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Pipeline, riser and subsea engineering Design of subsea pipelines - Part 1
Pipeline, riser and subsea engineering Design of subsea pipelines - Part 1

Pipeline, riser and subsea engineering

Design of subsea pipelines - Part 1

2

All information contained in this document has been prepared solely to illustrate engineering principles for a training course, and is not suitable for use for engineering purposes. Use for any purpose other than general engineering design training constitutes infringement of copyright and is strictly forbidden. No liability can be accepted for any loss or damage of whatever nature, for whatever reason, arising from use of this information for purposes other than general engineering design training.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means whether electronic, mechanical, photographic or otherwise, or stored in any retrieval system of any nature without the written permission of the copyright holder.

Copyright of this book remains the sole property of:

Jee Limited Hildenbrook House The Slade Tonbridge Kent TN9 1HR England

© Jee Limited 2009

Table of contents Volume one PIPELINE ROUTING 7 Expectation Rules For Routing Route Survey 9
Table of contents Volume one PIPELINE ROUTING 7 Expectation Rules For Routing Route Survey 9

Table of contents

Volume one

PIPELINE ROUTING

7

Expectation Rules For Routing Route Survey

9

10

23

Design sequence

23

Desk study

24

Geophysical

26

Geotechnical

30

Alignment sheets

34

PIPELINE DIAMETER

39

Expectation Sizing for flow Fluid properties Flow regimes Flow fundamentals Single-phase flow

41

42

43

53

57

64

4

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

THERMAL DESIGN AND INSULATION

77

Expectation

79

Need for thermal design

80

Fundamentals of heat transfer

85

Pipeline heat transfer

91

Insulation design considerations

101

Insulation systems

109

Wet insulation for rigid pipelines

109

Pipe-in-pipe insulation for rigid pipelines

117

Insulation for flexibles and risers

123

Design guidance

129

Application of insulation

133

At the factory Field joints

133

140

Operational problems in deep water Exercise

143

147

MATERIALS SPECIFICATION

153

Expectation Line pipe codes Material selection Review of material properties Specification of line pipe

155

156

162

166

176

CORROSION

185

Expectation Introduction Types of corrosion

187

188

195

External corrosion Internal corrosion

195

199

Control measures

207

Chemical methods

207

External coatings

211

Cathodic protection

217

Anode design

222

Worked example

236

Volume two

Volume two DESIGN FOR STRENGTH 245 Expectation Design principles Bursting 247 248 264 Theory 264
Volume two DESIGN FOR STRENGTH 245 Expectation Design principles Bursting 247 248 264 Theory 264

DESIGN FOR STRENGTH

245

Expectation Design principles Bursting

247

248

264

Theory

264

Design pressure

265

Allowable stress

270

DNV-OS-F101

271

Collapse Buckling and combined stresses Strain-based design Worked example

276

284

295

307

END EXPANSION AND SPOOLPIECES

323

Expectation End force and expansion factors End expansion Temperature profile Exercise Spoolpieces

325

327

335

346

350

351

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

ON-BOTTOM STABILITY

363

Expectation

365

Review of fundamentals

366

Oceanography

369

Hydrodynamic loads

384

Resistance

390

Stability analysis

402

Computational fluid dynamics

411

Worked example and exercise

412

Weather and wave climate

420

Data selection

423

Trenching and soils

427

Bibliography

429

BOTTOM ROUGHNESS AND INTERVENTION

431

Expectation Bottom roughness analysis Spans

433

434

444

Design codes Span assessment Static analysis Vortex-induced vibrations

444

446

449

454

Intervention

469

PROFILES

485

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

495

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS & REFERENCES

509

Design for strength
Design for strength

Design for strength

Design for strength

247

EXPECTATION

EXPECTATION  Understand what loads and failure mechanisms we design for  Understand the different
EXPECTATION
 Understand what loads and failure
mechanisms we design for
 Understand the different approaches taken
in different codes
 Understand the process of design for
strength in sufficient depth to use any
design code intelligently

We will introduce the main types of loading experienced by a pipeline and the corresponding failure modes. The different approaches of the design codes are discussed for the objective of determining the required strength of the pipeline to prevent these failure modes. Finally, a worked example and exercise are provided to illustrate the process of design for strength for a typical pipeline configuration, ensuring its ability to contain the internal pressure and resist hydrostatic collapse.

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

DESIGN PRINCIPLES

DESIGN PRINCIPLES  How do we make a pipeline stronger?  Stronger material  Thicker
DESIGN PRINCIPLES
 How do we make a pipeline stronger?
 Stronger material
 Thicker wall
 Generally fix on strongest
material – given constraints
of welding and cost
 Increase wall thickness
to increase strength

The variables affecting the strength of the pipeline are limited to wall thickness and material strength.

Generally, we will select the strongest practical steel grade. When designing for strength, we are therefore left with wall thickness as our one variable.

Design for strength

249

DESIGN PRINCIPLES  Loads and failure mechanisms  Allowable stress vs limit-state  Other contributions
DESIGN PRINCIPLES
 Loads and failure mechanisms
 Allowable stress vs limit-state
 Other contributions to wall thickness
 DNV-OS-F101 design process

In this section we will address the above.

LOADS  Internal pressure  External hydrostatic pressure  Temperature  Bending
LOADS
 Internal pressure
 External hydrostatic pressure
 Temperature
 Bending

Loads we design for include internal pressure, external pressure, axial compression or tension and bending.

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

FAILURE MECHANISMS  Different loads induce different failure mechanisms  Therefore need to design for
FAILURE MECHANISMS
 Different loads induce different failure
mechanisms
 Therefore need to design for a number of
criteria
 Burst
 Collapse
 Buckle

Because of the range of load conditions, we need to design for a number of failure criteria.

BURSTING  Internal pressure  Tensile hoop stress in pipe wall  Yielding then tensile
BURSTING
 Internal pressure
 Tensile hoop stress in pipe wall
 Yielding then tensile failure at weakest
location – rupture
Stress
Rupture
Yield
Strain

The first criterion is pressure containment or bursting. The failure mechanism is illustrated above and failure will occur when stress in the pipewall reaches the ultimate tensile strength of the material.

The mechanism of rupture is illustrated in the picture below.

Design for strength

251

BURSTING  Explosive rupture
BURSTING
 Explosive rupture
SYSTEM COLLAPSE  External pressure  Compressive hoop stress in pipe wall  Ovality of
SYSTEM COLLAPSE
 External pressure
 Compressive hoop stress in pipe wall
 Ovality of pipe accentuated
 Increased bending and compression
 Structural collapse of cross-section (local
buckle)

System collapse or local buckle of the pipe may occur as a result of excessive external pressure. The mechanism is described above.

The picture below shows the consequences of system collapse.

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

SYSTEM COLLAPSE
SYSTEM COLLAPSE

The left hand photograph is from a section of test pipe, whilst the one on the right is a collapse that occurred during installation developing into a running buckle as far as the first buckle arrestor shown in the foreground.

LOCAL BUCKLE  Combined loadings  Internal pressure, external pressure, bending, axial load  Failure
LOCAL BUCKLE
 Combined loadings
 Internal pressure, external pressure,
bending, axial load
 Failure mode due to combined loads is local
buckle
 Need to consider whether
 Internal or external over-pressure
 Displacement or load controlled

Combined loadings can initiate a local buckle. The local buckle failure mechanism is most common during pipelay, when there are high levels of bending in conjunction with external overpressure.

A displacement-controlled condition occurs when the displacement of the pipeline is, within reasonable limits, independent of the load. An example of this condition would

Design for strength

253

be pipeline reeling, where the displacement of the pipeline is controlled by the radius of the drum rather than the loads applied.

A load-controlled condition occurs when the displacement experienced by the pipeline

depends primarily on the applied load. An example of this condition would be a pipeline span, sagging under self-weight.

WILL SHANE GET WET FEET?  Branch may break  Or be too bendy 
WILL SHANE GET WET FEET?
 Branch may break
 Or be too bendy
 Two methods
 ASD (load-factor)
 Limit-state
 Consequences

There are two main things that can go wrong: the branch may not be strong or stiff

enough to support his weight. So it may either break or bend too much. There are two main approaches to this design: ASD (allowable stress design also known as load-factor)

or the newer limit-state methods.

What happens if he gets his feet wet? What are the consequences? He may not be able

to swim or it may be shallow enough to wade to the bank. Or there may be piranha or alligators in the pond!

Considerations to be used structural designs include:

Variation in materials in the structure and in test specimens

Variation in loading

Constructional inaccuracies

Accuracy in design calculations

Safety and serviceability

The various criteria required to define the serviceability or usefulness of any structure can be described under the following headings, as being “unfit for use”:

Collapse

Deflection

Cracking (eg waterproof concrete) – may adversely affect the appearance or efficiency of the structure

Vibration (from machinery or wind) – may cause discomfort or alarm in buildings

Fatigue – cyclic loading

Durability – (eg concrete porosity)

Fire resistance – of buildings

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

When any structure is rendered unfit for use for its designed function by one or more of the above causes, it is said to have entered a limit-state. These are:

Ultimate limit-state – collapse

Serviceability limit-state – deflection, cracking, vibration

Accidental – unusual or special functions of a structure

Other – fatigue, durability, fire resistance, lightning

ALLOWABLE STRESS AND LIMIT- STATE  Allowable stress design (ASD) – load factor  Limit-state
ALLOWABLE STRESS AND LIMIT-
STATE
 Allowable stress design (ASD) – load factor
 Limit-state design (LSD)
stress
Ultimate strength
LSD
Yield stress
ASD
Maximum
operating
stress
strain

Allowable stress design principles ensure that the stress in the pipe wall never exceeds yield. This is done by specifying yield as a limiting criterion, and applying a safety factor. Limit-state design specifies the failure condition of the pipeline and then applies a safety factor to that. Limit-state design does not necessarily mean a less conservative design than ASD, but it does mean a more rational design.

Design for strength

255

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN  Many codes available (basis in 1950s):  PD 8010 Part 2
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN
 Many codes available (basis in 1950s):
 PD 8010 Part 2
 ISO 13623:2000 modified
 DNV ’76 and ’81 – superseded but may still be used
 ASME B31.4 and B31.8
 Other regional equivalents: AS2885, Germanischer
Lloyd, NEN 3650
 All provide ‘cook-book’ approach
 Generalised safety factor applied to material
strength (yield)

Allowable Stress Design is the traditional approach to pipeline design and the vast majority of pipelines installed to date around the world have been based on this approach. The basis of allowable stress design is to consider the worst case loads together with the minimum possible strength (based on yield stress) and then apply a general safety factor. Many regional standards associations have their own interpretation or peculiarities.

