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Term Paper of microbiology


Submitted to Lovely Professional University

Submitted To: Submitted by


Roll No.- B 34

Red NO.- 10907658

Bsc.Biotech 3rd SEM


I hereby declare that the following project report titled “classification of algae”
is an authentic work done by me. This is to declare that all my work indulged in
the completion of this term paper Report such as research, analysis &
presentation of final report is a profound and honest work of mine.

This entire Project was done in consultation and under supervision of Dr.
Leena Parihar

Santosh Kr.Chaurasiya

We think if any of us honestly reflects on who we are, how we got here, what
we think we might do well, and so forth, we discover a debt to others that spans
written history. The work of some unknown person makes our lives easier every
day. We believe it's appropriate to acknowledge all of these unknown persons;
but it is also necessary to acknowledge those people we know have directly
shaped our lives and our work.

First of all we would like to thank our teacher Dr. Leena Parihar for their
guidance throughout the semester.Then i would like to thank our teacher Dr.
Leena Parihar for providing us the Information that was required for
completion of this project.

Thank you

Santosh Chaurasiya

The word algae is composed of latin word alga which means see weed. Algae
have chlorophyll containing thallophytes and their relatives which is
characterised by the absence of embryo stage but present of nonjacketed
gametangia where mostly cells fertile. Algae has classified in plant kingdom in
traditionally two kingdom along with bacteria and fungi. Whittakers classified
algae are grouped in three kingdoms monera (blue –green algae), protista
(dinoflagellates, diatoms, euglenoids) and plantae brown algae, red algae and
green algae. Algae lack the various structures that characterize land plants, such
as phyllids (leaves) and rhizoids in nonvascular plants, or leaves,roots, and
other organs that are found in tracheophytes (vascular plants). Many
are photoautotrophic, although some groups contain members that
are mixotrophic, deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake of
organic carbon either by osmotrophy, myzotrophy, or phagotrophy. Some
unicellular species rely entirely on external energy sources and have limited or
no photosynthetic apparatus.
Nearly all algae have photosynthetic machinery ultimately derived from
the Cyanobacteria, and so produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis,
unlike other photosynthetic bacteria such as purple and green sulfur bacteria.
Fossilized filamentous algae from theVindhya basin have been dated back to 1.6
to 1.7 billion years ago.[7]
The first alga to have its genome sequenced was Cyanidioschyzon merolae.
High oil prices, competing demands between foods and other biofuel sources,
and the world food crisis, have ignited interest in algaculture (farming algae) for
making vegetable
oil,biodiesel, bioethanol, biogasoline, biomethanol, biobutanol and
other biofuels, using land that is not suitable for agriculture. Among algal fuels'
attractive characteristics: they do not affectfresh water resources,[3] can be
produced using ocean and wastewater, and are biodegradable and relatively
harmless to the environment if spilled.[4][5][6] Algae cost more per unit mass yet
can yield over 30 times more energy per unit area than other, second-generation
biofuel crops.[citation needed] One biofuels company has claimed that algae can
produce more oil in an area the size of a two car garage than a football field
of soybeans, because almost the entire algal organism can use sunlight to
produce lipids, or oil.[7] The United States Department of Energyestimates that if
algae fuel replaced all the petroleum fuel in the United States, it would require
15,000 square miles (40,000 km2).[8] This is less than 1⁄7 the area
of corn harvested in the United States in 2000.
The characters of algae are as follows:

1. Plant body is thallus that means without any differentiation into root,
stem and leaves which are unicellular, colonial, filamentous,
parenchymatous or pseudoparenchymatous.

2. Mostly algae are aquatic either marine or fresh water. Only few algae are
found in terrestrial habitats such as wet rocks, moist soil and tree trunks

3. Algae like other aquatic plants, are covered over by mucilage. Mucilage
protects the algae from epiphytic growth and decaying effect of water. It
also prevents

desiccation if the algae happen to get exposed on the .

4. Nearly all algae have photosynthetic machinery ultimately derived from

the Cyanobacteria, and so produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis,
unlike other photosynthetic bacteria such as purple and green sulfur bacteria.
Fossilized filamentous algae from theVindhya basin have been dated back to 1.6
to 1.7 billion years ago.[7]
5. All true algae therefore have a nucleus enclosed within a membrane
and chloroplasts bound in one or more membranes.[3][6] Algae constitute
a paraphyletic and polyphyletic group,[3] as they do not include all the
descendants of the last universal ancestor nor do they all descend from a
common algal ancestor, although their chloroplasts seem to have a single origin.
Diatoms are also examples of algae..
6. Many are photoautotrophic, although some groups contain members that
are mixotrophic, deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake of
organic carbon either by osmotrophy, myzotrophy, or phagotrophy. Some
unicellular species rely entirely on external energy sources and have limited or
no photosynthetic apparatus.

7. The thallus may be unicellular or multicellular. When unicellular, it may

consist of isolated cells, but more commonly the cells are held together in a
common jelly (Chroococcaceae) derived from the outer layers of the cell-wall.
The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which
arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation
of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls. Such filaments may not give rise to
mucilage on the I. 19 a lateral surface either, in which case they are said to be
free; when mucilage does occur on the lateral wall, it appears as the sheath
surrounding either the single filament, or a sheaf of filaments of common origin.

8. It might be mentioned here that the whole group of the Fungi (q.v.),with its
many thousands of species, is now generally regarded as having been derived
from algae, and the system of classification of fungi devised by Brefeld is based
upon this belief. The similarity of the morphological characters of one group of
fungi to those of certain algae has earned for it the name of Phycomycetes
or alga -fungi. Further discussion of the general characters of algae will be
deferred in order to take a brief survey of the subdivisions of the group. For this
purpose there will be adopted the classification of algae into four sub-groups,
founded on the nature the. colouring matters present in the plant:

I. Cyanophyceae, or Blue-green Algae.

II. Classification of Algae

The classification of algae into taxonomic groups is based upon the
same rules that are used for the classification of land plants, but the
organization of groups of algae above the order level has changed
substantially since 1960. Research using electron microscopes has
demonstrated differences in features, such as the flagellar apparatus,
cell division process, and organelle structure and function, that are
important in the classification of algae. Similarities and differences
among algal, fungal, and protozoan groups have led scientists to
propose major taxonomic changes, and these changes are continuing.
Division-level classification, as with kingdom-level classification, is
tenuous for algae. For example, some phycologists place the classes
Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, and Xanthophyceae in the division
Chromophyta, whereas others place each class in separate divisions:
Bacillariophyta, Phaeophyta, and Xanthophyta. Yet, almost all
phycologists agree on the definition of the respective classes
Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, and Xanthophyceae.
The classes are distinguished by the structure of flagellate cells (e.g.,
scales, angle of flagellar insertion, microtubular roots, and striated roots),
the nuclear division process (mitosis), the cytoplasmic division process
(cytokinesis), and the cell covering. Many scientists combine the
Micromonadophyceae with the Pleurastrophyceae, naming the
combined group the Prasinophyceae. “Phylum” and “division” represent
the same level of organization; the former is the zoological term, the
latter is the botanical term.

Properties of Major Algal Taxonomic Groups

S. Taxonomic Chloroph Carotenoids Bilo Storage Flagellation
No Group yll protein products &Cell
s structure
1. Bacillariophyta a, c β-carotene Chrysolamina1 apical
± -carotene rin flagellum in
rarelyfucoxanth oils male gametes:
in,. cell in two
halves with

2. Chloro a, b β-carotene, Starch, oils 1,2,4 to many,

phycophyta ± -carotene equal, apical
(green algae) rarely carotene or
and lycopene, subapicalflage
lutein. lla.

3. Chrysophycop a, c , β-carotene, Chrysolamina1 or 2

hyta fucoxanthin rin unequal,
(golden algae) oils apical
flagella, in
some, cell
covered by

4. Cyanobacteria a,c β-carotene,

(blue green phycobilins

5. Phaeco a,c β-carotene, ± Laminarin, 2 lateral

phycophyta fucoxanthin, soluble flagella
(brown algae) violaxanthin carbohydrates
, oils

6. Dinophyta a,c β-carotene, Starch, oils 2 lateral, 1

(dinpflagellates peridinin, trailing,1
) neoperididnin girdling
dinoxanthin, flagellum, in
neodinoxanthin. most, there
is a
and transverse
furrow and
angular plates.
7. Rhodo a, rarely d β- Phyco Floridean star Flagella
phycophyta carotene,zeaxan erythri ch absent
(red algae ) thin n oils
± β carotene phyco

CHLOROPHYTA (green algae)


1845, coined from Gk. diatomos "cut in two," from diatemnein "to cut
through," from dia- "through" + temnein "to cut." So called because they
typically appear to have been cut in half.
di·a·tom (dī'ə-tŏm')
n. Any of various microscopic one-celled or colonial algae of the class
Bacillariophyceae, having cell walls of silica consisting of two interlocking
symmetrical valves.


Bacillariophyta are unicellular organisms that are important components

of phytoplankton as primary sources of food for zooplankton in both
marine and freshwater habitats. Most diatoms are planktonic, but some
are bottom dwellers or grow on other algae or plants.

