Pipeline, riser and subsea engineering
Design of subsea pipelines  Part 1
2
All information contained in this document has been prepared solely to illustrate engineering principles for a training course, and is not suitable for use for engineering purposes. Use for any purpose other than general engineering design training constitutes infringement of copyright and is strictly forbidden. No liability can be accepted for any loss or damage of whatever nature, for whatever reason, arising from use of this information for purposes other than general engineering design training.
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Copyright of this book remains the sole property of:
Jee Limited Hildenbrook House The Slade Tonbridge Kent TN9 1HR England
© Jee Limited 2009
Table of contents
Volume one
PIPELINE ROUTING 
7 
Expectation Rules For Routing Route Survey 
9 
10 

23 
Design sequence 
23 
Desk study 
24 
Geophysical 
26 
Geotechnical 
30 
Alignment sheets 
34 
PIPELINE DIAMETER 
39 
Expectation Sizing for flow Fluid properties Flow regimes Flow fundamentals Singlephase flow 
41 
42 

43 

53 

57 

64 
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Design of subsea pipelines – Part 1
THERMAL DESIGN AND INSULATION
77
Expectation 
79 
Need for thermal design 
80 
Fundamentals of heat transfer 
85 
Pipeline heat transfer 
91 
Insulation design considerations 
101 
Insulation systems 
109 
Wet insulation for rigid pipelines 
109 
Pipeinpipe insulation for rigid pipelines 
117 
Insulation for flexibles and risers 
123 
Design guidance 
129 
Application of insulation
133
At the factory Field joints 
133 
140 

Operational problems in deep water Exercise 
143 
147 

MATERIALS SPECIFICATION 
153 
Expectation Line pipe codes Material selection Review of material properties Specification of line pipe 
155 
156 

162 

166 

176 

CORROSION 
185 
Expectation Introduction Types of corrosion 
187 
188 

195 

External corrosion Internal corrosion 
195 
199 
Control measures
207
Chemical methods 
207 
External coatings 
211 
Cathodic protection 
217 
Anode design 
222 
Worked example 
236 
Volume two
DESIGN FOR STRENGTH 
245 
Expectation Design principles Bursting 
247 
248 

264 
Theory 
264 
Design pressure 
265 
Allowable stress 
270 
DNVOSF101 
271 
Collapse Buckling and combined stresses Strainbased design Worked example 
276 
284 

295 

307 

END EXPANSION AND SPOOLPIECES 
323 
Expectation End force and expansion factors End expansion Temperature profile Exercise Spoolpieces 
325 
327 

335 

346 

350 

351 
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ONBOTTOM STABILITY
363
Expectation 
365 
Review of fundamentals 
366 
Oceanography 
369 
Hydrodynamic loads 
384 
Resistance 
390 
Stability analysis 
402 
Computational fluid dynamics 
411 
Worked example and exercise 
412 
Weather and wave climate 
420 
Data selection 
423 
Trenching and soils 
427 
Bibliography 
429 
BOTTOM ROUGHNESS AND INTERVENTION 
431 
Expectation Bottom roughness analysis Spans 
433 
434 