LIMIT-STATE DESIGN  Design on the basis of achieving a target reliability (ie a defined
LIMIT-STATE DESIGN
 Design on the basis of achieving a target
reliability (ie a defined probability of failure)
 Therefore considering distributions of load
and strength functions
 Also known as Load and Resistance Factor Design
(LRFD)
 Partial safety factors applied to each load and
strength component
 Required reliability dependent on
consequence of failure:
Risk = Probability x Consequence

The approach of limit-state design differs from that of allowable stress design in the way in which the potential for failure and consequences of failure are evaluated. Both approaches ultimately result in an acceptable design.

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

Limit-state design enables the designer to account for the low probability of worst-worst conditions and determine the pipe design required to achieve a satisfactory level of safety. These safety levels need to reflect a range of issues, including economic, public relations and environmental costs.

Limit-state design is based on achieving a target reliability. It therefore adopts risk and reliability technique to assess distributions on loads and strength and consequently define the probability of failure. The greater the consequences of failure, the lower the target reliability must be.

SAFETY CLASS  Low, Normal or High  Based on fluid – water, oil or
SAFETY CLASS
 Low, Normal or High
 Based on fluid – water, oil or natural gas etc
 Based on location – proximity to
installations
 Based on duration – temporary or
operational

Consequences can be defined by the safety class system. The safety class system assesses the consequences by accounting for the location, the fluids and the duration. This is explained in greater detail later.

Design for strength

257

DISTRIBUTION OF LOAD AND STRENGTH  Distribution of load  Internal and external pressure 
DISTRIBUTION OF LOAD AND
STRENGTH
 Distribution of load
 Internal and external pressure
 Installation loads
 Temperature
 Hydrodynamic loads
 Self weight
 Distribution of strength
 Yield and ultimate strength
 Wall thickness
 Diameter

There are many possible variables affecting the load and strength of a system. These are listed above. Monte Carlo or similar simulation methods can be used to determine the probability distributions for load and strength. Safety factors can then be determined to ensure a target reliability is met.

FUNDAMENTALS OF LIMIT-STATE DESIGN Factor x Resistance > Factor x Load:  R  L
FUNDAMENTALS OF LIMIT-STATE
DESIGN
Factor x Resistance > Factor x Load:
 R  L
Mean safety margin
Design point
Shift due
to  > 1
Shift due
to
 < 1
Load
Resistance
Distribution
Distribution
(log-normal)
(log-normal)
Nominal
safety margin
= /
Probability density
Mean load
Nominal load
L = R
Nominal resistance
Mean resistance

Please note that this chart is not a true Gaussian curve, but has been derived from experimental tests.

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

OTHER FACTORS  Corrosion allowance  Manufacturing tolerance  Stability  Installation method 
OTHER FACTORS
 Corrosion allowance
 Manufacturing tolerance
 Stability
 Installation method
 Upheaval/lateral buckling
 Stress concentrations
 Proximity of people

The rationale for the selection of the appropriate wall thickness is based on:

During installation and commissioning, only light corrosion would be expected and all of the wall thickness is available for contributing to the strength and bending stiffness of the pipe

During operation, corrosion takes place, progressively reducing the available wall thickness

Corrosion tends to occur either as:

Localised pitting of the wall

Tramline corrosion either at any liquid/gas interface or along the bottom centre of the pipe due to water dropout

Thus, even on a corroded pipe, most of the steel is still available to provide axial strength

and bending stiffness.

corrosion allowance:

Should be excluded from the pressure containment check

May be partly or fully included in combined stress checks

May be partly or fully included in bending stiffness

Therefore, unless the design code specifies otherwise, the

Design for strength

259

WALL THICKNESS COMPONENTS  Rationale is normally: t  t  t  t nom
WALL THICKNESS COMPONENTS
 Rationale is normally:
t
t
t
t
nom
min
corr
fab
()
 t min for pressure containment (hoop stress)
 t corr corrosion allowance
 t fab(-) manufacturing under-tolerance on wall
thickness
 Round up to nearest standard wall thickness?

The nominal wall thickness is made up of various components.

Initially t min is calculated based on the minimum wall thickness to contain the internal pressure, as defined by the specified design code. To this, the pipeline corrosion allowance is added. Typically this will be between 3 mm and 6 mm (0.12 in to 0.24 in).

The negative manufacturing tolerance on the pipe is added to the pipe thickness. If the pipe is specified to ISO 3183-3, the negative manufacturing tolerance is -12.5% of t nom for 4 mm to 10 mm (0.15 in to 0.39 in) thick seamless pipe and 0.75 mm (0.029 in) for HFW and SAW pipe with a thickness between 6 mm and 15 mm (0.24 in and 0.59 in). In sizes 508 mm (20 in) and above, the tolerance depends on the method of manufacture. For welded pipe, the tolerance is -8% and for seamless pipe -10%.

The wall thickness of the pipe is usually rounded up to the next available standard wall thickness above the calculated nominal wall thickness. However, whilst there are a complete range of standard wall thickness published, there are some thicknesses that will be more readily available from stockists. In some cases, a pipe with a thicker wall may be cheaper.

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

WALL THICKNESS Actual thickness t fab(+) t fab(+) t fab(-) t fab(-) Nearest t corr
WALL THICKNESS
Actual thickness
t fab(+)
t fab(+)
t fab(-)
t fab(-)
Nearest
t corr
standard
t nom
t nom
t min

The above slide illustrates the various components of the pipeline wall thickness discussed previously. It should be noted that the actual wall thickness of the pipeline may be greater than the nominal wall thickness due to manufacturing tolerances.

DNV-OS-F101  Uses limit-state design based on LRFD  Level of safety is satisfactory when:
DNV-OS-F101
 Uses limit-state design based on LRFD
 Level of safety is satisfactory when:
  L  
f
Sd
1
R
 
Rd
i
 Design load
L
 L γ γ L γ  L γ γ L γ γ
Sd
F
F
c
E
E
I
F
c
A
A
c
 Design resistance
R (f ,t
)
c
c
c
R
Rd
γ
 γ
m
SC

DNV-OS-F101 uses the load resistance factor design format as indicated above. A series of partial safety factors have been developed, using risk and reliability methods, to provide a target reliability level.

All of the criteria are clearly defined in DNV-OS-F101 so we will not consider them here.

Design for strength

261

SAFETY CLASS  Partial safety factors are dependant on safety class  Low – minor
SAFETY CLASS
 Partial safety factors are dependant on
safety class
 Low – minor environmental consequences and low
risk of human injury
 Normal – for temporary conditions giving risk of
human injury, significant pollution, etc
 High – for operating conditions giving risk of human
injury, significant pollution, etc

The required reliability depends on the fluid being transported and the location. The safety classes (low, normal and high) are defined above.

For a subsea hydrocarbon pipeline, the normal safety class would be applied outside the 500 m exclusion zone (i.e. DNV location category 1) and the high safety class would be applied within the 500 m exclusion zone (DNV location category 2).

TARGET RELIABILITY Safety Class Limit state Probability basis per zone per year Low Normal High
TARGET RELIABILITY
Safety Class
Limit
state
Probability basis
per zone per year
Low
Normal
High
Very High
-2
-3
-3
-4
SLS
Serviceability
10
10
10
10
ULS
Ultimate
-3
-4
-5
-6
FLS
Fatigue
10
10
10
10
ALS
Accidental

The target reliability levels are defined above as a probability per zone per year.

262

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

SLS: Serviceability limit-state, e.g. a dent that is too large to permit the passage of a pig ULS: Ultimate limit-state, e.g. rupture FLS: Fatigue limit-state, e.g. due to vortex-induced vibrations ALS: Accidental limit-state, e.g. dropped object

DESIGN PROCESS Start Load Displacement Combined controlled controlled loading criteria criteria Pressure
DESIGN PROCESS
Start
Load
Displacement
Combined
controlled
controlled
loading
criteria
criteria
Pressure
containment
criteria
Yes
 1,nom  0.4%
System
No
collapse
ECA on
criteria
installation
girth welds
 1,nom = Total nominal strain
Supplementary
No
 p = Accumulated plastic strain
requirement P
 1,nom  1.0% or
 p  2.0%
Yes
Finish

The DNV-OS-F101 design process is defined in the figure above.

ECA: Engineering Criticality Assessment.

Supplementary requirement P is defined in section 5D 1100.

Design for strength

263

DESIGN PRINCIPLES – SUMMARY  Loads and failure mechanisms  Burst, collapse or buckle 
DESIGN PRINCIPLES – SUMMARY
 Loads and failure mechanisms
 Burst, collapse or buckle
 Allowable stress vs limit-state
 Contributions to wall thickness
 Pressure containment
 Corrosion allowance
 Manufacturing under-tolerance
 Increase
 Material strength or wall thickness
Any questions?

The loads and failure mechanisms for subsea pipelines and the design methodologies available to prevent these failures have been presented. The design methods available are of two types; the allowable stress and the limit-state design codes.

There are three components of the minimum wall thickness required for the pipeline. These are the thickness required to contain the internal pressure, the thickness deemed to allow to corrode away during the design life of the pipeline and the possible under- tolerance that occurs during pipe manufacture.

There are two methods of increasing the strength of the pipe to ensure stresses do not become critical. These are either increasing the material strength or increasing the wall thickness. Likewise, if the pipeline is to be optimised for cost, then it is possible to minimise the material strength or wall thickness.

264

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

BURSTING

Theory Conventional pipeline design is based on straightforward principles of thin walled pipe stresses, modified with a safety factor to limit the allowable stresses in the design.

THEORY  Assumptions:  Thin wall (D/t>20). Ignore radial stress in pipe wall  Equations
THEORY
 Assumptions:
 Thin wall (D/t>20). Ignore radial stress in pipe wall
 Equations (PD 8010-2):
Force
Stress 
Area
(P i
P )
D
Po
o
σ hoop
2  t
 Thick wall (D/t < 20)
2
2
D
 D
Pi
P i only
O
I
(P
P )
t
σ hoop
i
o
2
2
D
D
D
 ID
O
I

Thin wall pipe theory can be explained by considering a short section of pipe as shown above.

Splitting the pipe in half conceptually, the internal pressure tries to push apart the two shells. The force pushing the shells apart is equal to the internal pressure, multiplied by the area over which it acts (per unit length) = P i · D. This separation force is taken by both sections of pipe wall, with an area (per unit length) of 2 t.

