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Assignment No 5 Dated: Oct 28, 2019

Name: Tajamal Hussain Raza


Registration No: 1421-116310
Program: BSCS Semester: 8th (B.116) Group-IV. Fall 2019
Subject: Optical Fiber Communications

Submitted to Prof. Dr. M. Saleem Sheikh


Preston University Kohat Islamabad Campus
Q1 Write the types of Optical fiber cables?
There are two types of fiber:
 Step Index Fiber
 Graded Index fiber
Step Index Fiber:
A multimode or single mode optical fiber with a uniform refractive index
throughout the core. The step is the shift between the core and the cladding,
which has a lower refractive index. See graded-index fiber, dispersion-shifted
fiber and dispersion.

Graded Index Fiber:

Graded Index fiber is another type of optical fiber in which the refractive
index of the core is non-uniform. This non-uniformity is present because the
refractive index is higher at the axis of the core and continuously reduces
with the radial movement away from the axis.

However, the refractive index of the cladding is constant in the


case of graded index fiber. Hence the nature of the refractive
index of the core is somewhat parabolic.
Unlike graded index optical fiber, the step index fiber has a
constant refractive index at the core as well as cladding.

Q2 what is Step Index?


step-index fiber. step-index fiber. A multimode or single mode optical
fiber with a uniform refractive index throughout the core. The step is the
shift between the core and the cladding, which has a lower refractive
index. See graded-index fiber, dispersion-shifted fiber and dispersion.

Q3What is Matched Cladding?


Matched-clad is the simplest single mode fiber design. Matched-clad fiber results in a
constant refractive index profile throughout the cladding, or from the edge of the core.
... Depressed-clad fiber is usually produced from the inside vapor deposition (IVD) or
modified chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process.

The type of cladding used affects bend losses. The smaller the mode-field
diameter, the smaller the bending loss. This is true for both matched-clad and
depressed-clad fibers.
However, for the same mode-field diameter (MFD), induced losses are greater in
depressed-clad fiber for bend diameters greater than 50 mm. These types of
bends are usually encountered in splice enclosures and in cables. Thus, one would
expect to find that standard production depressed-clad fibers have a somewhat
smaller mode-field diameter to achieve satisfactory cable-fiber performance. The
smaller MFD is designed into a depressed-clad fiber.

Q4 Write the three commons form of the Step-Index fiber?


Three common form of the Step-index fiber are: -
● Glass – To- Glass
● Glass -To-Plastic
● Plastic -To-Plastic

Q5 What are different steps to protect the fiber?


The types of strengthening and protection needed follow:
1. Tensile strength:
● High tensile strength is required when a cable is installed by pulling it through a
duct.
● Tensile members must support the weight of the cable when it is hung in a
vertical duct, when it is suspended between poles, & or under the ocean.

2. Hardness (Crush resistance):


Cables are often subjected to large lateral forces, which can crush a glass fiber.
Some cabled fibers must survive being stepped on or being run over by large
vehicles.

3. Protection from excess bending:


Sharp bends produce two problems:
▪ Radiation loss at the bend and Possible breaks in the fiber.
▪ A good cable will be stiff enough to prevent excessive bending but flexible
enough for easy handling and installation.

4. Abrasion protection:
● Glass fibers will deteriorate severely if they suffer abrasions.
● Small defects caused by abrasions increase losses significantly.