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BTEC

Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher


Nationals in
Hospitality Management

July 2005

Guidance and units


Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in
Hospitality Management
Edexcel Limited is one of the leading examining and awarding bodies in the UK and
throughout the world. It incorporates all the qualifications previously awarded under the
Edexcel and BTEC brands. We provide a wide range of qualifications including general
(academic), vocational, occupational and specific programmes for employers.
Through a network of UK and overseas offices, our centres receive the support they need to
help them deliver their education and training programmes to learners.
For further information please call Customer Services on 0870 240 9800 (calls may be recorded
for training purposes) or visit our website at www.edexcel.org.uk

References to third-party material made in this specification are made in good faith. Edexcel
does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which may be
subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks,
journals, magazines and other publications and websites.)

Authorised by Jim Dobson


Prepared by Hayley Dalton
Publications Code BH016271
All the material in this publication is copyright
© Edexcel Limited 2005
EDEXCEL LEVEL 5 BTEC HIGHER NATIONALS
IN HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

BTEC Higher National Certificate and Diploma in Hospitality


Management

BTEC Higher National Certificate and Diploma in Hospitality


Management (Licensed Retail)

BTEC Higher National Certificate and Diploma in Hospitality


Management (Culinary Arts)

BTEC Higher National Certificate and Diploma in Hospitality


Management (Leisure and Tourism)

The Qualifications Curriculum Authority (QCA) has introduced changes to the National
Qualifications Framework (NQF) in the way it sets out the levels at which qualifications are
recognised. Its revised levels broadly compare with the Framework for Higher Education
Qualifications (FHEQ). The academic level of BTEC Higher National Certificates and
Diplomas has not changed and they will remain as Intermediate level qualifications on the
FHEQ. However, the QCA changes will allow the NQF to recognise more precisely the true
academic level of BTEC Higher Nationals and they will now be designated at the revised NQF
Level 5. As the academic level has not changed, progression to BTEC Higher Nationals will
still be from Level 3 qualifications and progression from BTEC Higher Nationals will be to
qualifications at the revised Level 6. Learners’ progression routes do not necessarily involve
qualifications at every level.
Specifications for all new accreditations after September 2004 will show both the original and
revised NQF levels and the QCA Openquals database (www.qca.org.uk/openquals) will show
both the original level and the revised level for each of these qualifications. Certification will
be at the original levels up until December 2005. All certifications after that date will be at the
revised levels.
Further information on these changes can be obtained from QCA at
www.qca.org.uk/qualifications/types/7918.html
BTEC Higher Nationals within the National
Qualifications Framework (NQF)
NQF Framework for Higher
Education Qualifications
Original levels Revised levels #
(FHEQ)
5 8 D (doctoral)
No current BTEC qualifications doctorates
Level 5 BTEC Advanced
7 M (masters)
Professional Diplomas,
Level 7 BTEC Advanced Professional masters degrees, postgraduate
Certificates and Awards
Diplomas, Certificates and Awards certificates and diplomas
4 6 H (honours)
No current BTEC qualifications bachelors degrees, graduate
Level 4 BTEC Higher certificates and diplomas
National Diplomas and 5
Certificates Level 5 BTEC Higher National I (intermediate)
Diplomas and Certificates diplomas of higher education and
Level 4 BTEC Professional further education, foundation
Diplomas, Certificates and Level 5 BTEC Professional Diplomas, degrees, higher national diplomas
Awards Certificates and Awards
4
C (certificate)
Level 4 BTEC Professional Diplomas,
certificates of higher education
Certificates and Awards
3
There is no change to Level 3 in the revised NQF

Level 3 BTEC National Diplomas, Certificates and Awards

Level 3 BTEC Diplomas, Certificates and Awards

Advanced GCE
2
There is no change to Level 2 in the revised NQF

Level 2 BTEC First Diplomas and Certificates

Level 2 BTEC Diplomas, Certificates and Awards

GCSEs grades A*–C


1
There is no change to Level 1 in the revised NQF

Level 1 BTEC Introductory Diplomas and Certificates

Level 1 BTEC Diplomas, Certificates and Awards

GCSEs grades D–G


Entry
There is no change to Entry Level in the revised NQF

Entry Level BTEC Certificates in Skills for Working Life and Life Skills

# The revised NQF applies from 1 September 2004 and will be fully implemented from 1 January 2006.

The revision is designed to recognise more precisely the academic levels at the higher levels of the framework:
the actual content and other attributes of the respective qualifications are not altered or diminished.

The revision also provides better alignment with the FHEQ used in universities and higher education
institutions.
Contents

Qualification titles covered by this specification 1


Introduction 2
Structure of the qualification 2
BTEC Higher National Certificates 2
BTEC Higher National Diplomas 2

Key features 11
National Occupational Standards 12
Qualification Requirements 12
Higher-level skills 12
BTEC Higher National Certificate 13
BTEC Higher National Diploma 13

Teaching, learning and assessment 14


Unit format 14
Learning and assessment 15
Grading Higher National units 16
Grade descriptors 18
Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL) 19

Quality assurance of BTEC Higher Nationals 20


Centre and programme approval 20
Monitoring centres’ internal quality systems 20
Independent assessment: the role of the external examiner 21

Programme design and delivery 22


Mode of delivery 22
Resources 23
Delivery approach 23
Meeting local needs 23
Locally-devised specialist units 24
Limitations on variations from standard specifications 24
Access and recruitment 24
Restrictions on learner entry 25
Access arrangements and special considerations 25

The wider curriculum 25


Spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural issues 25
Environmental issues 26
European developments 26
Health and safety issues 26
Equal opportunities issues 26

Useful publications 27
Professional body contact details 27
How to obtain National Occupational Standards 28

Professional development and training 28


Further information 29
Core units 31
Unit 1: The Contemporary Hospitality Industry 33
Unit 2: The Developing Manager 43
Unit 3: Customer Service 51
Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations 59
Unit 5: Rooms Division Operations 67
Unit 6: Management Accounting for Hospitality 75
Unit 7: Industry Experience 81

Specialist units 87
Unit 8: Procurement 89
Unit 9: Hospitality Operations Management 95
Unit 10: Food and Society 105
Unit 11: Conference and Banqueting Management 111
Unit 12: Contract and Event Management 117
Unit 13: On-Licensed Trade Management 125
Unit 14: People Management 133
Unit 15: Marketing 141
Unit 16: Sales Development and Merchandising 149
Unit 17: Quality Management 155
Unit 18: Facilities Operations 163
Unit 19: Facilities Management 169
Unit 20: External Business Environment 175
Unit 21: Business Health Check 181
Unit 22: Small Business Enterprise 189
Unit 23: Financial Management 197
Unit 24: Information Management and Technology 203
Unit 25: Introduction to Internet and E-Business 209
Unit 26: Research Project 217
Unit 27: Cellar and Bar Operations 223
Unit 28: Law for Licensed Premises 229
Unit 29: Introduction to Brewing Science 235
Unit 30: Menu Planning and Product Development 241
Unit 31: Planning and Managing Food Production 249
Unit 32: Planning and Managing Food and Beverage Service 257
Unit 33: Contemporary Gastronomy 265
Unit 34: World Cuisine 275
Unit 35: Creative Patisserie 283
Unit 36: Catering Technology 291
Unit 37: Food Hygiene and the Environment 297
Unit 38: Nutrition and Diet 305
Unit 39: The Sport and Leisure Industry 313
Unit 40: Heritage and Cultural Management 319
Unit 41: Entertainment and Venue Management 327
Unit 42: Sport and Leisure Tourism 333
Unit 43: The Travel and Tourism Environment 339
Unit 44: Tourism Development Planning 345
Unit 45: Tourism Destinations 351
Unit 46: Tour Operations Management 357
Annex A 363
QCA codes 363

Annex B 365
Qualification Requirement 365

Annex C 369
Wider curriculum mapping 369

Annex D 371
National Occupational Standards 371
Qualification titles covered by this specification
Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Certificate in Hospitality Management
Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Diploma in Hospitality Management
Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Certificate in Hospitality Management (Licensed
Retail)
Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Diploma in Hospitality Management (Licensed
Retail)
Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Certificate in Hospitality Management (Culinary
Arts)
Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Diploma in Hospitality Management (Culinary
Arts)
Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Certificate in Hospitality Management (Leisure
and Tourism)
Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Diploma in Hospitality Management (Leisure and
Tourism)

These qualifications have been accredited to the National Qualifications Framework (NQF).
The Qualification Accreditation Numbers (QANs) for these qualifications are listed in Annex A.
These qualification titles are as they will appear on the learner’s certificate. Learners need to be
made aware of this when they are recruited by the centre and registered with Edexcel.
Providing this happens, centres are able to describe the programme of study leading to the
award of the qualification in different ways to suit the medium and the target audience.

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Introduction
This document contains the units and associated guidance for the National Qualifications
Framework (NQF) Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management. Each
unit sets out the required outcomes and content and includes advice regarding appropriate
delivery and assessment strategies. The guidance contains further details of the teaching,
learning, assessment and quality assurance of these qualifications. It includes advice about
Edexcel’s policy regarding access to its qualifications, the design of programmes of study and
delivery modes.

Structure of the qualification

BTEC Higher National Certificates

The BTEC Higher National Certificates in Hospitality Management are 10-unit qualifications
of which seven are core units.
BTEC Higher National Certificate programmes must contain a minimum of five units
designated at H2 level.

BTEC Higher National Diplomas

The BTEC Higher National Diplomas in Hospitality Management are 16-unit qualifications of
which seven are core units.
BTEC Higher National Diploma programmes must contain a minimum of eight units designated
at H2 level.

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Structure of the Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Certificate in Hospitality
Management

Unit Unit level


Core units — all seven units must be taken
number H1 or H2
1 The Contemporary Hospitality Industry H2
2 The Developing Manager H2
3 Customer Service H1
4 Food and Beverage Operations H1
5 Rooms Division Operations H1
6 Management Accounting for Hospitality H1
7 Industry Experience H2
Specialist units — choose three units
8 Procurement H1
9 Hospitality Operations Management H2
10 Food and Society H1
11 Conference and Banqueting Management H2
12 Contract and Event Management H2
13 On-Licensed Trade Management H2
14 People Management H2
15 Marketing H2
16 Sales Development and Merchandising H2
17 Quality Management H2
18 Facilities Operations H1
19 Facilities Management H2
20 External Business Environment H2
21 Business Health Check H2
22 Small Business Enterprise H2
23 Financial Management H2
24 Information Management and Technology H1
25 Introduction to Internet and E-Business H1
26 Research Project H2

The BTEC Higher National Certificate programme must contain 10 units with a minimum of
five units designated at H2 level.

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Structure of Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Diploma in Hospitality
Management

Unit Unit level


Core units — all seven units must be taken
number H1 or H2
1 The Contemporary Hospitality Industry H2
2 The Developing Manager H2
3 Customer Service H1
4 Food and Beverage Operations H1
5 Rooms Division Operations H1
6 Management Accounting for Hospitality H1
7 Industry Experience H2
Specialist units — choose nine units
8 Procurement H1
9 Hospitality Operations Management H2
10 Food and Society H1
11 Conference and Banqueting Management H2
12 Contract and Event Management H2
13 On-Licensed Trade Management H2
14 People Management H2
15 Marketing H2
16 Sales Development and Merchandising H2
17 Quality Management H2
18 Facilities Operations H1
19 Facilities Management H2
20 External Business Environment H2
21 Business Health Check H2
22 Small Business Enterprise H2
23 Financial Management H2
24 Information Management and Technology H1
25 Introduction to Internet and E-Business H1
26 Research Project H2

The BTEC Higher National Diploma programme must contain 16 units with a minimum of
eight units designated at H2 level.

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Structure of the Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Certificate in Hospitality
Management (Licensed Retail)

Unit Unit level


Core units — all seven units must be taken
number H1 or H2
1 The Contemporary Hospitality Industry H2
2 The Developing Manager H2
3 Customer Service H1
4 Food and Beverage Operations H1
5 Rooms Division Operations H1
6 Management Accounting for Hospitality H1
7 Industry Experience H2
Specialist units — Group A — choose a minimum of two units
13 On-Licensed Trade Management H2
16 Sales Development and Merchandising H2
27 Cellar and Bar Operations H2
28 Law for Licensed Premises H2
29 Introduction to Brewing Science H2
Specialist units — Group B
9 Hospitality Operations Management H2
11 Conference and Banqueting Management H2
14 People Management H2
15 Marketing H2
18 Facilities Operations H1
21 Business Health Check H2
25 Introduction to Internet and E-Business H1
36 Catering Technology H2
37 Food Hygiene and the Environment H2

The BTEC Higher National Certificate programme must contain 10 units with a minimum of
five units designated at H2 level.

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Structure of the Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Diploma in Hospitality
Management (Licensed Retail)

Unit Unit level


Core units — all seven units must be taken
number H1 or H2
1 The Contemporary Hospitality Industry H2
2 The Developing Manager H2
3 Customer Service H1
4 Food and Beverage Operations H1
5 Rooms Division Operations H1
6 Management Accounting for Hospitality H1
7 Industry Experience H2
Specialist units — Group A — choose a minimum of four units
13 On-Licensed Trade Management H2
16 Sales Development and Merchandising H2
27 Cellar and Bar Operations H2
28 Law for Licensed Premises H2
29 Introduction to Brewing Science H2
Specialist units — Group B
9 Hospitality Operations Management H2
11 Conference and Banqueting Management H2
14 People Management H2
15 Marketing H2
18 Facilities Operations H1
21 Business Health Check H2
25 Introduction to Internet and E-Business H1
36 Catering Technology H2
37 Food Hygiene and the Environment H2

The BTEC Higher National Diploma programme must contain 16 units with a minimum of
eight units designated at H2 level.

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Structure of the Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Certificate in Hospitality
Management (Culinary Arts)

Unit Unit level


Core units — all seven units must be taken
number H1 or H2
1 The Contemporary Hospitality Industry H2
2 The Developing Manager H2
3 Customer Service H1
4 Food and Beverage Operations H1
5 Rooms Division Operations H1
6 Management Accounting for Hospitality H1
7 Industry Experience H2
Specialist units — Group A — choose a minimum of two units
10 Food and Society H1
30 Menu Planning and Product Development H2
31 Planning and Managing Food Production H2
32 Planning and Managing Food and Beverage Service H2
33 Contemporary Gastronomy (double unit — counts as two units) H2
34 World Cuisine H1
35 Creative Patisserie (double unit — counts as two units) H2
Specialist units — Group B
9 Hospitality Operations Management H2
11 Conference and Banqueting Management H2
13 On-Licensed Trade Management H2
21 Business Health Check H2
22 Small Business Enterprise H2
36 Catering Technology H2
37 Food Hygiene and the Environment H2
38 Nutrition and Diet H2

The BTEC Higher National Certificate programme must contain 10 units with a minimum of
five units designated at H2 level.

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Structure of the Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Diploma in Hospitality
Management (Culinary Arts)

Unit Unit level


Core units — all seven units must be taken
number H1 or H2
1 The Contemporary Hospitality Industry H2
2 The Developing Manager H2
3 Customer Service H1
4 Food and Beverage Operations H1
5 Rooms Division Operations H1
6 Management Accounting for Hospitality H1
7 Industry Experience H2
Specialist units — Group A — choose a minimum of four units
10 Food and Society H1
30 Menu Planning and Product Development H2
31 Planning and Managing Food Production H2
32 Planning and Managing Food and Beverage Service H2
33 Contemporary Gastronomy (double unit — counts as two units) H2
34 World Cuisine H1
35 Creative Patisserie (double unit — counts as two units) H2
Specialist units — Group B
9 Hospitality Operations Management H2
11 Conference and Banqueting Management H2
13 On-Licensed Trade Management H2
21 Business Health Check H2
22 Small Business Enterprise H2
36 Catering Technology H2
37 Food Hygiene and the Environment H2
38 Nutrition and Diet H2

The BTEC Higher National Diploma programme must contain 16 units with a minimum of
eight units designated at H2 level.

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Structure of the Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Certificate in Hospitality
Management (Leisure and Tourism)

Unit Unit level


Core units — all seven units must be taken
number H1 or H2
1 The Contemporary Hospitality Industry H2
2 The Developing Manager H2
3 Customer Service H1
4 Food and Beverage Operations H1
5 Rooms Division Operations H1
6 Management Accounting for Hospitality H1
7 Industry Experience H2
Specialist units — Group A — choose a minimum of two units
39 The Sport and Leisure Industry H1
40 Heritage and Cultural Management H1
41 Entertainment and Venue Management H2
42 Sport and Leisure Tourism H2
43 The Travel and Tourism Environment H1
44 Tourism Development Planning H2
45 Tourism Destinations H1
46 Tour Operations Management H1
Specialist units — Group B
9 Hospitality Operations Management H2
11 Conference and Banqueting Management H2
13 On-Licensed Trade Management H2
14 People Management H2
15 Marketing H2
16 Sales Development and Merchandising H2
19 Facilities Management H2
21 Business Health Check H2
25 Introduction to Internet and E-Business H1

The BTEC Higher National Certificate programme must contain 10 units with a minimum of
five units designated at H2 level.

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– Issue 1 – July 2005
Structure of the Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher National Diploma in Hospitality
Management (Leisure and Tourism)

Unit Unit level


Core units — all seven units must be taken
number H1 or H2
1 The Contemporary Hospitality Industry H2
2 The Developing Manager H2
3 Customer Service H1
4 Food and Beverage Operations H1
5 Rooms Division Operations H1
6 Management Accounting for Hospitality H1
7 Industry Experience H2
Specialist units — Group A — choose a minimum of four units
39 The Sport and Leisure Industry H1
40 Heritage and Cultural Management H1
41 Entertainment and Venue Management H2
42 Sport and Leisure Tourism H2
43 The Travel and Tourism Environment H1
44 Tourism Development Planning H2
45 Tourism Destinations H1
46 Tour Operations Management H1
Specialist units — Group B
9 Hospitality Operations Management H2
11 Conference and Banqueting Management H2
13 On-Licensed Trade Management H2
14 People Management H2
15 Marketing H2
16 Sales Development and Merchandising H2
19 Facilities Management H2
21 Business Health Check H2
25 Introduction to Internet and E-Business H1

The BTEC Higher National Diploma programme must contain 16 units with a minimum of
eight units designated at H2 level.

