Sunteți pe pagina 1din 32

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

MODULE 2 Sub Module 2.3

THERMODYNAMICS

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

For Training Purpose Only

THERMODYNAMICS ISO 9001:2008 Certified For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - i MAR,

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - i

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Contents

HEAT AND TEMPERATURE ------------------------------------------------------- 1 MEASURING TEMPERATURE----------------------------------------------------- 5 HEAT TRANSFER -------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 HEAT CAPACITY --------------------------------------------------------------------11 THERMAL EXPANSION------------------------------------------------------------13 THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES ------------------------------------------------15 HEAT CYCLES------------------------------------------------------------------------26 LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS--------------------------------------------------28

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

For Training Purpose Only

Certified Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 -

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Page Intentionally Left Blank

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

For Training Purpose Only

Blank Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 -

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

2.3.1 – HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

Heat

Heat is a form of energy which is transferred from one body to another body at a lower temperature, by virtue of the temperature difference between the bodies.

For example, when a body ‘A’ at a certain temperature, say 20 o C, is brought into contact with a body ‘B’ at a lower temperature, say 18 o C, then there will be a transfer of heat from ‘A’ to ‘B’ until the temperature of the both are equal, as shown in the figure 2.58.

Heat is energy in transit. The transfer of energy as heat, however, occurs at the molecular level as a result of a temperature difference. The symbol Q is used to denote heat. The amount of heat transferred depends upon the path and not simply on the initial and final conditions of the system.

Also, it is important to distinguish between heat added to a system from its surroundings and heat removed from a system to its surroundings. A positive value for heat indicates that heat is added to the system by its surroundings. This is in contrast to

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

work that is positive when energy is transferred from the system

and negative when transferred to the system. Everyone is familiar with the physical phenomena that when a substance is heated, its temperature increases, and when it is cooled, its temperature decreases. The heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in its temperature is called sensible heat. The units of heat are often defined in terms of the changes in temperature it produces.

Another type of heat is called latent heat. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. There are two types of latent heat. The first is the latent heat of fusion. This is the amount of heat added or removed to change phase between solid and liquid. The second type of latent heat is the latent heat of vaporization. This is the amount of heat added or removed to change phase between liquid and vapour. The latent heat of vaporization is sometimes called the latent heat of condensation.

When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts. The ratio of the heat (Q) added to or removed from a substance to the change in temperature (ΔT) produced is called the heat capacity (C p ) of the substance. The heat capacity of a substance per unit mass is called the specific heat (C p ) of the substance. The subscript p indicates that the heat capacity and

For Training Purpose Only

p indicates that the heat capacity and For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 1

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

specific heat apply when the heat is added or removed at constant pressure.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics Fig. 2.58 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Fig. 2.58

For Training Purpose Only

2.3 – Thermodynamics Fig. 2.58 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 2

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 2

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Temperature

Temperature is a measure of degree of hotness or coldness of a body.

When a beaker of cold water is placed over a flame, the water gradually becomes hot. The water is said to develop a certain degree of hotness. This degree of hotness is termed as temperature. Thus, a hot body is at a higher temperature than one which is cold. Temperature rises or falls as the body gets hotter or cooler respectively.

The absolute minimum temperature of any object in the universe is -273.15 o C. This is called absolute zero. In engineering it is often necessary to use temperatures in the Kelvin scale, which uses absolute zero as its base point. Absolute zero = -273.15 o C = 0 K. (Kelvin temperatures are written without a symbol for degrees.)

The Celsius scale of temperature uses the freezing point of water (0 o C) and the boiling point of water at standard pressure (100 o C) as its defining points.

The Fahrenheit scale depicts the freezing point of water as 32 o F and the boiling point as 212 o F (0 o C = 32 o F; 100C = 212 F). ISO 9001:2008 Certified

o

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

There are formulas that allow us the conversion among the temperature scales. These are:

o F = 1.8 × o C + 32

K = o C + 273.15

Figure 2.59 shows comparison between the basic temperature scales.

For Training Purpose Only

between the basic temperature scales. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 3

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 3

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

Category “ B2” Basic Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics ISO 9001:2008 Certified Fig. 2.59 For Training

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics ISO 9001:2008 Certified Fig. 2.59 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Fig. 2.59

For Training Purpose Only

ISO 9001:2008 Certified Fig. 2.59 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 4

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 4

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

2.3.2 – MEASURING TEMPERATURE

Thermometers are devices that measure temperature.

A practical thermometer must have a thermometric property, which varies smoothly with temperature. Accurate measurement of the thermometric property is usually required, so the thermometer must be sensitive to small changes of temperature.