Except for their male gametes, diatoms lack flagella. Instead many
diatoms achieve locomotion from controlled secretions in response to
outside physical and chemical stimuli. Diatoms have unique shells,
which serve as their cell wall. The overlapping shells, or frustules that
surround the diatom protoplasm are made of polymerized, opaline silica.
Identification of diatom species is based on the delicate markings on
their frustules, comprising a large number of tiny, intricately-shaped
depressions, pores and passageways that bring the diatom’s cell
membrane in contact with the environment. Diatom frustules have
accumulated over millions of years to form the fine, crumbly substance
known as diatomaceous earth, which has a variety of uses (e.g. for
filtration and insulation). Diatom remains in both marine and freshwater
sediments are also important as indicators of paleo-environmental
conditions at the time the sediments were formed.

Bacillariophytes have brownish plastids containing chlorophylls a and c

and fucoxanthin. The primary means of reproduction is asexual, by cell
division. Most diatoms are autotrophic, but a few are obligate
heterotrophs (they must absorb organic carbon) because they lack
chlorophyll altogether. Some diatoms even lack their distinctive frustules
and live symbiotically in large marine protozoa, providing organic
carbon .

Reproduction in diatoms

Diatoms can reproduce in two different modes, sexual and asexual.

They also may, but not necessarily, pass through a seed-like phase
known as the resting spore.

Asexual Reproduction

Diatoms have a unique "shrinking division" mode of asexual

reproduction. After cell division, the two valves of the test separate. Each
forms the epivalve of a daughter cell, and new hypovalves are secreted
within each of the parent valves. The result is one cell that is the same
size as the parent cell, and one cell that is slightly smaller. Due to the
rigidity of the test material, growth of the cell is impossible once the test
is secreted. Thus, the average diatom size gets progressively smaller
with each round of replication.

Sexual reproduction

Very small diatoms may switch to a sexual mode of reproduction. The

sexual reproduction mode allows for growth of the zygote to relatively
large size. It is the escape hatch for diatoms from the ever-shrinking
asexual mode.

Meiotic cell division

occurs in a parent cell. This is the formation of eggs or

monoflagellated sperm.


free-swimming sperm released from male cells find eggs, still

within the test of the female cell. A zygote, or auxospore, is


the growth phase. Auxospore splits the two valves of the parent
test, continues to grow.

Test Secretion

occurs when the growth phase is complete. Cell reenters asexual


Asexual Reproduction

continues for perhaps a year before the next meiosis.

Resting spores

In times of low nutrients, poor sunlight, or other stresses, diatoms may

form metabolically inactive spores called resting spores. These spores
have lots of stored energy in the form of photosynthetic products and
tough thickened cell walls. They sink to the bottom of the sea to rest. If
they can return to favorable conditions, the cells may return to normal
cell functioning.
How Diatoms Reproduce

Diatoms can reproduce in two different modes, sexual and asexual.

They also may, but not necessarily, pass through a seed-like phase
known as the resting spore.

Asexual Reproduction

Diatoms have a unique "shrinking division" mode of asexual

reproduction. After cell division, the two valves of the test separate. Each
forms the epivalve of a daughter cell, and new hypovalves are secreted
within each of the parent valves. The result is one cell that is the same
size as the parent cell, and one cell that is slightly smaller. Due to the
rigidity of the test material, growth of the cell is impossible once the test
is secreted. Thus, the average diatom size gets progressively smaller
with each round of replication.

Sexual reproduction

Very small diatoms may switch to a sexual mode of reproduction. The

sexual reproduction mode allows for growth of the zygote to relatively
large size. It is the escape hatch for diatoms from the ever-shrinking
asexual mode.

Meiotic cell division

occurs in a parent cell. This is the formation of eggs or

monoflagellated sperm.


free-swimming sperm released from male cells find eggs, still

within the test of the female cell. A zygote, or auxospore, is

the growth phase. Auxospore splits the two valves of the parent
test, continues to grow.

Test Secretion

occurs when the growth phase is complete. Cell reenters asexual


Asexual Reproduction

continues for perhaps a year before the next meiosis.

Resting spores

In times of low nutrients, poor sunlight, or other stresses, diatoms may

form metabolically inactive spores called resting spores. These spores
have lots of stored energy in the form of photosynthetic products and
tough thickened cell walls. They sink to the bottom of the sea to rest. If
they can return to favorable conditions, the cells may return to normal
cell functioning.

the two valves of the parent test, continues to grow.

Sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction of a pinnate diatom (morphological isogamy,
physiological anisogamy)

Diatoms are non-motile; however, sperm found in some species

can be flagellated, though motility is usually limited to a gliding
motion.[7]Reproduction among these organisms is primarily asexual
by binary fission, with each daughter cell receiving one of the
parent cell's two frustules (or theca). This is used by each daughter
cell as the larger frustule (or epitheca) into which a second, small
frustule (or hypotheca) is constructed.
1. This form of division results in a size reduction of the offspring and
therefore the average cell size of a diatom population decreases,
until the cells are about one-third their maximum size.[2] It has been
observed, however, the ability of certain taxa to divide without
causing a reduction in cell size.[18]Nonetheless, in order to restore
the cell size of a diatom population for those that do endure size
reduction, sexual reproduction and auxosporeformation must
occur.[2] Vegetative cells of diatoms are diploid (2N) and
so meiosis can take place, producing male and female gametes
which then fuse to form the zygote. The zygote sheds its silica
theca and grows into a large sphere covered by an organic
membrane, the auxospore. A new diatom cell of maximum size,
the initial cell, forms within the auxospore thus beginning a new
generation. Resting spores may also be formed as a response to
unfavourable environmental conditions with germination occurring
when conditions improve.[7]
In centric diatoms, the small male gametes have
one flagellum while the female gametes are large and non-motile
(oogamous). Conversely, in pinnate diatoms both gametes lack
flagella (isoogamous).] Certain araphid species have been
documented as anisogamous and are, therefore, considered to
represent a transitional stage between centric and pinnate

Asexual Reproduction

continues for perhaps a year before the next meiosis.

Resting spores

In times of low nutrients, poor sunlight, or other stresses, diatoms may

form metabolically inactive spores called resting spores. These spores
have lots of stored energy in the form of photosynthetic products and
tough thickened cell walls. They sink to the bottom of the sea to rest. If
they can return to favorable conditions, the cells may return to normal
cell function


Diatoms are almost all photosynthetic. Most of the biological energy

production (and oxygen production!) on earth is due to photosynthesis,
and a little under half of it occurs in the ocean. Diatoms are responsible
for a large proportion of the total energy production of the oceans,
possibly as much as a half. A smaller figure than this is more likely as
the role of even smaller photosynthetic protists and bacteria has
probably been underestimated in the past. However, it seems certain
that diatoms are one of the worlds most important groups of producers.
The few diatoms that don’t photosynthesise live instead on dissolved
nutrients from rich organic matter, and it is thought that photosynthetic
species might also be capable of this whilst in the dark.

Selections from Ernst Haeckel's 1904Kunstformen der Natur (Artforms of

Nature), showing pennate (left) and centric (right) frustules.

The classification of heterokonts is still unsettled, and they may be

treated as a division (or phylum), kingdom, or something in-between.
Accordingly, groups like the diatoms may be ranked anywhere from
class (usually called Diatomophyceae) to division (usually
calledBacillariophyta), with corresponding changes in the ranks of their
Diatoms are traditionally divided into two orders:

 centric diatoms (Centrales), which are radially symmetric

 pennate diatoms (Pennales), which are bilaterally symmetric. The
former are paraphyletic to the latter.

A more recent classification[3] divides the diatoms into three classes:

 centric diatoms (Coscinodiscophyceae)

 pennate diatoms
 without a raphe (Fragilariophyceae)
 with a raphe (Bacillariophyceae)

It is probable there will be further revisions as understanding of their

relationships increases.
Diatoms generally range in size from ca. 2-200μm, and are composed of
a cell wall comprising silica.] This siliceous wall can be highly patterned
with a variety of pores, ribs, minute spines, marginal ridges and
elevations; all of which can be utilised to delineate genera and species.
The cell itself consists of two halves, each containing an essentially flat
plate, or valve and marginal connecting, or girdle band. One half, the
hypotheca, is slightly smaller than the other half, the epitheca. Diatom
morphology varies, typically though the shape of the cell is circular,
although, some cells may be triangular, square, or elliptical.
Cells are solitary or united into colonies of various kinds, which may be
linked by siliceous structures; mucilage pads, or stalks; mucilage tubes;
amorphous masses of mucilage and threads of polysaccharide (chitin),
which are secreted through strutted processes. Major pigments of
diatoms are chlorophylls a and c, beta-carotene, fucoxanthin,
diatoxanthin and diadinoxanthin.[2] Diatoms are primarily photosynthetic.
A few, however, are obligate heterotrophs, while others can live
heterotrophically in the absence of light, provided an appropriate organic
carbon source is available. Storage products
are chrysolaminarin and lipids.[7]
Round & Crawford (1990)[3] and Hoek et al. (1995)[9] provide more
comprehensive coverage of diatom taxonomy.