444 

Design codes Span assessment Static analysis Vortexinduced vibrations 
444 
446 

449 

454 
Intervention 
469 
PROFILES 
485 
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 
495 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS & REFERENCES 
509 
Design for strength
Design for strength
247
EXPECTATION
We will introduce the main types of loading experienced by a pipeline and the corresponding failure modes. The different approaches of the design codes are discussed for the objective of determining the required strength of the pipeline to prevent these failure modes. Finally, a worked example and exercise are provided to illustrate the process of design for strength for a typical pipeline configuration, ensuring its ability to contain the internal pressure and resist hydrostatic collapse.
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DESIGN PRINCIPLES
The variables affecting the strength of the pipeline are limited to wall thickness and material strength.
Generally, we will select the strongest practical steel grade. When designing for strength, we are therefore left with wall thickness as our one variable.
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In this section we will address the above.
Loads we design for include internal pressure, external pressure, axial compression or tension and bending.
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Because of the range of load conditions, we need to design for a number of failure criteria.
The first criterion is pressure containment or bursting. The failure mechanism is illustrated above and failure will occur when stress in the pipewall reaches the ultimate tensile strength of the material.
The mechanism of rupture is illustrated in the picture below.
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System collapse or local buckle of the pipe may occur as a result of excessive external pressure. The mechanism is described above.
The picture below shows the consequences of system collapse.
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The left hand photograph is from a section of test pipe, whilst the one on the right is a collapse that occurred during installation developing into a running buckle as far as the first buckle arrestor shown in the foreground.
Combined loadings can initiate a local buckle. The local buckle failure mechanism is most common during pipelay, when there are high levels of bending in conjunction with external overpressure.
A displacementcontrolled condition occurs when the displacement of the pipeline is, within reasonable limits, independent of the load. An example of this condition would
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253
be pipeline reeling, where the displacement of the pipeline is controlled by the radius of the drum rather than the loads applied.
A loadcontrolled condition occurs when the displacement experienced by the pipeline
depends primarily on the applied load. An example of this condition would be a pipeline span, sagging under selfweight.
There are two main things that can go wrong: the branch may not be strong or stiff
enough to support his weight. So it may either break or bend too much. There are two main approaches to this design: ASD (allowable stress design also known as loadfactor)
or the newer limitstate methods.
What happens if he gets his feet wet? What are the consequences? He may not be able
to swim or it may be shallow enough to wade to the bank. Or there may be piranha or alligators in the pond!
Considerations to be used structural designs include:
■ Variation in materials in the structure and in test specimens
■ Variation in loading
■ Constructional inaccuracies
■ Accuracy in design calculations
■ Safety and serviceability
The various criteria required to define the serviceability or usefulness of any structure can be described under the following headings, as being “unfit for use”:
■ Collapse
■ Deflection
■ Cracking (eg waterproof concrete) – may adversely affect the appearance or efficiency of the structure
■ Vibration (from machinery or wind) – may cause discomfort or alarm in buildings
■ Fatigue – cyclic loading
■ Durability – (eg concrete porosity)
■ Fire resistance – of buildings
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When any structure is rendered unfit for use for its designed function by one or more of the above causes, it is said to have entered a limitstate. These are:
■ Ultimate limitstate – collapse
■ Serviceability limitstate – deflection, cracking, vibration
■ Accidental – unusual or special functions of a structure
■ Other – fatigue, durability, fire resistance, lightning
Allowable stress design principles ensure that the stress in the pipe wall never exceeds yield. This is done by specifying yield as a limiting criterion, and applying a safety factor. Limitstate design specifies the failure condition of the pipeline and then applies a safety factor to that. Limitstate design does not necessarily mean a less conservative design than ASD, but it does mean a more rational design.
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Allowable Stress Design is the traditional approach to pipeline design and the vast majority of pipelines installed to date around the world have been based on this approach. The basis of allowable stress design is to consider the worst case loads together with the minimum possible strength (based on yield stress) and then apply a general safety factor. Many regional standards associations have their own interpretation or peculiarities.
The approach of limitstate design differs from that of allowable stress design in the way in which the potential for failure and consequences of failure are evaluated. Both approaches ultimately result in an acceptable design.
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Limitstate design enables the designer to account for the low probability of worstworst conditions and determine the pipe design required to achieve a satisfactory level of safety. These safety levels need to reflect a range of issues, including economic, public relations and environmental costs.
Limitstate design is based on achieving a target reliability. It therefore adopts risk and reliability technique to assess distributions on loads and strength and consequently define the probability of failure. The greater the consequences of failure, the lower the target reliability must be.
Consequences can be defined by the safety class system. The safety class system assesses the consequences by accounting for the location, the fluids and the duration. This is explained in greater detail later.