In some situations a thermometer must respond quickly to changes of temperature, and it may be necessary to read the thermometer with remotely placed measuring equipment. For example, the temperature inside a nuclear reactor is read from instruments in one building connected to the temperature probe in the reactor in a different building.

There are various types of thermometer used for measuring temperature.

Gas Pressure Thermometer

The pressure of a fixed mass of gas in a fixed volume dependson its temperature. A pressure gauge could be

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

calibrated to read temperature, as shown in the figure 2.60.

Thermocouple

A temperature difference across the junctions results in a small

voltage which is measured on the voltmeter. The voltage depends on the types of metals used but is typically about 20

microvolt per degree Celsius.

Figure 2.61 shows a typical thermocouple.

Thermistor

The electrical conductivity of materials varies with temperature.

A thermistor is an electronic component where the change in

resistance with temperature is used to measure temperature.

A typical thermistor is shown in the figure 2.62.

For Training Purpose Only

is shown in the figure 2.62. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 -

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 5

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

2 – P H Y S I C S Category “ B2” Basic Fig. 2.60 Fig.

Fig. 2.60

P H Y S I C S Category “ B2” Basic Fig. 2.60 Fig. 2.61 ISO

Fig. 2.61

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics Fig. 2.62 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Fig. 2.62

For Training Purpose Only

2.3 – Thermodynamics Fig. 2.62 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 6

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 6

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Mercury-in-glass Thermometer

The commonest type of thermometer is the mercury in glass thermometer. The change in the volume of mercury, due to change in temperature, results in a proportional change in length of the mercury column. This is measured on a scale marked in units of temperature, as shown in the figure 2.63.

Since the freezing point of mercury is about -39C, and the boiling point +357C at standard pressure, this thermometer is not used for temperatures much above 300C or below -30C. For temperatures below -39C, thermometers containing alcohol may be used.

Pyrometer

Pyrometer

(figure

2.64)

is

used

to

measure

very

high

temperatures.

For example, pyrometers are used to measure the temperature inside a furnace. The thermal radiation from the furnace is compared in terms of color with the thermal radiation from a lamp filament in the pyrometer. Very hot objects emit light as well as infrared radiation, and the color changes with increased temperature.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

So, what would be the most suitable instrument for measuring temperatures in a gas turbine aircraft engine?

Firstly, the instrument needs to produce an electrical signal so that the information can be fed into the aircraft’s electronic systems. Secondly, the instrument has to be capable of working across a wide range of temperatures. For these reasons thermocouples are used.

For Training Purpose Only

these reasons thermocouples are used. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 7

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 7

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

2 – P H Y S I C S Category “ B2” Basic Fig. 2.63 ISO

Fig. 2.63

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics Fig. 2.64 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Fig. 2.64

For Training Purpose Only

2.3 – Thermodynamics Fig. 2.64 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 8

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 8

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

2.3.3 – HEAT TRANSFER

Heat tends to move from a hot place to a cold place. This phenomenon is known as heat transfer.

There are three modes of heat transfer; conduction, convection, and radiation.

Conduction

Conduction is the heat transfer through a material by the vibrations of its particles. Some materials are very good thermal conductors (for example silver and copper), while others are poor thermal conductors (asbestos, wood, ceramic materials). A material which is used to inhibit the flow of heat is called an insulator.

Convection

Convection currents arise in fluids. In convection, the particles carry the energy which is to be transferred. If a region in a fluid becomes warmer it expands. This makes it less dense than the neighbouring fluid so it rises through the body of the fluid. Glider pilots use “thermals” (convection currents of warm air

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

rising) to stay in the air longer.

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

“Free” convection occurs when a fluid moves only because of the heating effect itself. “Forced” convection occurs when a fluid is driven by separate means such as a pump or fan. Air flowing through a car’s radiator is heated by forced convection.

Radiation

Warm objects radiate infra red radiation. This is part of the electromagnetic spectrum (see later). Infra red radiation is invisible and it is the only way for heat to travel through a vacuum. Thermal imaging cameras detect different wavelengths of radiation to make a visible image.

Figure 2.65 shows all modes of heat transfer.

For Training Purpose Only

2.65 shows all modes of heat transfer. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 9

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

Category “ B2” Basic Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics ISO 9001:2008 Certified Fig. 2.65 For Training

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Fig. 2.65

For Training Purpose Only

ISO 9001:2008 Certified Fig. 2.65 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 10

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 10

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

2.3.4 – HEAT CAPACITY

When a body is supplied with heat energy one of two things may happen: the temperature of the body increases ; or the state of the body changes from solid to liquid (melting) or from liquid to gas (vaporisation).