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Key features
BTEC Higher Nationals are designed to provide specialist vocational programmes, linked to
professional body requirements and National Occupational Standards where appropriate, with a
strong work-related emphasis. The qualifications provide a thorough grounding in the key
concepts and practical skills required in their sector and their national recognition by employers
allows progression direct into employment. BTEC Higher Nationals offer a strong emphasis on
practical skills development alongside the development of requisite knowledge and
understanding in their sector. Learners are attracted to this strong vocational programme of
study that meets their individual progression needs whether this is into employment or to
further study on degree or professional courses.
A key progression path for BTEC Higher National Certificate and Diploma learners is to the
second or third year of a degree or honours degree programme, depending on the match of the
BTEC Higher National units to the degree programme in question.
BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management have been developed to focus on:
• providing education and training for a range of management careers in hospitality, licensed
retail, food and beverage or leisure and tourism sectors; for example food and beverage
manager, front of house manager or events manager
• providing opportunities for hospitality managers to follow specialised areas of study
directly relevant to individual vocations and professions within the hospitality industry,
including study within the licensed trade, leisure and/or tourism sectors, or specialist
culinary arts, leading to a nationally-recognised Level 5 vocationally-specific qualification
• providing opportunities for full-time learners to gain a nationally-recognised vocationally
specific qualification to enter employment in hospitality management or progress to higher-
education, vocational qualifications such as a full-time degree in hospitality management or
related areas such as business management or leisure and tourism management
• developing the knowledge, understanding and skills of learners in the field of hospitality
management in a range of fields, including those suggested above
• providing opportunities for learners to focus on the development of higher-level skills in a
hospitality management context, including investigatory and research skills focusing on
management issues within the context of hospitality, leisure or tourism
• providing opportunities for learners to develop a range of skills and techniques and
attributes essential for successful performance in working life within the hospitality
industry.
This qualification meets the needs of the above rationale by:
• developing a range of knowledge and understanding, skills and techniques, personal
qualities and attributes essential for successful performance in working life
• developing the individual’s ability to make an immediate contribution to employment in the
hospitality management industry, through effective use and combination of the knowledge
and skills gained in different parts of the programme
• providing opportunities for specialist study relevant to individual vocations and contexts
• enabling progression to an undergraduate degree or further professional qualification in
hospitality management or a related area
• providing flexibility, knowledge, skills and motivation as a basis for future studies and
career development in hospitality management.

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National Occupational Standards

BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management are designed to relate to the National
Occupational Standards in the management sector, which in turn form the basis of the
Management National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs). BTEC Higher Nationals do not
purport to deliver occupational competence in the sector, which should be demonstrated in a
work context. However, the qualifications provide underpinning knowledge for the National
Occupational Standards, as well as developing practical skills in preparation for work and
possible achievement of NVQs in due course.
There are currently no National Occupational Standards for hospitality at Level 5. However,
some units in the Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management relate to Management NVQ
units. Links to Management National Occupational Standards are indicated in each unit and
mapped in Annex D.
In addition to the National Occupational Standards, the Hospitality and Catering International
Management Association (HCIMA) publishes their Corpus of Management Excellence, which
summarises the topics that the hospitality professional can make use of during their working
career. The Corpus is divided into three levels: supervisory, operational and senior
management. It encompasses 48 blocks, which are sub-divided into four clusters:
• core hospitality topics
• key management themes
• sector topics
• supporting hospitality topics.
Units from the Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management have been
mapped to the Corpus where appropriate. These relationships are identified in the Links section
of the units.

Qualification Requirements

Edexcel has published Qualification Requirements as part of the revision of BTEC Higher
Nationals. Qualification Requirements set out the aims and rationale of the qualifications and
provide the framework of curriculum content. They also identify the higher-level skills
associated with the qualifications and any recognition by relevant professional bodies. The
Qualification Requirement for BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management is given in
Annex B.
Edexcel standard specification titles are developed from the Qualification Requirements.
Licensed centres comply with the Qualification Requirements when developing BTEC Higher
Nationals under these standard titles.
Qualification Requirements provide consistent standards within the same vocational area and
clearly identify the skills and knowledge that can be expected of any holder of an identical
BTEC Higher National. This will allow higher education institutions, employers and
professional bodies to confidently provide progression opportunities to successful learners.

Higher-level skills

Learners studying for BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management will be expected to
develop the following skills during the programme of study:
• analysing, synthesising and summarising information about research and investigations into
hospitality management issues critically, such as the findings of Unit 7: Industry
Experience

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• the ability to read and use appropriate literature, such as reports on the human resource
challenges facing the hospitality industry or executive summaries from the annual ‘Chefs’
Conference’, with critical understanding
• the ability to think independently and solve problems, for example about issues such as the
contemporary hospitality industry
• the ability to take responsibility for their own learning and recognise their own learning
style, reflected in Unit 2: The Developing Manager
• obtaining and integrating several lines of subject-specific evidence to formulate and test
hypotheses, for example through Unit 7: Industry Experience or Unit 26: Research Project
• applying subject knowledge and understanding to address familiar and unfamiliar problems,
through research into the problems and issues facing commercial hospitality organisations
or the wider aspects of the contemporary hospitality industry
• recognising the moral and ethical issues of enquiry into hospitality management and
appreciating the need for ethical standards and professional codes of conduct, particularly
in Unit 1: The Contemporary Hospitality Industry, Unit 2: The Developing Manager and
Unit 26: Research Report
• designing, planning, conducting and reporting on investigations, for example the outcomes
of Unit 7: Industry Experience or Unit 26: Research Project.

BTEC Higher National Certificate

The 10-unit BTEC Higher National Certificate in Hospitality Management provides a specialist
work-related programme of study that covers the key knowledge, understanding and practical
skills required in the hospitality sector and also offers particular specialist emphasis through the
choice of specialist units.
BTEC Higher National Certificates provide a nationally-recognised qualification offering
career progression and professional development for those already in employment and
opportunities to progress into higher education. The qualifications are mode free but they are
primarily undertaken by part-time learners studying over two years. In some sectors there are
opportunities for those wishing to complete an intensive programme of study in a shorter period
of time.
This specification provides centres with a framework to develop engaging programmes for
higher-education learners who are clear about the area of employment that they wish to enter.
The BTEC Higher National Certificate in Hospitality Management mainly offers a progression
route for learners who are employed in the hospitality industry.

BTEC Higher National Diploma

The 16-unit BTEC Higher National Diploma provides greater breadth and specialisation than
the BTEC Higher National Certificate. Higher National Diplomas are mode free but are
followed predominately by full-time learners. They allow progression into or within
employment in the hospitality sector, either directly on achieving the award or following further
study to degree level.
The BTEC Higher National Diploma in Hospitality Management provides opportunities for
learners to apply their knowledge and practical skills in the workplace. Full-time learners have
the opportunity to do this through formal work placements or their part-time employment
experience.

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The qualification prepares learners for employment in the hospitality sector and will be suitable
for learners who have already decided that they wish to enter this area of work. Some adult
learners may wish to make the commitment required by this qualification in order to enter a
specialist area of employment in hospitality or progress into higher education. Other learners
may want to extend the specialism that they followed on the BTEC Higher National Certificate
programme. Progression from this qualification may well be into or within employment in the
hospitality sector. Alternatively, learners may progress to degree or other higher-education
studies in the hospitality sector or a related industry.

Teaching, learning and assessment

Learners must pass all 10 units on their programme of learning to be awarded a BTEC Higher
National Certificate and all 16 units to be awarded a BTEC Higher National Diploma.
The assessment of BTEC Higher National qualifications is criterion-referenced and centres are
required to assess learners’ evidence against published learning outcomes and assessment
criteria. All units will be individually graded as ‘pass’, ‘merit’ or ‘distinction’. To achieve a
pass grade for the unit learners must meet the assessment criteria set out in the specifications.
This gives transparency to the assessment process and provides for the establishment of
national standards for each qualification.
The units in BTEC Higher National qualifications all have a standard format which is designed
to provide clear guidance on the requirements of the qualification for learners, assessors and
those responsible for monitoring national standards.

Unit format

Each unit is set out in the following way.


Unit title, learning hours and NQF level
The unit title is accredited by QCA and this form of words will appear on the learner’s
Notification of Performance. In BTEC Higher National qualifications each unit consists of
60 guided learning hours.
Each unit is assigned a notional level indicator of H1 or H2, indicating the relative intellectual
demand, complexity and depth of study, and learner autonomy.
At H1 level the emphasis is on the application of knowledge, skills and understanding, use of
conventions in the field of study, use of analytical skills and selection and organisation of
information.
At H2 level the emphasis is on application and evaluation of contrasting ideas, principles,
theories and practices, greater specialisation in the field of study, and an increasing
independence in systematic enquiry and analysis.
Description of unit
A brief description of the overall purpose of the unit is given, together with the key areas of
study associated with the unit.
Summary of learning outcomes
The outcomes of the unit identify what each learner must do in order to pass it. Learners must
achieve all the outcomes in order to pass the unit.

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Content
This section picks up highlighted words from the outcomes and amplifies the content coverage
required when addressing the outcomes. The content section will often provide lists of topics.
Please note all aspects of the listed topics should be covered, except those that begin with ‘eg’,
where items listed are merely indicative.
Outcomes and assessment criteria
Each unit contains statements of the evidence that each learner should produce in order to
receive a pass.
Guidance
This section is not prescriptive but provides additional guidance and amplification related to the
unit to support teachers/deliverers and assessors. Its subsections are given below. Only those
subsections which apply to the unit will appear.
• Delivery — offers guidance about possible approaches to delivery. The guidance is based
on the more usual delivery modes and is not intended to rule out alternative approaches.
• Assessment — provides advice about the nature and type of evidence that learners are likely
to need to produce. This subsection should be read in conjunction with the assessment
criteria and the generic grade descriptors.
• Links — sets out the links between units. Provides opportunities for integration of learning,
delivery and assessment. Any links to the National Occupational Standards will be
highlighted here.
• Resources — identifies the specialist resources likely to be needed to allow learners to
generate the evidence required by each unit. The centre will be asked to ensure that this
resource requirement is in place when it seeks approval from Edexcel to offer the
qualification.
• Support materials — identifies, where appropriate, textbooks, videos, magazines, journals,
publications and websites that may support the delivery of the unit.

Learning and assessment

The purpose of assessment is to ensure that effective learning of the content of each unit has
taken place. Evidence of this learning, or the application of the learning etc, is required for each
unit. The assessment of the evidence relates directly to the assessment criteria for each unit,
supported by the generic grade descriptors.
The process of assessment can aid effective learning by seeking and interpreting evidence to
decide the stage that learners have reached in their learning, what further learning needs to take
place and how best to do this. Therefore, the process of assessment should be part of the
effective planning of teaching and learning by providing opportunities for both the learner and
assessor to obtain information about progress towards learning goals. The assessor and learner
must be actively engaged in promoting a common understanding of the assessment criteria and
the grade descriptors (what it is they are trying to achieve and how well they achieve it) for
further learning to take place. Therefore, learners need constructive feedback and guidance
about how to improve, capitalising on strengths, with clear and constructive comments about
weaknesses and how these might be addressed.

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Assessment instruments are constructed by centres. Assessment instruments should collectively
ensure coverage of all assessment criteria within each unit and should provide opportunities for
the evidencing of all the grade descriptors. It is advised that assessment criteria and
contextualised grade descriptors are clearly indicated on each assessment instrument to provide
a focus for learners (for transparency and to ensure that feedback is specific to the criteria) and
to assist with internal standardisation processes. Tasks/activities should enable learners to
produce evidence that relates directly to the assessment criteria and grade descriptors.
When centres are designing assessment instruments, they need to ensure that the instruments
are valid, reliable and fit for purpose, building on the application of the assessment criteria.
Centres are encouraged to place emphasis on practical application of the assessment criteria,
providing a realistic scenario for learners to adopt, making maximum use of work-related
practical experience and reflecting typical practice in the sector concerned. The creation of
assessment instruments that are fit for purpose is vital to achievement and their importance
cannot be over-emphasised.

Grading Higher National units

The assessment of BTEC Higher National qualifications will be at unit level and there will be
no overall grade for either the Certificate or the Diploma. This means that learners are able to
access the qualification through a unitised approach.
Each unit will be graded as a pass, merit or distinction. A pass is awarded for the achievement
of all outcomes against the specified assessment criteria. Merit and distinction grades are
awarded for higher-level achievement.
The generic merit and distinction grade descriptors listed on pages 18–19 are for grading the
total evidence produced for each unit and describe the learner’s performance over and above
that for a pass grade.
Summary of grades
In order to achieve a pass • all outcomes and associated assessment criteria have
been met.
In order to achieve a merit • pass requirements achieved
• all merit grade descriptors achieved.
In order to achieve a distinction • pass and merit requirements achieved
• all distinction grade descriptors achieved.

The merit and distinction grade descriptors can be achieved in a flexible way, eg in a sequential
or holistic mode, to reflect the nature of the sector concerned.
Each of the generic merit and distinction grade descriptors can be amplified by use of
indicative characteristics. These give a guide to the expected learner performance, and
support the generic grade descriptors. The indicative characteristics should reflect the nature of
a unit and the context of the sector programme.
The indicative characteristics shown in the table for each of the generic grade descriptors are
not exhaustive. Consequently, centres should select from the list or may construct other
appropriate indicative characteristics for their sector programme which may be drawn from the
appropriate higher-level skills. It is important to note that each assessment activity does not
need to incorporate all the merit and/or distinction grade descriptors.

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Contextualising the generic grade descriptors
The generic merit and distinction grade descriptors need to be viewed as a qualitative extension
of the assessment criteria for pass within each individual unit. The relevant generic grade
descriptors must be identified and specified within an assignment and the relevant indicative
characteristics should be used to place the required evidence in context.

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Grade descriptors

Pass grade

A pass grade is achieved by meeting all the requirements defined in the assessment criteria for
pass for each unit.

Merit grade

Merit descriptors Indicative characteristics

In order to achieve a merit The learner’s evidence shows:


the learner must:
• identify and apply • effective judgements have been made
strategies to find
• complex problems with more than one variable have been
appropriate solutions
explored
• an effective approach to study and research has been applied
• select/design and apply • relevant theories and techniques have been applied
appropriate methods/
• a range of methods and techniques have been applied
techniques
• a range of sources of information has been used
• the selection of methods and techniques/sources has been
justified
• the design of methods/techniques has been justified
• complex information/data has been synthesised and
processed
• appropriate learning methods/techniques have been applied
• present and • the appropriate structure and approach has been used
communicate
• coherent, logical development of principles/concepts for the
appropriate findings
intended audience
• a range of methods of presentation have been used and
technical language has been accurately used
• communication has taken place in familiar and unfamiliar
contexts
• the communication is appropriate for familiar and
unfamiliar audiences and appropriate media have been used

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Distinction grade

Distinction descriptors Indicative characteristics

In order to achieve a The learner’s evidence shows:


distinction the learner must:
• use critical reflection to • conclusions have been arrived at through synthesis of ideas
evaluate own work and and have been justified
justify valid conclusions
• the validity of results has been evaluated using defined
criteria
• self-criticism of approach has taken place
• realistic improvements have been proposed against defined
characteristics for success
• take responsibility for • autonomy/independence has been demonstrated
managing and organising
• substantial activities, projects or investigations have been
activities
planned, managed and organised
• activities have been managed
• the unforeseen has been accommodated
• the importance of interdependence has been recognised and
achieved
• demonstrate • ideas have been generated and decisions taken
convergent/lateral/
• self-evaluation has taken place
creative thinking
• convergent and lateral thinking have been applied
• problems have been solved
• innovation and creative thought have been applied
• receptiveness to new ideas is evident
• effective thinking has taken place in unfamiliar contexts

Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL)

Edexcel encourages centres to recognise learners’ previous achievements and experience


through APL. Learners may have evidence that has been generated during previous study, in
their previous or current employment or whilst undertaking voluntary work that relates to one
or more of the units in the qualification. Assessors should assess this evidence against the
Higher National standards in the specifications in the normal way. As with all evidence,
assessors should be satisfied about the authenticity and currency of the material when
considering whether or not the outcomes of the unit have been met.
Full guidance about Edexcel’s policy on APL is provided on our website
(www.edexcel.org.uk).

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Quality assurance of BTEC Higher Nationals
The quality assurance system for BTEC Higher National qualifications, as higher-level
vocational qualifications at Level 5 on the NQF, will comprise three main components:
• approval process — a control measure to confirm that individual centres (and programme
teams) are appropriately resourced and competent to deliver a BTEC Level 5 programme of
study
• monitoring of centres — a method of monitoring centres’ internal quality systems to
ensure ongoing fulfilment of initial requirements and, where appropriate, enhancement of
those requirements to accommodate new qualifications
• independent assessment — a measure that provides independence within the assessment
process, so that the certificated outcomes for each learner are not reliant on determinations
by individuals or groups with a vested interest in the outcome. This measure should be
consistent and reliable over time, and should not create unnecessary barriers.

Centre and programme approval

Approval to offer BTEC Higher National qualifications will vary depending on the status of the
centre. Centres that have a recent history of delivering BTEC Higher National qualifications
and have an acceptable quality profile in relation to their delivery will be able to gain approval
through an accelerated process. Centres that are new to the delivery of BTEC Higher National
qualifications will be required to submit evidence to demonstrate that they:
• have the human and physical resources required for effective delivery and assessment
• understand the implications for independent assessment and agree to abide by these
• have a robust internal assessment system supported by ‘fit for purpose’ assessment
documentation
• have a system to internally verify assessment decisions to ensure standardised assessment
decisions are made across all assessors and sites.
Such applications have to be supported by the head of the centre (principal, chief executive,
etc).
We communicate all approvals in writing to the head of centre in the form of a qualification
approval letter. The approval letter will also contain a programme definition for each
qualification approved. The programme definition clearly states to the centre all units that
comprise the qualification for which the centre is approved.