A budget of the ocean's silicon cycle[10]

Planktonic diatoms in freshwater and marine environments typically

exhibit a "boom and bust" (or "bloom and bust") lifestyle. When
conditions in the upper mixed layer (nutrients and light) are favourable
(e.g. at the start of spring) their competitive edge[11] allows them to
quickly dominate phytoplankton communities ("boom" or "bloom"). As
such they are often classed as opportunistic r-strategists (i.e. those
organisms whose ecology is defined by a high growth rate, r).
When conditions turn unfavourable, usually upon depletion of nutrients,
diatom cells typically increase in sinking rate and exit the upper mixed
layer ("bust"). This sinking is induced by either a loss of buoyancy
control, the synthesis of mucilagethat sticks diatoms cells together, or
the production of heavy resting spores. Sinking out of the upper mixed
layer removes diatoms from conditions unfavourable to growth, including
grazer populations and higher temperatures (which would otherwise
increase cell metabolism). Cells reaching deeper water or the shallow
seafloor can then rest until conditions become more favourable again. In
the open ocean, many sinking cells are lost to the deep, but refuge
populations can persist near the thermocline.
Ultimately, diatom cells in these resting populations re-enter the upper
mixed layer when vertical mixing entrains them. In most circumstances,
this mixing also replenishes nutrients in the upper mixed layer, setting
the scene for the next round of diatom blooms. In the open ocean (away
from areas of continuous upwelling[12]), this cycle of bloom, bust, then
return to pre-bloom conditions typically occurs over an annual cycle, with
diatoms only being prevalent during the spring and early summer. In
some locations, however, an autumn bloom may occur, caused by the
breakdown of summer stratification and the entrainment of nutrients
while light levels are still sufficient for growth. Since vertical mixing is
increasing, and light levels are falling as winter approaches, these
blooms are smaller and shorter-lived than their spring equivalents.
In the open ocean, the condition that typically causes diatom (spring)
blooms to end is a lack of silicon. Unlike other nutrients, this is only a
major requirement of diatoms so it is not regenerated in the plankton
ecosystem as efficiently as, for
instance, nitrogen or phosphorus nutrients. This can be seen in maps of
surface nutrient concentrations - as nutrients decline along gradients,
silicon is usually the first to be exhausted (followed normally by nitrogen
then phosphorus).
Because of this bloom-and-bust lifestyle, diatoms are believed to play a
disproportionately important role in the export of carbon from oceanic
surface waters[13][12] (see also the biological pump). Significantly, they
also play a key role in the regulation of the biogeochemical cycle
of silicon in the modern ocean.[10][14]
The use of silicon by diatoms is believed by many researchers to be the
key to their ecological success. In a now classic study, Egge & Aksnes
(1992)[15] found that diatom dominance of mesocosm communities was
directly related to the availability of silicic acid — when concentrations
were greater than 2 mmol m-3, they found that diatoms typically
represented more than 70% of the phytoplankton community. Raven
(1983)[16] noted that, relative to organic cell walls, silica frustules require
less energy to synthesize (approximately 8% of a comparable organic
wall), potentially a significant saving on the overall cell energy budget.
Other researchers[17] have suggested that the biogenic silica in diatom
cell walls acts as an effective pH buffering agent, facilitating the
conversion of bicarbonate to dissolved CO2 (which is more readily
assimilated). Notwithstanding the possible advantages conferred by
silicon, diatoms typically have higher growth rates than other algae of a
corresponding size.[11]
Diatoms occur in virtually every environment that contains water. This
includes not only oceans, seas, lakes and streams, but also soil.


The economic importance of diatoms

The deposition of silica by diatoms may also prove to be of utility

to nanotechnology.[43] Diatom cells repeatedly and reliably manufacture
valves of shapes and sizes, potentially allowing diatoms to manufacture
micro- or nano-scale structures which may be of use in a range of
devices, including: optical systems; semiconductor nanolithography; and
even using diatom valves as vehicles for drug delivery. Using an
appropriate artificial selection procedure, diatoms that produce valves of
particular shapes and sizes could be evolved in the laboratory, and then
used in chemostat cultures to mass produce nanoscale components.[44] It
has also been proposed that diatoms could be used as a component of
solar cells, by substitutingphotosensitive titanium dioxide for the silicon
dioxide normally used in the creation of cell walls.

Domain Eukaryota

Kingdo Chromalveolat
m: a

Phylum Heterokontoph
: yta

Class: Bacillariophyce
Haeckel 1878


CHAROPHYTA (stoneworts)

Charophyta are freshwater plants and generally grow anchored to the

substratum by rhizoids with a shoot extending upward. The shoot then
divides and forms nodes from which a whorl of side filaments projects.
Charophyta reproductive structures develop at these nodes and are,
along with the biflagellate sperm produced in the male gametangium,
quite similar to those of mosses. These similarities have led some
scientists to identify the charophytes as ancestors of the mosses. Their
green color comes from chlorphylls a and b.

PHAEOPHYTA (brown algae)

The Phaeophyta are almost

entirely marine, frequently
dominating rocky shores in cold
and temperate waters throughout
the world. The giant kelp,
Macrocystis pyrifera , forms
expansive seaweed forests off the west coast of North America and
provides habitat and shelter for many other organisms. Tropical waters
have fewer species of brown algae, although genera such as
Sargassum and Turbinaria can dominate in some areas to form small-
scale forests. Sargassum is also unique among macroalgal genera in
that it contains totally free-floating species with no requirement for
attachment to the bottom, as in the Sargasso Sea.

The colors of brown algae (predominantly due to the brown accessory

pigment fucoxanthin) cover a spectrum from pale beige to yellow-brown
to almost black. In tropical seas, they range in size from microscopic
filaments to several meters in length.

The large kelps are harvested for use as an emulsion stabilizer, in

products such as ice cream. They are also used as fertilizer and as a
vitamin rich food

Brown algae are a member of the phylum Phaeophyta. There are nearly
1,500 different species, most of which are marine species. Brown algae
vary in color from dark brown to olive green. The range of color is due to
the various pigments, fucoxanthin is the brown pigment and chlorophyl
adds the color green. There are many different sizes and forms of brown
algae ranging from small filamentous epiphytes to very complex giant
kelp, which can reach heights of one hundred meters. To aid in
photosynthetic production, the pneumatocysts (gas filled bladders) help
keep the brown algae floating on or near the surface of the water. Algae
have no roots, stems leaves or flowers. Brown algae can reproduce both
sexually and asexually; both the motile zoospores and gametes have
two unequal flagella (Britannica Online, 2000).

The life cycle of most large kelp begins when a mature plant releases its
spores directly into the water. The release of spores is directly related to
the seasonal increase in daylight (Edwards, 1998). These spores settle
to a rocky bottom and begin to grow into haploid gametophyte plants,
which immediately undergo sexual reproduction. The embryo that is
formed remains attached to the female gametophyte and is secured to
the bottom by a hold fast (Ricklefs, 1990).

Kelp grows best along coast were the water is well mixed due to a lot of
wave exposure. They are not often found in bays. There are some kelp
forest on the east coast of North America, but the species lack those
found in kelp forest on the west coast of North America. They are found
as far south as Cap Cod, Massachusetts and sporadically southward to
the eastern tip of Long Island, New York (Kelp Forest, 2000). The cold
waters off Alaska and the west coast of North America have large kelp
forest with a large variety of species. Along the Southern coast of
California large flourishing kelp forest can also be found.

Kelp forests occur in cold, nutrient rich water and are the underwater
equivalent of a terrestrial forest. Kelp live a long time compared to other
marine plants, once a kelp forest is established it can last up to ten years
depending on its locality and exposure to waves (Ricklefs, 1990). The
basic form of kelp is a blade, stipe and holdfast. The leave like blade is
were the sunlight is absorbed for photosynthesis in order to create that
sugars which are carried to the rest of the plant via the stipe. The
holdfast anchors the plant to a hard surface. Each family of kelp has its
own variation of this simple design.

The family Laminariaceae, which consist of the oarweed are usually

simple with a single blade on a short strip. These small compact kelp are
well suited for the harsh wave swept rocky environment, where they are
most commonly found. Giant kelp and bull kelp are found in the family
Lessoniaceae. Kelp of this family have a long single stipe which grows
from the holdfast. As the stipe grows to the surface it expands to form a
large float from which blades sprout (Monterey Bay Aquarium, 2000).
These large and complex kelp form the large forests near shore. The
kelp in the Alariaceae family look very similar to the oarweeds but
eventually sprout smaller blades along the sides of the main blade. As
the weather changes so does the kelp forest.

Like forest on land kelp forest change from season to season and year
to year. Sunlight, nutrients, water temperature and storms all effect the
growth of the kelp. In the spring when the winds blow the surface water
offshore, the cold water rises from the depths. This cold nutrient filled
water, along with the extended period of sunlight provides an ideal
growing condition for the kelp (Monterey Bay Aquarium, 2000). During
this time new fronds of giant kelp sprout from the holdfast, and by June
the kelp will create a canopy cutting the light off.