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There are many possible variables affecting the load and strength of a system. These are listed above. Monte Carlo or similar simulation methods can be used to determine the probability distributions for load and strength. Safety factors can then be determined to ensure a target reliability is met.
Please note that this chart is not a true Gaussian curve, but has been derived from experimental tests.
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The rationale for the selection of the appropriate wall thickness is based on:
■ During installation and commissioning, only light corrosion would be expected and all of the wall thickness is available for contributing to the strength and bending stiffness of the pipe
■ During operation, corrosion takes place, progressively reducing the available wall thickness
Corrosion tends to occur either as:
■ Localised pitting of the wall
■ Tramline corrosion either at any liquid/gas interface or along the bottom centre of the pipe due to water dropout
Thus, even on a corroded pipe, most of the steel is still available to provide axial strength
and bending stiffness.
corrosion allowance:
■ Should be excluded from the pressure containment check
■ May be partly or fully included in combined stress checks
■ May be partly or fully included in bending stiffness
Therefore, unless the design code specifies otherwise, the
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The nominal wall thickness is made up of various components.
Initially t _{m}_{i}_{n} is calculated based on the minimum wall thickness to contain the internal pressure, as defined by the specified design code. To this, the pipeline corrosion allowance is added. Typically this will be between 3 mm and 6 mm (0.12 in to 0.24 in).
The negative manufacturing tolerance on the pipe is added to the pipe thickness. If the pipe is specified to ISO 31833, the negative manufacturing tolerance is 12.5% of t _{n}_{o}_{m} for 4 mm to 10 mm (0.15 in to 0.39 in) thick seamless pipe and 0.75 mm (0.029 in) for HFW and SAW pipe with a thickness between 6 mm and 15 mm (0.24 in and 0.59 in). In sizes 508 mm (20 in) and above, the tolerance depends on the method of manufacture. For welded pipe, the tolerance is 8% and for seamless pipe 10%.
The wall thickness of the pipe is usually rounded up to the next available standard wall thickness above the calculated nominal wall thickness. However, whilst there are a complete range of standard wall thickness published, there are some thicknesses that will be more readily available from stockists. In some cases, a pipe with a thicker wall may be cheaper.
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The above slide illustrates the various components of the pipeline wall thickness discussed previously. It should be noted that the actual wall thickness of the pipeline may be greater than the nominal wall thickness due to manufacturing tolerances.
DNVOSF101 uses the load resistance factor design format as indicated above. A series of partial safety factors have been developed, using risk and reliability methods, to provide a target reliability level.
All of the criteria are clearly defined in DNVOSF101 so we will not consider them here.
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The required reliability depends on the fluid being transported and the location. The safety classes (low, normal and high) are defined above.
For a subsea hydrocarbon pipeline, the normal safety class would be applied outside the 500 m exclusion zone (i.e. DNV location category 1) and the high safety class would be applied within the 500 m exclusion zone (DNV location category 2).
The target reliability levels are defined above as a probability per zone per year.
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SLS: Serviceability limitstate, e.g. a dent that is too large to permit the passage of a pig ULS: Ultimate limitstate, e.g. rupture FLS: Fatigue limitstate, e.g. due to vortexinduced vibrations ALS: Accidental limitstate, e.g. dropped object
The DNVOSF101 design process is defined in the figure above.
ECA: Engineering Criticality Assessment.
Supplementary requirement P is defined in section 5D 1100.
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The loads and failure mechanisms for subsea pipelines and the design methodologies available to prevent these failures have been presented. The design methods available are of two types; the allowable stress and the limitstate design codes.
There are three components of the minimum wall thickness required for the pipeline. These are the thickness required to contain the internal pressure, the thickness deemed to allow to corrode away during the design life of the pipeline and the possible under tolerance that occurs during pipe manufacture.
There are two methods of increasing the strength of the pipe to ensure stresses do not become critical. These are either increasing the material strength or increasing the wall thickness. Likewise, if the pipeline is to be optimised for cost, then it is possible to minimise the material strength or wall thickness.
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BURSTING
Theory Conventional pipeline design is based on straightforward principles of thin walled pipe stresses, modified with a safety factor to limit the allowable stresses in the design.
Thin wall pipe theory can be explained by considering a short section of pipe as shown above.
Splitting the pipe in half conceptually, the internal pressure tries to push apart the two shells. The force pushing the shells apart is equal to the internal pressure, multiplied by the area over which it acts (per unit length) = P _{i} · D. This separation force is taken by both sections of pipe wall, with an area (per unit length) of 2 t.
This equation assumes:
■ That the hoop stress is the only stress acting
■ This becomes a plane stress analysis
■ Giving constant stresses through the pipe wall; i.e. radial stresses by internal and external pressures are negligible (<10% hoop stress)
■
Hence D/t > 20
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Many design codes reference OD rather than mean diameter or ID. They also specify the selection of minimum or nominal wall thickness and the prescribed hoop stress utilisation factor. Considered together, these factors combine to influence the overall factor of safety on burst strength of the pipe.
For information, the hoop stress formula for thick walled pipe is also provided.
Design pressure
The selection of the pipeline design pressure is fundamental in the overall field development plan and how the field will be operated over the design life.
