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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 3
1.0 PART A : ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION........................................................................................ 6
1.1 Gather the information..................................................................................................................... 6
1.2 Select level of investigation ............................................................................................................... 6
1.3 Investigation event ............................................................................................................................ 6
1.3.1 Develop a plan ............................................................................................................................. 7
1.3.2 Investigate all the incidents and accidents immediately .............................................................. 7
1.3.3 Interview witnesses ...................................................................................................................... 8
1.4 Result from the investigation ......................................................................................................... 12
1.5 Review Process ................................................................................................................................ 14
2.0 PART B : SUGGESTION FOR PREVENTIVE ACTIONS........................................................... 15
2.1 Engineering Controls ...................................................................................................................... 16
2.2 Administrative Control................................................................................................................... 16
2.3 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) .......................................................................................... 19
3.0 PART C : ETHICAL PRINCIPLES AND PROFESSIONAL ETHICS ............................... 21
4.0 DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................................ 22
5.0 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 23
REFERENCES. ......................................................................................................................................... 24
APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................................. 25

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List of figures and tables

Figure 1 Case study from DOSH website. ...................................................................................... 3


Figure 2 JKKP 6............................................................................................................................ 13
Figure 3 Construction site with crane. .......................................................................................... 14
Figure 4 Hierarchy of Control....................................................................................................... 16
Figure 5 Hazard signboards. ......................................................................................................... 19
Figure 6 Sample of PPE. ............................................................................................................... 20
Figure 7 Sample case at the construction site. .............................................................................. 25
Figure 8 Sample case regarding crane. ......................................................................................... 25

Table 1 Details of safety officer...................................................................................................... 4


Table 2 Case Information................................................................................................................ 5
Table 3 Interview form for witness 1. ............................................................................................. 9
Table 4 Interview form for witness 2. ........................................................................................... 10
Table 5 Accident medical report. .................................................................................................. 11

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INTRODUCTION
An accident is an unplanned event that sometimes has convenient or undesirable
consequences, other times being inconsequential. In other word, accident also can be define as an
event that occur unplanned and unwantedly that lead to disrupts of working process which result
in injuries and of course increase the liabilities. Especially in sectors where human need to interact
with machines in crowded places such as factories. However, accidents are predictable and
preventable events if the activities and process flow of humans and machines are organized in a
proper and safety manner. Therefore, Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) was
established in order to cater and control this problem by providing rules and regulations that was
published for employee or employer in any occupation to follow. This minimize and prevent safety
issues that is possible in any sector of the occupation whether factory, shopping complex, hotels
or construction site. In addition, safety officer is crucial in any occupation to monitor and creating
the safety of working environment.

So, as a safety officer, the case study chosen is died being struck by falling hook block and
load. Victim died due to a breakage of the wire rope of a tower crane causing the hook block to
fall and strike the victim. He was working below the area of the crane was conduct.

Figure 1 Case study from DOSH website.

Accident Information :
40-years-old man Zulkifli Bin Ahmad was caught in a fatal accident at construction site in
Kuala Lumpur at 15 October 2016. The victim was passing through the area where the crane was
used and suddenly the hook block fell and strike the victim due to breakage of the wire.

The fall of hook block causes him serious injuries to the body. The case was classified as
serious accident which requires proper investigation to be carried out. The construction site was
declared to stop their work for few days for further investigation.

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SAFETY OFFICER

NAME MUHAMMAD IZHAR BIN ABDUL RANI


AGE 31 YEARS OLD
CITIZEN MALAYSIAN
POSITION SAFETY OFFICER
HOMETOWN LANGKAWI, KEDAH
COMPANY PYCON SDN. BHD.
CONTACT NO. 012-2467959
EMPLOYMENT DURATION 5 YEARS

Table 1 Details of safety officer.

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CASE INFORMATION

CASE INFORMATION

Title case : Died being struck by falling hook block and


load
Location : Construction site, Kuala Lumpur
Date : 15-10-2016
Summary case: Died after being struck by falling hook block
and load while passing the way where the
crane was conduct. By the time the victim
passed by the wire was breakage and the
hook fell then hit the victim.
Classification Case Serious injuries to the body

Contributing Factor: 1. No safe work procedure


2. Employer failed to prepare a safe
working place
3. Employee were not given appropriate
personal protective equipment
4. Fail to conduct HIRARC for specific
job
Observation tragedy site: 1. Weakness in construction site
operation procedure.
2. Lack of supervise from the company.
3. Improper of workers personal
protective equipment.