This equation assumes:

That the hoop stress is the only stress acting

This becomes a plane stress analysis

Giving constant stresses through the pipe wall; i.e. radial stresses by internal and external pressures are negligible (<10% hoop stress)

Design for strength

265

Many design codes reference OD rather than mean diameter or ID. They also specify the selection of minimum or nominal wall thickness and the prescribed hoop stress utilisation factor. Considered together, these factors combine to influence the overall factor of safety on burst strength of the pipe.

For information, the hoop stress formula for thick walled pipe is also provided.

Design pressure

DESIGN PRESSURE  Considerations in determining design pressure  In-field pipelines – wellhead shut-in pressure,
DESIGN PRESSURE
 Considerations in determining design
pressure
 In-field pipelines – wellhead shut-in pressure, will
decay over life of field.
 Export pipelines – MOL pump or compressor
discharge pressure
 Line-packing, future tie-ins, future mid-line
compression
 HIPPS to impose tight control on pressure in
pipeline
 Tolerance on pressure control and monitoring

The selection of the pipeline design pressure is fundamental in the overall field development plan and how the field will be operated over the design life.

At day one, the maximum pressure of an in-field pipeline is equal to the shut in pressure of the highest pressure well. This assumes that the emergency shut-down (ESD) valve on the platform is closed but the well is still producing into the line. This may also introduce transient effects (surge pressures) but ultimately as the line is packed the wellhead pressure will be seen.

With time, the maximum shut-in pressure will decay as the reservoir is depleted. As the field is developed, new wells may be tied-in to the existing pipeline. Due consideration should be taken at the initial design phase to ensure that all known potential expansions are identified and catered for by the pipeline design.

Note: this may have commercial implications.

Line-packing is the practice on long gas trunklines of raising the pressure on as much of the line as possible to increase the storage of contents. An example is the Dampier to Bunbury pipeline, which can supply gas for domestic power for short periods, even when the producing fields are shut-in.

MOL = Main Oil Line

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

OTHER PRESSURE CONSIDERATIONS  Maximum allowable operating pressure  Incidental pressure  Hydrotest pressure
OTHER PRESSURE
CONSIDERATIONS
 Maximum allowable operating pressure
 Incidental pressure
 Hydrotest pressure considerations
 1.15 x design pressure for DNV-OS-F101
 1.25
x
MAOP
for API RP 1111 with combined
stresses < 0.96 x SMYS
 1.5 x design pressure or hoop stress = 0.9 x SMYS
for PD 8010

The maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) differs from the design pressure due to the tolerance on the pressure control mechanism. It is possible for the design pressure to equal the MAOP, e.g. where the pressures are driven by shut-in wellhead pressure (SIWP), which is predicted from reservoir properties. State-of-the-art systems such as HIPPS can be used to justify a minimum difference between design pressure and MAOP.

Incidental pressure refers to short term transient conditions which may exist, primarily due to surge condition in the pipeline, and is the maximum internal pressure the pipeline or pipeline section is designed to withstand.

Hydrotest requirements are normally:

A strength test of the final pipe system during commissioning.

A leak test, generally to a lower pressure.

However, flexibles differ in test requirements, which can complicate testing of composite rigid/flexible pipe systems

Design for strength

267

PRESSURE DEFINITIONS Internal pressure Accidental pressure Incidental pressure P inc tolerance Pressure Maximum
PRESSURE DEFINITIONS
Internal pressure
Accidental
pressure
Incidental pressure P inc
tolerance
Pressure
Maximum Allowable
Incidental Pressure (MAIP)
safety
system
Design pressure
tolerance
Pressure
Maximum Allowable
Operating Pressure (MAOP)
control
system
PRESSURE PROTECTION
SYSTEM
PRESSURE DEFINITION

The above relationship is for DNV-OS-F101. By comparison, PD 8010 normally has the design pressure equal to the MAOP, but the pipeline is actually operated at a “set point” slightly below MAOP (e.g. 10%). The distinction is based on what is meant by the terms MAOP, design pressure and set-point. Hence, care should be taken to use the values relevant to the design code being considered.

SURGE PRESSURES  Causes:  Valve closures  Slugging flow  Normal limit is +10%
SURGE PRESSURES
 Causes:
 Valve closures
 Slugging flow
 Normal limit is +10% over MAOP
 Analysis:
 Transient flow analysis: Olga, Profes Transient
 Approximate analytical technique

Incidental pressures are as a result of surge. Surge is a pressure wave travelling through the flowing fluid, which will result from any change in flow rate. The water hammer effect in domestic plumbing is an example of surge. Surge will result in a localised increase in pressure.

268

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

The classic case shown is for rapid closure of a valve. Surge will result from partial valve closure, pump start-up or other transient events. The principle for the development of a surge pressure wave is the same, with fluid travelling at one velocity interfacing with fluid travelling at another velocity.

SURGE Pressure wave backs up pipeline at speed of sound Valve Stationary fluid Moving fluid
SURGE
Pressure wave backs up pipeline at speed of sound
Valve
Stationary fluid
Moving fluid
 Valve closure
 Fluid stops against valve whilst fluid behind
still moving
 Fluid compresses
 Pressure wave backs up pipeline as moving
fluid meets stationary fluid

The celerity of the pressure wave is the speed of sound in the product.

SURGE PRESSURES P V where  = density of oil  = speed of sound
SURGE PRESSURES
P V
where
 = density of oil
 = speed of sound in oil
= 1300 m/s (=4265 ft/s)
V = velocity of oil prior to shut-in

Design for strength

269

Maximum surge value is given by the Joukowsky equation. ‘Velocity of oil’ can be replaced by ‘change in velocity’ for cases of partial valve closure. It is apparent that lower fluid velocities give lower surge pressures.

SURGE PRESSURES  Surge pressure can be greatly reduced by slow closure  Closure time
SURGE PRESSURES
 Surge pressure can be greatly reduced by
slow closure
 Closure time greater than time for pressure
wave to travel to pipeline end and back

The pressure wave resulting from a valve closure travels back up the pipeline. It is reflected at the pipeline end and travels back down the line to the valve. If the valve is closed slowly, particularly if the closure time is greater than the time required for the surge wave to travel to the pipeline end and back, the total overpressure is reduced.

HIPPS Host platform 20in Production line: ~ 250 - 350 bar (low pressure) ~ 50
HIPPS
Host platform
20in Production line:
~ 250 - 350 bar (low pressure)
~ 50 - 30 km
4
in Chemical injection line (full pressure)
100 barg
4
in Service/test line (full pressure)
200 barg
400 barg shut-in
pressure
operational
Manifold
with HIPPS
Fortified zone for people proximity
(500 m (1640 ft) safety zone)
Fortified zone

270

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

HIPPS stands for High Integrity Pipeline Protection System. They are mechanical overpressure protection systems that rapidly isolate the pipeline (in around 2 seconds) if there is a risk of the Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) of the pipeline being exceeded. A HIPPS provides a cost-effective alternative to expensive mechanical safety devices that may require pressure safety valves, instruments, valves and logics. They then have the potential to offer significant cost savings to production flowlines from satellite developments, where there is the possibility that the pipeline would see shut-in wellhead pressures (for example, if a SSIV or ESV close to the platform was activated).

“Shut-in” is a term used to describe the event where the flow in the pipeline is stopped. These shut-in wellhead pressures can be much higher than normal operating pressures and so result in wasted pipeline capacity other than in upset conditions.

An example where HIPPS was used is the Kingfisher Project.

Allowable stress

ISO 13623:2000  The maximum hoop stress shall not exceed:  F   hp
ISO 13623:2000
 The maximum hoop stress shall not exceed:
 F 
 hp
h
y
 y is the SMYS at the maximum design temperature
 F h = 0.77 for general route
 F h =0.67 for risers, pig traps and landfalls
 F h can be increased to 0.83 for less critical fluids
(Category C and D)

This shows the allowable stress approach according to BS EN 14161:2003 (ISO 13623:2000 modified). Here the safety factor can vary between 0.67 and 0.83 depending on the location and pipeline contents.

The yield strength is taken at the maximum design temperature, which will require documentary evidence if above 50 °C.

Design for strength

271

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN  Codes differ: Design code Hoop stress Maximum calculation allowable hoop formula
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN
 Codes differ:
Design code
Hoop stress
Maximum
calculation
allowable hoop
formula
stress
USA
ASME B31.4 and B31.8
P
OD
72% SMYS
h
2  t
nom
P
OD
UK
72% SMYS
h
PD 8010
2  t
min
Netherlands
P
 OD
(
t
)
72% SMYS
min
NEN 3650
h
2  t
min
Canada
CAN-Z183 and Z184
P
 OD
80% SMYS
h
2  t
nom
P
(
OD
t
)
International
77 to 83% SMYS
min
h
ISO 13623
2  t
min

Design factors from a range of codes are presented above. It should be noted that while most design is performed to SMYS, the mean yield stress can be significantly higher (as much as one strength grade). The wall thickness calculations are normally conservatively based on outside diameter rather than mean diameter or internal diameter. However, the variation in definition in conjunction with the selection of design factor and t min or t nom is accounted for in the code.

DNV-OS-F101

DNV-OS-F101 – LIMIT-STATE DESIGN  Characteristic yield strength f  (SMYS  f ) α
DNV-OS-F101 – LIMIT-STATE
DESIGN
 Characteristic yield strength
f
 (SMYS  f
) α
y
y,temp
U
 Characteristic tensile strength
f
 (SMTS  f
) α
u
u,temp
U

272

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

The following slides show the limit-state design approach given in DNV-OS-F101.

Material strength is defined through a combination of factors describing the yield and ultimate material strengths, the effects of elevated temperature, the orientation of loading, the material specification and the manufacturing method.

f y,temp and f u,temp are the strength derating values for elevated temperatures U is the material strength factor, which is normally taken as 0.96. If supplementary requirement U has been specified a factor of 1.0 may be applied

STRENGTH DE-RATING  Strength reduced with temperature 100 200 300 400°F 180 25 ksi 160
STRENGTH DE-RATING
 Strength reduced with temperature
100
200
300
400°F
180
25
ksi
160
20
ksi
140
DSS – duplex
stainless steels
120
15
ksi
100
80
10
ksi
C Mn – Carbon
60
manganese steel
40
5
ksi
20
0
0
20
50
100
150
200
Temperature °C
Stress De-rating MPa

DNV-OS-F101 presents this set of curves for de-rating of yield strength for duplex stainless steels, and ordinary carbon steel.

