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WOODS

1. WOOD (kahoy)
Physical Properties of Wood that attract us:
a. Natural Warmth
b. Workability, easily shaped with simple tools
c. Infinite variety- unique
d. Strength – for bridges
e. Flexibility – actual, it bends
f. Fire Protection – doesn’t melt or crumble
g. Color – natural
Classification of Wood
a. Sapwood
- softer,
younger outer
portion of a
tree that lies
between the
cambium, and
the heartwood.
Classification of Wood
a. Heart wood
- older
- harder
- central portion of a
tree.
- It contains deposits
that give darker color
than sapwood.
Properties of Wood
a. HARDNESS. This is measured by compression

b. FLEXIBILITY. The amount of piece will bend


before breaking.
a. Softwoods are flexible
b. Hardwoods are generally brittle

c. STRENGTH
d. DURABILITY
Defects of Wood
a. Decay
- Caused by attack of fungi.
Defects of Wood
b. Cheeks
Cracks or lengthwise separation across the rings
caused by irregular shrinkage.
Defects of Wood
c. Shakes
Cracks between and parallel to the rings
Defects of Wood
d. Knots Irregular growth in the body of a tree which
interrupt the smooth curve of the grain.
Defects of Wood
e. Warping
Any variation with the plane surface caused by
unequal shrinkage of the board.

- Several forms of warp are:


- A. CROOK
- B. BOW
- C. CUP
- D. TWIST
CROOK
• A distortion of the board in which
long edge is convex or concave.
BOW
• It is a distortion of the board in
which the face is convex or concave
longitudinal.
CUP
• It is a
distortion of
the board in
which the
face is
convex or
concave
across the
board.
TWIST
• It is a distortion of the board in
which one corner is raised.
LOG TIMBER LUMBER
• Cut tree • Tree • Cut to specified
dimension
Method of Sawing

Plain sawing Quarter sawing


Lumber cut tangent
to the rings
2. LUMBER (tabla)
• Wood that is used in construction
Classification of Lumber
FOUR CLASSIFICATION OF LUMBER
1. Strips – lumber less than 2” thick and less than
8” wide.
Classification of Lumber
2. Board Lumber – pieces less than 2” thick and at
least 8” wide
Classification of Lumber
3. Dimension Lumber – pieces more than 2” and
less than 5” in any dimension.
Classification of Lumber
4. Timbers – pieces 5”
or more on the
smallest dimension.

NOMINAL SIZE – the


size of lumber when it is
cut from the log.
COCO LUMBER
3. Wood Composites
• Are those products made from a mixture of
wood and other materials.
Plywood
• Most common wood composites.
• Standard sizes of Plywood
▫ Commonly available 3’ x 6’ (900mm x 1800mm)
and 4’ x 8’ (1220mm x 2440mm)
• Standard thickness
▫ 4.5mm for double wall partitions and ceilings
▫ 6mm for double wall partitions
▫ 10mm and 12mm for drawers and shelves
Advantages of Plywood
• The approximate equalization of strength
properties along its length and width

• Greater resistance for checking and splitting

• Less change in dimension due to moisture


content.
Types of Plywood
• Ordinary Plywood
Types of Plywood
• Form Plywood
Types of Plywood
• Marine Plywood - waterproofed
HARDBOARD
Made from wood
fibre extracted
from chips and
pulped wood
waste.
--Three Types
a. Standard HB
b. Panel HB
c. Tempered
Chipboard
- Made by
bonding together
wood particles
with an adhesive
under heat and
pressure to form
a rigid board.
Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)
• Finishing materials
made from vegetable
fibers such as
sugarcane stalks or
corn pressed into
sheets.
• It is not very strong,
but has a good
properties therefore it is usually used for ceiling
only.
Gypsum Board / Plaster Board
• non- Walls,
combustible ceilings or
building partitions.
board. - It is
• Designed to extensively
use without used in “dry-
addition of wall”
plaster for construction
2 edge designs
1. Square Edge (SE)-
coverstrip jointing
2. Tapered Edge (TE) –
jointless wall and ceiling
Particle Board
• Made of small wood
chips and base
materials including
cotton stalk, rice
straw, bagasse,
conventional wood
chips and sawdust
that have been
pressed and glued
together.
Millwork
• Consists of finished lumber which is further cut
and processed at a lumber mill.

• Includes doors, windows, mouldings, trim and


other ornamental forms of wood.
Mouldings

Astragal Screen
Nose and Cove
Bed

Crown

Cove
Quarter round
English – Tagalog Terms
• Mortar- paupo
• Mortar Joints – kostura
• Panel – bandeha
• Brick – la drillo
• Plank board – senepa
• Plaster – palitada
• Rivets – rimatse