At day one, the maximum pressure of an infield pipeline is equal to the shut in pressure of the highest pressure well. This assumes that the emergency shutdown (ESD) valve on the platform is closed but the well is still producing into the line. This may also introduce transient effects (surge pressures) but ultimately as the line is packed the wellhead pressure will be seen.
With time, the maximum shutin pressure will decay as the reservoir is depleted. As the field is developed, new wells may be tiedin to the existing pipeline. Due consideration should be taken at the initial design phase to ensure that all known potential expansions are identified and catered for by the pipeline design.
Note: this may have commercial implications.
Linepacking is the practice on long gas trunklines of raising the pressure on as much of the line as possible to increase the storage of contents. An example is the Dampier to Bunbury pipeline, which can supply gas for domestic power for short periods, even when the producing fields are shutin.
MOL = Main Oil Line
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The maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) differs from the design pressure due to the tolerance on the pressure control mechanism. It is possible for the design pressure to equal the MAOP, e.g. where the pressures are driven by shutin wellhead pressure (SIWP), which is predicted from reservoir properties. Stateoftheart systems such as HIPPS can be used to justify a minimum difference between design pressure and MAOP.
Incidental pressure refers to short term transient conditions which may exist, primarily due to surge condition in the pipeline, and is the maximum internal pressure the pipeline or pipeline section is designed to withstand.
Hydrotest requirements are normally:
■ A strength test of the final pipe system during commissioning.
■ A leak test, generally to a lower pressure.
However, flexibles differ in test requirements, which can complicate testing of composite rigid/flexible pipe systems
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The above relationship is for DNVOSF101. By comparison, PD 8010 normally has the design pressure equal to the MAOP, but the pipeline is actually operated at a “set point” slightly below MAOP (e.g. 10%). The distinction is based on what is meant by the terms MAOP, design pressure and setpoint. Hence, care should be taken to use the values relevant to the design code being considered.
Incidental pressures are as a result of surge. Surge is a pressure wave travelling through the flowing fluid, which will result from any change in flow rate. The water hammer effect in domestic plumbing is an example of surge. Surge will result in a localised increase in pressure.
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The classic case shown is for rapid closure of a valve. Surge will result from partial valve closure, pump startup or other transient events. The principle for the development of a surge pressure wave is the same, with fluid travelling at one velocity interfacing with fluid travelling at another velocity.
The celerity of the pressure wave is the speed of sound in the product.
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Maximum surge value is given by the Joukowsky equation. ‘Velocity of oil’ can be replaced by ‘change in velocity’ for cases of partial valve closure. It is apparent that lower fluid velocities give lower surge pressures.
The pressure wave resulting from a valve closure travels back up the pipeline. It is reflected at the pipeline end and travels back down the line to the valve. If the valve is closed slowly, particularly if the closure time is greater than the time required for the surge wave to travel to the pipeline end and back, the total overpressure is reduced.
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HIPPS stands for High Integrity Pipeline Protection System. They are mechanical overpressure protection systems that rapidly isolate the pipeline (in around 2 seconds) if there is a risk of the Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) of the pipeline being exceeded. A HIPPS provides a costeffective alternative to expensive mechanical safety devices that may require pressure safety valves, instruments, valves and logics. They then have the potential to offer significant cost savings to production flowlines from satellite developments, where there is the possibility that the pipeline would see shutin wellhead pressures (for example, if a SSIV or ESV close to the platform was activated).
“Shutin” is a term used to describe the event where the flow in the pipeline is stopped. These shutin wellhead pressures can be much higher than normal operating pressures and so result in wasted pipeline capacity other than in upset conditions.
An example where HIPPS was used is the Kingfisher Project.
Allowable stress
This shows the allowable stress approach according to BS EN 14161:2003 (ISO 13623:2000 modified). Here the safety factor can vary between 0.67 and 0.83 depending on the location and pipeline contents.
The yield strength is taken at the maximum design temperature, which will require documentary evidence if above 50 °C.
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Design factors from a range of codes are presented above. It should be noted that while most design is performed to SMYS, the mean yield stress can be significantly higher (as much as one strength grade). The wall thickness calculations are normally conservatively based on outside diameter rather than mean diameter or internal diameter. However, the variation in definition in conjunction with the selection of design factor and t _{m}_{i}_{n} or t _{n}_{o}_{m} is accounted for in the code.
DNVOSF101
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The following slides show the limitstate design approach given in DNVOSF101.
Material strength is defined through a combination of factors describing the yield and ultimate material strengths, the effects of elevated temperature, the orientation of loading, the material specification and the manufacturing method.
f _{y}_{,}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{p} and f _{u}_{,}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{p} are the strength derating values for elevated temperatures _{U} is the material strength factor, which is normally taken as 0.96. If supplementary requirement U has been specified a factor of 1.0 may be applied
DNVOSF101 presents this set of curves for derating of yield strength for duplex stainless steels, and ordinary carbon steel.
The mechanical properties of duplex stainless steels can be reduced at temperatures above 20 C (68 F). An appropriate derating value, read off the above graph, is subtracted from the yield strength. The same stress derating applies to both the yield strength and ultimate strength.