After a long summer of growing the kelp forest becomes filled with life.
But in the fall as the wind shifts the warmer water is blown in which
hinders the kelp’s growth. The warm water, which has few nutrients
along with less sunlight attribute to the stunt in growth. Then as winter
storms bring in huge waves that not only break the fronds and shake
animals from the blades, but also tear away the kelps holdfast. Once the
kelp is ripped away from the rock their holdfast swings around in turn
taking out other kelp (Monterey Bay Aquarium, 2000). Dead kelp that
have been torn from their holdfast generally get washed up on land or
are swept out to sea. Many grazers feed off the kelp in the forest.

Kelp forests have their own food chain that helps them to thrive and
flourish. Snails, sea urchins, and other grazers live and feed off the kelp
with in the forest. They then fall prey to fishes and sea otters, which are
always being hunted by large sharks and sea lions. The crabs and other
bottom dwelling scavengers pick up all the scraps that float to the bottom
(Monterey Bay Aquarium, 2000). There have been many studies done
showing how this unique system can be effected when the web is out of
balance. Where otter populations have been rebuilt, the sea urchin
populations have decreased and the kelp beds have return to their
former abundance (Schindler, 1991).

The predator prey interaction between the otters and sea urchins play a
major role in shaping the kelp forest. Sea urchins graze on the kelp
which in turn weaken the holdfast. This cause the kelp to be more
vulnerable to wave damage which can lead to the death of the kelp. An
increase in urchin population will lead to a decrease in the kelp forest
(Watt et al., 2000). Sea otters prey on the urchins though. This helps to
control the population of urchins so that the forest can thrive. A study
done by Schueller (1999) showed the humans can also change the web
of the kelp forest by overfishing. The reduction of fish means that there
is less food for sea lions and seals. The decrease in these organisms
causes the killer whales to prey on the otters. When the otter population
decreases the urchin population increases causing the kelp forest to
diminish. Even though humans may have a negative impact on a kelp
forest, kelp is collected today for industrial purposes.

Various types of brown algae are harvested today for different reasons.
Brown algae are a very good source of algin, which is a colloidal gel.
The gel is used today in both the baking and ice cream industry because
it acts as a stabilizer. Algin is also found in toothpaste, bread, beer and
paint. There are several species that are collected and eaten, which is
known as a vegetable in the Orient, kombu. Kelp have been harvest
because of their great source of iodine and fertilizer (Ricklefs, 1990).
Commercial kelp harvesters work from ship that has huge hedge clipper
like tools, which can cut off the top four feet and collect the kelp. In
California where kelp grows very fast about 100,000 tons is collected a
year (Monterey Bay Aquarium, 2000). The change of over harvesting
kelp is not likely due to the fact how fast it grows.

Ecology and Meaning

The brown algae are in their majority, inhabitants of the tidal zones at
the coasts of the oceans. In fresh water only Heribaudiell, Lithoderma,
Pleurocladia and Bodanella as well as some types of Ectocarpus and
Sphacerlaria fluviatilis can survive. Thereby, they obviously group
themselves under the influence of tides, the condition of the
underground as well as the intensity and composition of the light into so
called belts, whose floristic composition changes with increasing depth.
Impressive is the picture, which the giant seaweed forests offer at the
California Pacific coasts. To a depth of 25m the alga vegetation consists
of clear from each other issued and characteristically assembled
societies. The enormous production - it is estimated to be 10-15 t/ha
algae per year is of considerable economic importance. The algae are
harvested regularly for the production of the Alginate. The use of brown
algae as food is very old. However, it plays a small role in the daily live in
Western Europe: only the young, fresh stacks of Laminaria saccharina
and Alaria esculenta are eaten. However in Eastern Asia, Kombu is an
important food.

The red algae (or Rhodophyta, , from Greek: (rhodon) = rose

+ (phyton) = plant, thus red plant) are one of theoldest groups of
eukaryotic algae, and also one of the largest, with about 5,000–6,000
species of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many
notable seaweeds. Other references indicate 10,000 species.

The red algae form a distinct group characterized by the following

attributes: eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, using floridean
starch as food reserve, withphycobiliproteins as accessory pigments
(giving them their red color), and with chloroplasts lacking
external endoplasmic reticulum and containing unstacked thylakoids.
Most red algae are also multicellular, macroscopic, marine, and
have sexual reproduction.
Many of the coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a
major role in building coral reefs, belong here. Red algae such
as dulse (Palmaria palmata) andlaver (nori/gim) are a traditional part
of European and Asian cuisine and are used to make other products
like agar, carrageenans and other food additives.

The first red algae to have its genome sequenced

was Cyanidioschyzon .

Red algae have a number of general characteristics that in

combination distinguish them from other eukaryotic groups:
The oldest fossil identified as a red alga is also the oldest
fossil eukaryote that belongs to a specific
modern taxon. Bangiomorpha pubescens, a multicellular fossil
from arctic Canada, strongly resembles the modern red
alga Bangia despite occurring in rocks dating to 1200 million years

Red algae are important builders of limestone reefs. The earliest

such coralline algae, the solenopores, are known from
the Cambrian Period. Other algae of different origins filled a
similar role in the late Paleozoic, and in more recent reefs.

There are also calcite crusts which have been interpreted as the
remains of coralline red algae dating to the
terminal Proterozoic. Thallophytes resembling coralline red algae
are known from the late Proterozoic Doushantuou formation.


Red algae have a number of general characteristics that in

combination distinguish them from other eukaryotic

• absence of flagella and centrioles

• floridean starch as a storage product and the storage of
starch in the cytoplasm .
• phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin as
accessory pigments
• unstacked thylakoids in plastids (Figure 3)
• no chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum

The red algae are classified in the Archaeplastida, along with
the glaucophytes and Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants).

Below are two valid published taxonomies of the red algae, although
neither necessarily has to be used, as the taxonomy of the algae is still
in a state of flux (with classification above the level of order having
received little scientific attention for most of the 20th century). If one
defines the kingdom Plantae to mean the Archaeplastida, the red algae
will be part of that kingdom; but if Plantae are defined more narrowly, to
be the Viridiplantae, then the red algae might be considered their own
kingdom or part of the kingdom Protista. The two classification systems
below place the red algae in the plant kingdom.

There are around 6,500 to 10,000 known
species, nearly all of which are marine, with
about 200 that only live in fresh water.
However, estimates of the number of real
species vary by 100%.

Some examples of species and genera of red

algae are:

• Atractophora hypnoides
• Gelidiella calcicola
• Lemanea, a freshwater genus
• Palmaria palmata, dulse
• Schmitzia hiscockiana
• Chondrus crispus, Irish moss
• Mastocarpus stellatus

o Chemistry

The values of red algae reflect their lifestyles. The largest difference
results from their photosynthetic metabolic pathway: algae which use
HCO3 as a carbon source have far more negative values than those
which only use . An additional difference of about 1.71‰ separates
groups which are intertidal from those below the lowest tide line,
which are never exposed to atmospheric carbon. The latter group use
the more 13C negative which is dissolved in sea water, whereas those
with access to atmospheric carbon reflect the more positive signature
of this reserve.


Red algae have a double cell wall. The outer layer are usually
composed of "pectic substances", from which agar can be
manufactured. The internal wall is mostly cellulose.

Pit connections

Pit connections and pit plugs are unique and distinctive features of
red algae that form during the process of cytokinesis following mitosis.
In red algae, cytokinesis is incomplete. Typically, a small pore is left in
the middle of the newly formed partition. The pit connection is formed
where the daughter cells remain in contact.

Shortly after the pit connection is formed cytoplasmic continuity is

blocked by the generation of a pit plug, which is deposited in the wall
gap that connects the cells.

Connections between cells having a common parent cell are called

primary pit connections. Because apical growth is the norm in red
algae, most cells have two primary pit connections, one to each
adjacent cell.
Connections that exist between cells not sharing a common parent
cells are labeled secondary pit connections. These connections are
formed when an unequal cell division produced a nucleated daughter
cell that then fuses to an adjacent cell. Patterns of secondary pit
connections can be seen in the order Ceramiales.

Pit plugs

After a pit connection is formed, tubular membranes appear. A

granular protein, called the plug core, then forms around the
membranes. The tubular membranes eventually disappear. While
some orders of red algae simply have a plug core, others have an
associated membrane at each side of the protein mass, called cap
membranes. The pit plug continues to exist between the cells until
one of the cells dies. When this happens, the living cell produce a
layer of wall material that seals off the plug.


It is thought that the pit connections function as structural

reinforcement, and as an avenue for cell to cell communication and/or
symplastic transport in red algae. While the presence of the cap
membrane could inhibit this transport between cells, it has been
hypothesized that the tubular plug cores serve as a means of


Red algae lack motile sperm. Hence they rely on water currents to
transport their gametes to the female organs – although their sperm
are capable of "gliding" to a carpogonium's trichogyne.

The trichogyne will continue to grow until it encounters a spermatium;

once it has been fertilised, the cell wall at its base progressively
thickens, separating it from the rest of the carpogonium at its base.

Upon their collision, the walls of the spermatium and carpogonium

dissolve. The male nucleus divides and moves into the carpogonium;
one half of the nucleus merges with the carpogonium's nucleus.

The polyamine spermine is produced which triggers carpospore


Spermatangia may have long delicate appendages, which increase

their chances of "hooking up".