The mechanical properties of duplex stainless steels can be reduced at temperatures above 20 C (68 F). An appropriate de-rating value, read off the above graph, is subtracted from the yield strength. The same stress de-rating applies to both the yield strength and ultimate strength.

From the above table, the characteristic yield strength at 100 C (212 F) for duplex with a nominal SMYS of 450 MPa is:

f y = SMYS - f y,temp

f y = 450 - 90 = 360 MPa (52.2 ksi)

Design for strength

273

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR p ( t ) b 1 p  p  li
LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR
p
(
t
)
b
1
p
p
li
e
 
SC
m
 Safety class factor –  sc
Safety Class
Low
Normal
High
Pressure containment
1.046
1.138
1.308
Other
1.04
1.14
1.26
 Material factor –  m
SLS/ULS/ALS
FLS
1.15
1.00

Recalling the pressure containment criteria, we finally have to specify the resistance factors, here defined by the safety class resistance factor and the material resistance factor.

DNV-OS-F101 BURSTING CRITERION  Pressure containment must fulfil the following criterion: p ( t )
DNV-OS-F101 BURSTING CRITERION
 Pressure containment must fulfil the
following criterion:
p
(
t
)
b
1
p
p
li
e
 
SC
m
 Where:
 p b (t 1 ) is the pressure containment resistance based
on minimum wall thickness t 1
 t 1 = t - t fab - t corr

Conventional pipeline design is based on straightforward principles of thin-walled pipe stresses modified with a safety factor to limit the allowable stresses in the design.

This defines the bursting criterion, where:

p li is the local incidental pressure

p e is the local external pressure

274

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

p b (t 1 ) is the pressure containment resistance based on minimum wall thickness t 1

SC is the safety class resistance factor

m is the material factor

PRESSURE CONTAINMENT RESISTANCE 2  t 2 p (t )  1  f 
PRESSURE CONTAINMENT
RESISTANCE
2
 t
2
p (t ) 
1
 f
b
1
cb
D  t
3
1
where
f
u
f
Min
f
;
cb
y
115 .

Two limit-states are defined for pressure containment and the governing criterion is the one giving the lower limiting pressure.

PRESSURE  Local incidental pressure  Ratio between incidental and design pressures ( inc )
PRESSURE
 Local incidental pressure
 Ratio between incidental and design pressures ( inc )
normally 1.1
 p  ρ
 g  (h  h )  p  γ  ρ
 g  h
 h
p li
inc
cont
ref
1
d
inc
cont
ref
1
 Local external pressure
 ρ
 g  depth
p e
seawater
LAT

The local, internal, incidental and external pressures are defined above.

Design for strength

275

BURSTING – SUMMARY  Theory  Thin wall theory relates pressure to hoop stress 
BURSTING – SUMMARY
 Theory
 Thin wall theory relates pressure to hoop stress
 Design pressure has many considerations
 Future pipeline requirements, hydrotest pressure,
surge pressure
 Design codes specify criteria for pressure
containment
 DNV-OS-F101 (limit-state)
 PD 8010, ASME B31.8 (allowable stress)
Any questions?

We have looked at the design of pipelines for pressure containment, to resist the bursting failure mode. To design for bursting, we need to predict the maximum operating pressure the pipeline will experience by anticipating the expected pressures during the field life. The predicted maximum pressure should account for current operating pressures and any possible future tie-ins. Also hydrotest and surge pressures should be accounted for in the selection of the suitable wall thickness.

Also provided are the design codes that specify criteria for pressure containment. The two approaches of the design codes for pressure containment were examined: limit-state design (DNV-OS-F101) and allowable stress design (PD 8010 and ASME B31.8).

276

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

COLLAPSE

COLLAPSE  External pressure  Collapse criterion  Buckle propagation  Buckle arrestors P o
COLLAPSE
 External pressure
 Collapse criterion
 Buckle propagation
 Buckle arrestors
P o

Collapse is caused by an external overpressure. Here we will look at calculation of the pipe resistance to this force (especially for deep water), the manner of collapse development and ways of minimising the risk.

Design for strength

277

EXTERNAL PRESSURE  External pressure: highest water level (HAT + storm surge)  Internal pressure:
EXTERNAL PRESSURE
 External pressure: highest water level
(HAT + storm surge)
 Internal pressure: normally atmospheric
for installation
Bundled pipelines can use
high-pressure nitrogen to
reduce external overpressure
on the carrier pipe

External pressure is due to the hydrostatic head of water. The external collapse analysis must therefore be based on the maximum water depth encountered.

COLLAPSE CRITERION  External pressure shall meet following criterion p  t  c 1
COLLAPSE CRITERION
 External pressure shall meet following
criterion
p
t
c
1
p
p
e
min
 γ
γ m
SC
 Characteristic resistance for external
pressure, p c , given by
D

2 2
 p
p
 p
  p
 p
 p
 f 
p c
el
c
p
c
el
p
0
t
1

Collapse depends on ovality, caused by fabrication tolerances and subsequent handling. External collapse of thin walled pipes is primarily driven by the elastic properties of the steel. Ovalisation of the pipe results in the hydrostatic forces on the flat sides being much larger than the hydrostatic forces on the ends. This creates moments within the pipe wall that tend to increase the ovalisation. When elastic and plastic resistance to this ovalisation is overcome, a runaway flattening of the pipe occurs.

278

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

The above criterion is taken from DNV-OS-F101. The characteristic resistance is given by solving the lower equation. This is essentially the same approach as PD 8010, although the inherent safety factor is different and the ovality f o is defined differently, having a less conservative lower limit.

COLLAPSE CRITERION  Where:  p el is the elastic collapse pressure for a perfect
COLLAPSE CRITERION
 Where:
 p el is the elastic collapse pressure for a perfect
tube given by:
3
2 
E
 
t 1
 
 D 
p
el
2
1  ν
 with t 1 = t - t corr - t fab

The collapse criterion uses t 2 rather than t 1 , so that the fabrication tolerance is not subtracted from the nominal wall thickness. In this equation:

E is the Young’s modulus of the pipe material (N/m 2 )

t is the pipeline wall thickness (m)

D is the pipeline diameter (m)

is the Poisson’s ratio of the pipe material

p el is the elastic collapse pressure for a perfect tube (N/m 2 )

Design for strength

279

COLLAPSE CRITERION  And:  p p is the plastic collapse pressure for a perfect
COLLAPSE CRITERION
 And:
 p p is the plastic collapse pressure for a perfect
tube given by:
 t
1
p
f
α
 2
p
y
fab
D
 The ovality is given by:
D
D
max
min
f
0
D

fab is the fabrication factor, which depends on the linepipe manufacturing process and allows for the effects of cold working, giving a variation between tensile and compressive strength.

The values for the fabrication factor are:

Seamless = 1.00

UO and TRB and ERW = 0.93

UOE = 0.85

TRB is Through Roller Bending (not normal for our pipe sizes).

SOLVING  How to solve for p c D   2 2  p
SOLVING
 How to solve for p c
D

2 2
 p
p
 p
  p
 p
 p
 f 
p c
el
c
p
c
el
p
0
t
1
 Spreadsheet ‘goalseek’ or Mathcad ‘find’
 DNV-OS-F101 gives analytical solution
method

280

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

The formula for characteristic collapse pressure is a cubic equation and is not simply solved. The use of spreadsheets or mathematical packages such as Mathcad simplify the process. DNV-OS-F101 has also provided an analytical solution, given below.

SOLVING  2 b  p 2 c   p  p  p
SOLVING
2
b  p
2
c
  p 
p
p
f
D  
el
p
p
el
0
t
  p
d  p
el
p
1
1
 1
1
2
1
2
3
u 
 b
c
v 
b
 bc  d
3
3
2
 27
3
 v
 Φ 
 1
Φ  cos
y
  
2
u
cos
3
(
u
)
 3
3 
b
p
y
c 
3

This is the standard method for solving a cubic equation (rather like that for a quadratic).

DIFFERENT FORMULAE  At low D/t there are various conflicting empirical formulae  Safety factors
DIFFERENT FORMULAE
 At low D/t there are various conflicting
empirical formulae
 Safety factors not always explicit
16000
14000
12000
8000
6000
4000
2000
Comparison of
existing collapse
prediction methods
Water depth m (ft)

As mentioned previously, there are various formulae available for predicting the collapse of pipe. As illustrated in the figure above, there is significant variation in the predictions in the deep water, low D/t region.

Design for strength

281

BLUESTREAM  Twin 609.6 mm (24 in) pipelines across Black Sea  Maximum depth of
BLUESTREAM
 Twin 609.6 mm (24 in)
pipelines across
Black Sea
 Maximum depth of
2150 m (7000 ft)
 Wall thickness
31.8 mm (1.25 in)
 Experimental work
to confirm collapse
behaviour

As a consequence of the concern regarding the collapse behaviour of thick walled pipelines, the Bluestream project undertook experimental work to confirm the collapse behaviour for their specific application.

BUCKLE PROPAGATION  Propagation pressure < hydrostatic pressure  Hence once started, buckle ‘zips’ along
BUCKLE PROPAGATION
 Propagation pressure < hydrostatic
pressure
 Hence once started, buckle ‘zips’ along
pipeline
p
t
pr
2
p
e
γ .γ
m
SC
where
2 5
.
t
2
p
35
f .α
pr
y
fab
 
 D 
 
 with t 2 = t - t corr

The external pressure required to cause a buckle to propagate is lower than that required to collapse the pipe. If the pipe is designed to resist buckle propagation, any local buckle accidentally introduced will not propagate. This is normally the case for pipelines installed in shallow water, where wall thickness is governed by internal pressure containment. As water depths increase, buckle propagation design begins to dominate.

282

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

It is possible to design pipelines to exceed the buckle propagation pressure and design instead to the external collapse pressure with adequate mitigation measures. These include the use of buckle arrestors to limit the damage caused if a buckle is initiated.

Since buckles are normally caused during installation and the worst conditions for buckle propagation also occur during installation when the pipeline is empty, this forms the principal design case.

It is normal to use 100% of any corrosion allowance in the analysis.

BUCKLE ARRESTORS  Need to stop collapse wave passing arrestor  Types:  Internal ring
BUCKLE ARRESTORS
 Need to stop collapse
wave passing arrestor
 Types:
 Internal ring
 Integral ring
 Welded external ring
 Welded external sleeve
 Heavy walled pipe joint
 Grouted external ring
After: Mousselli, 1981

Several types of buckle arrestors are shown above. They all work on the same principal and locally increase the bending stiffness of the pipe wall.