Monitoring centres’ internal quality systems

Centres will be expected to demonstrate ongoing fulfilment of approval criteria across all
programme areas. This should include the consistent application of policies affecting learner
registrations and appeals, together with the effectiveness of internal examination and
standardisation processes.
Centres may opt for a review of their provision under the quality verifier/quality reviewer
arrangements, which already apply to all further education centres. Alternatively, centres may
present evidence of their operation within a recognised code of practice, such as that of the
Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. Edexcel reserves the right to confirm
independently that these arrangements are operating to our satisfaction.

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Independent assessment: the role of the external examiner

Supporting consistency and appropriateness of centre assessor decisions


For all BTEC Higher Nationals accredited at Level 5 on the NQF, Edexcel will appoint
appropriately qualified subject-specific external examiners to the programme in each centre.
Edexcel will define the selection, appointment and training process, together with the roles and
responsibilities of the external examiners and will communicate the details to centres in a
centre handbook.
The function of the external examiner will be to review and evaluate objectively the assessment
process and standards of learner attainment by independently reviewing, in the first year of the
programme, a sample of learner work (including the centre-designed assignments on which the
samples are based) selected by the external examiner, from across the programme.
When they visit centres, external examiners must be afforded reasonable access to the assessed
parts of the programme, including evidence of learner performance on placement. They are
required to:
• verify that standards are appropriate for the qualification and its elements
• assist institutions in the comparison of academic standards across similar awards nationally.
Should any disparity occur between the judgement of centre assessors and that of the external
examiner, this will be reported to the centre and to Edexcel by the external examiner. The
centre will be required to agree appropriate corrective action as a result of this report.
Independence in confirmation of certificated outcomes
In the final year of the programme, the external examiner will revisit the centre in order to
independently assess learner work and to evaluate centre assessor decisions on final outcomes.
This process of evaluation may focus upon work in units, selected by the external examiner,
that present the most appropriate evidence for this exercise. The work of all learners not already
sampled in the first year of the programme will be reviewed.
Resolution of assessments will normally be handled at the centre’s final programme review
board. The external examiner will be expected to endorse the outcomes of assessment before
certification can be authorised. Should the external examiner be unable to provide such
endorsement, certification will be withheld until appropriate corrective action has taken place.
(The senior subject examiner may become involved in such instances.)
The external examiner will be required to prepare a written report after each visit. The report
will include comments from the external examiner on:
• academic standards and programme specification
• academic standards and learner performance
• academic standards and assessment
• the assessment process
• assessment meetings
• physical resources
• comments of learners
• meetings with staff
• external examiner practice
• issues arising from previous reports

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• details of sampling
• general points, areas of good practice and major issues
• action points.
The external examiner report provides the mechanism by which the external examiner
independently verifies learner ability, endorses the validity of the assessment process and
releases certification for a cohort.
The report is a confidential document between Edexcel, the appointed external examiner, and
the centre to use for internal/external quality assurance processes. It provides the centre with
feedback on the external examining process and on the judgements that determine the external
examiner’s decisions on endorsement, or otherwise, of learner outcomes.

Programme design and delivery

The qualifications consist of core units (which are mandatory) and specialist units. These
specialist units will be mostly optional and are designed to provide a specific focus to the
qualification. Required combinations of specialist units are clearly set out in relation to each
qualification in the defined qualification structures provided in this document.
In BTEC Higher National qualifications each unit consists of 60 guided learning hours. The
definition of guided learning hours is ‘a notional measure of the substance of a qualification’. It
includes an estimate of time that might be allocated to direct teaching, instruction and
assessment, together with other structured learning time such as directed assignments or
supported individual study. It excludes learner-initiated private study. Centres are advised to
consider this definition when planning the programme of study associated with this
specification.

Mode of delivery

Edexcel does not define the mode of study for BTEC Higher National qualifications. Centres
are free to offer the qualifications using any mode of delivery that meets the needs of their
learners. This may be through traditional classroom teaching, open learning, distance learning
or a combination of these. Whatever mode of delivery is used, centres must ensure that learners
have appropriate access to the resources identified in the specifications and to the subject
specialists delivering the units. This is particularly important for learners studying for the
qualification through open or distance learning.
Full guidance on Edexcel’s policies on ‘distance assessment’ and ‘electronic assessment’ are
provided on our website.
Learners studying for the qualification on a part-time basis bring with them a wealth of
experience that should be utilised to maximum effect by tutors and assessors. Assessment
instruments based on learners’ work environments should be encouraged. Those planning the
programme should aim to enhance the vocational nature of the BTEC Higher National
qualification by:
• liaising with employers to ensure that the course is relevant to the specific needs of the
learners
• accessing and using non-confidential data and documents from learners’ workplaces
• including sponsoring employers in the delivery of the programme and, where appropriate,
in the assessment

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• linking with company-based/workplace training programmes
• making full use of the variety of experiences of work and life that learners bring to the
programme.

Resources

BTEC Higher National qualifications are designed to prepare learners for employment in
specific sectors. Physical resources need to support the delivery of the programme and the
proper assessment of the outcomes and, therefore, should normally be of industry standard.
Staff delivering programmes and conducting the assessments should be fully familiar with
current practice and standards in the sector concerned. Centres will need to meet any specialist
resource requirements when they seek approval from Edexcel.
Please refer to the resource section in individual units for specialist resource requirements.
Specialist resources should include case study materials, real resources acquired from
commercial operations, videos and documented examples of current practice eg reports from
the hospitality industry. Some units will require access to specialist facilities such as kitchens
or laboratories. Requirements for specialist resources are detailed in each unit.

Delivery approach

It is important that centres develop an approach to teaching and learning that supports the
specialist vocational nature of the BTEC Higher National qualifications. The specifications
contain a balance of practical skill development and knowledge requirements, some of which
can be theoretical in nature. Tutors and assessors need to ensure that appropriate links are made
between theory and practice and that the knowledge base is applied to the sector. This will
require the development of relevant and up-to-date teaching materials that allow learners to
apply their learning to actual events and activity within the sector. Maximum use should be
made of the learner’s experience.

Meeting local needs

Centres should note the qualifications set out in these specifications have been developed in
consultation with centres and employers in the hospitality sector, together with support from
the Sector Skills Council for the hospitality sector. The units are designed to meet the skill
needs of the sector and the specialist units allow coverage of the full range of employment.
Centres should make maximum use of the choice available to them within the specialist units in
these specifications to meet the needs of their learners, as well as the local skills and training
needs identified by organisations such as Regional Development Agencies and Local Learning
and Skills Councils.
Centres may not always be able to meet local needs using the units in this specification. In this
situation, centres may seek approval from Edexcel to make use of units from other standard
NQF BTEC Higher National specifications. Centres will need to justify the need for importing
units from other specifications and Edexcel will ensure that the vocational focus of the
qualification has not been diluted.

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Locally-devised specialist units

There may be exceptional circumstances where even the flexibility of importing units from
other specifications does not meet a particular local need. In this case, centres can seek
permission from Edexcel to develop a unit with us to meet this need. The cases where this will
be allowable will be very limited. Edexcel will ensure that the integrity of the qualification is
not reduced and that there is a minimum of overlap and duplication of content of existing units.
Centres will need strong evidence of the local need and the reasons why the existing standard
units are inappropriate. Edexcel will need to validate these units.

Limitations on variations from standard specifications

The flexibility to import standard units from other BTEC Higher National specifications and/or
to develop unique locally-devised specialist units is limited to a maximum of four units in a
BTEC Higher National Diploma qualification and a maximum of two units only in any
BTEC Higher National Certificate qualification. The use of these units cannot be at the
expense of the core units in any qualification.

Access and recruitment

Edexcel’s policy regarding access to its qualifications is that:


• the qualifications should be available to everyone who is capable of reaching the required
standards
• the qualifications should be free from any barriers that restrict access and progression
• there should be equal opportunities for all wishing to access the qualifications.
Centres are required to recruit learners to BTEC qualifications with integrity. This will include
ensuring that applicants have appropriate information and advice about the qualifications and
that the qualification will meet their needs. Centres should take appropriate steps to assess each
applicant’s potential and make a professional judgement about their ability to successfully
complete the programme of study and achieve the qualification. This assessment will need to
take account of the support available to the learner within the centre during their programme of
study and any specific support that might be necessary to allow the learner to access the
assessment for the qualification. Centres should also show regard for Edexcel’s policy on
learners with particular requirements.
Centres will need to review the profile of qualifications and/or experience held by applicants,
considering whether this profile shows an ability to progress to a Level 5 qualification. For
learners who have recently been in education, the entry profile is likely to include one of the
following:
• a BTEC National Certificate or Diploma in Hospitality Supervision, Travel and Tourism,
Business or a similar discipline
• an AVCE/Advanced GNVQ in an appropriate vocational area eg Hospitality and Catering,
Travel and Tourism, Leisure and Recreation or Business
• a GCE Advanced level profile which demonstrates strong performance in a relevant subject
or an adequate performance in more than one GCE subject. This profile is likely to be
supported by GCSE grades at A* to C
• other related Level 3 qualifications

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• an Access to Higher Education Certificate awarded by an approved further education
institution
• related work experience.
Mature learners may present a more varied profile of achievement that is likely to include
extensive work experience (paid and/or unpaid) and/or achievement of a range of professional
qualifications in their work sector.

Restrictions on learner entry

The majority of BTEC Higher National qualifications are accredited on the NQF for learners
aged 16 years and over. Learners aged 15 and under cannot be registered for a BTEC Higher
National qualification.

Access arrangements and special considerations

Edexcel’s policy on access arrangements and special considerations for BTEC and Edexcel
NVQ qualifications aims to enhance access to the qualifications for learners with disabilities
and other difficulties (as defined by the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and the
amendments to the Act) without compromising the assessment of skills, knowledge,
understanding or competence.
Further details are given in the policy Access Arrangements and Special Considerations for
BTEC and Edexcel NVQ Qualifications, which is on the Edexcel website
(www.edexcel.org.uk). This policy replaces the previous Edexcel policy (Assessment of
Vocationally Related Qualifications: Regulations and Guidance Relating to Learners with
Special Requirements, 2002) concerning learners with particular requirements.

The wider curriculum

The study of the BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management provides opportunities for
learners to develop an understanding of spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural issues and
an awareness of environmental issues, health and safety considerations, and European
developments. Mapping of wider curriculum opportunities is provided in Annex C.

Spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural issues

The specification contributes to an understanding of:


• spiritual issues through development of the self through units such as Unit 2: The
Developing Manager, Unit 7: Industry Experience or Unit 26: Research Project. For
example, learners will gain an increased awareness of their own value and role in life if
they adopt the responsibility for finding a suitable commercial organisation and managing
the arrangements for Unit 7: Industry Experience or Unit 26: Research Project. The
development of management skills through Unit 2: The Developing Manager and the
responsibility that accompanies such a role may extend the learner’s own awareness of
his/her future role in life. Learners may also consider the potential for job satisfaction
gained from meeting the roles and responsibilities of the job

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• moral and ethical issues are encountered throughout the BTEC Higher Nationals in
Hospitality Management as dealing with people will always involve the learner engaging in
moral and ethical issues. For example, a developing understanding of the costings function
in the hospitality industry will increase the learner’s awareness of the importance of
accurate and fair charging for products and services. Discussions could consider issues
relating to compliance with the Data Protection Act 1998 and the potential for misuse of
data
• social and cultural issues are encountered throughout the BTEC Higher Nationals in
Hospitality Management, particularly in consideration of the impact of various units on the
lives of an organisation’s staff or clients and the substantial contribution the hospitality
industry can make to the local community. Discussions can be led about the changing
nature of customer demand and the effect this has on both the type of service offered by the
hospitality industry and the personnel required to provide such a service. Understanding the
relationship between a manager and their staff or clients can lead to discussions on a wide
range of social/cultural issues, particularly those relating to the management of human
resources. Discussions can also arise from managing customer service and the global
implications of dealing with and responding to foreign cultures.

Environmental issues

Learners are led to appreciate the importance of environmental issues as they engage in
hospitality study as well as through experience of the industry. Learners will develop a keen
awareness of the need to balance a wide range of environmental issues with the operational
requirement of a hospitality organisation. Discussions can be developed on issues such as
organic and genetically modified foods and disposal of waste, for example cooking oils.
Learners should be aware of, and discuss, the impact that changes in technology bring about
regarding the disposable nature of almost all ICT equipment. Unit 8: Procurement is
particularly useful from an environmental perspective, together with other units that involve the
use and disposal of a wide range of equipment and products.

European developments

Much of the content of the BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management can be applied
throughout Europe owing to its service-oriented nature, even though the context of delivery is
within the UK. The European dimensions of hospitality are reflected in a number of units,
including the need to consider trends and changes in European models.

Health and safety issues

BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management are practically based, and health and safety
issues are encountered throughout. Learners will develop awareness of the safety of others, as
well as themselves, in all practical activities and consider the responsibilities of the hospitality
manager for overarching health and safety issues. Specific applications involving health and
safety may not always occur, but learners need to develop their knowledge and skills in the
management of these issues.

Equal opportunities issues

Equal opportunities issues are implicit throughout the BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality
Management.

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Useful publications
Further copies of this document and related publications can be obtained from:
Edexcel Publications
Adamsway
Mansfield
Nottinghamshire NG18 4FN
Telephone: 01623 467 467
Fax: 01623 450 481
Email: publications@linneydirect.com
Related publications include:
• the current Edexcel publications catalogue and update catalogue
• Edexcel publications concerning the quality assurance system and the internal and external
verification of vocationally-related programmes may be found on the Edexcel website and
in the Edexcel publications catalogue.
NB: Most of our publications are priced. There is also a charge for postage and packing. Please
check the cost when you order.

Professional body contact details

Hospitality and Catering International Management Association


HCIMA
Trinity Court
34 West Street
Sutton
Surrey SM1 1SH
Telephone: 020 8661 4900
Fax: 020 8661 4901
Email: commdept@hcima.org.uk
Website: www.hcima.org.uk
British Hospitality Association
Queens House
55–56 Lincoln’s Inn Fields
London WC2A 3BH
Telephone: 020 7404 7744
Fax: 020 7404 7799
Email: info@bha.org.uk
Website: www.bha-online.org.uk
British Institute of Innkeeping
Wessex House
80 Park Street
Camberley
Surrey GU15 3PT
Telephone: 01276 684 449
Fax: 01276 230 45
Email: reception@bii.org
Website: www.bii.org

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Institute of Customer Service
2 Castle Court
St Peter’s Street
Colchester CO1 1EW
Telephone: 01206 571 716
Fax: 01206 546 688
Email: enquiries@icsmail.co.uk
Website: www.instituteofcustomerservice.com

How to obtain National Occupational Standards

The National Occupational Standards for Management can be obtained from:


The Management Standards Centre
3rd Floor
2 Savoy Court
The Strand
London WC2R 0EZ
Telephone: 020 7240 2826
Fax: 020 7240 2853
Email: management.standards@managers.org.uk
Website: www.managers.org.uk/msu2001

Professional development and training

Edexcel supports UK and international customers with training related to BTEC qualifications.
This support is available through a choice of training options offered in our published training
directory or through customised training at your centre.
The support we offer focuses on a range of issues including:
• planning for the delivery of a new programme
• planning for assessment and grading
• developing effective assignments
• building your team and teamwork skills
• developing student-centred learning and teaching approaches
• building key skills into your programme
• building in effective and efficient quality assurance systems.
The national programme of training we offer can be viewed on the Edexcel website
(www.edexcel.org.uk). You can request customised training through the website or by
contacting one of our advisers in the Professional Development and Training Team on
telephone number 0870 240 9800 to discuss your training needs.
The training we provide:
• is active — ideas are developed and applied
• is designed to be supportive and thought provoking
• builds on best practice.

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Our training will also underpin many areas of the Higher Education Staff Development Agency
(HESDA)/FENTO standards for teachers and lecturers working towards them.

Further information

For further information please call Customer Services on 0870 240 9800 (calls may be recorded
for training purposes) or visit our website at www.edexcel.org.uk.

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Core
units

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Unit 1: The Contemporary Hospitality
Industry
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit introduces learners to the hospitality industry. It establishes the framework of the
industry using criteria defined by the centre and the learner cohort in a way that reflects their
needs. Learners then review the current structure using the centre definition.
Learners then have the opportunity to research recent developments in the industry. This is
designed to be responsive to contemporary issues and will enable learners to react to issues
affecting the industry during their period of study. Learners will also investigate the changing
role of hospitality staff in a range of contexts. They will develop their approach and thinking
processes to enable them to predict potential trends and developments in hospitality provision
and management.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Review the current structure of the hospitality industry
2 Analyse recent developments in the hospitality industry
3 Explore the changing role of hospitality staff in different contexts
4 Predict potential trends and developments in hospitality provision and management.