Alternation of phases

They display alternation of phases; as well as a gametophyte phase,

many have two sporophyte phases, the
carposporophyte producing carpospores, which germinate into a
tetrasporophyte – this produces spore tetrads, which dissociate and
germinate into gametophytes. The gametophyte is typically (but not
always) identical to the tetrasporophyte.

Carpospores may also germinate directly into thalloid gametophytes,

or the carposporophytes may produce a tetraspore without going
through a (free living) tetrasporophyte phase.
Tetrasporangia may be arranged in a row (Zonate), in a cross
(cruciate), or in a tetrad.

The carposporophyte may be enclosed within the gametophyte, which

may cover it with branches to form a cystocarp.

A couple of case studies may be helpful to understand some of the

life histories algae may display.

In a simple case, such as Rhodochorton investiens:

In the Carposporophyte: a spermatium merges with a trichogyne (a

long hair on the female sexual organ), which then divides to form
carposporangia – which produce carpospores.

Carpospores germinate into gametophytes, which produce

sporophytes. Both of these are very similar; they produce
monospores from monosporangia "just below a cross wall in a
and their spores are "liberated through apex of sporangial cell."

The spores of a sporophyte produce either tetrasporophytes.

Monospores produced by this phase germinate immediately, with no
resting phase, to form an identical copy of parent. Tetrasporophytes
may also produce a carpospore, which germinates to form another

The gametophyte may replicate using monospores, but produces

sperm in spermatangia, and "eggs"(?) in carpogonium.

A rather different example is Porphyra gardneri:

In its diploid phase, a carpospore can germinate to form a filamentous

"conchocelis stage", which can also self-replicate using monospores.
The conchocelis stage eventually produces conchosporangia. The
resulting conchospore germinates to form a tiny
prothallus with rhizoids, which develops to a cm-scale leafy thallus.
This too can reproduce via monospores, which are produced inside
the thallus itself. They can also reproduce via spermatia, produced
internally, which are released to meet a prospective carpogonium in
its conceptacle.

Several species are used as food. Dulse (Palmaria palmata)

and Porphyra are the best known in the British Isles.

In East and Southeast Asia, agar is most commonly produced

from Gelidium amansii. In Asia, rhodophytes are important sources of
food, such as nori. The high vitamin and protein content of this food
makes it attractive, as does the relative simplicity of cultivation, which
began in Japan more than 300 years Ago.


A. The Rhodophyta are a moderately diverse, but extremely ancient,

group of marine organisms
B. About 500 genera, with about 5000 species.
C. Fossil record dates back to the mid-proterozoic, or nearly 2 ba
1. Thus red algal fossils are among the most ancient of any
D. Complex life cycle in many
E. There is a lot of specialized terminology associated with the
II. Structure & metabolism
A. No flagellate stages
B. Generally complex, multicellular thalli (singular = thallus)
C. Reproduction, if present, is oogamous, involving non-motile
male spermatia
D. Mitosis is closed (the nuclear envelope does not break down)
1. Telophase spindle is perisistant
2. Centrioles are lacking; a ring-shaped microtubular
organizing center (MTOC) is present at the spindle poles
during spindle formation
E. Cytokineisis is by furrowing, but is typically incomplete
1. Sibling cells are separated by a pit connection, which is a
proteinaceous plug that fills the junction between the
F. Cell walls
1. Cellulose fibrils embedded in an extensive gelatinous
2. Porphyra and Bangia have xylan fibrils rather than
3. The gelatinous matrix is composed of a variety of
sulphated galactose polymers
4. Agar
5. Carageenan
G. Polysaccharide storage typically as floridean starch (alpha 1,4
glucan), which accumulates in in the cytoplasm
H. Chloroplasts
1. Primary plastids, surrounded by two unit membranes
2. Chlorophyll a
3. Phycobilins arranged in phycobilisomes; thylakoids are
not stacked
III. Reproduction
A. Typically diplohaplontic -- alternation of haploid and diploid
B. Oogamous
1. Egg is in carpogonium, receptive surface is trichogyne
2. Spermatia are non-motile, tiny cells that function as male
C. Meiosis
1. Tetrasporangia produce tetraspores via meiosis
D. Bangiophyceae
1. Isomorphic or heteromorphic alternation of generations
2. Life cycle is diplohaplontic
3. Porphyra has a heteromorphic alternation of generations
1. This was not originally recognized, so the
sporphytes were named Conchocelis
2. Sporophytes are branched filaments; the familiar
sheet-like Porphyra is the (monoecious)
E. Florideophyceae
1. Life cycle typically diplohaplontic, some are haplontic
2. Many have a complex modification of a diplohaplontic
life cycle
3. Triphasic alternation of generations
4. Gametophyte (may or may not be dioecous)
5. Carposporphyte
6. Tetrasporophyte
7. The low efficiency of fertilization
IV. Classification
A. Bangiophyceae
1. Porphyridiales
1. Porphyridium purpureum
2. Cyanidium caldarium (note! "Cyanidium
caldarium strain 14-1-1" is actually Galdieria
3. The taxonomic position of Cyanidium is uncertain;
it may not even be properly classified with
2. Compsopogonales
1. Compsopogon (a freshwater red found in
3. Bangiales
1. Porphyra japonica (and Conchocelis phase)
B. Florideophyceae
1. Acrochaetiales
1. Audouinella
2. Palmariales
1. Palmaria palmata
3. Nemaliales
4. Batrachospermales
1. Batrachospermum
1. A freshwater red, found in cold, flowing
2. Intercallary meiosis; the apical cell
undergoes meiosis, and the gametophyte
develops in place on the top of the
5. Corallinales
1. Lithophyllum
2. Corallina
6. Gelidiales
1. Gelidium
7. Gigartinales
1. Chondrus crispus
2. Used as a source of carageenan
8. Rhodymeniales
9. Ceramiales
1. Polysiphonia
V. Ecology
A. Mostly marine, a few freshwater
B. Typically live attached to surfaces; not present in the
C. Light harvesting is very efficient, and red algae can live at
tremendous depths.
1. The record is 268 meters -- roughly 0.001% incident light
-- collected by the Littlers, who are at the Smithsonian
2. It is not certain that these algae were surviving by
D. Corraline red algae build up calcium carbonate in their cell walls,
and can be reef-building organisms
E. Parasitism
1. There are a number of parasitic red algae
2. Some transfer nutrients from their host plant via haustoria
3. Other parasitic red algae literally tranfer their nuclei into
the host plant, and genetically 'hijack' the host thalli.
VI. Economic Importance
A. Although not generally considered to be economic organsims,
there are some important uses for these algae, particularly
associated with their production of polysaccharides.
B. Agar-agar is a delicacy in Japan. It is a clear, jelly-like food, and
is virtually flavorless and undigestable.
C. Agar has been used for years in microbiology, as it provides a
polysaccharide gel which is solid, and nontoxic, yet cannot be
digested by most microorganisms.
D. Agarose -- purified from agar -- is a mainstay of molecular
biology, and alternate polysaccharides can be sold at great
E. Porphyra japonica is eaten in Japan and throughout the Far East.
F. Japanese name is nori -- used for wrapping sushi, rice crackers,
topping on rice, etc.
G. English term for Porpyra is laver.
H. The cultivation of nori is a substantial industry
I. Dulse is eaten in regions surrounding the North Atlantic.
VII. golden Algae

The scientific name for a Golden Langur is Trachypithe-cus

poliocephalus. this animal is found in the foothills of the
Himalayas, the Golden Langur has long been coidered sacred
to the Himilayan people. With a population of about 10,000 it
has a declining population that is set to continue.
The scientific name for a Golden Langur is Trachypithe-cus
poliocephalus. this animal is found in the foothills of the
Himalayas, the Golden Langur has long been coidered sacred
to the Himilayan people. With a population of about 10,000 it
has a declining population that is set to continue.

Chrysophytes, or golden algae, are common microscopic chromists in fresh

water. Some species are colorless, but the vast majority are photosynthetic.
As such, they are particularly important in lakes, where they may be the
primary source of food for zooplankton. They are not considered truly
autotrophic by some biologists because nearly all chrysophytes
become facultatively heterotrophic in the absence of adequate light, or in the
presence of plentiful dissolved food. When this occurs, the chrysoplast
atrophies and the alga may turn predator, feeding on bacteria or diatoms.

There are more than a thousand described species of golden algae, most of
them free-swimming and unicellular, but there are filamentous and colonial
forms. Other chrysophytes may spend part of their life as amoeboid cells. At
the left and center of the above illustration is Dinobryon, a freshwater
genus in which the individual cells are surrounded by vase-shaped loricae,
composed of chitin fibrils and other polysaccharides. The colonies grow as
branched or unbranched chains. A spherical colonial form, Synura, is on
the right; the surfaces of these cells are covered by silica scales. Species
which produce siliceous coverings may have bristles or scales with quite
complex structure. Some researchers group the chrysophytes with silica
scales in a separate taxon, the Synurophyceae.

The oldest known chrysophytes are from calcareous and siliceous deposits
of Cretaceous age, but they reached their greatest diversity in the Miocene.
The group actually has a fairly complete fossil record, because most
freshwater chrysomonads secrete resting cysts of silica, which may be
abundant in certain rocks -- in some Paleocene deposits, chrysophyte cysts
outnumber the diatoms! The fossils of chrysophytes, like those
of diatoms and coccolithophorids, are often used as paleoecological
indicators to reconstruct ancient environments.