Design for strength

283

COLLAPSE – SUMMARY  External over-pressure  Worst case = installation at highest water level
COLLAPSE – SUMMARY
 External over-pressure
 Worst case = installation at highest water level
 Collapse criterion
 Check for ovality
 Buckle propagation
 Propagation pressure < collapse pressure
 Buckle arrestors
 Constrain buckle propagation to a minimal length
Any questions?

The collapse of pipelines occurs due to external over-pressure loading. The worst case of this over-pressure will usually be when the pipeline is being installed with atmospheric internal pressure combined with the peak external hydrostatic pressure that occurs with highest water level.

The criteria for collapse was introduced (taken from the DNV-OS-F101 and PD 8010 codes). The collapse is driven by the ovality of the pipeline and so codes specify maximum allowable ovality for installed pipelines.

In the event of a hydrostatic collapse, there is then the risk that the buckle will propagate along the line. The critical buckle propagation pressure is less than the critical pressure for hydrostatic collapse. Therefore, if collapse does occur due to external pressure, then the buckle will propagate rapidly along the line until there is some form of constraint or reduction in external pressure applied. Buckle arrestors can be used to constrain the propagation of buckles. They are effectively a short section of pipeline with increased wall thickness.

284

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

BUCKLING AND COMBINED STRESSES

BUCKLE INITIATION  External overpressure  Local initiation due to bending, axial forces (including thermal)
BUCKLE INITIATION
 External overpressure
 Local initiation due to bending, axial forces
(including thermal)
 Initiation due to excessive bending at touch-
down during lay
 Initiation due to accidental/environmental
loads, e.g. trawl gear

By far the most common cause of local buckling is due to excessive bending at the sag bend during pipelay. Normally, a buckle detector is towed along by the laybarge inside the pipeline, enabling the barge to back up and repair buckles on detection.

The PLUTO pipelines, installed between the Isle of Wight and Cherbourg following the Normandy landings in WWII, buckled and collapsed due to hydrostatic pressure. The lines were then filled with fuel and pressurised, blowing them back up. The pipes operated normally – it was not realised until afterwards that the collapse had occurred, when flow rates were initially lower than expected.

Design for strength

285

LOCAL BUCKLE INITIATION  Depends on combination of:  Longitudinal load  Pipe bending moments
LOCAL BUCKLE INITIATION
 Depends on combination of:
 Longitudinal load
 Pipe bending moments
 Hoop stresses
 ‘Cook-book’ formulae in:
 PD 8010, Part 2, Annex G
 DNV-OS-F101

The localised buckling of the pipe is analogous to the folding of a drinking straw. As the pipe bends, it places the extreme fibres in tension and compression. To partially relieve these stresses, the pipe deflects, ovalising to flatten the areas under stress. The ovalisation reduces the bending stiffness of the pipe. Eventually a runaway point is reached and the pipe buckles, forming “pinch points” that may tear or fracture, with the potential for loss of contents. Any axial compression in the pipe adds to the tendency to form a buckle.

COMBINED STRESSES  ASD codes specify limits on equivalent stress  Combined longitudinal, hoop and
COMBINED STRESSES
 ASD codes specify limits on equivalent
stress
 Combined longitudinal, hoop and shear stresses
 Von Mises criterion
2
2
2
      3
 eq
h
l
h
l

286

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

ASD codes specify combined stress criteria. Using suitable yield criteria for combined stress, normally Von Mises, allowable combined equivalent stress is set close to yield. The following slide indicates the ASD code equivalent stress limits.

Whilst an equivalent stress criterion can be used to prevent buckling, it is not representative of an ultimate limit-state. Accordingly, it is not employed in DNV-OS- F101, other than as a simple first-pass methodology.

In the above equation:

eq = equivalent stress

h = hoop stress

l = longitudinal stress

= torsional or shear stress

VON MISES CRITERION  Different codes have different limits Design code Maximum Allowable Combined Stress
VON MISES CRITERION
 Different codes have different limits
Design code
Maximum Allowable Combined Stress
Construction phase
During operation
USA
ASME B31.4 & B31.8
not covered
90
% SMYS
UK
100
% SMYS
96
% SMYS
PD 8010
Norway
96
% SMYS
96
% SMYS
DNV 96
Netherlands
80
to 100 % SMYS
80
to 100 % SMYS
NEN 3650
Canada
CAN-Z183 & Z184
90
% SMYS
90
% SMYS
International
100
% SMYS
90
% SMYS
ISO 13623

Von Mises is normally used in pipeline design. Radial stresses are ignored (internal and external pressure). Different codes have different allowable stresses, as shown in the table above.

Design for strength

287

PIPE WALL STRESS – WORKED EXAMPLE  What is the maximum allowable bending moment of
PIPE WALL STRESS – WORKED
EXAMPLE
 What is the maximum allowable bending
moment of a spoolpiece when subject to the
hydrostatic test pressure?
 Assume no axial restraint conditions
 Assume no torque
 Simplify the Von Mises equation
2
2
2
       3
eq
h
l
h
l
2
2
  
0.75 
eq
b
h

The Von Mises equation can be simplified by removing the torque term and replacing the axial stress due to internal pressure by half the hoop stress.

PIPE WALL STRESS – WORKED EXAMPLE  Pipe OD = 273.1 mm (10¾ in) 
PIPE WALL STRESS – WORKED
EXAMPLE
 Pipe OD = 273.1 mm (10¾ in)
 Wall thickness = 12.7 mm (½ in)
 X52 grade – SMYS = 358 MPa (52 ksi)
 Design pressure = 9.24 MPa (1340 psi)
 Operating depth = 90 m (295 ft)
 Seawater density = 1025 kg/m 3 (64 lb/ft³)
 Equivalent stress design factor = 0.90

288

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

PIPE WALL STRESS – WORKED EXAMPLE  Internal pressure 1.5 p p t = 13.86
PIPE WALL STRESS – WORKED
EXAMPLE
 Internal pressure
1.5 p
p t
= 13.86 MPa (2010 psi)
des
 External pressure

g  depth
= 0.905 MPa (131 psi)
p ex
sw
PIPE WALL STRESS – WORKED EXAMPLE  Hoop stress D o σ  (p 
PIPE WALL STRESS – WORKED
EXAMPLE
 Hoop stress
D
o
σ
(p
p
)
hd
t
ex
2  t
= 139.3 MPa (20 200 psi)
 Bending stress
2
2
σ
 V σ
 0.75 σ
b
F
y
hd
= 299.3 MPa (43 410 psi)

In these equations:

V F = equivalent stress design factor

y = SMYS

Design for strength

289

PIPE WALL STRESS – WORKED EXAMPLE  2 nd moment of area   4
PIPE WALL STRESS – WORKED
EXAMPLE
 2 nd moment of area
4
4
I 
D
 D
o
i
64
 Bending moment
 I
 2
M b
 b
= 193.4 kN m (142 600 ft lbf)
D
o

Where:

D i = internal diameter of steel pipe

D o = outside diameter of steel pipe

I = second moment of area of pipe

M b = bending moment

b = bending stress

LOCAL BUCKLE CRITERIA  DNV-OS-F101  Load-controlled  Bending moment, axial force and internal overpressure
LOCAL BUCKLE CRITERIA
 DNV-OS-F101
 Load-controlled
 Bending moment, axial force and internal
overpressure
 Bending moment, axial force and external
overpressure
 Displacement-controlled
 Axial strain and internal overpressure
 Axial strain and external overpressure

DNV-OS-F101 defines a number of different local buckle criteria for different load conditions. It is easy to visualise why the buckle criteria will differ between a pipeline subject to internal overpressure (which is trying to keep the pipe round), with one

290

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

subject to external overpressure (which is trying to flatten the pipe). In a displacement- controlled condition, the response to axial and bending loads is known and therefore replaced with a defined strain component.

LOCAL BUCKLE CRITERIA  Consider bending moment, effective axial force and internal overpressure  An
LOCAL BUCKLE CRITERIA
 Consider bending moment, effective axial
force and internal overpressure
An operating pipeline
 Criterion is:
2
2
2
 
M
 γ
γ
S 
p
 p
Sd
SC
m
Sd
i
e
  γ
  α
 1
 γ m
sc
α
α
p
 S
2
  M
c
p
C
P
 
α  p
c
b
3 
 Wall thickness t 2 to be used

All of the criteria are clearly defined in DNV-OS-F101 so we will not consider them here.

To explain, however, the way the criteria are defined and built up, we consider one case here. We look at the criterion for load-controlled conditions with internal overpressure, (the load representative of an operating pipeline on the seabed).

Design for strength

291

LOADS  Design loads given as: M  M  γ  γ  M
LOADS
 Design loads given as:
M
M
γ
γ
M
γ
M
γ
γ
M
γ
γ
Sd
F
F
c
E
E
I
F
c
A
A
c
S
S
γ
γ
S
γ
S
γ
γ
S
γ
γ
Sd
F
F
c
E
E
I
F
c
A
A
c
 Partial safety factors
 Functional loads
Environmental loads
 Accidental loads
Pressure loads
 Conditional load effect

The format for the design loads is shown. These incorporate all load sources and partial safety factors to account for the probability of occurrence together.

LOAD FACTORS  Load effect factors and load combinations Limit state/ Functional Environmen- Interference
LOAD FACTORS
 Load effect factors and load combinations
Limit state/
Functional
Environmen- Interference
Accidental
Load
loads
tal loads
loads
loads
combination
 F
 E
 F
 A
SLS &
a 1.2
0.7
-
-
ULS
b 1.1
1.3
1.1
-
FLS
1.0
1.0
1.0
-
ALS
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
 Conditional load effect factors
Condition
 c
Pipeline resting on uneven seabed or snaked
1.07
Continuously stiff supported
0.82
System pressure test
0.93
Otherwise
1.00

The partial safety factors and the load combination cases are shown above. For the SLS and ULS criteria, there are two load combinations to consider.

The conditional load effect factors can be combined cumulatively if appropriate. For example, hydrotest on an uneven seabed should have a conditional factor of 1.07 x 0.93 = 1.0.

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

BUCKLE CRITERION  Criterion is: 2   2 2    M 
BUCKLE CRITERION
Criterion is:
2
2
2
M
 γ
γ
S 
p
 p
 
  
Sd
SC
m
Sd
i
e
γ
 γ
 
 1
m
sc
p
α
α
 S
2
  M
c
p
C
P
 p
c
b
3 
2
 Plastic moment capacity
M
 f  D  t t
p
y
2
2
 Plastic axial force
S
 f
π
D  t
t
p
y
2
2

The remaining components of the criterion equation are shown above.