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Content

1 Current structure
Scale and scope: size of outlet, type of ownership, sectors eg commercial, services,
contract; turnover, purchasing power
Diversity: products and services eg food, drink, accommodation, conference and
banqueting, leisure facilities; levels of service, customer base, future trends
Organisational structure: operational areas eg food preparation, food and beverage
services, accommodation services, front of house services, conference and banqueting;
management functions, professional attitude
Structures: hierarchy, number of employees, by age/gender, roles eg management,
supervisor, craft/operative; responsibilities eg for junior staff, to senior managers; specific
procedures/practices, team leaders, supervisors, career and employment opportunities

2 Recent developments

Operational issues: eg standard operating procedures, food safety, service


requirements/needs, levels of productivity, employee expectations, recruitment and
retention, learning and development, flexible working, workforce competency, transferable
competencies, socio-cultural issues, benchmarking, outsourcing services (eg human
resources, finance, security), e-commerce
Managerial issues: eg key players in the hospitality industry, international aspects, the
impact of market forces, performance management, branding/re-branding, responding to
niche markets, effective implementation of food safety management systems,
environmental issues, security, policy development, project management, relationships with
education/training providers, media issues
Legislation and regulation: influence and impact of national and European legislation,
compliance with legislation eg food hygiene/safety, formal and practical food safety
training
Customer issues: customer focus and culture, quality improvement, kitemarking

3 Changing role
Roles: craft, operational, supervisory, management, characteristics, impact of changes on
stakeholders eg organisation, employees, customers
Contexts: eg international, national, franchised, owner manager; organisational change

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4 Potential trends and developments
Trends: eg boutique hotels, pub ownership, food and fashion trends, entrepreneurial
opportunities, assessment centres, succession planning, work patterns and work-life
balance, employee needs, market saturation, globalisation, technology and technology
applications, use of foreign language, the learning culture
Developments: eg competitors and competing sectors, hospitality portfolio management, the
learning culture, reversal of existing trends, political stability, responding to external
events/influences; public/private partnerships, application of forecasting techniques,
measuring success

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate the


ability to:
1 Review the current • analyse the current scale, scope and diversity of the
structure of the hospitality industry
hospitality industry
• explain the organisational structure of different hospitality
organisations
2 Analyse recent • justify the contemporary focus of the issue
developments in the
• analyse operational and managerial issues reflecting recent
hospitality industry
developments in the hospitality industry
• compare and contrast the issues at operational and
management levels
3 Explore the changing role • evaluate the changes in the role of hospitality staff in
of hospitality staff in different contexts
different contexts
• assess the impact these changes have had on different
stakeholders
4 Predict potential trends • openly reciprocate ideas and viewpoints to underpin
and developments in potential projections of trends or developments
hospitality provision and
• explain predictions of trends and developments
management.
• provide a rationale and justification to support predictions
of trends and developments.

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Guidance

Delivery

Because of the infinitely changing nature of the subject, content is largely indicative and
broadly based. It is the responsibility of the tutor to decide the focus of study, which will vary
in different areas of the country and in different years. This decision should be reached in
collaboration with the learner group and may only establish itself after some initial exploration
by the learners of the industry and the issues it faces. Common agreement is also important
about what constitutes a contemporary issue. Learners must be clear in their thoughts and in
their evidence about why a particular issue is contemporary. Narrow thinking, where issues
only affect a small number of providers, would not be acceptable. Contemporary ideas should
address issues at industry level, affecting a wider range of operations. Tutors must also be
conscious that the flexible nature of this unit may lead to a narrow perspective and should take
steps to ensure that learners keep an open and broad approach to their investigations. The unit
should develop their thinking processes, enabling them to consider such issues effectively
during their future career.
Case study materials will be especially helpful throughout this unit as examples of changing
practice. It is also particularly important to involve industry in the delivery of the unit to ensure
currency and vocational relevance. This can be achieved through presentations by visiting
speakers and visits to a range of hospitality operations.
When introducing this unit, tutors must first establish a platform upon which to build an
assessment of the contemporary hospitality industry. They will need to agree with learners a
working definition of the hospitality industry, which should be to at least national level.
However, some centres may choose to define an international perspective to reflect the needs of
their learners. Centres may also opt for a definition that encompasses some cross-over into
other sectors, such as leisure and tourism.
Careful curriculum planning will be needed to support this stage of the unit. It is possible to
deliver Outcome 1 as an introduction to the hospitality industry part of the learners’ induction,
supported by handouts and case study materials. This enables them to develop the more
advanced thinking required at H2 level focusing on contemporary issues, which can reach a
peak towards the end of the second year of the programme.
The central focus is on the hospitality industry. However, if defined at national level, this
should consider external influences such as the implications of international operations and
foreign ownership. Learners will need to understand the differing types of ownership, for
example owner-manager, partnership, private or public limited company, local, national or
multinational. This should be developed to consider the two major sectors of the hospitality
industry. Learners can be divided into two groups and asked to research the commercial sector
eg hotels, restaurants, fast-food outlets, takeaways, motels, hostels, pubs, inns, clubs, guest
houses; and the services sector eg education, institutional, school meals, halls of residence,
hospitals, contract catering. Contract catering forms a specialist sub-group, which may be
worthy of further research into the purpose of contract catering, its characteristics, types of
contract, (eg tied, time, budget, pricing, managed contract, total supply) and the terms and
conditions attached to different types of contracts.

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The remainder of the unit explores the contemporary hospitality industry, giving tutors and
learners the opportunity to investigate a changing range of issues and enabling them to focus on
those most pressing at the time of study. These can result in longitudinal issues that affect the
whole or major parts of the industry over a period of time, such as the increasing importance of
a customer-centred culture. Learners should also investigate wider issues affecting the
hospitality industry, such as global issues. Alternatively, study may emphasise localised issues
that may affect a particular focus, for example the geographical nature of the locality, such as
the effect of the foot and mouth outbreak on rural hospitality, or the type of hotel, such as
pressures on city-centre hotel accommodation from international incidents (the 9/11 attack on
the Twin Towers in New York or the 2003 Iraq war). Tutors and learners must consider
positive as well as negative aspects of such events. For example, following the Twin Towers
attack, international trade and city-based operations suffered as a result of customers’
unwillingness to travel abroad. However, circumstances enhanced trade for rural operations, as
British clientele developed wider use of the domestic market.
Other issues for consideration include the changing roles of hospitality staff. Examples include
the increasing focus on the customer-centred culture of hospitality and the trend for highly-
skilled chefs setting up operations as owner-managers. Other chefs are beginning to establish
franchise operations within hotel premises. Wider operational issues include the recent
development of outsourcing and purchasing by specification to relieve pressure on the core
operation of a commercial organisation.
When projecting trends and developments, it is most important for learners to be able to justify
and rationalise their recommendations, using the development of the second and third learning
outcomes as a basis. The future is unpredictable but learners need to develop creative and pro-
active thinking to enable them to anticipate future trends and developments, which should be
well-reasoned future insights for the hospitality industry. Developments in portfolio
management, for example, reflect the trend in changes of ownership for sizeable groups of
hotels, leading to discussion focusing on large-scale mergers and acquisitions and the potential
for the development of global brands. Learners will need to use forecasting techniques to justify
their projections. Tutors should recognise that development of these techniques properly
belongs in Unit 24: Information Management and Technology and these should then be applied
in this unit.

Assessment

It is important for tutors to ensure that the area of study reflects all learning outcomes and
provides learners with suitable opportunities to develop their evidence. This may be through a
number of contrasting areas of study, or through an integrated approach linking all four learning
outcomes in a single piece of work. The platform of knowledge reflecting the current structure
of the UK hospitality industry underpins the remainder of the unit and learners can provide a
suitable formal report, which in turn may lead to further evidence in different formats. These
may include a presentation to a group, a display or exhibition of information, or a professional
discussion.
One possibility for assessment evidence could be in the form of a mock interview, where the
question posed by the interviewer could be: ‘What are the challenges facing the hospitality
industry over the next 5–10 years?’. This interview can be set in the context of a small,
privately-owned country hotel, or a large multinational contract catering provider. It would be
the choice of the tutor to define the context and to decide at what stage learners would be told
the focus of this aspect of their evidence. Alternative forms of evidence include a structured
debate with different groups or teams of learners arguing the case for or against a particular
development or trend, or for example as a role play of a shareholders’ meeting.

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All of these types of evidence reflect the role of the manager in the hospitality industry. Tutors
and learners should agree on a suitable blend of types of evidence to suit the nature of the
evidence and individual needs. Tutors may choose to implement a staged assessment,
summarising recent developments and changes in roles, before progressing to the assessment of
projections. However, tutors should be conscious of the capabilities of individual learners and
should encourage them to develop an appropriate range of skills, both to support the
presentation of evidence for this unit and to build their capabilities as future managers of the
hospitality industry. Tutors should also consider the advantages of group work and the diversity
offered from presentations by different learners.
When considering recent developments, learners may focus on one issue or a range, dependent
on the nature of their investigations. However, presentation of a single issue would require a
much greater level of depth than a wider range of contemporary issues.
Learners must justify and rationalise their projections of potential trends and developments.
They must also be creative in their thinking. It is not acceptable, for example, to project that a
recent development (such as branding) will continue in the future. Their work should be
challenging and reflect their developed ability to assess the future of the hospitality industry.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit addresses a wide range of contemporary issues and can be linked with any other units
within the programme. Tutors should seek to integrate this unit with others to underpin the
relevance of the issues being studied. Programme teams must be careful to consider overlap
with other units. Many issues may occur naturally as part of other units, but the nature of this
unit is to consider the contemporary aspects of different issues, which may not be explored
thoroughly in mainstream units.
This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B9: Develop the culture of your organisation
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP17: Self Development and Personal Skills
• OP18: Management Studies
• OP20: Managing Change
• OP22: Managing Quality
• OP26: Managing Hotel Operations
• OP37: The Hospitality Industry.

Resources

Links with industry are critical for successful delivery. Visits to hospitality operations and
presentations by visiting speakers will provide extensive opportunities for debate and may offer
suitable opportunities for local study. A bank of current case study materials (which may be
drawn from the trade press) is also an essential resource. Learners must be encouraged to read
publications such as the Caterer and Hotelkeeper at every opportunity to develop their
awareness of contemporary issues.

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Local and national statistics such as those published annually by the Hospitality Training
Foundation will also add useful support to the learners’ knowledge and understanding of the
size and scope of the industry. Videos and websites which focus on different outlets within the
hospitality industry, jobs and employment opportunities are a further necessary resource. More
details are listed on the following pages.
In addition to links with industry, this unit should be supported by directories, newspapers,
journals and local and national guides for the hospitality industry. Learners will need access to
a library with a variety of texts and journals as well as access to the internet. Electronic
databases of journal materials will provide details of extended publications. Tutors and learners
must be aware of the speed with which information contained in textbooks and professional
journals will date. Learners should take this into consideration and not fall into the trap of
believing published information to be up to date.

Support materials

Books
Borchgrevink C — Perspectives on the Hospitality Industry: An Introduction to Hospitality
Management (Kendall Hunt, 1999) ISBN 0787248649
Brotherton B — An Introduction to the UK Hospitality Industry: A Comparative Approach
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000) ISBN 0750647116
Brymer R A — Hospitality and Tourism: An Introduction to the Industry (Kendall Hunt, 1998)
ISBN 0787258571
Jones P — An Introduction to Hospitality (Thomson Learning, 2002) ISBN 0826460771
Lattin G W — The Lodging and Food Service Industry (Amer Hotel and Motel Association,
2002) ISBN 0866122354
Powers T and Barrows C W — Introduction to Management in the Hospitality Industry (John
Wiley & Sons, 2005) ISBN 0471706388
Walker J R — Introduction to Hospitality Management (Prentice Hall, 2003)
ISBN 0131112937
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Cornell Quarterly
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Green Hotelier (www.greenhotelier.com)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research (International Council on Hotel and Restaurant
Education (CHRIE))
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)

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Video/DVD
Broadcasts of commercial programmes relating to the hospitality industry
BBC Learning Zone — hospitality programmes
Websites
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and
tutors
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association (provides links to commercial
websites)
www.ih-ra.com International Hotel and Restaurant Association
www.people1st.co.uk People1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 2: The Developing Manager
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit focuses on learners’ development and their future in management. The unit sets the
scene by exploring a range of principles and practices of management behaviour. Learners can
then apply this knowledge to self-appraisal, examining their own potential as a prospective
manager.
Using the knowledge developed throughout the programme, learners then have the opportunity
to demonstrate the roles and responsibilities of a manager in an appropriate context. This may
be through part-time work, a work placement or simulation. Their experience will enable them
to consider how the unit and the qualification can contribute to their future career development.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Investigate principles and practices of management behaviour
2 Analyse own potential as a prospective manager
3 Demonstrate the roles and responsibilities of the manager in the context of a service
industry
4 Explore opportunities for career development.

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Content

1 Principles and practices


Management theory and styles: assumptions and drawbacks, classical theories, main
contributors, influence of informal groups, hierarchy of needs, systems approach,
contingency approach, leading authorities
Leadership characteristics: styles eg autocratic, democratic, laissez faire, action-orientated;
motivation theories, factors affecting motivation and performance, motivation techniques;
effectiveness, conflict resolution, role of partnerships and stakeholders in the organisation
Communication: communications process, verbal, written, non-verbal, lines of
communication, linear, lateral, formal/informal, barriers to effective communication
Organisational culture and change: types of organisational structure and culture; factors
influencing changes in culture; types of change eg demographic, economic, legislative;
planned change theory; managing and measuring the effectiveness of change; sources and
types of power; change drivers

2 Prospective manager
Self-knowledge and appraisal: skills audit eg management skills, leadership skills,
practical/technical skills, personal skills (eg interpersonal/motivational/communication
skills), organising and planning skills, cognitive and creative skills; qualifications
(current/planned), strengths and weaknesses analysis; personal learning logs; personal
development plans
Own potential: aims, objectives, targets, learning programme/activities, action plan, time
management, work scheduling, SMART objectives, action planning, delegation, decision-
making, problem solving, management/leadership styles, value awareness, conflict
management, giving and receiving feedback, influencing skills, self-confidence, positive
thinking, communication, presentation, team building and membership, mentoring,
counselling, coaching, facilitation, learning cycle, learning styles, action learning sets,
management learning contracts, learning log, review dates, achievement dates

3 Roles and responsibilities


Roles: leading and motivating staff, communicating, team building, processes and stages in
team development, group dynamics, effective/ineffective teams, goals/objectives
Responsibilities: product and service knowledge and development, customer care, decision-
making eg strategic, planning; managerial/operational control, problem solving; authority,
delegation and empowerment, effective working relationships with subordinates, peers,
managers and other stakeholders
Context: eg hospitality, travel, tourism, sports, leisure, recreational industries

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4 Career development
Career: relevant managerial skills eg communication, thinking, learning; personal skills eg
attitude, behaviour, responsibility, adaptability; aspirations, openings/opportunities
Development plan: career development, personal development, current performance, future
needs

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Investigate principles and • differentiate between management styles
practices of management
• examine leadership characteristics
behaviour
• evaluate communication processes
• investigate organisational culture and change
2 Analyse own potential as a • undertake a skills audit to identify, review and
prospective manager assess own performance against management skills
• carry out an analysis of personal strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats
• set, prioritise and agree with supervisor objectives
and targets to develop own potential
3 Demonstrate the roles and • lead and motivate a team to achieve an agreed goal
responsibilities of the or objective in the context of a service industry
manager in the context of a
• demonstrate appropriate product and/or service
service industry
knowledge and customer care
• explain and rationalise decisions made to support
achievement of agreed goal or objective
4 Explore opportunities for • explain how own managerial and personal skills will
career development. support career development in a service industry
• devise a development plan to reflect career and
personal development aspirations, current
performance and future needs.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit can be delivered in a wide variety of contexts, including hospitality, travel, tourism,
sports, leisure and recreational industries. Tutors should be aware of the context in which they
are delivering the unit and ensure that examples and support materials (eg case studies and
product information) are relevant.
The unit should be delivered in a manner that promotes critical self-appraisal and self-
development. Learners should be encouraged to contribute their own experiences, thereby
relating theory to practice. There should be an emphasis on learner-centred experiential
learning and small-group work.
Case studies will support delivery of the principles and practices of management. It is important
for learners to understand the theories involved, for example, systems approaches that introduce
the development of socio-technical systems, interacting with the external environment, or
contingency approaches that explore the effects of political, economic, social, technological
factors, or hard and soft techniques.
Learners will benefit from an understanding of different types of organisational structures, such
as functional, product, location, line and matrix, and spans and levels of control.

Assessment

This unit’s focus on the development of managerial skills should be clear in assessment
evidence. Management theory can be assessed through a short report, demonstrating report
writing skills which may be necessary in the learner’s future career. Further evidence should
reflect the personable nature of the manager, maximising opportunities for presentations with
audiences that include representatives from industry. Tutors should also seek opportunities for
professional discussions as a form of evidence. These should be witnessed and accounted for by
the tutor.

Links

This unit addresses a wide range of issues relating to management and can be linked with any
other units within the qualification. Tutors should seek to integrate this unit with others to
underpin the relevance of the issues being studied.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A1: Manage your own resources
• A2: Manage your own resources and professional development
• A3: Develop your personal networks
• B5: Provide leadership for your team
• B6: Provide leadership in your area of responsibility
• B7: Provide leadership for your organisation
• C1: Encourage innovation in your team
• C4: Lead change

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• D1: Develop productive working relationships with colleagues
• D2: Develop productive working relationships with colleagues and stakeholders
• F5: Resolve customer service problems
• F6: Monitor and solve customer service problems.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP17: Self Development and Personal Skills
• OP18: Management Studies
• OP20: Managing Change
• OP22: Managing Quality
• OP26: Managing Hotel Operations
• OP37: The Hospitality Industry
• OP47: Organisational Behaviour.

Resources

A range of appropriate case study materials will help support the range of theories covered in
this unit. Texts and journals will further add to this resource bank.
It is important for learners to relate theory to observable practice in an appropriate service
industry sector. Learners should be encouraged to ‘adopt’ an appropriate service organisation
and use that organisation as a context within which to assess current practice, apply theory and
observe in a reflective way. These individual experiences can then be fed back into the group.