Table 2 Case Information.

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1.0 PART A : ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION
Accident investigation is a process of systematic collection and analysis of information relating to
a accident that led to the loss of property, time or health of individuals, or even the loss of lives.[1]
There are a few steps need to follow regarding the accident investigation.

1. Gather the information


2. Select level of investigation
3. Investigation event
4. Record and analysis result
5. Review process

In this case of accident planning whom to meet up with, from the construction site nd seek for
permission to operate an investigation.

1.1 Gather the information


Get a brief overview of the situation from witnesses and employees directly involved in the
incident.

1.2 Select level of investigation


Choosing which one victim should be treated and these severe injuries, ill health or death
should to put the effort on first. In this case, the death of victim is chosen and looked at more
detailed. To find the underlying causes of the significant event due to the event could occur again
and harm others.

1.3 Investigation event


This stage is for prevention of future incident, minimizing and identifying the hazard that are
expose in the working environment. It is stated that for an effective investigation should have 3
process which are; investigation, analyse and report. Therefor this investigation event process is
listed below:

1. Develop a plan
2. Investigate all incidents and accidents immediately
3. Collect the facts
4. Interview witnesses
5. Write a report

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1.3.1 Develop a plan
The purpose of planning is to address situations timely, reducing the chance for
evidence to be lost and witnesses to forget. All procedures, forms, notifications, etc. need to
be listed out as step-by-step procedures. A flow chart is developed to quickly show the major
components of program and can be inform and request an investigation to the head of the
company’s management.

1.3.2 Investigate all the incidents and accidents immediately


It is important to collect all the evidence and interview witnesses as soon as possible
because evidence will disappear and people will forget. Before start the interview, as a safety
officer we must know who was involved and what actually happen there. In short, get you brief
summary of your case. A few things that can help safety officer are, witness, the employer,
employer representative and immediate supervisor. Other than interview witness, review of
accident medical report also helps on the cause of death and help the investigation.

How to start ? And what is the first step ?

1. Approach and observe the scene.

Firstly, make sure you and others don’t become the next victim by checking all over
the accident scene whether still-present dangerous situations. Then help the injured is
necessary, therefore you and your team need a first aid kit with. Secure the scene and
initiate chains of custody for physical evidence. Identify witnesses and physical evidence.
Separate witnesses from one another If physical evidence is stabilized, then the
investigation begin as quickly as possible with interviews.

2. Put the cross-line tape or sign.


This is important to prevent people from enter the accident scene and interrupting the
investigation. That will cause we loose the evidence and so on. The evidence is really
important and facilitate the process of investigation run.
3. Inspection

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Inspection of the site scene and look for any hazardous working environment. In this case,
it is found nothing dangerous around the location, unless it is hazardous location since the
crane was operated near the location.

1.3.3 Interview witnesses


Investigation can be more effective with available of witness at the location of
accident. Witness can give more factual data and tell on what happened that involve with
accident situation. Compile list of witness. Record and segregate names on the list in three
category such as primary witness, secondary witness, tertiary witness.

List of interview session guideline:

 Interview promptly after the incident


 Choose a private place to talk
 Keep conversations informal
 Talk to witnesses as equals
 Ask open ended questions
 Listen. Don’t blame, just get facts

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Interview Form for Witnesses

INTERVIEW FORM
NAME AIZAT HAIKAL BIN HAMDAN
AGE 35 YEARS OLD
CITIZEN MALAYSIA
STATUS MARRIED
COMPANY PYCON SDN BHD
POSITION GENERAL WORKER

NAME : AIZAT Age: 35 YEARS OLD


Work activity: Crane driver
Can you tell me a little bit about the accident? What are you doing during the
accident? What time you notice the accident happen?
I was controlling the crane to move the load from the ground to the building. I was able to see
clearly my surrounding area. Suddenly the wire of the crane was breakage and the hook with a
load were fell down. Then I heard a loud noise and a scream from others colleague asking for
1. help. I stop working on the crane run towards the crowd.

What time do you see the accident?


2.
Around 11 am
What is your connection with the victim?
2.
Colleague
3. What did you do when the accident happens?
I immediately stop working and run towards the crowd and I noticed he was already
unconscious.
Do you have the license to handle the crane ?
4. Yes
What is the cause of the accident?
From what I see, due to the crane that not well maintain. Plus he also did not wear proper
5. PPE which at least can decrease his injured.