From the above table, the characteristic yield strength at 100 C (212 F) for duplex with a nominal SMYS of 450 MPa is:
f y = SMYS  f y,temp
f _{y} = 450  90 = 360 MPa (52.2 ksi)
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Recalling the pressure containment criteria, we finally have to specify the resistance factors, here defined by the safety class resistance factor and the material resistance factor.
Conventional pipeline design is based on straightforward principles of thinwalled pipe stresses modified with a safety factor to limit the allowable stresses in the design.
This defines the bursting criterion, where:
■ p _{l}_{i} is the local incidental pressure
■ p _{e} is the local external pressure
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■ p _{b} (t _{1} ) is the pressure containment resistance based on minimum wall thickness t _{1}
■ _{S}_{C} is the safety class resistance factor
■ _{m} is the material factor
Two limitstates are defined for pressure containment and the governing criterion is the one giving the lower limiting pressure.
The local, internal, incidental and external pressures are defined above.
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We have looked at the design of pipelines for pressure containment, to resist the bursting failure mode. To design for bursting, we need to predict the maximum operating pressure the pipeline will experience by anticipating the expected pressures during the field life. The predicted maximum pressure should account for current operating pressures and any possible future tieins. Also hydrotest and surge pressures should be accounted for in the selection of the suitable wall thickness.
Also provided are the design codes that specify criteria for pressure containment. The two approaches of the design codes for pressure containment were examined: limitstate design (DNVOSF101) and allowable stress design (PD 8010 and ASME B31.8).
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COLLAPSE
Collapse is caused by an external overpressure. Here we will look at calculation of the pipe resistance to this force (especially for deep water), the manner of collapse development and ways of minimising the risk.
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External pressure is due to the hydrostatic head of water. The external collapse analysis must therefore be based on the maximum water depth encountered.
Collapse depends on ovality, caused by fabrication tolerances and subsequent handling. External collapse of thin walled pipes is primarily driven by the elastic properties of the steel. Ovalisation of the pipe results in the hydrostatic forces on the flat sides being much larger than the hydrostatic forces on the ends. This creates moments within the pipe wall that tend to increase the ovalisation. When elastic and plastic resistance to this ovalisation is overcome, a runaway flattening of the pipe occurs.
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The above criterion is taken from DNVOSF101. The characteristic resistance is given by solving the lower equation. This is essentially the same approach as PD 8010, although the inherent safety factor is different and the ovality f _{o} is defined differently, having a less conservative lower limit.
The collapse criterion uses t _{2} rather than t _{1} , so that the fabrication tolerance is not subtracted from the nominal wall thickness. In this equation:
■ E is the Young’s modulus of the pipe material (N/m 2 )
■ t is the pipeline wall thickness (m)
■ D is the pipeline diameter (m)
■ is the Poisson’s ratio of the pipe material
■ p _{e}_{l} is the elastic collapse pressure for a perfect tube (N/m 2 )
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_{f}_{a}_{b} is the fabrication factor, which depends on the linepipe manufacturing process and allows for the effects of cold working, giving a variation between tensile and compressive strength.
The values for the fabrication factor are:
■ Seamless = 1.00
■ UO and TRB and ERW = 0.93
■ UOE = 0.85
TRB is Through Roller Bending (not normal for our pipe sizes).
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The formula for characteristic collapse pressure is a cubic equation and is not simply solved. The use of spreadsheets or mathematical packages such as Mathcad simplify the process. DNVOSF101 has also provided an analytical solution, given below.
This is the standard method for solving a cubic equation (rather like that for a quadratic).
As mentioned previously, there are various formulae available for predicting the collapse of pipe. As illustrated in the figure above, there is significant variation in the predictions in the deep water, low D/t region.
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As a consequence of the concern regarding the collapse behaviour of thick walled pipelines, the Bluestream project undertook experimental work to confirm the collapse behaviour for their specific application.
The external pressure required to cause a buckle to propagate is lower than that required to collapse the pipe. If the pipe is designed to resist buckle propagation, any local buckle accidentally introduced will not propagate. This is normally the case for pipelines installed in shallow water, where wall thickness is governed by internal pressure containment. As water depths increase, buckle propagation design begins to dominate.
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It is possible to design pipelines to exceed the buckle propagation pressure and design instead to the external collapse pressure with adequate mitigation measures. These include the use of buckle arrestors to limit the damage caused if a buckle is initiated.
Since buckles are normally caused during installation and the worst conditions for buckle propagation also occur during installation when the pipeline is empty, this forms the principal design case.
It is normal to use 100% of any corrosion allowance in the analysis.
Several types of buckle arrestors are shown above. They all work on the same principal and locally increase the bending stiffness of the pipe wall.
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The collapse of pipelines occurs due to external overpressure loading. The worst case of this overpressure will usually be when the pipeline is being installed with atmospheric internal pressure combined with the peak external hydrostatic pressure that occurs with highest water level.
The criteria for collapse was introduced (taken from the DNVOSF101 and PD 8010 codes). The collapse is driven by the ovality of the pipeline and so codes specify maximum allowable ovality for installed pipelines.
