes=29.577 kg m
• Diameter of journal assumed=50mm
• Torque at the journal=3412.776 kg mm=3.412776 kg m
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MOTOR AND ITS SPECIFICATIONS
• Stepped motor is an synchronous electric
motor that convert electrical pulses into
mechanical rotation.
• Specifications:
1. input motor speed rpm
2. motor h.p required = 0.018 h.p
3. wattage of motor = 13.20 w
4. selected motor 40w/60 rpm
5. synchronous motor
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FUTURE FIRMS
• India plans to achieve 175 GW of renewable energy capacity
by 2022 as part of its climate commitments, wherein it has
promised to achieve 40% of its electricity generation capacity
from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030. This
includes 60 GW from wind power, 100 GW from solar power,
10 GW from biomass and 5 GW from small hydro projects.
• The main efficiency of the firm depends on the design ,
materials, sensors..etc

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WAYS TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY OF
SOLAR FIRM
 Make an Informed Decision
 Use a Solar Concentrator
 Correctly Install Your Photovoltaic Panels
 Avoid Shaded Areas
 Keep Your Solar Panels Clean
 Prevent an Increase in Temperature

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SENSORS
• Sensors are the devices which detects or
measures a physical property and records,
indicates, or otherwise responds to it.
• Requirements of sensors:
1. Solar power plants manufacturers place high demands on the
sensor manufacturers. Despite extreme weather conditions,
sensors must ensure reliability and long service life.
2. Accurate sensors allow an exact positioning of the mirrors,
ensuring a maximum efficiency of the plant.
• These sensors give pulses to the motor which generate the
require output.

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PROTOTYPE
•Rated power-5w
Tilting mechanism using D.C
•Rated voltage-17.00v
stepper motor and sun
detecting sensors

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EVALUATION AND CERTIFICATION
HYQUIP SYSTEMS Ltd.
• Hyquip has been providing solutions for the
material handling requirements across the
vertices like steel, coal , solar power ,sugar
,food , paper, chemical industries.
• The company has diversified into municipal
solid waste processing machinery and solar
power plants.
www.hyquip.com

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CONCLUSION
• Therefore, the efficiency of this design can be further
increased by using the sun trackers of higher accuracy and
by mounting them onto the pyranometer. And by using the
light detecting sensors, storm detecting sensors, humidity
and rain sensors we can increase the efficiency singularly.
• Further efficiency can be increased by designing the
supports thus giving it an automatic seasonal tilt too.
• There might be some losses during the chain transmission
or due to the breakage of some tooth on the sprockets
which may reduce the overall efficiency of the firm.
• As the efficiency of the gears are better than the sprockets
and the chains and also the accuracy of the design is more,
we can modify the design by installing worm gears with self
locking mechanism to transmit the energy.

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