The graph G-2.1 shows different phases of water with respect to the temperature.

Water in solid form is known as ice. As the temperature of ice increases as heat energy is supplied to it, the melting point of ice i.e. 0 o C is reached. Once ice starts to melt, the heat energy supplied to it changes it from a solid to a liquid. When it is all in the liquid state, any more energy supplied to it again causes its temperature to rise. Eventually the water reaches its boiling point. At the boiling point, energy supplied causes it to change state into a gas i.e vapour. Bonds between the liquid particles are broken. This happens at constant temperature. Energy supplied to gas causes its temperature to rise.

As we’ve seen, if a body is supplied with energy its temperature may rise. This rise in temperature depends on the amount of energy supplied, the mass of the body and its material. This type of heat is sometimes called sensible heat because we can detect it with our sense of touch.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Specific Heat Capacity

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

The property of a material that determines the rise in temperature is called the specific heat capacity. It is the amount of heat energy that is required to raise the temperature through 1 degree Celsius (or Kelvin).

where:

∆Q

=

m × C × ∆T

∆Q = heat energy supplied

m

= mass

C

= specific heat capacity

ΔT = change in temperature

The heat capacity of a body is the product of its mass and the specific heat capacity of its material. The units of heat capacity are JK -1 .

For Training Purpose Only

of heat capacity are JK - 1 . For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 11

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

Category “ B2” Basic Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics ISO 9001:2008 Certified G – 2.1 For

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

G – 2.1

For Training Purpose Only

ISO 9001:2008 Certified G – 2.1 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 -

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 12

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

2.3.5 – THERMAL EXPANSION

Property of a substance which changes uniformly with the change of temperate is called thermometric property.

Examples

1. Volumes of liquids in a vessel

2. Volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure

3. Pressure of fixed mass of gas at constant volume

4. Electrical resistance of metal

In general, solids liquids and gases expand when heated.

The property of a material that quantifies this is called its coefficient of linear expansion.

where:

∆L

=

L o × α × ∆T

∆L = Change in length

L o = Original length

α = Coefficient of linear expansion

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

ΔT = change in temperature The expansion of areas (“superficial expansion”) is calculated from the formula:

β = 2 α where ‘β’ is the coefficient of superficial expansion.

The expansion of volumes (“cubical expansion”) is calculated from the formula:

γ = 3 α where ‘γ’ is the coefficient of cubical expansion.

Heat of combustion

When a fuel is burned thermal energy is released. The amount of heat energy released when 1 kg of a fuel is burnt is given by its heat of combustion (or energy of combustion). The old term for this is calorific value. The table T-2.5 shows the heats of combustion of some fuels.

Problem 2.5

An aircraft fuel tank is holding 500 litres of kerosene at 25 o C. What will be the volume of the fuel at -30 o C.

For Training Purpose Only

volume of the fuel at -30 o C. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 13

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

benzene

40.33

methanol

15.63

diesel oil

43.0

paraffin (kerosene)

43.5

petrol (gasoline)

43.0

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

For Training Purpose Only

43.0 ISO 9001:2008 Certified For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 14 MAR,

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 14

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

2.3.6 – THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES

Thermodynamics

It is the science of relationship between heat, work and the

properties of system. It is concerned with the means necessary

to convert heat energy from available sources such as fossil

fuels into mechanical work.

A heat engine is the name given to a system which by operating in a cyclic manner produces net work from a supply of heat.

A system may be defined as a collection of matter within

prescribed and identifiable boundaries, as shown in the figure 2.66. The boundaries of a system are not necessarily inflexible. For instance, the fluid in the cylinder of a reciprocating engine

during the expansion stroke may be defined as a system whose boundaries are the cylinder walls and the piston crown. As the piston moves, the boundaries of the system move. This type of system is called a closed system. Whereas, an open system is one in which there is a transfer of mass across the boundaries. The fluid in a turbine at any instant may be defined as an open system.A fluid has many properties that can be measured, such as temperature, pressure and density. In a thermodynamic process heat or work is transferred between a fluid and its surroundings. For example, a mass of gas

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

(the “working fluid”) may be trapped in a cylinder (the “environment”). If a piston compresses the gas, we can say that the environment has done work on the gas and some of the properties of the gas will change.

Engines and some other devices operate on thermodynamic cycles. In a cycle the working fluid repetitively undergoes a number of different processes.

If we were to measure the properties of air before it enters a gas turbine and again at the exhaust we would expect most properties to have changed substantially. These differences might tell us something about the power the engine is producing.