The flow stress parameter accounts for strain hardening and is given below:

BUCKLE CRITERION f  Flow stress parameter,  u  1    c
BUCKLE CRITERION
f
Flow stress parameter,
u
 1 
c
f
y
D
β 0 . 5
for
15
t
2
D
60 
t
D
β 
2
for
15
60
90
t
2
D
β 
0
for
60
t
2

Note that is not a single function graph, but is dependant on other parameters.

Design for strength

293

BUCKLE CRITERION  Accounting for D/t  p  i 1 -ββ for  0
BUCKLE CRITERION
Accounting for D/t
p
i
1
-ββ
for
0 7
.
p
b
α 
p
p
i
i
1 3
-
β
1
-
p  
for
0 7
.
p
p
b
b
BUCKLING – SUMMARY  Buckling is a result of combined loading  Axial, bending, and
BUCKLING – SUMMARY
 Buckling is a result of combined loading
 Axial, bending, and hoop stresses
 Buckle initiation
 Excessive bending during pipelay
 Also
 Accidental and environmental loading
 Thermal expansion during operation
 Different codes have different approaches
 ASD – equivalent stress criteria (Von Mises)
 Limit-state – load or displacement-controlled criteria
Any questions?

The principal critical load case for buckling failure is the excessive pipe bending that occurs during pipelay. With this case, the section of pipeline in the sagbend of the laycurve is subjected to significant bending and axial stresses combined with external pressure. Other load cases that can result in buckling of the pipe are accidental loads (e.g trawl gear impact), environmental loads (e.g bending in pipe spans) and buckles arising from thermal expansion of the pipeline.

The design code approaches to preventing buckle initiation have been examined. In summary, the allowable stress design codes use an equivalent stress criterion to

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

determine the allowable bending, axial, hoop and shear stresses to prevent buckle

initiation.

codes give criteria for various critical load or

displacement-controlled cases.

The

limit-state design

Design for strength

295

STRAIN-BASED DESIGN

STRAIN-BASED DESIGN  Allowing the pipe wall to go beyond yield  OK if strain
STRAIN-BASED DESIGN
 Allowing the pipe wall to go beyond yield
 OK if strain known and not repeated
 Reeling (radius limited)
 J-tubes (radius limited)
 Thermal compression (first time only)
 Not OK for strain-independent loads
 Wave loading
 Internal pressure
 Self weight

Strain-based design means allowing the pipe to go beyond yield. In certain circumstances, this can be done safely. Indeed, it has been done for many years in reeling and J-tube pulls. More recently in high temperature lines, the pipeline has been designed to yield in compression on its first thermal cycle. This effectively shortens it such that when it cools down it goes into tension and when it subsequently cycles, no further yielding takes place. In these cases, the strain is always predictable and non- cyclic.

Conditions in which it is not possible to use strain-based design are for strain- independent loads. These are loads that persist even if the pipe yields. Examples are wave loading, internal pressure and self-weight.

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

STRAIN-BASED DESIGN PRINCIPLES  Many codes (including ASD codes) allow strain-based design  Normally applied
STRAIN-BASED DESIGN
PRINCIPLES
 Many codes (including ASD codes) allow
strain-based design
 Normally applied to controlled bending of
pipes
 Failure modes
 Local buckle
 Cumulative strain (work hardening)
 Low cycle fatigue

Whereas traditional design methods have been based on yield of the pipe material being the limit-state, strain-based design uses the ultimate tensile stress as the limit. This means that controlled plastic deformation of the pipe is allowed.

The application of strain-based design is limited to conditions of controlled bending.

APPLICATION OF STRAIN-BASED DESIGN  J-tube pull  Reeling  High temperature lines  Lateral
APPLICATION OF STRAIN-BASED
DESIGN
 J-tube pull
 Reeling
 High temperature lines
 Lateral buckles
 Trawl gear pullover

Typical applications of strain-based design are shown above.

Design for strength

297

J-tube pulls, reeling and high temperature lines have been mentioned before. For the cases of lateral buckling and trawl gear pullover, it is possible to predict the deflection that would arise from the maximum expected load, often predicted using finite element analysis techniques. Once these deflections are known a strain-based design can then be used, such as the DNV-OS-F101 combined loading criteria for a displacement- controlled condition.

DESIGN PROCESS Start Load Displacement Combined controlled controlled loading criteria criteria Pressure
DESIGN PROCESS
Start
Load
Displacement
Combined
controlled
controlled
loading
criteria
criteria
Pressure
containment
criteria
Yes
 1,nom  0.4%
System
No
collapse
ECA on
criteria
installation
girth welds
 1,nom = Total nominal strain
Supplementary
Yes
 p = Accumulated plastic strain
requirement P
 1,nom  1.0% or
 p  2.0%
No
Finish

The use of the cumulative strain requirements within the design process is illustrated above.

DNV-OS-F101: 2007 STRAIN CRITERIA TABLE 5-10  Strain requirements Total strain  Total nominal strain
DNV-OS-F101: 2007
STRAIN CRITERIA TABLE 5-10
 Strain requirements
Total strain
 Total nominal strain 0.4%:
SMYS
No additional requirements
Engineering critical
 Total nominal strain >0.4%:
assessment (ECA)
ECA
Plastic strain
 Total nominal strain >1.0%:
Additional
testing
Additional material tests –
supplementary requirement P
0.4
0.5
1.0
% strain
 Plastic strain degrades fracture resistance
of material each time it is yielded
Additional material tests also required if
accumulated plastic strain exceeds 2.0%
 Reeling requires ECA and additional testing
Stress

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

The two ways of describing strain according to DNV-OS-F101: 2007 are total strain and plastic strain; the latter being unrecoverable when tension is released. These are shown in the graph above for a point with 1.0% plastic strain 1.3% total strain.

Each time a pipeline is yielded plastically (during reeling or otherwise), then the damage caused by that strain is deemed to be cumulative. That is, the plastic strains are added together to give ‘accumulated plastic strain’. The strain for each deformation operation is added irrespective of sign (compressive or tensile).

When the total nominal strain exceeds 0.4%, an engineering critical assessment (ECA) must be performed.

The criteria for additional requirements if the total nominal strain exceeds 1.0% or if the accumulated plastic strain exceeds 2.0% are shown above. The additional requirements determine the fracture toughness of the material and, particularly, the welds. The tests are fracture assessment to BS 7910 level 3. Additional tests may include crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) tests on specimens of the weld. This test will be usually based on the largest weld defects allowed by the welding specification.

With reeled pipe, the accumulated plastic strain is always more than 2%, so the highest assessment regime is demanded. Typically, the accumulated plastic strain is closer to

10%.

References BS 7910:2005, Guide on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures. DNV Offshore standard OS-F101 : 2007 Submarine Pipeline Systems.

DNV SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENT P  Seamless C-Mn and duplex stainless  More restrictive dimensional tolerances
DNV SUPPLEMENTARY
REQUIREMENT P
 Seamless C-Mn and duplex stainless
 More restrictive dimensional tolerances
 Diameter, thickness, ovality and straightness
 Testing – before and after deformation
 Actual yield stress above quoted SMYS
 Yield to ultimate ratio
 Elongation
 Vickers hardness
 Base metal, weld metal and HAZ
 Charpy V-notch impact toughness

Section 5 D 1100 and section 7 I 300 of DNV-OS-F101: 2007 describe the supplementary requirement, linepipe for plastic deformation (P).

It only applies to seamless linepipe of carbon-manganese (C-Mn) steel and duplex stainless steels. Tables are provided in section 7 for C-Mn yield strengths between 245

Design for strength

299

MPa and 555 MPa (35.5 ksi and 80.5 ksi) and stainless with 22% and 25% chrome. However, seam-welded linepipe and other materials can be used subject to agreement.

Testing is required on samples that closely follow the deformations likely to be encountered during the reeling on and off process, as well any in-service conditions.

These tests on both the finished pipe, and the aged-and-deformed (tension and compression) samples include:

Range of maximum to minimum measured yield stress – no greater than 100 MPa (14.5 ksi)

Yield to ultimate ratio – no more than 0.90 on finished pipe and 0.92 or 0.93 (depending upon material) after deformation regime

Elongation – a minimum of 20% on finished pipe and 15% after deformation regime

Maximum Vickers hardness on the base metal, weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) following deformation – HV 10 between 270 and 350 (depending upon material)

Minimum Charpy V-notch energy for impact toughness – mean values (depending upon material) between 27 J and 56 J (19.9 lbf ft and 41.3 lbf ft) along with appropriate single values. Test temperature is dependent upon wall thickness and product (gas or liquid) and is usually 0 °C, 10 °C or 20 °C (0 °F, 18 °F or 36 °F) below the minimum operating temperature.

Section 6 D 400, 7 G 300 and tables 7-17 to 7-19 provide details of the enhanced dimensional tolerances required. This is of particular importance at the pipe ends to ensure that the sections of linepipe on either side of the weld are as similar as possible in their cross-sections.

IMPLICATIONS  Implications of cumulative strain are:  Lower fatigue resistance  Defects grow 
IMPLICATIONS
 Implications of cumulative strain are:
 Lower fatigue resistance
 Defects grow
 Increased strain hardening
 Increased strength
 Increased brittleness

The main implication of excessive cumulative strain is a reduced resistance to fatigue. The reduced fatigue resistance results in the growth of defects through cyclic loading. This is a particular concern for the growth of cracks and defects, which most commonly occur in the welds. Cumulative strain also increases the brittleness of the pipe and welds. This can lead to brittle fracture of pipe sections undergoing minimal increases in plastic deformation.

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

LOCAL BUCKLE  Reeling gives large plastic strains  Section (tangential) stiffness defines resistance to
LOCAL BUCKLE
 Reeling gives large plastic strains
 Section (tangential) stiffness defines
resistance to buckling
 Main factors affecting section stiffness
 D/t and YS/TS ratios
Stress
Local
Plastic
TS
buckle
TS
Pipe
YS
Tension
N
A
Reel
Compression
hub
Elastic
Strain
Reel hub
citsalP
Elastic

Reeling of pipe causes large plastic strains due to the large applied bending moments. Plastic strains will be largest when the pipe must be deformed around the highest curvature, which occurs when the first reel is made around the hub of the spool. Subsequent layers of pipe reeled onto the hub will undergo smaller, but still significant plastic strains.