Interview by: Date:


Muhammad Izhar Bin Abdul Rani 15/10/2016
Safety Officer
Table 3 Interview form for witness 1.

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INTERVIEW FORM
NAME ZULKIFLI BIN ABDUL RASHID
AGE 42 YEARS OLD
CITIZEN MALAYSIA
STATUS MARRIED
COMPANY PYCON SDN BHD
POSITION GENERAL WORKER

NAME: IDIL Age: 35 years old


Work activity: General worker
Can you tell me a little bit about the accident? What are you doing during the
accident? What time you notice the accident happen?
I was doing my job as usual near the accident location. He told me to grab something beside the
building. Suddenly, I heard someone was screaming then I immediately run towards him and
1. saw he was struck by the hook of the crane.
What time do you see the accident?
2.
Around 11 am
What is your connection with the victim?
2.
Colleague
What did you do when the accident happens?
3. I immediately run towards him and we try to stop the bleeding. Then he was unconscious.

When you arrived at him, what did you see ?


4.
I saw him was bleeding heavily, and the hook was besides him
What is the cause of the accident?
5. From what I see, the victim did not wear proper PPE like safety helmet during doing
his job.
Interview by: Date:
Muhammad Izhar Bin Abdul Rani 15/10/2016
Safety Officer
Table 4 Interview form for witness 2.

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Accident Medical Report

ACCIDENT MEDICAL REPORT


Information about the patient
Name YUSUFF BIN AHMAD
Address NO 7 JALAN RAJALAUT
KUALA WILAYAH
Postal Code 50162 City LUMPUR State PERSEKUTUAN
Email
Tel 6047478329 Mobile 60139721268

Doctor's details and treatment information


Doctor' Name DR MIKEAL OMAR
Address NO 234 JALAN ARA, SETIACITY
KUALA WILAYAH
Postal Code 50545 City LUMPUR State PERSEKUTUAN
Tel +6047861548 Email mikaelomar@klhospital.gov.my

Accident Date 15 OCTOBER 2016


First
Symptoms PATIENT UNCONCIOUS
Has the patient previously suffered any form of accident
No Yes, when?
Brief description of treatment already given
THE PATIENT ARRIVE AT THE HOSPITAL IN A CRICITCAL CONDITION.
THE PATIENT DIED DUE TO EXCESSIVE BLOOD LOSS AND INTERNAL BLEEDING
ON THE WAY TO HOSPITAL

Reason for special treatment

IN CASE OF HOSPITAL ADMISSION


Date of admission Date of discharge
Name and address of hospital HOSPITAL KUALA LUMPUR
23, JALAN PAHANG, 50586 KUALA LUMPUR, WILAYAH
PERSEKUTUAN KUALA LUMPUR

I declare that the details given are to the best of my knowledge, true and correct

Dr. Mikael Omar


Hospital Kuala Lumpur
Table 5 Accident medical report.

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1.4 Result from the investigation
1. The victim had not worn safety helmet in the factory.
2. No strict information regarding Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
3. Not well maintain of the machines and transports.
4. No cross-line sign or tape to aware the worker for not passing by.

As conclusion, the cause of the accident was on both side that is conjunction to fault of human
careless. The victim not wearing PPE which is safety helmet. Supervisor or construction firm did
not well maintain the machines and transportation such as crane for this case. Plus they don’t put
any hazard or cross-line tape or sign around the location.

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Figure 2 JKKP 6
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Figure 3 Construction site with crane.

1.5 Review Process


A report of the accident based on the investigation that have been done. Therefore, a plan is
developed for corrective actions. Implementing corrective actions. Monitor and evaluate the
effectiveness of corrective actions. Adjust as necessary to ensure the cause of the accident has been
eliminated or terminated. Incorporate changes into Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for
continual improvement of the workplace environment. This will be review in the next chapter of
part B.

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2.0 PART B : SUGGESTION FOR PREVENTIVE ACTIONS

Construction work is a hazardous land-based job. Some construction site job include
building houses, roads, tree forts, workplace and repair and maintain infrastructures. The most
common fatalities are caused by the fatal four : falls, being struck by an object, electrocutions, and
being caught in between two objects. Construction work has been increasing in developing and
undeveloped countries over the past few years. With an increase in this type of work occupational
fatalities have increased. Working at construction site definitely requires a lot of safety precaution
regarding the employee and also the equipment and machinery there. . It is responsibilities under the
Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (Act 139) and Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514) to
prevent the accident.