According to the first law of thermodynamics, energy is conserved. In other words, energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form into another. In thermodynamics we are always looking to balance three things:

the internal energy of the working fluid (this is its heat energy, and depends on its temperature); the heat transfer to or from the working fluid; and the work done on or by the working fluid.

For Training Purpose Only

work done on or by the working fluid. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 15

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

Category “ B2” Basic Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics ISO 9001:2008 Certified Fig. 2.65 For Training

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Fig. 2.65

For Training Purpose Only

ISO 9001:2008 Certified Fig. 2.65 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 16

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 16

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Kinetic theory of gases

The kinetic theory of gases relates the macroscopic properties of a gas (pressure, density, temperature etc.) to the microscopic behaviour of its particles (speed, mass, kinetic energy etc.). Certain assumptions are made about gas molecules. These assumptions lead to a model of a perfect (idealised) gas that helps us to understand the behaviour of real gases like air. The assumptions include:

There are no bonds between gas molecules. The only force exerted by one gas molecule on another occurs when two molecules collide.

The molecules are so tiny in comparison with the space occupied by the gas that we can ignore the volume of the molecules.

Collisions between molecules are so short-lived that we can assume that the molecules spend their entire time moving at constant velocity.

Even in a small volume of gas there is very large number of molecules. Even in a very short period of time a great many collisions occur between molecules.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Perfect gas

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

A “perfect” gas is one that behaves in an idealised way. For example, if a perfect gas is cooled at constant pressure, its volume is proportional to its absolute temperature. For many purposes air and other common gases can be regarded as a perfect gases. Vapours such as steam cannot.

For a fixed mass of perfect gas:

 

p V

=

m R T

Where:

p

=

pressure (Pa)

V

=

volume (m 3 )

m

=

mass (kg)

R

=

gas constant (287 Jkg -1 K -1 for air)

T

=

temperature (K)

Note that temperatures MUST be written in the Kelvin scale. Likewise, all other quantities should be written in SI units.

For Training Purpose Only

should be written in SI units. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 -

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 17

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

For Training Purpose Only

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 18

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 18

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Notes:

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

For Training Purpose Only

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 19

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 19

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Problem 2.6

Estimate the mass of air in the room.

Problem 2.7

A mass of air (R = 287Jkg -1 K -1 ) is contained within a cylinder

and has the following initial conditions:

volume V 1

=

9 litres

temperature T 1 =

20C

pressure P 1

=

103 kPa

Determine the mass of air. The air is heated until it reaches a temperature of 60C. It expands to a volume of 10 litres. What

is the new pressure?

Thermodynamic Processes

Although the general gas equation can be applied to any gas process, there are a number of special cases.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Constant volume process

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

The volume of a gas held in a rigid container does not change significantly. If the gas is heated or cooled its pressure will increase or decrease. This is also known as an isometric, iso- volumetric or isochoric process.

Sometimes a process may be usefully approximated as constant volume, even if we know it isn’t. For example, in a piston engine the piston is on the move all the time and so the volume of the gas is changing continuously. However, the piston is moving relatively slowly at the top and bottom of its stroke and the processes taking place at that time are sapproximately constant volume.

The P-v diagram for a constant volume heating process is shown in the figure 2.66.

As there is no change in the volume, the net work done in a constant volume process is equal to zero.

For Training Purpose Only

volume process is equal to zero. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 -

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 20

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics Fig. 2.66 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Fig. 2.66

For Training Purpose Only

2.3 – Thermodynamics Fig. 2.66 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 21

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 21

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Constant pressure process

The figure 2.67 shows the P-v diagram for a constant pressure process. This is also known as an isobaric process.

In this case the gas has been heated. It might be useful to think of the gas as being trapped in a cylinder by a moveable piston.

When the gas is heated its molecules gain kinetic energy. This will tend to increase the pressure inside the cylinder. However, if the piston is frictionless it will move to increase the volume of the gas. This in turn will cause the pressure in the cylinder to fall until it is equalised with the atmospheric pressure.

This is sometimes called “Charles’ Law”.

Work may be done in a constant pressure process.

In a constant pressure heating process, is work done ON or BY the gas?

When the gas is heated its molecules gain kinetic energy. They move around more quickly causing incremental increases in the

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

pressure. This moves the piston until the pressure inside the cylinder balances the atmospheric pressure outside. Since the piston has been moved by the gas, work has been done BY the gas on the environment.

Constant temperature

If we pump up a bicycle’s tyre fairly vigorously we often feel the pump getting warm. However, if we do this very slowly the temperature stays more or less constant. Such a process is called an isothermal process. The P-v diagram below shows an isothermal expansion:

Since the temperature is constant, the general gas equation becomes:

This is sometimes called “Boyle’s Law”.