In the event of a hydrostatic collapse, there is then the risk that the buckle will propagate along the line. The critical buckle propagation pressure is less than the critical pressure for hydrostatic collapse. Therefore, if collapse does occur due to external pressure, then the buckle will propagate rapidly along the line until there is some form of constraint or reduction in external pressure applied. Buckle arrestors can be used to constrain the propagation of buckles. They are effectively a short section of pipeline with increased wall thickness.
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BUCKLING AND COMBINED STRESSES
By far the most common cause of local buckling is due to excessive bending at the sag bend during pipelay. Normally, a buckle detector is towed along by the laybarge inside the pipeline, enabling the barge to back up and repair buckles on detection.
The PLUTO pipelines, installed between the Isle of Wight and Cherbourg following the Normandy landings in WWII, buckled and collapsed due to hydrostatic pressure. The lines were then filled with fuel and pressurised, blowing them back up. The pipes operated normally – it was not realised until afterwards that the collapse had occurred, when flow rates were initially lower than expected.
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The localised buckling of the pipe is analogous to the folding of a drinking straw. As the pipe bends, it places the extreme fibres in tension and compression. To partially relieve these stresses, the pipe deflects, ovalising to flatten the areas under stress. The ovalisation reduces the bending stiffness of the pipe. Eventually a runaway point is reached and the pipe buckles, forming “pinch points” that may tear or fracture, with the potential for loss of contents. Any axial compression in the pipe adds to the tendency to form a buckle.
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ASD codes specify combined stress criteria. Using suitable yield criteria for combined stress, normally Von Mises, allowable combined equivalent stress is set close to yield. The following slide indicates the ASD code equivalent stress limits.
Whilst an equivalent stress criterion can be used to prevent buckling, it is not representative of an ultimate limitstate. Accordingly, it is not employed in DNVOS F101, other than as a simple firstpass methodology.
In the above equation:
■ _{e}_{q} = equivalent stress
■ _{h} = hoop stress
■ _{l} = longitudinal stress
■ = torsional or shear stress
Von Mises is normally used in pipeline design. Radial stresses are ignored (internal and external pressure). Different codes have different allowable stresses, as shown in the table above.
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The Von Mises equation can be simplified by removing the torque term and replacing the axial stress due to internal pressure by half the hoop stress.
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In these equations:
■ V _{F} = equivalent stress design factor
■ _{y} = SMYS
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Where:
■ D _{i} = internal diameter of steel pipe
■ D _{o} = outside diameter of steel pipe
■ I = second moment of area of pipe
■ M _{b} = bending moment
■ _{b} = bending stress
DNVOSF101 defines a number of different local buckle criteria for different load conditions. It is easy to visualise why the buckle criteria will differ between a pipeline subject to internal overpressure (which is trying to keep the pipe round), with one
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subject to external overpressure (which is trying to flatten the pipe). In a displacement controlled condition, the response to axial and bending loads is known and therefore replaced with a defined strain component.
All of the criteria are clearly defined in DNVOSF101 so we will not consider them here.
To explain, however, the way the criteria are defined and built up, we consider one case here. We look at the criterion for loadcontrolled conditions with internal overpressure, (the load representative of an operating pipeline on the seabed).
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The format for the design loads is shown. These incorporate all load sources and partial safety factors to account for the probability of occurrence together.
The partial safety factors and the load combination cases are shown above. For the SLS and ULS criteria, there are two load combinations to consider.
The conditional load effect factors can be combined cumulatively if appropriate. For example, hydrotest on an uneven seabed should have a conditional factor of 1.07 x 0.93 = 1.0.
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The remaining components of the criterion equation are shown above.
The flow stress parameter accounts for strain hardening and is given below:
Note that is not a single function graph, but is dependant on other parameters.
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The principal critical load case for buckling failure is the excessive pipe bending that occurs during pipelay. With this case, the section of pipeline in the sagbend of the laycurve is subjected to significant bending and axial stresses combined with external pressure. Other load cases that can result in buckling of the pipe are accidental loads (e.g trawl gear impact), environmental loads (e.g bending in pipe spans) and buckles arising from thermal expansion of the pipeline.
The design code approaches to preventing buckle initiation have been examined. In summary, the allowable stress design codes use an equivalent stress criterion to
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determine the allowable bending, axial, hoop and shear stresses to prevent buckle
initiation.
codes give criteria for various critical load or
displacementcontrolled cases.
The
limitstate design
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STRAINBASED DESIGN
Strainbased design means allowing the pipe to go beyond yield. In certain circumstances, this can be done safely. Indeed, it has been done for many years in reeling and Jtube pulls. More recently in high temperature lines, the pipeline has been designed to yield in compression on its first thermal cycle. This effectively shortens it such that when it cools down it goes into tension and when it subsequently cycles, no further yielding takes place. In these cases, the strain is always predictable and non cyclic.
Conditions in which it is not possible to use strainbased design are for strain independent loads. These are loads that persist even if the pipe yields. Examples are wave loading, internal pressure and selfweight.