There are a lot of preventions actions that can be implement for handling machinery but
for this case study it will be specific to certain level of prevention. Firstly, administrative control
should take their action to control the employee. Plus, the employee itself also must work towards
no accident at workplace. Other than that, the supervisor who handle the project also need to keep
an eye towards the project that have been conduct. In addition, to prevent any more future accident
is by using hierarchy of control.

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Figure 4 Hierarchy of Control

2.1 Engineering Controls


This action can be done by construction firm which is isolate people from the hazard. They need
to identify the area that exposed to hazard and can cause an accident first. Then make sure there
are no any workers are exposed or work in that area by putting the caution tape or line. This should
be done by the company as the victim was passing by the area which are lead to an accident.
Unfortunately, by the time he walk by the hook was fall down and struck him right away.

2.2 Administrative Control


Administrative and Construction Firm

1. Awareness
Any worker – no matter what department of their job scope, he or she need to aware
with any possible hazards when they step foot onto the workplace. Understanding of perils
at hand and sustaining a perpetual state of alertness is perhaps the number one best way to
prevent accidents.
It is the construction managers job to make sure that every worker is aware of the
danger that come with working on a construction site and they must protect workers from

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these dangers. Any manager that fails to tell their crew and staff about how to avoid getting
hurt and how to ensure safety is failing as a manager. Ensuring the safety of the
construction workers and everyone on the site should be the number one priority of any
construction manager. If the workers have no concept of construction site safety, they
should not be allowed on the construction site. To sum up, administrative also need to take
part to give a short talk awareness before the worker for to construction site.

2. Training
Administrative department also can take part to implement training for the new
laborers who was first time in construction site. Experienced workers should be expected
to refresh their knowledge of standard safety by attending regular training sessions
throughout the year. These training session can go over simple things such as fall protection
and proper use of machinery but the goal is to make sure everyone is adequately trained.
By the time they leave the training, they should implement all the safety precaution and
how to handle and prevent from accident.
Practicing construction site safety training skills on-site will force workers to
practice these skills in an environment where safety is essential and will make sure they
are trained. Without the proper training, construction workers can be easily injured or even
killed by the same accident and the training definitely will prevent things being struck by
something that will hurt workers ethically and economically

3. Supervision
In order to make sure the construction site is in control, the administrative need to
appoint one supervisor in order to supervision all the worker at the construction site. Every
site is compulsory to have a strong supervisor who is willing and capable of enforcing
safety standards with no exceptions. This person must keep tabs on all workers throughout
the day and correct those who fail to commit to proper construction safety procedures.

Employee

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1. Communication (worker)
Accident may happen when workers are unsure what to do. Therefore, a good
communication of the day’s goals and activities will cut down on surprise that could cause
bodily harm. Construction firms should equip workers with device such as walkie-talkies
to allow fast and efficient communication among team members. For instance, from the
case study I found out that bad communication is one of the major reason why the victim
being struck by the hook.
By informing all the crew what to do and don’ts can avoid any accident happen at
construction site and make the project go by faster.

Company

1. Proper Equipment
The company itself also responsible to equip a proper equipment and machinery at the
construction site. Without a proper equipment, the workers will always have an opportunity
to get injured. Other than that, the company also need to make sure all the equipment and
machinery is well maintained. As mention in the case study, thee wire of the crane was get
breakage and cause the hook to fell down and hit the victim. This is one of the example
that the equipment is not well maintained.

2. Display Hazard and Safety Signboard


Besides all the important things, this signboard also are really useful to prevent the
accident from happen. The company or construction firm should display all the safety and
hazard signboards especially for the construction site. This signboard act as reminder and
awareness to the worker who work at the workplace, as well as person who are not worker.

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Figure 5 Hazard signboards.

2.3 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


This is the last choice for the company to implement in order to prevent the injuries and any
accident happen for a second time in future. The company should provide their worker PPE to be
use at construction site. It is crucial to provide workers with PPE to ensure their safety. In this
case, the victim was not wearing PPE such as safety helmet. Since there are no strict instruction
from their supervisor.

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Figure 6 Sample of PPE.