At high curvatures, the plastic deformations may be large enough to cause a permanent local buckle, or kink, in the compressed section of the pipe. The ability to resist this local buckling is related to the section stiffness of the pipe. The section stiffness is governed by both geometric and material properties. The section stiffness provided by the geometry of the pipe is dependant on the D/t ratio. The section stiffness provided by the material is the ratio of the yield stress (YS) to the tensile stress (TS). As the pipe is entering the plastic range of material response, then the lower the YS/TS ratio, the more resistant to local buckling the pipe material will be.

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301

MATERIAL / DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES  Section stiffness may differ between adjacent pipe joints  Causes
MATERIAL / DIMENSIONAL
TOLERANCES
 Section stiffness may differ between
adjacent pipe joints
 Causes discontinuities and strain concentrations
 Section stiffness variations due to
Stiffer pipe joint
 Material properties
Weaker
 Dimensions
pipe
joint
 Strain concentration
may give local buckle
Local
buckle
Reel
 Occurring at pipe joint
hub

Material and dimensional tolerances may result in the sectional properties being different between adjacent pipe joints that are welded together and then spooled onto the reel. Bending of the connected pipe joints having different sectional properties will result in there being strain concentrations occurring at the pipe joints. The strain concentrations can become large and cause a local buckle at the pipe joint.

To prevent local buckles occurring it becomes important to ensure tighter tolerances on dimensional and material properties than would usually be required for other installation methods, such as S-lay and J-lay.

MITIGATION  Specify:  Tight thickness fabrication tolerance (D/t ratio)  Low variation in yield
MITIGATION
 Specify:
 Tight thickness fabrication tolerance (D/t ratio)
 Low variation in yield stress
 Low YS/TS ratio
 Applying a high and steady back tension during
reeling
 Similar problem for girth (hoop) welds
 Over-match weld properties to avoid excessive
strain in weld

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

To mitigate the risk of local buckles occurring during the reeling process it will be necessary to specify the following to the pipe manufacturers:

Low thickness fabrication tolerance. A tighter manufacturing tolerance on the wall thickness will be required to ensure joints have similar D/t ratios.

Low variation in yield stress. Usually a minimum yield stress will be specified. For reeled pipe it may be necessary to specify a maximum yield stress as well.

Low yield stress (YS) to tensile stress (TS) ratio. Materials should be selected with relatively large differences between yield and tensile strengths. In general the higher strength materials have lower ratios.

High and steady back tension should be applied when reeling. A higher tension will generally limit the difference in curvature between two adjacent pipe joints as they are reeled onto the drum. This has been found to be one of the easiest remedies available to reduce the risk of pipe buckling during reeling.

These methods for improving the resistance to buckling during reeling form the basis for DNV’s supplementary material requirements for reeling, as detailed in DNV-OS-F101. More detailed information is available in the reference:

Crome, Tim; “Reeling of pipelines with thick insulation coating, finite element analysis of local buckling”, OTC, Houston, 1999.

OVALISATION  Definition of ovality D D  D min max min Ovality  D
OVALISATION
 Definition of ovality
D
D
 D
min
max
min
Ovality 
D
 D
D
max
max
min
 Equation
2
2
2 r
 
f
 1 
 
reel
R
 t
reel
where
f
Ovalisation of pipe
reel
 Poisson' s ratio
R
Reel radius
reel
Mean pipe radius
t  wall thickness
r
(
D
t
)
/
2

The definition of ovality above is taken from API RP 1111. Please note that there is an alternative definition in PD 8010 and DNV-OS-F101 which is about twice this, i.e. the difference in diameters over the nominal diameter. So it is important to know which you are using, and to make sure that the equations are consistent.

This slide shows the ovalisation equation as defined by Brazier on elastic tubes, which is a conservative estimate in the plastic region.

This equation does not give the final ovality value for the installed pipe as some roundness is regained during the straightening operation.

Design for strength

303

BUCKLING FORMULA  API RP 1111   P  P   o i
BUCKLING FORMULA
 API RP 1111
P
P
o
i
 g ()
 g
()
P
b
c
b
 g() =(1+20·) -1 is the collapse reduction factor
  is the ovality
 b = t/(2·D)

The bucking formula specified in API RP 1111 provides a sound basis for predicting buckling. For reeling on and off the internal and external pressure are the same allowing the expression to be simplified as shown.

On the reel the bending is deflection limited. However during the reeling on process the pipe just off the reel is not deflection limited yet and is subject to the maximum bending moment. It is in this location that local buckling tends to occur during the reeling process.

IMPLICATIONS AND MITIGATION  Implication  Hydrostatic pressure greater on flatter sides of pipe 
IMPLICATIONS AND MITIGATION
 Implication
 Hydrostatic pressure greater on flatter sides of pipe
 Lead to collapse in deep water
 Mitigation
 Tight fabrication tolerances
 Care when handling
Dmin
Dmax

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

Ovalisation of the pipe can significantly reduce the pipe’s ability to withstand hydrostatic pressures, which is a particular problem for pipes installed in deep water. When the pipe is ovalised, the hydrostatic forces are larger over the flatter side of the pipe due to the relatively larger surface area. This difference in applied external load over the pipe circumference results in moments within the pipe that tend to increase the ovalisation. This feedback loop can lead to a rapid collapse of the pipe. With the collapse occurring at one point along the pipe, it is then very likely it will propagate along the pipe until there is a significant change in pipe section (e.g. a buckle arrestor) or applied pressure (lower water depth).

To prevent external collapse, tighter fabrication tolerances are required to ensure there is limited and acceptable tolerance on the pipe diameters after manufacture. Also care is required when handling the pipe to ensure it cannot be ovalised. This becomes a significant issue when the pipe is reeled onto the drum as ovalisation can occur from the bending of the pipe and the crushing that results from the tension, as discussed previously.

FINAL OVALISATION  Cyclic loading tests by Kyriakides – bend then re-straighten  Recovers approx
FINAL OVALISATION
 Cyclic loading tests by Kyriakides – bend
then re-straighten
 Recovers approx 75% of bending
ovalisation
 f 1 0.75
f final
reel

When reeling pipe that is at risk of hydrostatic collapse due to ovalisation, then it is desirable to know the ovalisation that will remain in the pipe once it has been reeled-off the drum. Research into this subject has been conducted by Kyriakides (see reference below) who studied the bending and re-straightening of pipe. He found that for pure bending, approximately three-quarters of the maximum ovalisation can be recovered.

Kyriakides, S and Yeh, M. K. (1985), “Factors Affecting Pipe Collapse” Engineering Mechanics Research Laboratory, EMRL Report No 85/1, A.G.A Catalogue No. L51479 Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, The University of Texas at Austin.

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305

REELING – SUMMARY  Need to have ability to accurately estimate the following  Cumulative
REELING – SUMMARY
 Need to have ability to accurately estimate
the following
 Cumulative strain build-up
 Potential for local buckling
 Recoverable ovality
 Crushing
 Mitigations
 Improve tolerances on materials and pipe geometry
 Reel onto spool under high back-tension
Any questions?

Analysis methods are required to enable accurate prediction of the pipe response to the high degree of bending required in reeling operations.

Of principal concern will be the following design issues:

Build-up of cumulative strain. Generated during reeling on and off the spool.

Local buckles in the pipe wall. A result of the large bending strains.

Amount of ovality recovered. Maximum allowable ovality is required to ensure no collapse under hydrostatic pressure.

Ability to withstand the crushing pressures generated when reeling the pipe onto the spool under a high back-tension.

To mitigate the above design issues we need tighter control on the manufacturing tolerances of reeled pipe, in particular the tolerances on material properties and geometry. Reeling the pipe onto the spool under high tension can prevent high stress concentrations, which will also alleviate some of the above issues.

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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

STRAIN – SUMMARY  Pipe wall yields  Used for cases where strain:  Is
STRAIN – SUMMARY
 Pipe wall yields
 Used for cases where strain:
 Is known
 Can be controlled
 Codes
 Integral within limit-state codes
 ASD allows strain-based design for special cases
 Failure modes
 Buckling, cumulative strain and low cycle fatigue
Any questions?

Strain-based design can be used for strain-dependant loads that result in the yielding of the pipe wall, provided that the strain is known, can be controlled and will not be repeated.

The limit-state design codes provide a strain-based design approach as an integral part of the design process. Some allowable stress design codes provide a strain-based design approach for special cases only. The failure modes considered by the design codes when undertaking a strain-based design are buckling, cumulative strain and low cycle fatigue.

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307

WORKED EXAMPLE

DESIGN PROCESS Start Load Displacement Combined controlled controlled loading criteria criteria Pressure
DESIGN PROCESS
Start
Load
Displacement
Combined
controlled
controlled
loading
criteria
criteria
Pressure
containment
criteria
Yes
 1,nom  0.4%
System
No
collapse
ECA on
criteria
installation
girth welds
 1,nom = Total nominal strain
Supplementary
No
 p = Accumulated plastic strain
requirement P
 1,nom  1.0% or
 p  2.0%
Yes
Finish

In this worked example we are considering the pressure containment, system collapse and combined loading criteria as shown above.