It is now generally believed that the Chrysophyta is a heterogeneous group,

probably paraphyletic. Several groups formerly included here have been
given separate recognition, such as the Raphidiophyceae,
Eumastigophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Silicoflagellata, Sarcinochrysophyceae,
and others. However, there is as yet no general consensus as to how these
groups are related to each other or to the other chromist groups.

A majority of the known Chrysophytes are unicellular and

free-swimming, but you can also find colonial and
filamentous forms in this group. Chrysophytes chiefly occur
in freshwater. In many lakes, golden algae are the primary
source of food for zooplankton and they can therefore be
extremely important for the entire ecosystem of a lake.

Some species of chrysophytes are colourless, but the vast

majority is capable of carrying out photosynthesis.
Interestingly enough, almost all chrysophytes can switch and
start feeding on organisms or the remains of other
organisms if they find themselves in an environment where
light is to scarce for adequate photosynthesis. They are for
instance known to feed on diatoms and bacteria. If placed in
an environment where there is an abundance of dissolved
food, golden algae can start feeing on it even if there is
plenty of light as well.

The oldest examples of chrysophytes lived during the

Cretaceous Period, the geological period that occurred from
roughly 145 million years ago to about 65 million years ago,
between the Jurassic Period and the Paleocene Period. The
greatest diversity of golden algae was reached during the
Miocene Period (about 23 to 5 million years ago).

• Most are unicellular.

• Found in fresh water.
• Important producers in some aquatic food chains.
• In low light conditions, may lose their chlorophyll and
turn heterotrophic feeding on bacteria and/or diatoms.
• Over 1000 species alive today; many more in the fossil

• A naturally occurring microscopic flagellated alga that typically

occurs in brackish waters
• Under certain environmental stresses, this alga can produce
toxins which can cause massive fish and bivalve (i.e. clams and
mussels) kills
• There is no evidence these toxins harm other wildlife, livestock
or humans
• Research is under way to better understand, detect and
manage Golden Alga blooms
• Fish kills from the golden alga, Prymnesium parvum, have been
documented in inland waters in Texas since 1985. While
originally noted in the Pecos River in the Rio Grande Basin, the
alga has also caused fish kills in four other river basins (Brazos,
Canadian, Colorado, and Red River Basins) in Texas. This algal
species is found worldwide in estuarine waters (estuaries are
mixing zones between freshwater from rivers and seawater) and
in some freshwater bodies that have relatively high salt content.
Texas biologists were the first to note the occurrence of this
alga in freshwater bodies in the Western Hemisphere.
Subsequently, other states have reported its occurrence or
possible occurrence. Fish kills caused by the alga can be
significant, resulting in ecological and economic harm to the
affected waterbodies.
o Members

Originally they were taken to include all such forms except

the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have
been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and
cell structure. They are now usually restricted to a core group of
closely related forms, distinguished primarily by the structure of
the flagella in motile cells, also treated as an order Chromulinales. It is
possible membership will be revised further as more species are
studied in detail.
[edit]Traits, locomotion, and classification
They come in a variety of morphological types, originally treated as
separate orders or families.

 Most members are unicellular flagellates, with either two visible

flagella, as in Ochromonas, or sometimes one, as in Chromulina.
TheChromulinales as first defined by Pascher in 1910 included
only the latter type, with the former treated as the
order Ochromonadales. However, structural studies have revealed
that short second flagellum or at least a second basal body is
always present, so this is no longer considered a valid distinction.
Most of these have no cell covering. Some have loricae or shells,
such as Dinobryon, which is sessile and grows in branched
colonies. Most forms with silicaceous scales are now considered a
separate group, the synurids, but a few belong among the
Chromulinales proper, such as Paraphysomonas.

 Some members are generally amoeboid, with long branching

cell extensions, though they pass through flagellate stages as
well.Chrysamoeba and Rhizochrysis are typical of these. There is
also one species, Myxochrysis paradoxa, which has a complex life
cycle involving a multinucleate plasmodial stage, similar to those
found in slime moulds. These were originally treated as the
order Chrysamoebales. The superficially
similar Rhizochromulina was once included here, but is now given
its own order based on differences in the structure of the flagellate

 Other members are non-motile. Cells may be naked and

embedded in mucilage, such as Chrysosaccus, or coccoid and
surrounded by a cell wall, as in Chrysosphaera. A few are
filamentous or even parenchymatous in organization, such
as Phaeoplaca. These were included in various older orders, most
of the members of which are now included in separate
groups. Hydrurus and its allies, freshwater genera which form
branched gelatinous filaments, are often placed in the separate
order Hydrurales but may belong here.
 [edit]Evolution

Chrysophytes contain the pigment, fucoxanthin.[2] Because of this,

they were once considered to be a specialized form of cyanobacteria.
[citation needed]
Because many of these organisms had a silica capsule,
they have a relatively complete fossil record, allowing modern
biologists to confirm that they are, in fact, not derived from
cyanobacteria, but rather an ancestor that did not possess the
capability to photosynthesize. Many of the chrysophyta precursor
fossils entirely lacked any type of photosynthesis-capable pigment.
Most biologists believe that the chrysophytes obtained their ability to
photosynthesis from an endosymbiotic relation ship with
fucoxanthin-containing cyanobacteria. N
Scientific classification of Golden Algae

Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Chromalveolata
Phylum: Heterokontophyta
Class: Chrysophyceae

The Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria)

Cyanobacteria are aquatic and photosynthetic, that is, they live in the water,
and can manufacture their own food. Because they are bacteria, they are
quite small and usually unicellular, though they often grow in colonies large
enough to see. They have the distinction of being the oldest known fossils,
more than 3.5 billion years old, in fact! It may surprise you then to know that
the cyanobacteria are still around; they are one of the largest and most
important groups of bacteria on earth.

Many Proterozoic oil deposits are attributed to the activity of cyanobacteria.

They are also important providers of nitrogen fertilizer in the cultivation of
rice and beans. The cyanobacteria have also been tremendously important in
shaping the course of evolution and ecological change throughout earth's
history. The oxygen atmosphere that we depend on was generated by
numerous cyanobacteria during theArchaean and Proterozoic Eras. Before
that time, the atmosphere had a very different chemistry, unsuitable for life
as we know it today.

The other great contribution of the cyanobacteria is the origin of plants. The
chloroplast with which plants make food for themselves is actually a
cyanobacterium living within the plant's cells. Sometime in the late
Proterozoic, or in the early Cambrian, cyanobacteria began to take up
residence within certain eukaryote cells, making food for the eukaryote host
in return for a home. This event is known asendosymbiosis, and is also the
origin of the eukaryotic mitochondrion.

Because they are photosynthetic and aquatic, cyanobacteria are often called
"blue-green algae". This name is convenient for talking about organisms in
the water that make their own food, but does not reflect any relationship
between the cyanobacteria and other organisms called algae. Cyanobacteria
are relatives of the bacteria, not eukaryotes, and it is only the chloroplast in
eukaryotic algae to which the cyanobacteria are related.

The algae are the simplest members of the plant kingdom, and the
blue-green algae are the simplest of the algae. They have a
considerable and increasing economic importance; they have both
beneficial and harmful effects on human life. Blue-greens are not
true algae. They have no nucleus, the structure that encloses the
DNA, and no chloroplast, the structure that encloses the
photosynthetic membranes, the structures that are evident in
photosynthetic true algae. Infact blue-greens are more akin to
bacteria which have similar biochemical and structural
characteristics. The process of nitrogen fixation and the
occurrence of gas vesicles are especially important to the success
of nuisance species of blue-greens. The blue-greens are widely
distributed over land and water, often in environments where no
other vegetation can exist. Their fossils have been identified as
over three billion years old. They were probably the chief primary
producers of organic matter and the first organisms to release
elemental oxygen, O2, into the primitive atmosphere, which was
until then free from O2. Thus blue-greens were most probably
responsible for a major evolutionary transformation leading to the
development of aerobic metabolism and to the subsequent rise of
higher plant and animal forms. They are referred to in literature
by various names, chief among which are Cyanophyta, Myxophyta,
Cyanochloronta, Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, blue-green

The majority of blue-greens are aerobic photoautotrophs: their

life processes require only oxygen, light and inorganic substances.
A species of Oscillatoria that is found in mud at the bottom of
the Thames, are able to live anaerobically. They can live in
extremes of temperatures -60°C to 85°C, and a few species are
halophilic or salt tolerant (as high as 27%, for comparison, conc.
of salt in seawater is 3%). Blue-greens can grow in full sunlight
and in almost complete darkness. hey are often the first plants to
colonize bare areas of rock and soil, as an example subsequent to
cataclysmic volcanic explosion (at Krakatoa, Indonesia in 1883).
Unlike more advanced organisms, these need no substances that
have been preformed by other organisms.

At the onset of nitrogen limitation during bloom conditions,

certain cells in Anabaena and Aphanizomenon evolve into
heterocysts, which convert nitrogen gas into ammonium, which is
then distributed to the neighboring cells of a filament. In
addition, blue-greens that form symbiotic (mutually beneficial)
relationships with a wide range of other life forms, can convert
nitrogen gas into ammonium.

