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Lecture’s Outline [CSS COMPETITION ZONE PAKISTAN]

KASHMIR ISSUE

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Lecture’s Outline [CSS COMPETITION ZONE PAKISTAN]

In Kashmir Sikh rule till 1846


British sold Kashmir to Ghulab Singh in 7.5(M)---
Treaty of Amritsar ---- Dogra Dynasty starts
• Rambir Singh
• Partab singh
• Hari Singh
562 princely states before independence of
subcontinent
Allowed to get annexed, either with India or Pakistan,
keeping in view
1. Population
2. Geography
Hyderabad
Junagard
Kashmir
Hyderabad
Rulers were Muslim ---Nizams
Junagard

Kashmir

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Lecture’s Outline [CSS COMPETITION ZONE PAKISTAN]

• Ruler was a sikh –Hari singh


• Population that comprised of muslims in majority
(80%)
• Instrument of accession in Oct 1947 –letter by Hari
Singh to Indian Govt
• Indian forces entered Kashmir---followed by
Pakistani forces – 1947-1949
• India took the matter to United Nations
• Ceasefire on 1st Jan 1949
Four major political units
1. Ladakh , Jamu and Kashmir Valley(India-admin)
2. Azad Kashmir (Pak- admin)
3. Northern Areas(GB)
4. Aksai Chin (China)

Importance for India


Water
To hamper route between Pak and China
To destroy agriculture
To keep its territories
Importance for PAkistan

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Lecture’s Outline [CSS COMPETITION ZONE PAKISTAN]

Water Resources
Agriculture --- 20.9%
Employment ---- 43%
Link route between China and Pakistan
Tourism

Indian Perspective on Kashmir


• India maintains that the letter of accession by hari
singh is final and legal and it can’t be disputed.
• Pakistan should relinquish captured territories
• UN resolutions cannot be met, because Pakistan has
not fulfilled the pre-conditions for plebiscite i.e.
demilitarization

Indian policy operates at three levels


Local level: Crush people by force
Bilateral Level: Talks except changing the status of
Kashmir
International Level: Malign Pakistan as terrorist
state fomenting strife in J&K

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Lecture’s Outline [CSS COMPETITION ZONE PAKISTAN]

Pakistani approach
• Kashmir is a disputed Territory(India has annexed it
by force without the consent of the people)
• The disputed status of J&K has already been
acknowledged by UN to which both india and
Pakistan has agreed
• The plebiscite recommended by UN should be
offered to the people

War of 1965
Operation Gibraltor

Operation Meghdood in 1984


India occupied a part of siachin glacier

Kargil War 1999

Solutions proposed during different Phases:


-Owen Dixon proposal----1950
Three phases

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Lecture’s Outline [CSS COMPETITION ZONE PAKISTAN]

1. Admin to local authorities supervised by UN


2. Demilitarize
3. Plebiscite
Selig Harrision’s Proposal--- Triestie model
J&K ---- India
GB, AJK---Pakistan
Kashmir valley --- autonomous body
Andora Model
Andora an island between France and spain—jointly
governed
Same model for kashmir
Cheenab Formula -2003

Pervez Musharaf model – 2004


Proposed four point solution
1. Demilitarize or phased withdrawal of troops
2. No change in borders(LoC), however, people of
Kashmir may move freely on two sides
3. Self Governance without independence
4. A joint supervision mechanism in J&K including
india, Pakistan and Kashmir
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