308

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

WORKED EXAMPLE: FLOW CHART START Define pressures Select pressures for pressure for hydrostatic containment criteria
WORKED EXAMPLE: FLOW CHART
START
Define pressures
Select pressures
for pressure
for hydrostatic
containment criteria
collapse
Select wall
thickness and define
minimum thickness
Check for
hydrostatic collapse
Increase
Increase
Check pressure
OK?
wall
No
wall
containment
thickness
Yes
thickness
criteria
Repeat for
combined loading
OK?
No
Yes
END
WORKED EXAMPLE: DIAGRAM Reference height 20 m MSL (65.6 ft) 16 m H max 5
WORKED EXAMPLE: DIAGRAM
Reference height
20 m
MSL
(65.6 ft)
16 m
H max
5 m
(52.5 ft)
h tide
LAT
(16.4 ft)
Maximum and minimum water depth
150 m (492 ft)
Pipeline section
Riser section

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309

WORKED EXAMPLE: DATA  Data for a gas line (Imperial units in red)  OD
WORKED EXAMPLE: DATA
 Data for a gas line (Imperial units in red)
 OD = 323.9 mm (12¾ in)
 X65 hence SMYS = 448 MPa (65 ksi)
 SMTS = 530 MPa (77 ksi)
 Contents density  cont = 100 kg/m 3 (6.24 lb/ft 3 )
 Corrosion allowance t corr = 3 mm (0.118 in)
 Design pressure P d = 9 MPa (1.3 ksi)
 Reference height above LAT = 20 m (65.6 ft)
 Maximum temperature = 40 °C (104 °F)
 Seawater density = 1025 kg/m 3 (64.0 lb/ft 3 )
WORKED EXAMPLE: DATA  Bending moments and axial forces  Functional bending moment M F
WORKED EXAMPLE: DATA
 Bending moments and axial forces
 Functional bending moment M F = 180 kNm
(133 ·10 3 lbf ft)
 Environmental bending moment M E = 0 Nm (0 lbf ft)
 Incidental bending moment M I = 0 Nm (0 lbf ft)
 Accidental bending moment M A = 0 Nm (0 lbf ft)
 Functional axial force S F = 600 kN (135 ·10 3 lbf)
 Environmental axial force S E = 0 N (0 lbf)
 Incidental axial force S I = 0 N (0 lbf)
 Accidental axial force S A = 0 N (0 lbf)

310

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

WORKED EXAMPLE: DATA  Environmental conditions  Maximum depth (LAT) = 150 m (492 ft)
WORKED EXAMPLE: DATA
 Environmental conditions
 Maximum depth (LAT) = 150 m (492 ft)
 Minimum depth (LAT) = 150 m (492 ft)
 Assuming level seabed
so that depth is constant h min(LAT) = h max(LAT)
 Storm surge, tide, etc. h tide = 5 m (16.4 ft)
 Maximum wave height H max = 16 m (52.5 ft)
WORKED EXAMPLE: DATA  DNV load effect factors  For interference loads γ  0
WORKED EXAMPLE: DATA
 DNV load effect factors
 For interference loads
γ  0
F
 For functional loads
γ  12 .
F
 For environmental loads
γ 
0 . 7
E
 For accidental loads
γ  0
A
 For condition loads
γ  107 .
c

Design for strength

311

WORKED EXAMPLE: PRESSURE  As water denser than contents base pressures on minimum water depth
WORKED EXAMPLE: PRESSURE
 As water denser than contents base
pressures on minimum water depth
 Local incidental pressure
p
p
ρ
g
h
h
P
γ
ρ
g
h
li
inc
cont
ref
i
d
inc
cont
6
p
9  10
11 .
100  9 . 81
0
 
(
170
)
101 . MPa
li
0

557 6
.

3
p
13 .  10
11 .
6 . 24
 1 46
.
ksi
li
2
12

Note that:

SI differentiates between the units of mass and force, therefore requires an acceleration due to gravity (g) to determine a pressure. Whereas, if calculating a pressure using the above equation and working in U.S. units, no explicit differentiation is made and so gravitational acceleration is not required. That is: the g term is not needed if density is input in lb/ft³ and the forces output in lbf.

The U.S. unit equation also divides by 12 2 to convert from square feet to square inches.

WORKED EXAMPLE: PRESSURE  Local external pressure    g depth   1.51
WORKED EXAMPLE: PRESSURE
 Local external pressure
 
g depth
 1.51 MPa
p e
seawater
LAT
 depth
64.0 492
 seawater
LAT
p 
 
0.22 ksi
e
2
12
12 2
* please see note above

312

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

WORKED EXAMPLE: MATERIAL  Material factors  At 40 °C (104 °F) de-rating = 0
WORKED EXAMPLE: MATERIAL
 Material factors
 At 40 °C (104 °F) de-rating = 0
 Assume standard pipe – no high utilisation
specified
 Characteristic yield strength
f
 f
(SMYS
)
α
 (448  0)  0.96  430 MPa
y
y,temp
U
f
 f
(SMYS
)
α
 (65  0)  0.96  62.4 ksi
y
y,temp
U
 Characteristic tensile strength
f
 f
(SMTS
)
α
 (530  0)  0.96  509 MPa
u
u,temp
U
f
 f
(SMTS
)
α
 (77  0)  0.96  73.8 ksi
u
u,temp
U
WORKED EXAMPLE  Select nominal wall thickness  Assume t = 11.1 mm (0.437 in)
WORKED EXAMPLE
 Select nominal wall thickness
 Assume t = 11.1 mm (0.437 in)
 Assume seamless pipe – tolerance =12.5%
t fab = 1.39 mm (0.05 in)
 Corrosion allowance = 3 mm (0.12 in)
 t 1 = t - t fab - t corr = 6.7 mm (0.264 in)

Design for strength

313

WORKED EXAMPLE: LIMIT-STATES  Pressure containment resistance 2  t 2 p (t ) 
WORKED EXAMPLE: LIMIT-STATES
Pressure containment resistance
2
t
2
p
(t
) 
1
 f
b
1
cb
D  t
3
1
f
f
(t)
 Min
(f ;
u
)
cb
y
115
.
f
 430 MPa
(62.3 ksi)
y
f
509
(73.8 ksi = 64.2 ksi)
u
 443 MPa
115
.
115
.
1.15
f
(t)  430 MPa
(62.3 ksi)
cb
WORKED EXAMPLE: LIMIT-STATES  Pressure containment resistance 2  6 7 . 2 p (t
WORKED EXAMPLE: LIMIT-STATES
 Pressure containment resistance
2
6 7
.
2
p (t
) 
430
 210 MPa
.
b
1
3239
.
6 7
.
3
2
0 264
.
2
p (t
) 
62 4
.
 3 05 ksi
.
b
1
12 75
.
0 264
.
3

314

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

WORKED EXAMPLE: CRITERION  Pressure containment criterion is: p ( t ) b 1 p
WORKED EXAMPLE: CRITERION
Pressure containment criterion is:
p
(
t
)
b
1
p
p
li
e
 
SC
m
 SC is the safety class resistance factor = 1.138
(For normal safety class for pipeline section –
riser adjacent to platform has high safety class)
 m is the material factor = 1.15
WORKED EXAMPLE: CRITERION  Resistance p ( t 210 MPa . 3.05 ksi 1 )
WORKED EXAMPLE: CRITERION
 Resistance
p
( t
210 MPa
.
3.05 ksi
1 )
b
 161 MPa
.
 
2.33 ksi
 
1138 115
.
.
1.138 1.15
SC
m
 Load
p
8.56 MPa
 1.24 ksi
p li
e
 Therefore criterion satisfied

Design for strength

315

WORKED EXAMPLE: COLLAPSE  External pressure shall meet following criterion: p   t c
WORKED EXAMPLE: COLLAPSE
 External pressure shall meet following
criterion:
p

t
c
1
p
p
e
min
 γ
γ m
SC
 Base on maximum water depth
WORKED EXAMPLE: RESISTANCE  Characteristic resistance is: D   2 2  p 
WORKED EXAMPLE: RESISTANCE
Characteristic resistance is:
D

2
2
p
 p
p
 p
 p
 p
 p
 f 
c
el
c
p
c
el
p
0
t
1
 t 1 = t – t corr – t fab = 6.7 mm (0.264 in)
 Elastic collapse pressure
3
3
.
2 
E
t
1  
6 7
3
 
2
210  10
 D 
 3239 
.
p
 411 MPa
.
el
2
2
1  ν
1
0 3
.
3
0 264
.
3
2
321  10
.
 12 75 
.
p
 0 596 ksi
.
el
2
1
0 3
.

316

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

WORKED EXAMPLE: RESISTANCE  And:  Plastic collapse pressure  2  t  2
WORKED EXAMPLE: RESISTANCE
 And:
 Plastic collapse pressure
2  t
2
6 7
.
p
f
α
1
.
 17 8 MPa
.
p
y
fab
D
  430 10
 323 9 
.
 0 264
2
.
p
62 . 4  10 .
p
  12 75
.
   2 . 59 ksi
 Ovality f 0 is 0.01
WORKED EXAMPLE: RESISTANCE  Solving for p c D   2 2  p
WORKED EXAMPLE: RESISTANCE
 Solving for p c
D

2
2
p
 p
 p  p
 p  p
 p
 f 
c
el
c
p
c
el
p
0
t
1
 Gives p c = 3.68 MPa (0.534 ksi)

Solution for p c is defined previously in the ‘Collapse’ section

Design for strength

317

WORKED EXAMPLE: CRITERION p c  Criterion is: p  p  e min γ
WORKED EXAMPLE: CRITERION
p
c
Criterion is:
p
p
e
min
γ
 γ
SC
m
Load
H
wave
p
ρ
g
depth
tide
164 MPa
.
e
seawater
LAT
2
(238psi)
 Resistance
p
368
c
 2 81 MPa
.
γ
 γ
114 115
.
.
SC
m
p
534
c
407 psi
γ
γ
114 115
.
.
SC
m
 Therefore criterion satisfied
WORKED EXAMPLE: COMBINED LOADING  Criterion is: 2   2 2   
WORKED EXAMPLE: COMBINED
LOADING
Criterion is:
2
2
2
M
 γ
γ
S
p
 p
Sd
SC
m
Sd
i
e
γ
 γ
 
  α
 1
m
sc
p
α
 M
α
 S
2
c
p
C
P
α  p
c
b
3 
Design bending moment
M
M
γ
γ
M
γ
M
γ
γ
M
γ
γ
Sd
F
F
C
E
E
I
F
C
A
A
C
 180 1 2 107  0  0 7  0  0 107  0  0 107  231 kNm
.
.
.
.
.
3
 133 10
1 2 107
.
.
0
0 7
.
0
0 107
.
0
0 107
.
3
 170 10
lbf ft
t 2 = t - t corr = 8.1 mm (0.319 in)

318

Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1

WORKED EXAMPLE: COMBINED LOADING  Design effective axial force S  S  γ 
WORKED EXAMPLE: COMBINED
LOADING
 Design effective axial force
S
S
γ
γ
S
γ
S
γ
γ
S
γ
γ
Sd
F
F
C
E
E
I
F
C
A
A
C
600 1 2 107
.
.
0
0 7
.
0
0 107
.
0
0 107
.
 770 kN
3
135 10
1 2 107
.
.
0
0 7
.
0
0 107
.
0
0 107
.
3
173 10
lbf
WORKED EXAMPLE: COMBINED LOADING  Plastic moment resistance 2 2 M  f  
WORKED EXAMPLE: COMBINED
LOADING
 Plastic moment resistance
2
2
M
 f

D t
t 
430 323 9
.
81
.
81
.
347 kNm
p
y
2
2
2
3
62 4 12 75
.
.
0 319
.
0 319
.
256 10
lbf ft
 Characteristic plastic axial resistance
S
f
π