Support materials

Books
Boddy D — Management: An Introduction, Second Edition (FT Prentice Hall, 2002)
ISBN 0273655183
Brooks I — Organisational Behaviour: Individuals, Groups and Organisation (FT Prentice
Hall, 2002) ISBN 0273657984
Dawson S — Analysing Organisations, Third Edition (Palgrave Macmillan, 1996)
ISBN 0333660951
Dresler G — Management: Principles and Practices for Tomorrow’s Leaders (Prentice Hall,
2003) ISBN 0131044427
Hattersley M E and McJanet L — Management Communication: Principles and Practice.
(Irwin, 2004) ISBN 0072883561
Holt D H — Management: Principles and Practices (Prentice Hall, 1989) ISBN 0135558220
Maund L — An Introduction to Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice (Palgrave
Macmillan, 2001) ISBN 0333912438
Mullins L J — Management and Organisational Behaviour (FT Prentice Hall, 2004)
ISBN 0273688766
Pettinger R — Introduction to Management, Third Edition (Palgrave Macmillan, 2002)
ISBN 0333968077

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Stredwick J — An Introduction to Human Resource Management (Heinemann Educational,
2000) ISBN 0750645806
Tamkin P, Barber L and Hirsch W — Personal Development Plans: Case Studies of Practice
(Institute for Employment Studies, 1995) ISBN 1851842063
Wood J and Wallace J — Organisational Behaviour: A Global Perspective (John Wiley &
Sons, 2003) ISBN 0470802626
Young T — The Handbook of Project Management: A Practical Guide to Effective Policies
and Procedures (Kogan Page, 2003) ISBN 0749439653
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Cornell Quarterly
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Green Hotelier (www.greenhotelier.com)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research (International Council on Hotel and Restaurant
Education (CHRIE))
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Video/DVD
Broadcasts of commercial programmes relating to the hospitality industry
BBC Learning Zone — hospitality programmes
Websites
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and
tutors
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.ih-ra.com International Hotel and Restaurant Association
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 3: Customer Service
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to introduce learners to the principles and objectives of customer service
with a focus on business and services operations, such as sports and leisure and hospitality and
catering. The unit will develop an understanding of the nature of a customer service culture and
quality service in the business and services management environment. It will provide an
appreciation of the importance of information gathered from customers and its relevance to
improved delivery of services.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Analyse a customer service policy within a business and services context
2 Explain the purpose of promoting a customer-focused culture
3 Investigate customer requirements and satisfaction levels
4 Provide customer care and service for business and services operations.

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Content

1 Customer service policy


Policies: structure, use, focus, customer requirements/expectations, product and service
knowledge, consultation, confidentiality, customer perceptions and satisfaction, monitor
customer service and satisfaction, influences affecting implementation, effective
communication
Quality of service: methods of assessment, customer expectations, standardised procedures,
codes of practice, staffing levels, staff competency, flexibility, reliability and
responsiveness
Evaluation: purpose, sources of feedback, accuracy, relevance, reliability, validity, methods
of data collection, improvements, staff training and development
Context: eg sports and leisure, hospitality and catering, hairdressing and beauty therapy,
travel and tourism

2 Customer-focused culture
Communication: types eg verbal, non-verbal body language, written, types of response, use,
effect
Customer: central role, customer service culture, identifying and analysing customer
requirements and expectations, influences of service provision on customer perceptions

3 Customer requirements and satisfaction levels


Requirements: sources of information eg customers, staff, management, customer records,
past information
Primary research: sampling, qualitative, quantitative, interview — individual, group,
survey, observation, contact methods — mail, telephone, personal
Secondary research: internal eg sales records, yield data, financial information, client
databases, external eg government publications, trade journals, periodicals, professional
associations, national organisations, commercial data
Satisfaction levels: planning, strategy, assessment of options using researched information,
role of the business and services manager, staffing levels, motivating staff, improvements

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4 Customer care and service
Types of customers: different age groups eg the elderly, children, different cultural
backgrounds, special needs eg physically disabled, satisfied, dissatisfied, under influence
eg drugs, alcohol, medication
Needs: products and services, urgent/non-urgent, special requirements, state of customer —
physical, mental quality of service, value for money, cultural and social influences, trends
eg fashion, ergonomic, equipment, training, products and services, consumer protection
legislation
Care: consultation, advice, personal selling, complaints procedure, reception skills,
confidentiality
Benefits of improved service: customer satisfaction, repeat business, improved reputation,
increased profit

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Analyse a customer service • identify the reasons for using customer service
policy within a business and policies
services context
• summarise methods of assessing the quality of
customer service provision in a business and
services context
• explain the purpose of evaluating the performance
of a customer service policy and how this can assist
future staff training and development events
2 Explain the purpose of • describe different communication types and how
promoting a customer- these are used to best effect
focused culture
• explain the central role of the customer in a business
and services environment
3 Investigate customer • assess a range of sources which provide information
requirements and concerning customer requirements and satisfaction
satisfaction levels levels
• undertake research to investigate customer
requirements and satisfaction levels
• explain how research can be applied to a business
and services environment to improve customer
satisfaction levels
4 Provide customer care and • describe the differing and specific needs of a range
service for business and of business and services customers
services operations.
• provide customer care and service in a business and
services environment
• explain the benefits of improved customer service to
a given business and services operation.

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Guidance

Delivery

Customer service is increasingly becoming the lynchpin of successful business operations.


Effective management of customer service is key to successful business operations. For learners
to gain the most benefit from this unit, tutors should ensure that it is delivered in the context of
study appropriate to the learners’ needs, for example sports and leisure, hospitality and
catering, hairdressing and beauty therapy, travel and tourism. Support materials should reflect
the focus of the context in which the unit is being delivered.
Although this unit can be delivered as a stand-alone unit, it will benefit from an integrated
approach, with links to the units listed below. This unit develops previous study of customer
service by considering management issues and decision-making (operational and strategic)
within a business and services management context. It is important for tutors and learners to
recognise the management element of the unit, such as the development of customer service
policies and the customer focused culture. The unit is not intended to focus on the delivery of
customer service.
Useful materials to support the development of the unit would include examples of customer
service policy from commercial organisations within the relevant industry. Learners should be
exposed to external methods of assessing the quality of service, such as International Standards
Organisation (ISO), Investors in People (IiP), Total Quality Management (TQM), as well as
internal methods including standard operating procedures and other industry-devised methods.
Learners should examine a range of sources of feedback, such as customers, colleagues, staff,
management and how these impact on the formulation of customer service policy.
A practical, business and services-related approach is essential. It is important for tutors to
develop appropriate links with commercial organisations willing to support the delivery of the
unit. Visiting speakers, visits to commercial outlets and real case studies will add vocational
relevance and currency to the delivery and will provide learners with a greater appreciation of a
customer focused culture.
A period of work experience in a business and services environment prior to the delivery and
assessment of this unit will greatly help learners with no prior experience of the industry to
which the delivery of this unit relates.

Assessment

Evidence of outcomes may be in the form of assignments, presentations, case studies or


projects set during periods of work experience in a sport, leisure or recreational management
environment.
Work experience may provide an ideal opportunity to investigate the development of customer
service policies in specific organisations. Organisations that have achieved external quality
standards such as ISO 9000, Investors in People and Total Quality Management will provide
ideal case study examples for the development of evidence, particularly in the investigation of
the process leading to specified customer service criteria.
As a result, much of the evidence may be accumulated by learners building a portfolio through
work experience. All evidence must be relevant and sufficient to justify the grade awarded.

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Links

This unit can be linked with the following units in this qualification:
• Unit 2: The Developing Manager
• Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations
• Unit 5: Rooms Division Operations
• Unit 11: Conference and Banqueting Management
• Unit 12: Contract and Event Management
• Unit 15: Marketing
• Unit 22: Small Business Enterprise.
This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:
• F5: Resolve customer service problems
• F6: Monitor and solve customer service problems
• F7: Support customer service improvements
• F8: Work with others to improve customer service
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers
• F10: Develop a customer focused organisation
• F11: Manage the achievement of customer satisfaction.
This unit also links with the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP1: Managing Customer Service in Hospitality.

Resources

The use of real examples will focus the relevance of the unit and show how different
organisations, both local and national, have developed their customer care policies. Holders of
external quality standards provide an ideal focus.
Case studies will usefully support this approach. Work experience will provide an invaluable
source of information for the unit.

Support materials

Books
Crouch G et al — Consumer Psychology of Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure — Volume 3
(Cabi Publishing, 2004) ISBN 085199749X
Cole G — Management Theory and Practice (Thomson Learning, 2003) ISBN 1844800881
Chattell A — Managing for the Future (Saint Martin’s Press, 1995) ISBN 0312124317
Dawson S — Analysing Organisations (Palgrave Macmillan, 1996) ISBN 0333660951
Goodman G S — Monitoring, Measuring and Managing Customer Service (Jossey Bass Wiley,
2000) ISBN 0787951390
Hayes J and Dredge F — Managing Customer Service (Gower Publishing, 1998)
ISBN 0566080052

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Kandampully J, Mok C and Sparks B A — Service Quality Management in Hospitality,
Tourism and Management (Haworth Press, 2000) ISBN 0789011417
Olsen M (editor) et al — Service Quality in Hospitality Organizations (Thomson Learning,
1995) ISBN 0304327867
Martin W B — Managing Quality Customer Service (Kogan Page, 1991) ISBN 0749403527
Williams A — Understanding the Hospitality Customer (Butterworth Heinemann, 2002)
ISBN 0750652497
Further reading
In addition to publications with a hospitality focus (listed in other units), there is a wide range
of magazines and journals available to support the management of customer service across a
broad range of sectors. Tutors should use an appropriate selection to support the context of the
unit and the approach they take to delivery.
Company data, publications and promotional literature
There is a wide range of printed material available from organisations at little or no cost.
Learners will find such materials useful in explaining customer service management in different
organisations.
Video/DVD
The BBC’s Learning Zone frequently features programmes on customer service. Information
and programme timings can be found on www.bbc.co.uk/education/lzone
Institute of Customer Service
The Institute of Customer Service offers a range of publications including quarterly editions of
Customer First and Customer Service newsletters, together with detailed material based on
their research programme.
There are also books on customer service issues, regional newsletters and publications
associated with the National Occupational Standards in Customer Service at N/SVQ Levels 2, 3
and 4. These publications are available from:
The Institute of Customer Service
2 Castle Court
St Peter’s Street
Colchester CO1 1EW
Telephone: 01206 571 716
Fax: 01206 546 688
Email: enquiries@icsmail.co.uk
Website: www.instituteofcustomerservice.com
Websites
www.dfes.gov.uk Department for Education and Skills
www.informationcommissioner.gov.uk Information Commissioner’s Office
www.instituteofcustomerservice.com Institute of Customer Service
Many organisations also provide a specific section on customer service on their website.
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit.
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit
This unit introduces the learner to the practical aspects of food and beverage production and
service. Due to the nature of the job, hospitality managers need to have the basic practical skills
to enable them to operate effectively within a kitchen and restaurant operation. The focus of
this unit is the development and application of practical activities within a food preparation and
service environment.
Learners will review and evaluate different food and beverage production and service systems,
together with aspects of menu design, financial and staffing implications for different outlets.
They will investigate the importance of financial controls, including costs and selling prices
and aspects of the purchasing programme.
Learners will also develop their understanding of the processes involved in planning and
developing recipes, the methods that can be used, and a range of factors that affect menu
compilation. The learning for the whole unit is drawn together through the planning,
implementation and evaluation of a hospitality event.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Review and evaluate various food and beverage systems
2 Investigate the importance of financial controls within food and beverage operations
3 Plan and develop recipes and menus
4 Plan, implement and evaluate a hospitality event.

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Content

1 Food and beverage systems


Production systems: eg traditional, centralised, sous vide, cook-chill, cook-freeze
Service systems: eg table service, counter service, à la carte, table d’hôte, silver service,
family service, plate service, guéridon service, specialist food service systems
Menu design: type of food and beverage operation, customer perceptions, choice of
products, flavour and appearance of dishes, nutritional value
Financial implications: equipment costs, wages, product costs
Staffing implications: skills and de-skilling, job specifications, staff training, levels of
output
Food and beverage outlets: eg hotels, restaurants, banqueting, in-flight, outside catering,
industrial, institutional (public and private)

2 Financial controls
Financial statements: dish costing sheets, cost statements, operating statements, variance
analysis
Cost and selling price: dishes, menus, wine lists, net and gross profit, fixed, variable,
direct, indirect cost, cost elements, VAT
Purchasing process: requisition of equipment and supplies, purchase specifications, receipt,
invoicing, storage of equipment and supplies

3 Recipes and menus


Menu and recipe development: cookery styles, types of menus, balanced menus, dietary
needs, ethnic and social influences, nutritional considerations
Methods: using fresh foods, using prepared foods, using a combination of prepared and
fresh foods, cook-chill, cook-freeze, cook to order, batch cooking
Factors affecting menu compilation: taste, colour, texture, temperature, appearance, foods
which complement each other, food and drink which complement each other
Alcoholic beverages: sources, selection, availability, storage, legislation

4 Hospitality event
Customer requirements: type of menu, style of service, timescale, type of customer
Cost control: labour materials, overhead costs, achieving target profits, budget restrictions
Quality standards: setting and maintaining standards, food and beverage preparation,
cooking and presentation, food and beverage service skills
Health, safety and security of the working environment: procedures, setting and maintaining
hygiene practices
Evaluation: planning, management objectives, customer satisfaction, cost effectiveness

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Review and evaluate • identify and review different types of food production
various food and beverage and service systems
systems
• investigate the factors affecting menu design
• evaluate the financial and staffing implications of a
range of food and beverage systems
• analyse food and beverage systems within a range of
food and beverage outlets
2 Investigate the importance • explain and use financial statements used in food and
of financial controls beverage operations
within food and beverage
• calculate the cost and selling price of food and
operations
beverage items to reflect a suitable sales mix and
differential profit margins
• describe the purchasing process for the receipt, storage
and issue of equipment, materials and
commodities/products
3 Plan and develop recipes • explain the factors which affect menu and recipe
and menus development
• describe various methods of food preparation
• evaluate the factors affecting menu compilation
• analyse the factors affecting the compilation of a wine
list and the purchasing of alcoholic beverages
• plan and develop a menu and wine list for a hospitality
event
4 Plan, implement and • plan and implement a hospitality event, ensuring that
evaluate a hospitality customer requirements and satisfaction, cost control
event. and financial targets are met
• implement quality standards, maintaining and
monitoring the health, safety and security of the
working environment
• evaluate the success of the event and identify issues to
be addressed for future events.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit focuses initially on the examination of a range of food and beverage systems.
Discussion groups, followed by feedback, are a useful way of introducing a range of topics and
assessing the level of knowledge learners already have of this aspect of the hospitality industry.
This also presents an excellent opportunity for learners to undertake some research, either on
the internet or through visits to local food and beverage outlets, co-ordinated by the tutor to
ensure an appropriate range of systems is covered. Learners can present their findings to the
rest of the group to share the knowledge they have gathered.
This investigation should be supported by tutor input to cover areas that learners are unlikely to
encounter, such as outside or travel catering. The tutor can also develop other food and
beverage systems here if necessary.
Tutors then need to address issues relating to menu design, together with financial and staffing
implications. Where possible, this should be drawn out of the findings of learners’
investigations, but a range of case studies can underpin content to highlight specific aspects.
This approach can also be adopted to address financial controls. Local businesses may be
willing to share real financial statements, subject to appropriate confidentiality agreements, but
where this is not possible, realistic data should be developed through case studies. Such
statements can be provided to discussion groups, in which learners can assess and make
potential decisions on selling prices. Learners should also be exposed to a variety of purchasing
processes and consider the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Decision making about recipe development will ultimately lead to the structure of the event for
which learners will be responsible. However, tutors should ensure that delivery and discussion
is focused on the wider hospitality industry and addresses the longer-term implications of
recipe development for commercial organisations. This area of content can be supported by a
range of visiting speakers, including chefs and development specialists. Tutors could also
capitalise on alternative areas of food and beverage provision and menu development for the
travel sector, for example in-flight catering, rail catering or cross-channel ferry catering.
The learning in this unit is drawn together through the planning and implementation of a special
event. Learners should take into consideration customer requirements for the occasion and put
into practice an appropriate food and beverage system, financial controls and menu planning
developed during the unit. Again, although the focus of this learning outcome is the planning
and implementation of a hospitality event, tutors should ensure learners also focus on wider
issues that may affect their future in the hospitality industry.

Assessment

Evidence of outcomes should be mainly in the form of continuous assessment related to the
learner’s practical and managerial skills within operational food production and food and
beverage service outlets. Such continuous assessment should be supported by assignments, case
studies and examinations as appropriate.
One major assignment should be completed where the learner demonstrates a range of food and
beverage applications including planning, implementing and evaluating a hospitality event.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors and presentation
software.

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Links

This unit has significant links with the units in the Culinary Arts endorsed title. It can also be
linked effectively with:
• Unit 5: Rooms Division Operations
• Unit 6: Management Accounting for Hospitality
• Unit 11: Conference and Banqueting Management
• Unit 12: Contract and Event Management.
It also provides a basis for Unit 9: Hospitality Operations Management.
This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A1: Manage your own resources
• A2: Manage your own resources and professional development
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety
• F1: Manage projects
• F5: Resolve customer service problems
• F6: Monitor and solve customer service problems
• F11: Manage the achievement of customer satisfaction
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP04: Food and Beverage Skills and Knowledge
• OP07: Managing Food Production Operations
• OP08: Managing Food and Beverage Service.

Resources

Centres should have access to a variety of food and beverage production and service systems,
which should be available through contacts with local industry. This should include an
industrial food and beverage production and service area. It would also be useful if a number of
operations areas utilised appropriate food and beverage computer systems.
Access to a suitable outlet for the hospitality event is essential. This can be a realistic working
environment within the centre or a suitable commercial outlet that learners can use to
implement their plans. Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts and journals
associated with food and beverage systems as well as access to the internet, and the use of
relevant software applications.