The P-v diagram below in the figure 2.68 shows the same gas compressed (or expanded) at different temperatures. The lines are called isotherms.

For Training Purpose Only

The lines are called isotherms . For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 -

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 22

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

2 – P H Y S I C S Category “ B2” Basic Fig. 2.67 ISO

Fig. 2.67

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics Fig. 2.68 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Fig. 2.68

For Training Purpose Only

2.3 – Thermodynamics Fig. 2.68 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 23

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 23

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Adiabatic

In an adiabatic process, no heat is transferred between the working fluid and its surroundings.

It is important not to confuse adiabatic and isothermal processes. For example, suppose gas is trapped in a cylinder by a piston. Work may be transferred to the gas by moving the piston to compress the gas. The temperature of the gas will rise and, if the piston and cylinder are perfectly insulated, no heat will be transferred to the surroundings. This is an adiabatic process.

On the other hand, perhaps the piston is moved slowly and the piston and cylinder are very good conductors of heat, allowing thermal equilibrium to be maintained between and the gas and its surroundings. They will then remain at the same temperature. The interaction between the working fluid and its environment is different. This is an isothermal process.

Adiabatic processes have similar P-v diagrams to isothermal processes. The figure 2.69 shows the P-v diagram of an adiabatic compression.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

Thus, the comparison of all the discussed thermodynamic process can be seen in a single P-v diagram in the figure 2.70.

For Training Purpose Only

P-v diagram in the figure 2.70. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 -

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 24

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

2 – P H Y S I C S Category “ B2” Basic Fig. 2.69 ISO

Fig. 2.69

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics Fig. 2.70 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Fig. 2.70

For Training Purpose Only

2.3 – Thermodynamics Fig. 2.70 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 25

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 25

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

2.3.7 – HEAT CYCLES

Engines, heat pumps and other thermodynamic machines invariably work in thermodynamic cycles.

This means that the working fluid undergoes a series of property changes before returning to its original conditions. The cycle is repeated endlessly and useful work or heat transfer takes place.

The block diagram of a gas turbine with its ideal cycle P-v and T-s diagrams is shown below in the figure 2.71. This is the Joule cycle, also known as the Brayton cycle.

Process

description

1 to 2

Fresh air is compressed adiabatically (no heat transfer).

2 to 3

Fuel and air are mixed and burnt at constant pressure in the combustion chamber.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

3 to 4

The air expands adiabatically in the turbine.

4 to 1

The hot air in the exhaust cools and is drawn back into the engine.

Other thermodynamic cycles include:

Carnot cycle: theoretical only – the most efficient.

Otto cycle: used in 4 stroke petrol engines.

Diesel cycle: compression-ignition

Stirling cycle: invented by a Scottish minister, used in some submarines.

For Training Purpose Only

minister, used in some submarines. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 26

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 26

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

Category “ B2” Basic Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics ISO 9001:2008 Certified Fig. 2.71 For Training

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Fig. 2.71

For Training Purpose Only

ISO 9001:2008 Certified Fig. 2.71 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 27

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 27

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

2.3.8 – LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

Thermodynamics studies the behaviour of energy flow in natural systems. From this study a number of physical laws have been established. The laws of thermodynamics describe some of the fundamental truths of thermodynamics observed in our universe.

Zeroth Law: If two systems are each in thermal equilibrium i.e. at the same temperature, with a third systems then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. In other words there is no heat energy flow.

First Law: The first law is often called the Law of Conservation of Energy. This law suggests that energy can be transferred from one system to another; however it cannot be created nor destroyed. Therefore the total amount of energy available in the universe is constant.

Second Law: Heat can never pass spontaneously from a colder to a hotter body. As a result of this fact, natural processes that involve energy transfer must have one direction, and all natural processes are irreversible.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

Third Law: This law states that if all thermal motion of molecules (kinetic energy) could be removed, a state called absolute zero would occur. Absolute zero results in temperature of 0 K or -273.15ºC.

The universe will attain absolute zero when all energy and matter is randomly distributed across space. The current temperature of empty space in the universe is about 2.7 Kelvins.

For Training Purpose Only

in the universe is about 2.7 Kelvins. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 28

MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre (PTC)

Module 2 PHYSICS

(PTC) M o d u l e 2 – P H Y S I C S

Category “B2” Basic

Notes:

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics

For Training Purpose Only

Sub Module 2.3 – Thermodynamics For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01 Rev. 00 2.3 - 29

PTC/CM/B2 Basic/M2/01

Rev. 00

2.3 - 29

MAR, 2014