Finally, at the onset of adverse environmental conditions, some

blue-greens can develop a modified cell, called an akinete.
Akinetes contain large reserves of carbohydrates, and owing to
their density and lack of gas vesicles, eventually settle to the lake
bottom. They can tolerate adverse conditions such as the
complete drying of a pond or the cold winter temperatures, and,
as a consequence, akinetes serve as "seeds" for the growth of
juvenile filaments when favorable conditions return. Heterocysts
and akinetes are unique to the blue-greens.

Blue-greens in freshwater lakes

Unicellular and filamentous blue-greens are almost invariably
present in freshwater lakes frequently forming dense planktonic
populations or water blooms in eutrophic (nutrient rich) waters. In
temperate lakes there is a characteristic seasonal succession of
the bloom-forming species, due apparently to their differing
responses to the physical- chemical conditions created by thermal
stratification. Usually the filamentous forms (Anabaena species,
Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Gloeotrichia echinulata) develop
first soon after the onset of stratification in late spring or early
summer, while the unicellular-colonial forms (like Microcystis
species) typically bloom in mid-summer or in autumn. The main
factors which appear to determine the development of planktonic
populations are light, temperature, pH, nutrient concentrations
and the presence of organic solutes.

Attached and benthic populations in lakes

Many blue-greens grow attached on the surface of rocks and
stones (epilithic forms), on submerged plants (epiphytic forms) or
on the bottom sediments (epipelic forms, or the benthos) of lakes.

The epilithic community displays a clearly discernable zonation in

lakes. Members of the genera Pleurocapsa, Gloeocapsa and
Phormidium often dominate the dark blue-black community of the
spray zone. Scytonema and Nostoc species form olive-green
coatings and are more frequent about the water line, whilst the
brownish Tolypothrix and Calothrix species are more typical
components of the subsurface littoral community.

The epiphytic flora of lakes is usually dominated by diatoms and

green algae, and blue-greens are of less importance in this
community. Species of the genera Nostoc, Lyngbya, Chamaesiphon
and Gloeotrichia have been occasionally encrusting submerged

The epipelic community commonly includes blue-greens like

Aphanothece and Nostoc particularly in the more eutrophic lakes.
Benthic blue-greens growing over the littoral sediments and on
submerged plants may be responsible for the occasional high rates
of N2-fixation measured in oligotrophic lakes.

Terrestrial blue-greens
In the temperate region blue-greens are especially common in
calcareous and alkaline soils. Certain species, Nostoc commune,
are often conspicuous on the soil surface. Acid soils, however, lack
blue-green element and are usually dominated by diatoms and
green algae.

Gliding movement
When viewed under the light microscope, blue-greens show a
variety of movements, such as gliding, rotation, oscillation, jerking
and flicking.

Nuisance/Noxious Conditions
The formation of water blooms results from the redistribution
and often rapid accumulation of buoyant planktonic
populations. When such populations are subjected to
suboptimal conditions, they respond by increasing their
buoyancy and move upward nearer to the water surface.
Water turbulence usually prevents them reaching the
surface. If, however, turbulence suddenly weakens on a calm
summer day, the buoyant population may 'over-float' and
may become lodged right at the water surface. There the
cells are exposed to most unfavourable and dangerous
conditions, like O2 supersaturation, rapidly diminishing CO2
concentrations and intense solar radiation, which are
inhibitory to photosynthesis and N2-fixation, causing photo-
oxidation of pigments and inflicting irreversible damage to
the genetic constitution of cells. A frequent outcome of
surface bloom formation is massive cell lysis and rapid
disintegration of large planktonic populations. his is closely
followed by an equally rapid increase in bacterial numbers,
and in turn by a fast deoxygenation of surface waters which
could be detrimental to animal populations within the lake.
Water blooms are objectionable for recreational activities,
and more importantly, create great nuisance in the
management of water reservoirs.

Most of these conditions are produced by just three blue-greens, informally

referred to as Annie (Anabaena flos-aquae), Fannie (Aphanizomenon flos-
aquae) and Mike (Microcystis aeroginosa). An oversupply of nutrients,
especially phosphorus and possibly nitrogen, will often result in excessive
growth of blue-greens because they possess certain adaptations that enable
them to outcompete true algae. Perhaps the most important adaptation is their
positive buoyancy, which is regulated by their gas vesicles which are absent
in true algae.
Their reputation as "nuisance" or "noxious" is totally undeserved.
While periodic blooms are considered a nuisance in recreational lakes
and water supply reservoirs of North America, the near continuous
blooms of blue-greens in some tropical lakes are a valuable source of
food for humans. Some blue-green species make major contributions
to the world food supply by naturally fertilizing soils and rice
paddies. R.N. Singh of the Banares Hindu University in India has
shown that the introduction of blue-green algae to saline and alkaline
soils in the state of Uttar Pradesh increases the soils' content of
nitrogen and organic matter and also their capacity for holding
water. This treatment has enabled formerly barren soils to grow
crops. Astushi Watanabe of the University of Tokyo found the
introduction of Tolypothrix tenuis resulted in a 20% increase of rice
crop. W.E. Booth of the University of Kansas showed through
experiments in Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas, that a coating of blue-
greens on prairie soil binds the particles of the soil to their mucilage
coating, maintains a high water content and reduces erosion.

Humans also consume Spirulina. It contains all of the amino acids

essential for humans, and its protein content is high (± 60%). It is a
staple food in parts of Africa and Mexico. In China, Taiwan and
Japan, several blue-greens are served as a side dish and a delicacy.
Several areas in North America culture and commercially process
certain blue-greens for various food and medicinal products such as
vitamins, drug compounds, and growth factors.

Heterocystous blue-greens possess the unique ability to

simultaneously evolve O2 in photosynthesis (in vegetative cells) and
H2 by nitrogenase catalyzed electron transfer to H+-ions (in
heterocysts), in the absence of N2 or other substrates of
nitrogenase. This is the basis for the attempts of several workers to
exploit the potential through the development of a `biophotolytic
system' for solar energy conversion, even though to date the
thermodynamic efficiency has been disappointingly low.

Nevertheless, the utilization of blue-greens in food production and

in solar energy conversion may hold immense potential for the
future, and could be exploited for man's economy. Progress in the
study of the genetics of blue-greens may enable us to manipulate
the N2-fixation (nif) and associated genes, and produce strains
which fix N2, evolve H2 or release ammonia with great efficiency.

Poisonous Conditions
(Also see, Diverse taxa of cyanobacteria produce ß-N-methylamino-
L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic amino acid- Proc. the National
Academy of Sciences of the USA, 2005)

Poisonous blue-greens occur in ponds and lakes throughout

the world. In Canada, they primarily occur in the prairie
provinces. Poisoning has caused the death of cows, dogs,
and other animals. Although humans ordinarily avoid
drinking water that displays a blue-green bloom or scum,
they may be affected by toxic strains when they swim or ski
in recreational water bodies during a bloom. Typical
symptoms include redness of the skin and itching around the
eyes; sore, red throat; headache; diarrhea; vomiting; and
nausea. The frequently occurring `swimmers itch' is
attributed to contact with Lyngbya majuscula, Schizothrix
calcicola and Oscillatoria nigroviridis, which are commonly
found in tropical and subtropical seawaters. The toxins
responsible are lipid-soluble phenolic compounds. Since the
same or similar symptoms can be produced by bacteria or
viruses, one should not necessarily conclude that blue-greens
are responsible for a human illness simply because the sick
individual recently swam in a lake or pond that has suffered a
bloom. Human death has not been documented. Reported
cases affecting humans listAnabaena as the main culprit.

Most of the recorded toxic blooms are caused by Microcystis aeruginosa,

which manufactures "microcystin", which yields 7 (or 14) amino acids upon
hydrolysis. It causes enlargement and congestion of the liver followed by
necrosis and haemorrhage, and may also exhibit neurotoxic activity.

But many toxic blooms are also produced by either Anabaena flos-
aquae (manufactures "anatoxins") orAphanizomenon flos-
aquae (manufactures "aphantoxins").

Alkaloid toxins (anatoxins, aphantoxins) act on the nervous system, leading

to paralysis of muscles needed for breathing.

Two other genera, Oscillatoria and Nodularia are also known to produce
toxic populations. Whether the animal survives the poisoning depends
primarily upon the concentration of toxin ingested. Blue-green toxins may
act on zooplankton and might be an effective mechanism of protection
against grazing pressures.

Little is known about the percent of blooms that are toxic (upto 25% quoted
in literature), and also why a toxic population is produced. A complicating
factor is that part of a bloom can be toxic and another part nontoxic within
the same lake. It has been suggested that toxic strains may develop only
under a particular set of environmental conditions, or that toxin production
may be associated with plasmid-mediated gene transfer.