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Support materials

Books
Cousins J, Foskett D and Gillespie C — Food and Beverage Management (Longman, 2002)
ISBN 0582452716
Davis B, Stone S and Lockwood A — Food and Beverage Management, Third Edition
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998) ISBN 0750632860
Kinton R, Ceserani V and Foskett D — The Theory of Catering (Hodder Arnold, 1999)
ISBN 0340738103
Kotas R and Jayawardena C — Profitable Food and Beverage Management (Hodder Arnold,
1994) ISBN 0340595124
Lillicrap D — Food and Beverage Service (Hodder Arnold, 2002) ISBN 0340847034
Waller K — Customer-Centred Performance Improvement for Food and Beverage Operations
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996) ISBN 075062812X
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Cornell Quarterly
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Green Hotelier (www.greenhotelier.com)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research (International Council on Hotel and Restaurant
Education (CHRIE))
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Websites
www.bacd.org.uk British Association of Conference Destinations
BACD) — provides event organisers with an
impartial venue finding service throughout the
British Isles
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.cateringnet.co.uk Catering Net
www.dudmc.com Destinations Unlimited — representation
company which promotes selected destination
management companies

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www.evolutionevent.com Evolution Event Management — supports
clients across the full live events spectrum,
including exhibitions, conferences, corporate
events, team-building, hospitality programmes
www.firstconf.com First Conferences — London-based conference
organisation working throughout the world
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.hospitalitynet.org Hospitality Net
www.mattina.co.uk Mattina — a professional events management
service
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
www.takeoneproductions.co.uk provides hospitality services, from managed
events to bespoke activity days, for company
entertainment and event management
www.wset.co.uk Wines and Spirit Education Trust
www.venuefind.co.uk C&B Exclusive — provides conference and
banqueting planning services
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 5: Rooms Division Operations
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit
The aim is to investigate the role of the front office within the management of a hospitality
operation. This unit examines the operational elements that comprise the front office and how
these are deployed by management to maximise both occupancy and rooms revenue. The unit
provides the learner with an appreciation of the role of the front office as the ‘nerve centre’ of
customer activity with network communication links with other departments.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Evaluate the services provided by the rooms division
2 Investigate the factors that contribute to effective management and business performance in
the front of house area
3 Investigate the factors that contribute to effective management and business performance in
the accommodation service function
4 Apply techniques to maximise and measure occupancy and rooms revenue.

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Content

1 Services
Accommodation services: roles and responsibilities: housekeeping, maintenance; working
procedures, control mechanisms, decoration and furnishings, refurbishment,
accommodation environment and occupancy, guest services and supplies, linen services and
laundry, cleaning services, ecology and environmental issues, health, safety and security,
documentation and records
Reception services: roles and responsibilities: reception, advanced reservations, concierge,
portering, administration; working procedures, control mechanisms, interior design, first
impressions, guest records, the guest cycle, occupancy rates and monitoring, selling and
promotion, tariffs and discounting, billing, POS, payment procedures, cash control and
reconciliation, security
Legal and statutory requirements: health and safety, hazardous substances, protective
clothing, consumer law, price tariff and display, data protection, immigration (hotel
records), diplomatic privileges

2 Front of house area


Planning and managing: business/departmental plans, operations, procedures, POS
management, security, night audit, use of technology, operational constraints, evaluating,
controlling and updating front of house services, health and safety, consumer and data
protection, pricing
Front of house area: visual impact, first impressions, design and layout, zoning, ambience,
colour, flowers/plants, heating, lighting, airflow, cleaning and maintenance, security
Services: eg rooms related, concierge, porter, information, sales, administration
Operational issues: financial, marketing, sales, human resources, quality, customer

3 Accommodation service function


Planning and managing: business/departmental plans, operations, procedures
Property interiors and design: use, function, visual impact, ambience, ratings, cost,
durability, access to and mobility within interior, suitability of fabrics/furnishings/fittings,
efficient use of space, heating, lighting, airflow, effect of colour, design, smell, flowers,
plants
Services: eg rooms (bedrooms, functions, meeting, staff, public), linen and laundry,
cleaning, leisure areas, maintenance and self catering equipment, environmental services,
waste management, use of technology, operational constraints, health and safety, consumer
and building regulations, evaluating, controlling and updating rooms services
Operational issues: financial, marketing, human resources, quality, customer

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4 Techniques
Yield management: using differential rates and tariff structures to maximise occupancy, the
use of booking horizons and booking forecasts to maximise yield, advantages and
limitations of yield management systems
Sales techniques: tariff structures, market-based pricing, negotiated rates (delegate,
seasonal corporate packages), the use of overbooking (policy on no-shows, cancellations),
sales leads, referrals, selling other services, upselling, correspondence research, repeat
business, customer loyalty schemes, sources of bookings, central reservations, agents,
airlines, referrals
Forecasting and statistical data: comparisons of actual performance against projected
performance, formulation of the marketing and pricing policy, compilation of operational
and financial reports, front office performance indicators (room occupancy %, sleeper
occupancy %, double/twin occupancy %, average room rate, average sleeper rate)

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Evaluate the services • describe a range of accommodation and reception
provided by the rooms services for different organisations
division
• explain the roles and responsibilities of a range of
accommodation and reception services staff
• identify the legal and statutory requirements that apply
to rooms division operations
2 Investigate the factors that • explain the importance of the front of house area to
contribute to effective effective management
management and business
• summarise the critical aspects of planning and
performance in the front of
management of the front of house area for a given
house area
hospitality operation
• explain the key operational issues affecting the
effective management and business performance of the
front office area for a given operation
3 Investigate the factors that • explain the importance of property interiors and design
contribute to effective to effective management
management and business
• summarise the critical aspects of planning and
performance in the
management of the accommodation service function for
accommodation service
a given hospitality operation
function
• explain the key operational issues affecting the
effective management and business performance of the
accommodation service function for a given operation
4 Apply techniques to • explain how yield management techniques assist in
maximise and measure maximising occupancy and rooms revenue
occupancy and rooms
• describe the range of sales techniques which rooms
revenue.
division staff can use to promote and maximise revenue
• explain the purpose of forecasting and statistical data
within the rooms division
• calculate rooms division performance indicators to
measure the success of accommodation sales.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit is probably best delivered as a stand-alone package. Due to the specific content,
requiring an in-depth knowledge and appreciation of rooms division operations, it will be more
difficult to integrate this unit with others. However, tutors should highlight links with other
units where they occur.
Wherever possible a practical approach should be adopted using hands-on exercises, research-
driven assignments or case studies. Learners will benefit from exposure to a rooms division
operation, ideally during a period of work experience or by visiting a large hospitality rooms
division operation. This unit will also benefit from visits by an external speaker such as a front
office manager or hotel general manager.
It is important to avoid confusion with terminology. Learners need to understand the broad
application of the term ‘rooms division’ and how this may vary in different establishments.
They will need to investigate the range of services provided by the rooms division of hospitality
operations, in order to establish a sound platform for their further work. This can best be
achieved by visits to local organisations. Learners can be divided into groups and allocated to
their particular establishment. It would be useful for them to deliver a presentation of their
evidence so far before investigating the areas covered by the second and third learning
outcomes.
The next stage of learners’ work is to analyse the factors that contribute to the effective
management and business performance for both the front of house area and the accommodation
services function. At this stage, learners can continue to investigate the organisation they
originally visited, in order to present a comprehensive package based on one organisation.
However, the tutor or the group may choose to alter the approach. Alternatives include
exchanging organisations with another group, or arranging for some groups to focus on the
front of house area for a group of organisations and for other groups to investigate the
accommodation services function. Groups can then present information to the rest of the main
group, to ensure coverage of content. However, this may be more difficult to evidence. Further
possibilities would enable investigating groups to share information with the group that carried
out the original visit and for that group to present all the information for their original
organisation.
For the final learning outcome, tutors will need to explain the theory of different techniques,
supported by examples. Case study materials and plentiful in-tray exercises will support the
development of learners’ skills and knowledge in this area. Real data may be provided by
organisations supporting the delivery of this unit, subject to agreements on confidentiality.

Assessment

Evidence of outcomes may be in the form of tutor-led tests, assignments, case studies and
projects set during periods of work experience in the hospitality industry. Learning and
assessment can be across units, at unit level or at outcome level, but must be comprehensive
and cover all learning outcomes for all learners.
It is necessary for the learner to understand the nature of the services provided by the rooms
division, but the central focus of this unit is the aspects of planning and managing the division
and the different areas of knowledge, skills and understanding that contribute to effective
management and business effectiveness.

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As a result much of the evidence may be accumulated by learners building a portfolio through
work experience. All evidence must be relevant and sufficient to justify the grade awarded.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit can be linked successfully with Unit 7: Industry Experience as a period of work
experience in a rooms division environment prior to the delivery and assessment of this unit
will greatly help learners with no front office or accommodation operational experience.
This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B3: Develop a strategic business plan for your organisation
• B10: Manage risk
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP03: Accommodation and Reception Skills and Knowledge
• OP09: Managing Rooms and Accommodation Services
• OP10: Front of House Management
• OP38: Statutory Regulations and Legal Requirements.

Resources

Appropriate front office reservation/customer billing software packages should be used to


enable learners to appreciate the impact of technology on the front office. Learners should also
be encouraged to compare and evaluate different software packages in terms of benefits to the
guest, front office staff, and the organisation. Further resources supporting the accommodation
operations aspect of this unit will be necessary. Case study materials will help to highlight
specific issues.
Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts and journals associated with rooms
division operations as well as access to the internet, and the use of relevant software
applications.

Support materials

Books
Abbott P and Lewry S — Front Office: Procedures, Social Skills and Management
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999) ISBN 0750642300
Allen D — Accommodation and Cleaning Services: Operations — Volume 1 (Nelson Thornes,
1990) ISBN 0748702903
Allen D — Accommodation and Cleaning Services: Management — Volume 2 (Nelson
Thornes, 1990) ISBN 0748703314
Baker S, Topping S and Cullen S — Rooms Division Operations (Hodder Arnold, 1995)
ISBN 0340567708

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Baker S and Huyton J — Principles of Hotel Front Office Operations (Thomson Learning,
2000) ISBN 0826447090
Bardi J A — Hotel Front Office Management (John Wiley & Sons, 2002) ISBN 047101396X
Braham B — Hotel Front Office (Nelson Thornes, 2004) ISBN 0748716327
Branson J C and Lennox M — Hotel, Hostel and Hospital Housekeeping (Hodder Arnold,
1990) ISBN 0340525185
Dix C and Baird C — Front Office Operations (Longman, 1998) ISBN 0582319315
Fellows J — Housekeeping Supervision (Longman, 1986) ISBN 027302552X
Jones C and Paul V — Accommodation Management (BT Batsford, 1985) ISBN 0713448075
Webster K — Environmental Management in the Hospitality Industry (Thomson Learning,
1999) ISBN 0304332348
Wood R and Verginis C S — Accommodation Management: Perspectives for the International
Hotel Industry (Thomson Learning, 1999) ISBN 1861524897
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Cornell Quarterly
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Green Hotelier (www.greenhotelier.com)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research (International Council on Hotel and Restaurant
Education (CHRIE))
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Company data and publications
Association of Domestic Management
C4 Kingfisher House
Kingsway TVTE
Gateshead NE11 0JQ
Telephone: 01661 842 708
Website: www.adom.demon.co.uk
British Cleaning Council
PO Box 1328
Kidderminster DY11 5QH
Telephone: 01562 851 129
Fax: 01562 850 109
Website: www.britishcleaningcouncil.org

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Websites
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.informationcommissioner.gov.uk Information Commissioner’s Office
www.instituteofcustomerservice.com Institute of Customer Service
www.johnsondiversey.com JohnsonDiversey — cleaning and hygiene
specialists
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 6: Management Accounting for
Hospitality
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit

This unit will allow the learner to develop a practical understanding of the accounting
techniques used to control costs and profits and to support the manager in making effective
short-term decisions. Learners will have the opportunity to investigate control systems, income
generation and methods of measuring and analysing performance.

Summary of learning outcomes

To achieve this unit a learner must:


1 Describe sources of funding and income generation for business and services industries
2 Describe business in terms of the elements of cost
3 Evaluate a set of business accounts
4 Analyse business performance by the application of ratios
5 Apply the concept of marginal costing.

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Content

1 Funding and income generation


Funding: sources eg retained profits, loans, banks, investors, small business schemes,
franchise, hire purchase, sponsorship, lease schemes, creditors, debt factoring
Income generation: methods eg sales, commission, sub-letting, sponsorship, grants,
tracking mechanisms

2 Elements of cost
Elements of cost: sales, materials, consumables, labour, overheads, capital, gross and net
profits, discount costing
Selling prices: product and service costing, formula to achieve a specific gross profit
percentage, differential gross/net profit margins, marginal costing, effect of competition,
freelance, commission, peak/off-peak trading
Control of stock and cash: methods eg storage, purchasing, cash, security, reconciliation,
stock-taking
Taxation: income tax, VAT, corporation tax, schedules, rates, personal/capital allowances,
post-tax profits, implications

3 Business accounts
Trial balance: source, structure eg summary of accounts from sales, purchase and nominal
ledgers
Final accounts: types eg sole trader, partnerships, limited company, trading account, profit
and loss account, balance sheet, adjustments for depreciation, accruals, prepayments, bad
debt provision, format eg vertical, double-entry, appropriation account, assets/liabilities
eg capital, fixed, current, notes to accounts
Profit and cash budgets: purpose, types eg profit, cash flow, operating, master, variance
analysis eg sales (volume and average spend), cost variances (raw material, labour,
overhead), profit variances (gross and net)

4 Business performance
Sales profitability ratios: gross and net profit, Return On Capital Employed (ROCE)
Liquidity ratios: current, acid test
Efficiency ratios: debtors and creditors payment periods, stock turnover
Financial ratios: interest earned, gearing

5 Marginal costing
Costs categorisation and contribution: fixed and variable costs, contribution calculation
eg product/customers, cost/profit/volume relationship
Application: break-even, profit/loss potentials, setting selling price and discounting

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Describe sources of • describe sources of funding available to business and
funding and income services industries
generation for business
• evaluate the contribution made by a range of methods
and services industries
of generating income within a given business and
services operation
2 Describe business in terms • describe elements of cost, gross profit percentages and
of the elements of cost selling prices for products and services
• explain methods of controlling stock and cash in a
business and services environment
3 Evaluate a set of business • describe the source and structure of the trial balance
accounts
• evaluate a range of business accounts, adjustments and
notes
• explain the process and purpose of budgetary control
• calculate and analyse variances from budgeted and
actual figures, offering suggestions for appropriate
future management action
4 Analyse business • calculate and analyse all ratios to offer a consistent
performance by the interpretation of historical business performance
application of ratios
• recommend appropriate future management strategies
for a given business and services operation
5 Apply the concept of • classify costs as fixed, variable and semi-variable
marginal costing.
• calculate contribution per product/customer and define
the cost/profit/volume relationship for a given scenario
• make short-term management decisions based on
profit/loss potentials and risk (break-even) calculations
for a given business and services operation.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit should have a strong emphasis on the use of practical, working exercises and learners
should seek every opportunity to use appropriate financial software.
To ensure maximum realism and relevance, all examples and case study material should be in
the context of the hospitality industry. Learners should recognise that all activities in the
workplace have an effect on revenue, cost and profit.
For Outcome 2, learners should be able to control any two of the three aspects to calculate the
third. For example, an identified group of costs together with a pre-determined gross profit
percentage will generate a selling price. Similarly, a given selling price with an identified group
of costs will determine the gross profit percentage.

Assessment

Evidence of outcomes may be in the form of financial reports, in-class tests, completed class
exercises/activities. Evidence may be accumulated by learners building a portfolio of exercises
or activities. Case studies of financial data should be a key element. A comprehensive case
study would generate evidence for all learning outcomes.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit may be linked to other units, including:


• Unit 2: The Developing Manager
• Unit 8: Procurement
• Unit 15: Marketing
• Unit 20: External Business Environment
• Unit 22: Small Business Enterprise.
It should be made clear to the learner that all units have financial components.
This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A1: Manage your own resources
• B6: Provide leadership in your area of responsibility
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• B10: Manage risk
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E3: Obtain additional finance for the organisation
• F1: Manage projects

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• F3: Manage business processes
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP13: Budgeting and Accounting in Hospitality Operations.

Resources

Adequate access to computer and appropriate software, particularly spreadsheets, is essential.


Tutors should also develop suitable banks of case study materials and in-tray exercises for
demonstration and practice by learners.

Support materials

Books
Adams D — Management Accounting for the Hospitality Industry: A Strategic Approach
(Thomson Learning, 1997) ISBN 0304329088
Atkinson H, Berry A and Jarvis R — Business Accounting for Hospitality and Tourism
(Thomson Learning, 1995) ISBN 1861524706
Drury C — Management and Cost Accounting (Thomson Learning, 2004) ISBN 1844800288
Dyson J — Accounting for Non-Accounting Students (FT Prentice Hall, 1996)
ISBN 0273625756
Guilding C — Financial Management for Hospitality Decision Makers (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 2002) ISBN 075065659X
Harris P and Hazzard P — Accounting in the Hotel and Catering Industry (Nelson Thornes,
1994) ISBN 0748710574
Kotas R — Management Accounting for Hospitality and Tourism (Thomson Learning, 1999)
ISBN 1861524900
Messenger S J and Shaw H — Financial Management for Hospitality, Leisure and Tourism
(Palgrave Macmillan, 1993) ISBN 0333585283
Moncarz E S and Portocarrero N D J — Financial Accounting for Hospitality Management
(Van Nostrand Reinhold International, 1986) ISBN 0870555057
Mott G — Management Accounting for Decision Makers (FT Prentice Hall, 1991)
ISBN 0273033182
Further reading
A series of articles and press releases is published on the website of the British Association of
Hospitality Accountants (BAHA) at www.baha-uk.org. Other publications include:
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Cornell Quarterly
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Green Hotelier (www.greenhotelier.com)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)

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Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research (International Council on Hotel and Restaurant
Education (CHRIE))
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Websites
www.baha-uk.org British Association of Hospitality Accountants
(BAHA) — for professionals involved in financial
management and control within the hotel industry;
extends to cover systems specialists, hospitality
consultants and accountants, bankers, investment
analysts, property professionals, academics and
others who retain an interest in the hotel, catering
and leisure sectors
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and
tutors
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 7: Industry Experience
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit is designed to provide learners with an opportunity to develop first-hand experience
of industry with a relevant organisation. Learners focus on issues or problems relevant to them
and the host organisation. The experience enables learners to demonstrate the ability to
understand and analyse the relationships between different parts of the host organisation.
The unit focuses on an action plan with aims, objectives and targets that supports the
development of a management report, in agreement with their line manager and tutor. The
report should be supported by evidence collected by the learner and should demonstrate an in-
depth knowledge of working practices and a broad knowledge of how the host organisation
operates.
Learners review their progress and evaluate relevant sources of information and assistance
within the host organisation. The management report is reviewed against the agreed targets of
the action plan and submitted as a formal report.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Use methods to arrange industry experience that will support the development of a
management report in an appropriate services industry context
2 Prepare and agree aims, objectives and targets of the management report with the
appropriate manager within the selected organisation
3 Monitor and evaluate progress in achieving aims, objectives and targets, using relevant
sources of information
4 Present report to colleagues, justifying conclusions and associated recommendations.

