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Resume inglés VI

Primera parte: Libro

UNIT 6: Modal of possibility/Career Skills: making predictions.

 Joint Venture: A business activity wich two or more companies have invested in.
 Stuff: Objects or material (informal, is like to say “things”)
 Capital: money you lend to someone so that they can start a business Venture.
 Start-up cost: the expense of setting up a new business or new Project.
 A tight Budget: Careful control of cost, necessary when you have very Little money
 Potential: Possibility of future success.
 Return on investment: the profit you make from an activity in relation to how much
money you put in.
 Payback period: The time needed to get back the costo f an investment.
 Launch: put some new business or product or service into market.
 Raise: put something high, like raise the prices (something was at 100 and now is
150, it raised in 50)
UNIT 7: Future plans and intentions/Career Skills: making an appointment.

 Capital market: A place where people and businesses can deal in stocks and shares,
raise finance and make investments.
 Investment bank: A financial institution than specialises in buying stocks and shares
and also gives financial advice to businesses.
 Multinational Company: A large corporation with activities in many different
 Service Sector: The companies in an economy that don’t manufacture anything, but
provide services such as banking, insurance and tourism.
 Shopping mall: A large área, often inside a huge building, where there are lots of
 Regional office: A company’s local office in a different country or city from their
main office
Multi-part verbs
Choose the correct Words in italics.

1. The sun set / set up at 6:30 yesterday.

2. I’m planning to set / set up a new business, selling holidays abroad.
3. If you run / run out of money, you may have to ask the bank for a loan.
4. Many people leave their Jobs to run / run out their own business.
5. We sold / sold out 50 tickets for the dhow cruise tomorrow night.
6. I wanted a ticket for the cruise, but they were sold / sold out.
7. The market for luxury cruises is growing / growing up.
8. Tom’s children are growing / growing up. They are now 12 and 14 years old.
9. It took 20 years to build / build up the business to chain of supermarkets.
10. It took six months to build / build up the new block for our regional offices.

UNIT 8: The imperative/Career skills: explaining what to do.


 Apprenticeship: A Young person learns a skill or trade by working under supervisión in a

company. They have a contract to work there for a fixed number of years.
 Work placement: Students often take a temporary job during their studies – for luttle or
no pay – because they want to get experience.
 Graduate treinee scheme: Big companies accept a number of newly qualified people to
work for one year. They get general experience by working in different departments. They
mayo r may not get a permanente job at the end.
 Resumé: (American English) summary of your education and previous Jobs, wich you use
when you are looking for a job. (British English: CV-Curriculum vitae).
 Ad: Advertisement.
 Headhunting: Persuading someone to leave their job and go to work for another company
in a similar position.

The application process:

1. Employer post a job ad on a website or in a newspaper

2. Job-seeker apply for the post.

3. The employer selects suitable candidates

4. The employer invites the selected candidates for interview.

5. Candidates attend their interview.

6. The employer offers the job to the best candidate.

7. The candidate accept or declines the offer.

UNIT 9: Modals of obligation/Career skills: making suggestions


1. The market for new cars is worth (valioso/vale) about $200 million a year.
2. We estimate (estimar) that our share of the market Will be 28 per cent.
3. We are targeting high earnings (altas ganancias) consumers with salaries above $169.696
a year, who have enormous spending power(poder de adquisición)
4. Many of our customers have a debt(deuda) of $5.000 or more.
5. It Will take them several years to pay off (saldar) these loans.
6. We have a special offer this month: a 5 per cent discount, on all software products.
7. We are trying a new method (método) of selling: sending special offers by text message.
8. The company hopes that its new strategy Will give sales a boost (aumentar, impulsar).


Noun (sustantivo) Person (sujeto) Verb (verbo)

Sponsorship A sponsor To Sponsor
Consumption A consumer To consume
Marketing A marketer To market
Organisation/organization An organiser/organizer To organise/organize
Analysis An analyst To analyse
Agency An Agent ----- no verb


UNIT 11: Passives/Career Skills: Expressing arguments


 Beneficiary: The person who receives the payment

 Injured: accidents were people were afected. (accidentado)
 Damage: Something were get accidents, but it is recuperable. (dañado)
 Destroyed: Something were get accidents, but is totally lost.(destruido)
 Lost: something that was perdido.
 Stolen: Something that was robado.
 Administration: managing or organising the work of a company.
 Department: a part, or section, of a company, where people do a particular kind of work.
 Claim: a request, to your insurance company to pay for damage or loss.
 Premium: the amount you pay for insurance during a particular period.
 Quote: the condition of an agreement or contract.
 Terms: Tell a customer how much something Will cost.
 Tremors: shaking voice that you can’t control.
Second part: Topics
Modals of possibility

Certain: Will

Unlikely (no certain): May, might, could

Future tense markers:

Will: is used to talk about decisions made at the moment of speaking. Is used with maybe,
probably and perhaps.

For predictions going to and Will can be used.

Goint to: is used to talk about preconceived plans. (im going to get married in the spring).

Present continuous as future: It is used to talk about arrangement (im seeing my doctor at 3pm).

 Michael Laine hopes that he Will complete a space elevator by 2018

 Things Will not be easy
 Laine thinks the construction Will cost between $66 and $69 billion.
 Nine out of ten Ventures Won’t make any return.
 In future, you may be able to take an elevator tos pace.
 The elevator could deliver one million kilos of material per year.
 Some people might be interested in the new producto - but not many.
 They may not finish the construction on time.

1. We use Will to make predictions that we feel certain about.

2. We usually use Will after think, hope and expect.
3. We use the modal verbs may, might and could to make predictions that we are uncertain
about and to express possibility.
4. The contraction he’ll is the same as he Will.
5. The contraction won’t is te same as Will not.