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Whereas traditional design methods have been based on yield of the pipe material being the limitstate, strainbased design uses the ultimate tensile stress as the limit. This means that controlled plastic deformation of the pipe is allowed.
The application of strainbased design is limited to conditions of controlled bending.
Typical applications of strainbased design are shown above.
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Jtube pulls, reeling and high temperature lines have been mentioned before. For the cases of lateral buckling and trawl gear pullover, it is possible to predict the deflection that would arise from the maximum expected load, often predicted using finite element analysis techniques. Once these deflections are known a strainbased design can then be used, such as the DNVOSF101 combined loading criteria for a displacement controlled condition.
The use of the cumulative strain requirements within the design process is illustrated above.
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The two ways of describing strain according to DNVOSF101: 2007 are total strain and plastic strain; the latter being unrecoverable when tension is released. These are shown in the graph above for a point with 1.0% plastic strain 1.3% total strain.
Each time a pipeline is yielded plastically (during reeling or otherwise), then the damage caused by that strain is deemed to be cumulative. That is, the plastic strains are added together to give ‘accumulated plastic strain’. The strain for each deformation operation is added irrespective of sign (compressive or tensile).
When the total nominal strain exceeds 0.4%, an engineering critical assessment (ECA) must be performed.
The criteria for additional requirements if the total nominal strain exceeds 1.0% or if the accumulated plastic strain exceeds 2.0% are shown above. The additional requirements determine the fracture toughness of the material and, particularly, the welds. The tests are fracture assessment to BS 7910 level 3. Additional tests may include crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) tests on specimens of the weld. This test will be usually based on the largest weld defects allowed by the welding specification.
With reeled pipe, the accumulated plastic strain is always more than 2%, so the highest assessment regime is demanded. Typically, the accumulated plastic strain is closer to
10%.
References BS 7910:2005, Guide on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures. DNV Offshore standard OSF101 : 2007 Submarine Pipeline Systems.
Section 5 D 1100 and section 7 I 300 of DNVOSF101: 2007 describe the supplementary requirement, linepipe for plastic deformation (P).
It only applies to seamless linepipe of carbonmanganese (CMn) steel and duplex stainless steels. Tables are provided in section 7 for CMn yield strengths between 245
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MPa and 555 MPa (35.5 ksi and 80.5 ksi) and stainless with 22% and 25% chrome. However, seamwelded linepipe and other materials can be used subject to agreement.
Testing is required on samples that closely follow the deformations likely to be encountered during the reeling on and off process, as well any inservice conditions.
These tests on both the finished pipe, and the agedanddeformed (tension and compression) samples include:
■ Range of maximum to minimum measured yield stress – no greater than 100 MPa (14.5 ksi)
■ Yield to ultimate ratio – no more than 0.90 on finished pipe and 0.92 or 0.93 (depending upon material) after deformation regime
■ Elongation – a minimum of 20% on finished pipe and 15% after deformation regime
■ Maximum Vickers hardness on the base metal, weld metal and heataffected zone (HAZ) following deformation – HV 10 between 270 and 350 (depending upon material)
■ Minimum Charpy Vnotch energy for impact toughness – mean values (depending upon material) between 27 J and 56 J (19.9 lbf ft and 41.3 lbf ft) along with appropriate single values. Test temperature is dependent upon wall thickness and product (gas or liquid) and is usually 0 °C, 10 °C or 20 °C (0 °F, 18 °F or 36 °F) below the minimum operating temperature.
Section 6 D 400, 7 G 300 and tables 717 to 719 provide details of the enhanced dimensional tolerances required. This is of particular importance at the pipe ends to ensure that the sections of linepipe on either side of the weld are as similar as possible in their crosssections.
The main implication of excessive cumulative strain is a reduced resistance to fatigue. The reduced fatigue resistance results in the growth of defects through cyclic loading. This is a particular concern for the growth of cracks and defects, which most commonly occur in the welds. Cumulative strain also increases the brittleness of the pipe and welds. This can lead to brittle fracture of pipe sections undergoing minimal increases in plastic deformation.
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Reeling of pipe causes large plastic strains due to the large applied bending moments. Plastic strains will be largest when the pipe must be deformed around the highest curvature, which occurs when the first reel is made around the hub of the spool. Subsequent layers of pipe reeled onto the hub will undergo smaller, but still significant plastic strains.
At high curvatures, the plastic deformations may be large enough to cause a permanent local buckle, or kink, in the compressed section of the pipe. The ability to resist this local buckling is related to the section stiffness of the pipe. The section stiffness is governed by both geometric and material properties. The section stiffness provided by the geometry of the pipe is dependant on the D/t ratio. The section stiffness provided by the material is the ratio of the yield stress (YS) to the tensile stress (TS). As the pipe is entering the plastic range of material response, then the lower the YS/TS ratio, the more resistant to local buckling the pipe material will be.
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Material and dimensional tolerances may result in the sectional properties being different between adjacent pipe joints that are welded together and then spooled onto the reel. Bending of the connected pipe joints having different sectional properties will result in there being strain concentrations occurring at the pipe joints. The strain concentrations can become large and cause a local buckle at the pipe joint.
To prevent local buckles occurring it becomes important to ensure tighter tolerances on dimensional and material properties than would usually be required for other installation methods, such as Slay and Jlay.
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To mitigate the risk of local buckles occurring during the reeling process it will be necessary to specify the following to the pipe manufacturers:
■ Low thickness fabrication tolerance. A tighter manufacturing tolerance on the wall thickness will be required to ensure joints have similar D/t ratios.
■ Low variation in yield stress. Usually a minimum yield stress will be specified. For reeled pipe it may be necessary to specify a maximum yield stress as well.
■ Low yield stress (YS) to tensile stress (TS) ratio. Materials should be selected with relatively large differences between yield and tensile strengths. In general the higher strength materials have lower ratios.
■ High and steady back tension should be applied when reeling. A higher tension will generally limit the difference in curvature between two adjacent pipe joints as they are reeled onto the drum. This has been found to be one of the easiest remedies available to reduce the risk of pipe buckling during reeling.
These methods for improving the resistance to buckling during reeling form the basis for DNV’s supplementary material requirements for reeling, as detailed in DNVOSF101. More detailed information is available in the reference:
Crome, Tim; “Reeling of pipelines with thick insulation coating, finite element analysis of local buckling”, OTC, Houston, 1999.
The definition of ovality above is taken from API RP 1111. Please note that there is an alternative definition in PD 8010 and DNVOSF101 which is about twice this, i.e. the difference in diameters over the nominal diameter. So it is important to know which you are using, and to make sure that the equations are consistent.
This slide shows the ovalisation equation as defined by Brazier on elastic tubes, which is a conservative estimate in the plastic region.
This equation does not give the final ovality value for the installed pipe as some roundness is regained during the straightening operation.
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The bucking formula specified in API RP 1111 provides a sound basis for predicting buckling. For reeling on and off the internal and external pressure are the same allowing the expression to be simplified as shown.
On the reel the bending is deflection limited. However during the reeling on process the pipe just off the reel is not deflection limited yet and is subject to the maximum bending moment. It is in this location that local buckling tends to occur during the reeling process.
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Ovalisation of the pipe can significantly reduce the pipe’s ability to withstand hydrostatic pressures, which is a particular problem for pipes installed in deep water. When the pipe is ovalised, the hydrostatic forces are larger over the flatter side of the pipe due to the relatively larger surface area. This difference in applied external load over the pipe circumference results in moments within the pipe that tend to increase the ovalisation. This feedback loop can lead to a rapid collapse of the pipe. With the collapse occurring at one point along the pipe, it is then very likely it will propagate along the pipe until there is a significant change in pipe section (e.g. a buckle arrestor) or applied pressure (lower water depth).
To prevent external collapse, tighter fabrication tolerances are required to ensure there is limited and acceptable tolerance on the pipe diameters after manufacture. Also care is required when handling the pipe to ensure it cannot be ovalised. This becomes a significant issue when the pipe is reeled onto the drum as ovalisation can occur from the bending of the pipe and the crushing that results from the tension, as discussed previously.
When reeling pipe that is at risk of hydrostatic collapse due to ovalisation, then it is desirable to know the ovalisation that will remain in the pipe once it has been reeledoff the drum. Research into this subject has been conducted by Kyriakides (see reference below) who studied the bending and restraightening of pipe. He found that for pure bending, approximately threequarters of the maximum ovalisation can be recovered.
Kyriakides, S and Yeh, M. K. (1985), “Factors Affecting Pipe Collapse” Engineering Mechanics Research Laboratory, EMRL Report No 85/1, A.G.A Catalogue No. L51479 Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, The University of Texas at Austin.
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Analysis methods are required to enable accurate prediction of the pipe response to the high degree of bending required in reeling operations.
Of principal concern will be the following design issues:
■ Buildup of cumulative strain. Generated during reeling on and off the spool.
■ Local buckles in the pipe wall. A result of the large bending strains.
■ Amount of ovality recovered. Maximum allowable ovality is required to ensure no collapse under hydrostatic pressure.
■ Ability to withstand the crushing pressures generated when reeling the pipe onto the spool under a high backtension.
To mitigate the above design issues we need tighter control on the manufacturing tolerances of reeled pipe, in particular the tolerances on material properties and geometry. Reeling the pipe onto the spool under high tension can prevent high stress concentrations, which will also alleviate some of the above issues.
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Strainbased design can be used for straindependant loads that result in the yielding of the pipe wall, provided that the strain is known, can be controlled and will not be repeated.
The limitstate design codes provide a strainbased design approach as an integral part of the design process. Some allowable stress design codes provide a strainbased design approach for special cases only. The failure modes considered by the design codes when undertaking a strainbased design are buckling, cumulative strain and low cycle fatigue.
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WORKED EXAMPLE
In this worked example we are considering the pressure containment, system collapse and combined loading criteria as shown above.
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Note that:
SI differentiates between the units of mass and force, therefore requires an acceleration due to gravity (g) to determine a pressure. Whereas, if calculating a pressure using the above equation and working in U.S. units, no explicit differentiation is made and so gravitational acceleration is not required. That is: the g term is not needed if density is input in lb/ft³ and the forces output in lbf.
The U.S. unit equation also divides by 12 2 to convert from square feet to square inches.
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Solution for p _{c} is defined previously in the ‘Collapse’ section
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