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Content

1 Arrange industry experience


Methods: personal skills audit eg negotiation, action planning, CV, interview techniques;
research company background, shortlist potential organisations, letter, email, facsimile,
interview (formal/informal), personal recommendation
Management report: issues, problems eg team working, leadership, interpersonal skills,
operational/technical skills, customer care, communication, networking, action planning,
problem-solving, ICT/computer literacy, flexibility
Services industry context: eg hospitality, travel, tourism, sports, leisure, recreational
industries, public, private, voluntary (not-for-profit) sectors

2 Aims, objectives and targets


Aims, objectives and targets: personal/career development, work-related eg job
competencies, daily duties and routines, operational, practical, technical, people-related,
learning and development, quality, health and safety, equal opportunities, benefit to the
learner/organisation, review/achievement dates
Research project: negotiation, action planning, strategy development, objective setting,
creative, innovative, problem solving, methods of achieving aims, objectives and targets,
time scale, resources, intended outcomes

3 Monitor and evaluate progress


Monitor: gather and record information, collect evidence to support findings, review
information with appropriate personnel
Evaluate: measure using supportive evidence, aims, objectives, targets, activities
undertaken eg teamwork, decision making, learning, self-development, assertiveness,
meeting needs and requirements of the job role; benefits, difficulties, effectiveness, time
scale, reach and justify conclusions
Relevant sources: personnel eg supervisor, line manager, colleagues, members of the
public; reference materials, the internet, training manuals, computer help-screens, induction
handbook

4 Present report
Format: report, contents/index, bibliography, acknowledgements, referencing, visual
presentations of data including statistics, communicating effectively, developing and
presenting a reasoned case
Colleagues: managers, employees, peers, external stakeholders
Recommendations: eg changes, amendments, resources, roles, responsibilities
Justification: efficiency, effectiveness, costs, benefits, innovation, creativity

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Use methods to arrange • research and select a range of suitable organisations
industry experience that will that could provide industry experience in an
support the development of a appropriate context
management report in an
• explain how the industry experience would support
appropriate services industry
the development of an appropriate management
context
report
2 Prepare and agree aims, • set, prioritise and agree appropriate aims, objectives
objectives and targets of the and targets for the management report with the line
management report with the manager and tutor
appropriate manager within
• justify how the aims, objectives and targets will
the selected organisation
benefit the organisation and the learner
3 Monitor and evaluate • gather information to monitor and evaluate progress
progress in achieving aims, using a range of relevant sources of information and
objectives and targets, using assistance
relevant sources of
• evaluate progress against the original aims,
information
objectives and targets
4 Present report to colleagues, • determine conclusions that are consistent with the
justifying conclusions and original aims, objectives and targets
associated recommendations.
• identify sufficient data and information to support
the conclusions
• present a report in an appropriate format to
colleagues outlining the research undertaken and
analysing the outcomes.

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Guidance

Delivery

Tutors should be aware of the implications of the context in which they are delivering the unit
and ensure that examples and support materials (eg application forms, product information,
information about companies, their background and locations) are relevant.
This unit enables learners to develop an understanding of organisational structures and working
practices within an industry environment. Delivery should enable learners to undertake research
based on their own interests and draw from the main themes during the course. Identifying and
agreeing aims, objectives and work-related targets with their placement hosts forms the focus
for the management report and establishes the orientation of this unit.
Learners will need guidance on selecting an appropriate organisation and to actively negotiate
personal as well as work-based aims, objectives and targets with tutors and the placement host.
It is also important that the number of hours spent developing the report gives the learner
sufficient experience of their chosen occupational environment. It is often reassuring to the
learner that they know they can approach tutors for advice and support if necessary during the
development of their report.
Learners should have access to a wide range of sources, both during the planning stage and also
whilst developing the report. Background information outlining the range of suitable industry
organisations in the local area may be made available by the tutor or careers service.
Attention should be given to allow for adequate preparation before the industry experience is
implemented. Knowledge of company structures and daily routines and expectations are
essential. Preparation should cover all of the relevant assessment criteria and the aims,
objectives and targets should be identified and agreed as the focus of the management report.
The unit lends itself to the collection and presentation of information through the production of
interviews, observations, questionnaires and subsequent analyses using charts and graphs by
ICT.
The final presentation should be in report format. Learners will need guidance on the
preparation of formal reports. The report should draw conclusions based on the monitoring,
review and evaluation of the outcomes of the industry experience.

Assessment

The assessment for this unit is based on the selection by the learner of a range of possible
placement host companies. The companies should be vocationally relevant and also meet the
needs of the learner. It is important that the experience allows for the opportunity to examine
operational and work-based issues and problems. Company background, location and
information should be researched as part of the selection process, which may also involve a
pre-placement interview. Forward planning is essential to ensure that learners maximise their
opportunities and secure their own host for their industry experience.
The learner must set their own aims, objectives and targets forming the focus for a management
report that is undertaken by the learner as a result of the industry experience. These must be
agreed with the tutor and the placement hosts. The work should allow for an investigation of
current working practices with a subsequent analysis of the findings. Learners should also
ensure that they collect appropriate information in support of their report, which should make a
valid contribution to the organisation.

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The report should also discuss and draw conclusions based on the original aims, objectives and
targets. Feedback from supervisors and colleagues should be recorded and evaluated with any
modifications to approach or knowledge.
The learner should reflect on their experiences and assess their own personal effectiveness
during the industry experience. Supporting evidence or justification is required to substantiate
claims made or recommendations relating to future aims, objectives or targets.
Learners are best working individually with one organisation, although there may be several
learners working with a large organisation at any one time.

Links

This unit has links with a number of other units within this qualification. Tutors and learners
should take into consideration the core operation of the business supporting the industry
experience and ensure that links with other relevant units are reflected in their work.
This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A1: Manage your own resources
• A2: Manage your own resources and professional development
• A3: Develop your personal networks.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP12: Work Experience
• OP17: Self Development and Personal Skills
• OP18: Management Studies
• OP37: The Hospitality Industry.

Resources

Learners must have access to library and research facilities including the internet. They may
also find the careers library and/or careers service useful in researching and securing a host for
the industry experience. Each centre should seek to produce its own report-writing guidance
booklet, with reference to its own local resources.
Training videos may also be useful for this unit. Such resources can normally be purchased or
hired. Some of these can be expensive but often commercial suppliers offer an educational
discount.
Areas that may be relevant include:
• leadership skills
• self management
• dealing with conflict.
Details and a brochure are available from:
Video Arts Group
68 Oxford Street
London W1D 1LH
Telephone: 020 7637 7288
Email: enquiries@videoarts.co.uk
Website: www.videoarts.com

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Support materials

Books
Blundel R — Effective Business Communication (FT Prentice Hall, 1997) ISBN 0137427018
Clark M, Riley M, Wood R C and Wilkie E — Researching and Writing Dissertations in
Hospitality and Tourism (Thomson Learning, 1997) ISBN 1861520468
Easterby-Smith M and Thorpe R — Management Research: An Introduction (Sage
Publications, 2002) ISBN 0761972854
Hill S, Hughes R, Rees R and Yates J — How to Analyse and Promote Your Skills for Work
(University of London Careers Service, 2000) ISBN 0718716213
Jankowicz A D — Business Research Projects, Third Edition (Thomson Learning, 2000)
ISBN 1861525494
Moon J — Reflection in Learning and Professional Development: Theory and Practice
(Routledge Falmer, 2000) ISBN 074943452X
Schon D A — The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action (Arena, 1991)
ISBN 1857423194
Smith C and Irving R — No Sweat: The Indispensable Guide to Reports and Dissertations
(Institute of Management, 1998) ISBN 0859462951
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Cornell Quarterly
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Green Hotelier (www.greenhotelier.com)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research (International Council on Hotel and Restaurant
Education (CHRIE))
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Websites
www.prospects.ac.uk prospects graduate careers
www.ukplacements.com UK placements for undergraduates
www.work-experience.org National Centre for Work Experience
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Specialist
units
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Unit 8: Procurement
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit
Procurement involves the input of goods and services and the interface between the supplier
and the client. This unit gives learners an understanding of procurement strategies and their
importance in the sector. The unit shows how procurement contributes to profit and how it
helps to maintain a competitive edge.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Explain the principles and application of resource management to a commercial operation
2 Explain how the procurement strategy contributes to the achievement of a commercial
operation’s objectives
3 Evaluate procurement issues and their application to commercial operations
4 Consider elements of procurement strategies which maximise purchasing power
5 Carry out a review and evaluation of procurement strategies within a named organisation.

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Content

1 Resource management
Methods: selection, acquisition, maintenance, replacement criteria
Principles: procurement strategy, specification, supplier identification, selection criteria,
working with specialist suppliers, stock control

2 Procurement strategy
Systems and processes: standard specification, tendering, estimating/quoting, methods of
procurement eg centralised, contract, lease, Pareto analysis, ‘just in time’ (JIT), equipment,
materials, services, terms and conditions
Procurement officer: role, assessing operational needs, selecting suppliers, quality and
quantity control, timing, discounts, receipt and control of purchases, wastage factors,
company policies, budgetary restrictions
Risks: financial, physical, task duplication, direct and indirect costs, effect on the internal
and external customer, quality issues, legal implications, effect on process and outcome
activities of organisations
Managing procurement: profit opportunities, direct and indirect cost-saving opportunities,
minimising risk, maximising profit, approved supplier lists, evaluating the ‘best deal’,
performance indicators and benchmarking

3 Procurement issues
Contract: definition, different forms, parties, essentials for a valid contract, rules of offer
and acceptance, terms eg express/implied, conditions/warranties, vitiating factors eg
misrepresentation, fundamental mistake, breaches, fraud
Sourcing issues: method of supply eg buying products/services, tendering, sub-
contracting/outsourcing, value for money, hygiene factors, range, choice, service guarantee,
legal and contractual compliance, trace origin data, yield, methods of payment, credit and
price, negotiating skills
Evaluation: communication, finance, delivery, compliance with specified requirements,
packaging, industrial relations, attitude to customers, sample testing and defect elimination

4 Purchasing power
Pricing management: techniques, negotiating price reductions, controlling or resisting price
increases, quantity discounts, prompt payment discounts
Management strategies: competition between suppliers, developing profit margins to
increase financial returns, releasing cash and capital by minimising stock, negotiating
extended credit, determining the right quality for the right application, negotiating and
developing delivery schedules

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5 Review and evaluation
Review: standard specifications, terms and conditions, monitoring, redeveloping strategy,
contemporary developments, comparing and contrasting purchasing options
Evaluate: cost models eg return on investment (ROI), productivity gain, human resource
benefits

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Explain the principles and • describe the methods available for managing
application of resource materials
management to a
• devise specifications of requirements and the
commercial operation
selection criteria to be applied
• explain the principles involved when procuring
equipment and the ongoing requirements over the life
of that equipment
2 Explain how the • establish an appropriate process to manage the
procurement strategy procurement function within a named commercial
contributes to the operation
achievement of a commercial
• recommend procurement systems and processes with
operation’s objectives
related performance indicators and benchmarking for
a given commercial operation
• examine the role of the procurement officer within a
given commercial operation
3 Evaluate procurement issues • explain the importance of the essential components,
and their application to terms and conditions of a specimen contract
commercial operations
• evaluate the sourcing issues for a given procurement
situation using a range of given suppliers
• describe the management techniques used to appraise
and evaluate the suppliers of a commercial operation
4 Consider elements of • explain the management strategies that can be used to
procurement strategies which maximise the purchasing power of the procurement
maximise purchasing power officer
• discuss and apply a range of pricing management
techniques to a given commercial procurement
situation
5 Carry out a review and • explain how review and evaluation can be used to
evaluation of procurement assess procurement strategies
strategies within a named
• apply review and evaluation techniques for a given
organisation.
procurement scenario in a commercial operation.

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Guidance

Delivery

Wherever possible, a practical approach should be adopted and efforts made to identify the
variety of operational sourcing issues. The practical approach should not be at the expense of a
sound theoretical base. Links with other units could be developed in the form of integrated
assignments but care is needed in designing such assignments to ensure they are realistic.
The use of speakers from purchasing functions in commercial operations is recommended as a
means of providing examples of approaches adopted by different types of organisations. This
approach will add further vocational relevance and currency to the delivery of the unit.

Assessment

Evidence of outcomes could be in the form of assignments, case studies and projects set during
periods of work experience. Role-play activities in the form of a business game could be used
to develop negotiation skills indicated in Outcome 3. Investigations should be based on actual
commercial operations wherever possible.
Learners working in a purchasing/supply function in a commercial operation could base
assignment work around their work place. Evidence could include individual or group
assignments. Time-constrained assessment based on case-study materials could also be
included.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit can be linked to the following units:


• Unit 18: Facilities Operations
• Unit 20: External Business Environment
• Unit 23: Financial Management
• Unit 24: Information Management and Technology.
This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• D2: Develop productive working relationships with colleagues and stakeholders
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E3: Obtain additional finance for the organisation
• F3: Manage business processes.
This unit also links with the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP11: Managing Hospitality Operations.

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Resources

Purchasing and procurement textbooks should be supported by case studies. Access to


procurement sections of local organisations, if possible, provides a useful information source.
Part-time learners working in procurement can be used as a resource by sharing their
experiences of different company approaches to procurement.
Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts and journals associated with their
project as well as access to the internet, and the of use relevant software applications.

Support materials

Books
Baily P — Purchasing Principles and Management (FT Prentice Hall, 2004)
ISBN 0273646893
Feinstein AH and Stefanelli J M — Purchasing: Selection and Procurement for the Hospitality
Industry (John Wiley & Sons, 2004) ISBN 0471693146
Harrison M and Lysons K — Principles of Operations Management/Purchasing (FT Prentice
Hall, 1996) ISBN 0273626914
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Websites
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and
tutors
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.dfes.gov.uk Department for Education and Skills
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.ih-ra.com International Hotel and Restaurant Association
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 9: Hospitality Operations Management
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit is designed to introduce the learner to the management principles of hospitality
operations. It builds upon the content of Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations and Unit 5:
Rooms Division Operations. It is intended for learners who aspire towards a career in general
hospitality management.
Learners will focus on a wide range of operational and economic characteristics, including
customer profiles and patterns of demand. This will lead to the consideration of product
development and the opportunities and constraints that affect such development. Learners will
also consider a range of pricing and profitability strategies, using ICT software to model
different approaches.
Finally, the unit develops learners’ understanding of the appraisal process in relation to
hospitality operations management and how different aspects inter-relate with each other.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Evaluate the operational and economic characteristics of hospitality operations
2 Analyse product development within a hospitality environment
3 Apply pricing and profitability concepts within hospitality operations
4 Use appraisal techniques to analyse and improve operational performance and make
proposals for action.