Future plans and intentions

 Giorgio Armani is going to open a hotel in the valpo.
 Many of the big investment Banks are going to set up their offices in Dubai’s financial
 A new train service to the city centre is starting next month.
 We’re meeting with the export manager at 3pm tomorrow.
 Thanks for your report – I’ll readit this afternoon.
 We’ll try to leave early so we can be sure to get to the airport on time.

1. We use Will/won’t to talk about intentions when we make the decisión now to do
something in the future.
2. We use (be) going to + infinitive to talk about intentions when the decisión was already
made before.
3. We use the present continuous to talk about arrangements for things to happen at a fixed
time in the future.
Complete the sentences with the appropiate formo f the verbs in brackets.
1. We want to build up our US sales, so we (set up)_________________________ a regional
office in Chicago. (intention, decisión made).
2. I (travel) ______________________ to Chicago tomorrow on the 8:15 flight. (fixed
3. I (look at) ______________________ some office premises that we might rent. (intention,
decisión made).
4. How (you, travel) ______________________ round Chicago? (intention) two posible
5. Harry Schwarz (meet) ______________________ me at the airport with his car. (fixed
6. We don’t know wich is the best location. I (collect) ____________________ as much
information as I can. (intention, decisión made).
7. I (present) ____________________ all the options after my trip. (intention, decisión now).

The imperative

 A polite instruction: Pass me that book, please.

 An instruction not to do something: Don’t touch!
 A conditional instruction: If you aren’t sure, ask for help.
 Advice: Check that your resumé is clear.
 An informal suggestion: Let’s take a break.

Complete the sentences with Let’s, Don’t or Please

1. This equipment is very expensive. _______________ be careful with it.
2. I don’t want anyone to know about my new job yet. _________________ tell anyone.
3. It’s one o’clock. ___________________ go for lunch.
4. It’s Good to try different kinds of work. ___________________ be afraid to change Jobs.
5. It’s a Good job and we’re offering you a very Good salary. ______________ think about it.
6. We don’t have time to discuss this question now. ________________ leave it till tomorrow.
7. ______________ turn off all the lights when you leave the office.

Modals of obligation

 Companies have to follow certain rules when advertising their products.

 For example, they mustn’t give false information in their advertisement.
 Marketers must offer students something that adds to their lives.
 You need to have an approach that doesn’t look like a sales a pitch.
 Marketers shouldn’t ignore the student market.
 You should find out what appeals to your target market.
 You don’t have to have sales experience to join a team.
 You don’t need to send sales reps to student events.

It’s the rule must or it isn’t allowed mustn’t.

This is strong advice have to. Stron advice not to haven’t to.
Advice or recommendation should. Advice or recommendation not to, shouldn’t.
It is necessary need to. It isn’t necessary. Don’t need to, or, needn’t to.
Must or have to? We usually use must when we make the rule ourselves, and have to when it is a
general rule. So must and mustn’t can seem impolite. Use have to or shouldn’t to people you don’t
know well.


The present perfect tense is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary have and the past
participle. For negatives and questions we also use the present tense of the auxiliary have and the
past participle.
I have/’ve taken ---- I have not/haven’t taken ---- Have I taken?

Present result of the past

The present perfect often links a present situation with something that happened at an unspecified
time in the past. Therefore we don’t use specific time expressions such as yesterday, last week, in
1998, two days ago, etc.
I have given your report to the MD
Past: I gave her your report yesterday. Present: She has the report now
So, if we say when something happened, we use the past simple, not the present perfect:
I spoke to her yesterday
The present perfect is often used with the Word just to talk about very recent new sor actions that
have taken place very recently. Again, the exact time is not mentioned.
I’m sorry, Mrs Smith is not here. She has just left
Been, gone:
Has gone: doesn’t end the action.
Has been: The action end completly.

1. I’m going to send them a reminder. They ___________(not pay) us for their last order.
2. Some of these tech shares _____________(fall) by over 80%, and they still look very risky.
3. ______________(you/write) to them about that shipment, or do you want me to pone
4. We ______________ (spend) a lot on modernizing the factory, and it is now very well
5. Unemployment is very high here because al lof the coal mines ____________(shut) down.
6. The lawyers _____________(draw) up the contracts, so we are now ready to goa head with
the deal.
7. I _______________ (not speak) to the MD about your proposal, but i Will soon.
8. _______________(you/find) a suitable replacement for Ivan Sloboda, or is the post still
9. Carmen _______________(Just/get) back from lunch. Why don’t you call her now?
10. Peter, ________________(you/meet) Alistair Macfarlane? He’s our new Finance Director?.

1. The passive is formed by using the correct tense of the verb to be with the past participle
of the verb.
2. We more commonly use the active form of the verb when it is important tos ay who
performed the action, or what was responsable for the event.
3. The passive form of the verb is usually used when we don’t know who or what was
4. When passive sentences include information about the agent (who or what was responsable
for the action) we use by with the agent.

 A claim is reported by the policyholder.
 If the claim is suspicious, the policyholder is informed and a live telephone interview is
 Eighteen per cent of claims are found to be fraudulent.
 Your claim is being considered and a decisión Will be taken shortly.
 My car has been stolen.
 Three houses were destroyed by the storm.

It is to talk about simple future (es algo que puede pasar seguramente), we use the present simple
in the if part of the sentence, and Will+bare infinitive in the other part.

If + present simple / Will + infinitive

Will+infinitive / If + present simple

It is to talk about things that would happen (no tengo seguridad de que tal cosa suceda), If adopta
el simple past y la clausula principal es el present conditional.

If + past simple / Would +present conditional

Would + present conditional / If + Past simple