Colour and identification

The blue-green color of cells (cyan means blue-green) is due to the
combination of green chlorophyll pigment and a unique blue pigment
(phycocyanin). However, not all blue-greens are blue-green. Their
pigmentation includes yellow-green, green, grey-green, grey-black,
and even red specimens. The Red Sea derives its name from
occasional blooms of a species of Oscillatoria that produces large
quantities of a unique pigment called phycoerythrin. In the arid
regions of Central and East Africa, flamingos consume vast
quantities of Spirulina, and their feathers derive their pink color
from carotene pigments in filaments of Spirulina.

The blue-greens are microscopic life forms that exhibit several

different types of organization. Some grow as single cells enclosed
in a sheath of slime-like material, or mucilage. The cells of others
aggregate into colonies that are either flattened, cubed, rounded, or
elongated into filaments. Actual identification of cyanobacteria
(blue-greens) requires microscopic examination of cells, colonies, or
filaments, although experienced aquatic biologists can usually
recognize Microcystis (colonies look like tiny grey-green clumps)
and Aphanizomenon (green, fingernail-like or grass-like clippings).

Measures to control the growth of blue-greens

Chemicals are widely used to prevent the growth of nuisance algae,
and the commonest one being copper sulphate. A number of other
algicides are phenolic compounds, amide derivatives, quaternary
ammonium compounds and quinone derivatives. Dichloron
aphthoquinone is selectively toxic to blue-greens. The hazards of
using toxic chemicals indiscriminately in the natural environment are
well documented.

Biological control is in principle possible, though not always practical

and as effective. Invertebrates like cladocerans, copepods,
ostracods and snails are known to graze on green algae and
diatoms. Daphnia pulex has been reported to feed on Aphanizomenon
flos-aquae while present in the form of single filaments or small
colonies but avoid large raft-like colonies. The
copepod Diaptomus has been implicated in the grazing
of Anabaena populations in Severson Lake, Minnesota.

Micro-organisms (fungi, bacteria and viruses) appear to play an

important part in regulating growth of blue-greens in freshwaters.
Certain chytrids (fungal pathogens) specifically infest akinetes,
other heterocysts. Bacterial pathogens belonging to the group of
Myxobacteriales can effect rapid lysis of a wide range of unicellular
and filamentous blue-greens, though heterocysts and akinetes
remain generally unaffected. Viral pathogens belonging to the group
of cyanophages exhibit some degree of host specifity. Phage AR-1
attacks Anabaenopsis, phages SM-1 and AS-1 are effective against
the unicellular forms, Synechococcus and Microcystis, Phage C-1
lysesCylindropermum, and the LPP-1 virus is effective against strains
of Lyngbya, Phormidium and Plectonema.

The long-term approach is no doubt the systematic removal of major




The dinoflagellates (Gk. δῖνος dinos [whirling] and Lt. flagellum [whip or
scourge]) are a large group of flagellate protists. Dinoflagellates are
microscopic, (usually) unicellular, flagellated, often photosynthetic protists,
commonly regarded as "algae" (Division Dinoflagellata). They are characterized
by a transverse flagellum that encircles the body (often in a groove known as
the cingulum) and a longitudinal flagellum oriented perpendicular to the
transverse flagellum. This imparts a distinctive spiral to their swimming motion.
Both flagella are inserted at the same point in the cell wall, by convention
defining the ventral surface. This point is usually slightly depressed, and is
termed the sulcus. In heterotrophic dinoflagellates (ones that eat other
organisms), this is the point where a conical feeding structure, the peduncle, is
projected in order to consume food.

Dinoflagellates possess a unique nuclear structure at some stage of their life

cycle - a dinokaryotic nucleus (as opposed to eukaryotic or prokaryotic), in
which the chromosomes are perminently condensed. The cell wall of many
dinoflagellates is divided into plates of cellulose ("armor") within amphiesmal
vesicles, known as a theca. These plates form a distinctive geometry/topology
known as tabulation, which is the main means for classification.

Both heterotrophic (eat other organisms) and autotrophic (photosynthetic)

dinoflagellates are known. Some are both. They form a significant part of
primary planktonic production in both oceans and lakes. Most dinoflagellates go
through moderately complex life cycles involving several steps, both sexual and
asexual, motile and non-motile. Some species form cysts composed of
sporopollenin (an organic polymer), and preserve as fossils. Often the tabulation
of the cell wall is somehow expressed in the shape and/or ornamentation of the
cyst. Besides being important primary producers, and therefore an important
part of the food chain, dinoflagellates are also known for producing nasty
toxins, particularly when they occur in large numbers, called "red tides" because
the cells are so abundant they make the water change colour. Besides being bad
for a large range of marine life, red tides can also introduce non-fatal or fatal
amounts of toxins into animals (particularly shellfish) that may be eaten by
humans, who are also affected by the toxins. Many of these toxins are quite
potent, and if not fatal, can still cause neurological and all sorts of other nasty
effects. Add this to the rather ominous suspicion that red tides may be more
common thanks to human inputs of phosphates and warmer global
temperatures, and you can probably see why we have a vested interest in finding
out more about them - both medical and economic.

In 1753 the first modern dinoflagellates were described by Baker and
named by Muller in 1773.[3] The term derives from the Greek word δῖνος
(dinos), meaning 'whirling,' and Latin flagellum, a diminutive term for a
whip or scourge.
These same dinoflagellates were first defined by Otto Bütschli in 1885
as the flagellate order dinoflagellida. Botanists treated them as a division
of algae, named Pyrrhophyta ("fire algae"; Greek pyrrhos, fire) after the
bioluminscent forms, or Dinophyta. At various times
the cryptomonads, ebriids, and ellobiopsids have been included here,
but only the last are now considered close relatives. Dinoflagellates have
a known ability to evolve from non-cyst to cyst forming strategies which
makes it extremely difficult to recreate their evolutionary history.
Part of the challenge in dinoflagellate taxonomy and nomenclature is
that they have been independently classified by the rules
of zoology and botany, and only recently have the disciplines converged.
Most (but not all) dinoflagellates have a dinokaryon (see: Life-cycle,
below.).[5] Dinoflagellates with a dinokaryon are classified
under Dinokaryota, while dinoflagellates without a dinokaryon are
classified under Syndiniales.
Although classified as eukaryotes, the dinoflagellate nuclei are not
characteristically eukaryotic, as they lack histones, nucleosomes and
maintain continually condensed chromosomes during mitosis. In fact,
Dodge (1966)[6] termed the dinoflagellate nucleus as ‘mesokaryotic’, due
to its possession of intermediate characteristics between the coiled DNA
areas of prokaryotic bacteria and the well-defined eukaryotic nucleus.
This group, however, does contain typically eukaryotic organelles, such
as golgi bodies, mitochondria and chloroplasts [7]

Life cycle

Dinoflagellata Life Cycle. 1-Binary fission, 2-Sexual reproduction, 3-

planozygote, 4-hypnozygote, 5-planomeiocyte.

Most dinoflagellates have a peculiar form of nucleus, called

a dinokaryon, in which the chromosomes are attached to the nuclear
membrane. These lack histones and remain condensed throughout
interphase rather than just during mitosis, which is closed and involves a
unique external spindle. This sort of nucleus was once considered to be
an intermediate between the nucleoid region ofprokaryotes and the true
nuclei of eukaryotes, and so were termed mesokaryotic, but now are
considered advanced rather than primitive traits.
In most dinoflagellates, the nucleus is dikaryotic throughout the entire life
cycle. They are usually haploid, and reproduce primarily through fission,
but sexual reproduction also occurs.[9] This takes place by fusion of two
individuals to form a zygote, which may remain mobile in typical
dinoflagellate fashion or may form a resting dinocyst, which later
undergoes meiosis to produce newhaploid cells.
However, when conditions become unfavourable, usually when nutrients
become depleted or there is insufficient light, some dinoflagellate
species alter their life cycle dramatically. Two vegetative cells will fuse
together forming a planozygote. Next, is a stage not much different from
hibernation called hypnozygote when the organism takes in excess fat
and oil. At the same time its shape is getting fatter and the shell gets
harder. Sometimes even spikes are formed. When the weather allows it,
these dinoflagellates break out of their shell and are in a temporary
stage, planomeiocyte, when they quickly reform their individual thecae
and return to the dinoflagellates at the beginning of the process.
Dinoflagellates sometimes bloom in concentrations of more than a
million cells per millilitre. Some species produce neurotoxins, which in
such quantities kill fish and accumulate in filter feeders such as shellfish,
which in turn may pass them on to people who eat them. This
phenomenon is called a red tide, from the color the bloom imparts to the
water. Some colorless dinoflagellates may also form toxic blooms, such
as Pfiesteria. It should be noted that not all dinoflagellate blooms are
dangerous. Bluish flickers visible in ocean water at night often come
from blooms of bioluminescent dinoflagellates, which emit short flashes
of light when disturbed.
The same red tide mentioned above is more specifically produced when
dinoflagellates are able to reproduce rapidly and copiously on account of
the abundant nutrients in the water. Although the resulting red waves are
a miraculous sight, they, again, contain toxins that not only affect all
marine life in the ocean but the people who consume them as well.[10] A
specific carrier is shellfish. This can introduce both non-fatal and fatal
illnesses. One such poison is saxitoxin, a powerful paralytic. Human
inputs of phosphate further encourage these red tides, and consequently
there is a strong interest in learning more about dinoflagellates, from
both medical and economic perspectives.