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3.0 PART C : ETHICAL PRINCIPLES AND PROFESSIONAL
ETHICS

No frequently maintenance on their machines and equipment

The construction manager that is in charge of the project was not good enough to monitor what
happen at the construction site. Since he does not do an inspection for any equipment and machine
there. Consequently, the wire of the crane was breakage and the hook fell down and hit the victim.

Other than that, the company also want to cut budget on hiring contractor to do a maintenance on
their machine. Therefore it lead to an accident.

No proper Standard Operation Procedure (SOP)

The company did not have and display a written proper SOP to guide the employees on how to
perform their job efficiently. This is very important in this line of work because it involves the life
and safety of the workers and the people nearby. Such as what to wear and act when working at a
construction site.

The ignorance of preparing and wearing the PPE

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is compulsory for every company and should be apply at the
factories or construction site. This things act as a last protection for a worker. It is under the act of
OSHA that the employer should prepare a PPE to every employee during working at construction
site.

For this case, the victim does no worn PPE which is safety helmet since there are no strict
instruction from their supervisor. Therefore, the supervisor also must take an action as well as the
workers.

Bribery and Corruption

The ethical issues also involved in this accident, when the company want to collect a higher profit
by cutting down the budget for safety. For instance sufficient number of worker, less maintenance
of the machines and transport, not given a training for new labor and hiring workers that do not
have a license.
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4.0 DISCUSSION

Many accidents involving struck by falling object happen at construction site. By cited
from BLS reports, they claimed that accident regarding struck by an object at construction site was
at second placed in United Stated. This show that the number of workers who involved in this
accident is definitely high. They also list down all the accident as “Fatal Four”. Some of them were
falling from high places, struck by object, electrocution and caught-in between. By eliminating the
Fatal Four would save workers lives in America every year.

Falling object frequently occur because no precaution are taken, or any equipment that is
used is defective, not well maintenance or is used incorrectly. However, in this case it is cause by
the crane which was not well maintain by the company or contractor. The victim is not fully blame
even though he is not wearing PPE as the supervisor was not do their job correctly by strictly
instruct all his crew to follow the instruction. In addition, the company also must responsible as
they skipped to maintain all the machines and transport such as the crane. Besides, the company
also must prepare a hazard area, which means to put hazard line in the area that highly lead to any
accidents.

As a safety officer, the safety and health of the workers and company is under of our
responsibility. It is our job to maintain the safety working environment. The interaction between
safety officer, workers and employers should be okay to be ensuring that company comply with
their risk assessments, policies and procedures so we protect each other’s as much as possible.

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5.0 CONCLUSION

For this case study, me as safety officer ensure the safety, health and welfare of person at working
place against harm because of the work activities. Besides, we also have Occupational Safety and
Health (OSHA), organization that established to protect persons at a place of work other than
persons at work against risk to safety or health arising out of the activities of person at works.
Moreover, they also have become more mature and always striving to improve the level of
occupational health and safety in making a safe and healthy work practices part of the Malaysian
culture.

In a nutshell, the objective have been successfully achieved which are identify ethical principles
and commit to professional ethics and investigate on the reported fatal accident and finding it
causes from the company or construction firm itself due to lack of maintenance of their machine
and transport as well as bad instruction for the workers.

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REFERENCES.

8 Best Practices to Improve Construction Site Safety. (2018, December 12). Retrieved from eSUB
consruction software: https://esub.com/improve-construction-site-safety/

Commonly Used Statistics. (2017). Retrieved from United Stated Departmentof Labor:
https://www.osha.gov/oshstats/commonstats.html

Construction Site Safety. (2019). Retrieved from The Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia :
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construction_site_safety

Fatal Accident . (2019). Retrieved from Department of Occupational Safety and Health:
http://www.dosh.gov.my/

Overhead Crane Safety – Avoiding Materials Falling Hazards. (2017, July 24). Retrieved from
Massachusetts Contractor Academy: https://247mass.com/2018/06/13/overhead-crane-
safety-avoiding-materials-falling-hazards/

The Hierarchy of Controls. (2018). Retrieved from Safety+Health The Official Magazine of the
NSC Congress & Expo: https://www.safetyandhealthmagazine.com/articles/16790-the-
hierarchy-of-controls

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APPENDIX

Figure 7 Sample case at the construction site.

Figure 8 Sample case regarding crane.

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