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Content

1 Operational and economic characteristics


Nature of hospitality products and services: product and service areas eg food and
beverage, rooms division, conference and banqueting; tangible, intangible elements,
perishability, marketing and sales, plant, equipment, supplies and commodities
Patterns of demand: opening hours, seasonality, time of day/week, sociological influences,
health eating and drinking patterns, food and fashion trends, accommodation trends,
cultural, regional and ethnic influences, pricing and economic factors, elasticity of demand
Customer profile: spending power, types of hospitality outlet, menu/accommodation range,
pricing considerations, expectations and requirements, the meal experience
Management issues: integrated planning and resourcing, business and operational plans,
staffing, finance, decision-making (gathering information and data, analysing and
evaluating data, reaching decisions, forecasting), operating procedures and systems, control
systems, technical and procedural standards, service standards, quality systems, team
working and team leading, scheduling, training

2 Product development
Stages in product development: market research, market segmentation, idea evaluation,
concept development, product development, advertising objectives eg persuade, create
desire, create awareness, sell, increase market share, develop brand loyalty, customer
awareness
Opportunities and constraints: brand image, nutrition and dietary requirements, disabled
access and provision eg accommodation facilities, restaurant access; availability of
resources (human, financial, physical), standardisation, style of service, space utilisation
Hospitality advertising: outlets eg pubs, restaurants, hotels, conference centres; products,
types of media
Merchandising objectives: promote consumer/brand awareness, encourage consumer/brand
loyalty, develop product image, support materials eg brochures, websites, posters, floor
stands, tent cards, wall displays, table displays, menus, flyers, vouchers, promotions,
clothing (tee-shirts, sweatshirts, baseball caps), free samples

3 Pricing and profitability concepts


Methods of pricing: cost-oriented, market-oriented, additional pricing considerations eg
service charge, cover charge, minimum charge
Factors affecting revenue generation: eg sales mix, customer turnover, average spending
power (ASP)
Factors affecting profitability: eg labour intensity, shelf-life, elasticity of demand,
standardisation, portion-control

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4 Analyse and improve operational performance
Approaches to appraisal: fundamentals of appraisal, basis for effective operational
appraisal, use of budgets, industry norms, information analysis, developing qualitative and
quantitative data, analysing and evaluating data
Appraising revenue, costs and profits: financial measurement techniques, price and volume
data, interpreting calculations, price changes and inflation, comparing like-with-like and
over time, identifying and measuring costs, apportioning costs, sales mix analysis, menu
engineering, profitability measures, gross profit and gross profit percentages, net profit and
operating profit, stakeholder interests
Appraising the operation: appraising the product, appraising operational performance
measurement techniques, levels of consideration, when and how, quantitative, qualitative
evaluation, external comparisons, quality management
Proposal for action: forecasting future business requirements, levels of strategy, assessing
organisational capability, strategic analysis and planning, implementation and managing
change

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Evaluate the operational • analyse the nature of the product
and economic
• evaluate the different influences affecting patterns of
characteristics of
demand within hospitality operations
hospitality operations
• contrast customer profiles and their differing
expectations and requirements in respect of
hospitality provision
• analyse factors affecting average spending power
(ASP) in hospitality outlets
2 Analyse product • evaluate the key stages in product and service
development within a development applied within a hospitality operation
hospitality environment
• analyse the features which contribute towards the
customers’ perception of products and services
• appraise the opportunities and constraints affecting
product and service development within a hospitality
environment
• evaluate a range of merchandising opportunities for
hospitality products and services
3 Apply pricing and • evaluate different methods of pricing and explain and
profitability concepts apply additional pricing considerations
within hospitality operations
• appraise the factors in hospitality operations which
affect revenue generation and profitability
4 Use appraisal techniques to • identify the aspects of hospitality operations which
analyse and improve are commonly appraised
operational performance
and make proposals for • apply a range of performance measures and appraisal
action. techniques to individual aspects of hospitality
operations, the product and the whole operation
• determine the usefulness and limitations of the
various quantitative and qualitative appraisal
techniques and their application to hospitality
operations
• identify and apply approaches to business analysis,
evaluation and planning appropriate to hospitality
operations.

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Guidance

Delivery

The focus of this unit is on the management approach to hospitality operations management.
Tutors should ensure that learners understand the separation between operational and
management issues. The relevance of this unit will be greatly improved if it is delivered
following a period of industrial work experience where the learner has worked in a food and
beverage environment. Tutors should maximise the contribution made by learners based on
their own experiences in food and beverage operations. This will add relevance and vocational
realism to group discussions and may contribute to a wide range of issues, enabling learners to
focus on issues which regularly face managers in industry.
The unit is designed to build on Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations and Unit 5: Rooms
Division Operations. Visits should be organised to a wide range of commercial outlets of
varying size and complexity. The opportunity to meet with senior management during such
visits will add value to these activities. It can be advantageous to send small groups of learners
on arranged visits to different outlets and subsequently encourage the groups to present their
findings and discuss evaluations with their colleagues.
Presentations by visiting speakers, such as a food and beverage manager or a conference and
banqueting manager working within either the commercial and/or catering services sectors of
the hospitality industry, are essential in order to provide a focus for a wide range of issues.
Such presentations can be a valuable resource and give learners the opportunity to discuss
current aspects of hospitality management with those actively involved in industry.
Future managers must also consider a range of aspects relating to the customer profile. For
example, the profile of food and beverage customers will raise issues relating to the meal
experience, such as food and beverages on offer, levels of service, value for money/price,
hygiene and cleanliness, atmosphere, environment, ambience (including staffing). These issues
could lead to consideration of menu and beverage list development, such as its function (to
inform, appeal, sell), menu and beverage list compilation and design, repeat business, menu
engineering, or satisfactory/unsatisfactory menu items.
It is important, for example, for learners to consider a wide range of operational characteristics.
The content is indicative but tutors should maximise the opportunities provided by local
industry. This should be supported by a broad range of case study materials to highlight issues
that do not appear within local commercial operations.
Learners also need to examine the management aspects of product development. (Current
thinking is that the definition of ‘product’ also includes ‘service’, a useful definition in that it is
often difficult within the hospitality industry to separate the two.) Examples of development
may include satisfactory or unsatisfactory menu items, items that are popular, profitable or
both, or the structure of accommodation packages. Learners should be encouraged to take a
keen interest in developments and trends within the commercial and catering services sector of
the food and beverage industry and develop their forward-thinking to enable them to capitalise
on this aspect of learning in their future careers.
Learners also need to consider pricing and profitability concepts. This unit closely links with
Unit 6: Management Accounting for Hospitality and Unit 23: Financial Management. Tutors
should consult with colleagues delivering these two units to ensure that the overall delivery is
properly integrated. This unit is not intended to focus on financial procedures or interpretation,
but on the concepts of establishing pricing and profitability concepts. The use of appropriate
ICT software to model different approaches is important, particularly using ‘what if’ scenarios.

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Once again, visiting speakers can add significant value through currency and vocational
relevance. Tutors can also create artificial situations for learners to consider and work with that
will clarify their understanding and require an appropriate level of creative thinking.
The appraisal of operational performance is a key management function and learners need
initially to develop their understanding of the processes. It is important then for them to be clear
about the different stages of appraisal: appraising individual or groups of products, which in
turn may lead to a reconsideration of product development; appraising revenue, costs and
profits, which links to pricing and profitability concepts; and appraising the whole operation as
an integrated structure. Learners should be clear about the outcomes of each aspect of appraisal
as well as how this affects other aspects.

Assessment

Evidence of the outcomes may be in the form of assignments, case studies, and/or projects set
during periods of work experience in a food and beverage environment. Learning and
assessment can be across units, at unit level or at outcome level. As a result, much of the
evidence can be accumulated by learners building a portfolio through work experience.
The format of evidence should reflect the nature of the unit. Presentations to a ‘management
group’ will usefully develop learners’ interpersonal skills and will be particularly relevant if
representatives from industry are invited to sharpen the focus of presentations. Alternatively
tutors may require some form of formal management report or a professional discussion. It is
possible to develop an integrated assignment that requires some aspect of each.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit can be linked successfully with:


• Unit 1: The Contemporary Hospitality Industry
• Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations
• Unit 5: Rooms Division Operations
• Unit 7: Industry Experience
• Unit 15: Marketing
• Unit 23: Financial Management.
This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• B9: Develop the culture of your organisation
• B10: Manage risk
• B11: Promote diversity in your area of responsibility
• C1: Encourage innovation in your team
• C2: Encourage innovation in your area of responsibility
• C3: Encourage innovation in your organisation

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• E1: Manage a budget
• E4: Promote the use of technology within your organisation
• F4: Develop and review a framework for marketing
• F8: Work with others to improve customer service
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers
• F10: Develop a customer focused organisation
• F11: Manage the achievement of customer satisfaction
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP11: Managing Hospitality Operations
• OP26: Managing Hotel Operations.

Resources

Tutors should ensure that learners have adequate access to industry, either through visits or
through presentations by visiting speakers, to support the development of knowledge and
understanding through ‘theory in practice’. It may be useful for learners to link with an
individual commercial operation and use that organisation as a context in which to assess
current practice, apply theory and observe in a reflective way. These individual experiences can
then be fed back into a group-learning context.
Learners must be encouraged to read publications such as the Caterer and Hotelkeeper at every
opportunity to develop their awareness of management issues. Delivery can also be supported
by directories, newspapers, journals, local and national guides for the hospitality industry. A
range of appropriate case study material can focus on specific issues.
Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts and journals associated with
hospitality operations management as well as access to the internet. ICT software must be
provided to support financial modelling of pricing and profitability concepts. Videos and
websites which focus on different outlets within the hospitality industry, jobs and employment
opportunities will add further material to support delivery of this unit.

Support materials

Books
Abbott P and Lewry S — Front Office: Procedures, Social Skills and Management
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999) ISBN 0750642300
Braham B — Hotel Front Office (Nelson Thornes, 2004) ISBN 0748716327
Cousins J, Foskett D and Gillespie C — Food and Beverage Management (Longman, 2002)
ISBN 0582452716
Davis B, Stone S and Lockwood A (editor) — Food and Beverage Management (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1998) ISBN 0750632860
Johns N and Edwards J S — Operations Management: Resource Based Approach for the
Hospitality and Tourism Industries (Thomson Learning, 1994) ISBN 0304329223
Jones C, Paul V and Jowitt V — Accommodation Management (BT Batsford, 1998)
ISBN 0713469374

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Kotas R and Jayawardena C — Profitable Food and Beverage Management (Hodder Arnold
H&S, 1994) ISBN 0340595124
Mill R C, Kaushill S and Kamra K — Hospitality: Operations and Management (AH Wheeler,
2000) ISBN 8175441984
Rutherford D G — Hotel Management and Operations (John Wiley & Sons, 1994)
ISBN 0471285684
Verginis C S and Wood R C — Accommodation Management: Perspectives for the
International Hotel Industry (Thomson Learning, 1999) ISBN 1861524897
Waller K — Customer-centred Performance Improvement for Food and Beverage Operations
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996) ISBN 075062812X
Webster K — Environmental Management in the Hospitality Industry: A Guide for Students
and Managers (Thomson Learning, 1999) ISBN 0304332348
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Cornell Quarterly
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Green Hotelier (www.greenhotelier.com)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research (International Council on Hotel and Restaurant
Education (CHRIE))
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Websites
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.hospitalitynet.org Hospitality Net
www.informationcommissioner.gov.uk Information Commissioner’s Office
www.instituteofcustomerservice.com Institute of Customer Service
www.johnsondiversey.com JohnsonDiversey — cleaning and hygiene
specialists
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
www.riph.org.uk Royal Institute of Public Health
www.wset.co.uk Wine and Spirit Education Trust

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Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 10: Food and Society
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit
This unit extends the scope of the hospitality industry by examining the wider issues of food
and society. Learners will explore the reasons people eat and what influences the choices they
make. Food and drink is influenced by a wide range of cultural and global aspects, which will
also be the focus of study.
Learners will develop their knowledge, skills and understanding of how the five senses can be
used to assess the acceptability and quality of food and drink. They will examine ratings scales
and the values and criteria that determine results. Finally, they will evaluate an overall food and
drink experience, making reasoned judgements and recommendations about how the experience
could be improved.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Explore the key determinants and influences on food and society
2 Investigate the multi-cultural nature of food and drink
3 Apply sensory evaluation techniques to assess the acceptability and quality of food and
drink
4 Apply evaluation techniques and criteria to the food and drink experience.

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Content

1 Key determinants and influences


Determinants: the need for food, social eating, lifestyle, availability of time, level of
preparation required
Influences: eg climate, social groups, taboos, religion, travel, fashion, fads, environment,
health, time pressures

2 Multi-cultural nature
Multi-cultural: historical and geographical influences eg European, Asian, Pacific Rim, the
Americas
Food: current trends, association and relationship with drink, branded foods and food
outlets
Drink: current trends, types (alcoholic eg beers, lagers, ciders, wines, spirits, liqueurs;
non-alcoholic eg soft drinks, bottled waters; teas/speciality teas; coffees eg cappuccino,
espresso, mocha, latte); service procedures and techniques, trends eg designer waters,
branded alcoholic drinks, energy drinks

3 Sensory evaluation techniques


Human senses: the role of the five senses, primary tastes and taste sensitivity, importance
of smell, detection and perception of flavour and texture
Rating scales: eg hedonic, numeric; criteria and values
Sensory techniques: understanding the senses, recording and analysing results, assessing
and interpreting sensory perceptions, presenting results

4 Food and drink experience


Techniques: collecting information, sources of information eg personal, family, friends,
members of the public; qualitative/quantitative feedback, making reasoned judgements
based on available information, recommendations for improvement
Criteria: eg nature of food and drink experience, suitability for purpose, environment,
ambience, quality of product and service, time factors, level of care and satisfaction, value
for money
Situations: eating for pleasure or necessity eg business lunch, special occasion,
conference/function, shopping trip, when travelling

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Explore the key • analyse what determines the relationship between
determinants and food and society for different circumstances
influences on food and
• identify current influences on eating and drinking
society
habits
2 Investigate the multi- • explain how historical and geographic influences
cultural nature of food and have defined the multi-cultural nature of food and
drink drink
• explain developments in the association and
relationship between food and drink
• evaluate developing trends in food and drink
3 Apply sensory evaluation • evaluate the inter-relationship between food and
techniques to assess the beverages and the five senses
acceptability and quality of
• identify an appropriate rating scale with criteria and
food and drink
values to determine the acceptability and quality of
food and drink
• apply various sensory evaluation techniques to assess
the acceptability and quality of food and drink
• present and interpret the results of the assessment
4 Apply evaluation techniques • define evaluation techniques and criteria for
and criteria to the food and evaluation of a food and drink experience
drink experience.
• evaluate different food and drink experiences
• justify the outcomes of the evaluation
• make valid recommendations for improvement.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit looks at the wider issues of food and society. Tutors and learners should adopt a
shared approach as users rather than providers, although there will naturally be considerable
overlap in the thought processes. Learners need to consider the reasons for eating and choices
they make either in the home or for example when eating out with friends, formally or
informally. The unit also exposes influences such as time pressures and the growing trend for
using pre-prepared foods in the home. Global influences will also form a key focus of study.
Learners should be encouraged to experiment with menus and recipe development and beverage
selection. The overall relationship between food and drink may be affected by different
circumstances and this relationship can be challenged and modified. The learners’ own
individual interests should also be encouraged in the approach to this unit.

Assessment

This unit is largely based on investigations into the relationships between food and society. To
reflect the nature of the unit, presentations to groups are useful and, in this instance, audiences
may include members of the public who have a keen personal and non-professional interest in
the subject. Such a presentation lends itself to illustrations, posters, handouts, photographs and
other supporting resources. Alternative forms of evidence include written assignment work,
although this should be appropriately illustrated.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit is linked to practical units within the qualification, particularly those within the
Culinary Arts pathway:
• Unit 30: Menu Planning and Product Development
• Unit 33: Contemporary Gastronomy (double unit)
• Unit 34: World Cuisine
• Unit 35: Creative Patisserie (double unit).
This unit links to the following Management NVQ unit:
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers.
This unit also links with the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP42: Food and society.

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Resources

In addition to formal lectures and seminars, the learning for this unit should be supported by
elements of laboratory-based learning. Centres should therefore have access to industrial
standard food preparation and production and food and beverage service areas, which will
provide the focus for delivering the practical aspects of this unit. In addition learners should be
encouraged to read professional journals, Sunday supplements and relevant government
publications.

Support materials

Books
Ackerman D — A Natural History of the Senses (Phoenix, 1996) ISBN 1857994035
Atkins P and Bowler I — Food in Society: Economy, Culture, Geography (Hodder Arnold,
2000) ISBN 0340720042
Bode W K H — European Gastronomy: The Story of Man’s Food and Eating Customs (Hodder
& Stoughton, 1996) ISBN 0470235721
Bryant C, Courtney A and DeWait K — The Cultural Feast: An Introduction to Food and
Society (Wadsworth, 2003) ISBN 0534525822
Cousins J, Foskett D and Gillespie C — Food and Beverage Management (Longman, 2002)
ISBN 0582452716
Durkan A and Cousins J — The Beverage Book (Hodder Arnold H&S, 1995)
ISBN 0340604840
Fine G A — Kitchens: Culture of Restaurant Work (University of California Press, 1996)
ISBN 0520200780
Gillespie C and Cousins J (editor) — European Gastronomy into the 21st Century
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001) ISBN 0750652675
Robinson J (editor) — The Oxford Companion to Wine (Oxford University Press, 1999)
ISBN 019866236X
Simon J — Wine with Food: The Ultimate Guide to Matching Wine with Food for Every
Occasion (Mitchell Beazley, 1999) ISBN 1840001798
Telfer E — Food for Thought, Philosophy and Food (Routledge, 1996) ISBN 0415133823
Whit W C — Food and Society: A Sociological Approach (General Hall, 1995)
ISBN 1882289374
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Food and restaurant guides
General food and drink magazines
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hotel and Restaurant Magazine (Quantum)
Menus, wine and drink lists
Restaurant Magazine (The Restaurant Game)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)

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Video/DVD
Many of the television ‘fly-on-the wall’ documentaries are well suited to discussions on food
and beverage operations. There are also numerous topical food programmes, including those
presented by celebrity chefs, that will lend extensive support to the delivery of this unit.
Websites
www.askachef.com Ask a Chef website — online resource containing
recipes, message boards and the opportunity to ask
a chef any questions
www.bbc.co.uk/food BBC food pages
www.bda.uk.com British Dietetic Association
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.ehotelier.com one-stop website for hoteliers
www.foodlaw.rdg.ac.uk University of Reading’s food law website
www.foodservice411.com/rimag Restaurants and Institutions magazine website
www.foodserviceworld.com Foodservice World
www.ih-ra.com International Hotel and Restaurant Association
www.intowine.com Into Wine website
www.nutrition.org.uk British Nutrition Foundation
www.webtender.com The Webtender — an online bartender
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 11: Conference and Banqueting
Management
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to encourage the learner to investigate and develop an appreciation of
the particular needs of clients within the conference and banqueting sector. This unit considers
the operational and planning considerations which are specific to this sector of hospitality.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Examine the range of strategic and operational issues
2 Evaluate food production and service
3 Analyse ergonomic considerations
4 Evaluate administrative procedures.

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Content

1 Strategic and operational issues


Diversity of venues: eg conference centres, specific conference and banqueting facilities
within hotels, multi-functional leisure centres; appropriate locations, appropriate venues,
services and facilities required
Planning techniques: decision-making, information gathering, critical path analysis (CPA)
for staffing and design considerations, budget projections, licensing law implications,
health and safety legislation eg Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HASAW); hygiene
regulations, required profit margins
Performance and quality: evaluation and review techniques, client and guest evaluation
procedures, venue appraisal, profit realisation, closed loop evaluation methods

2 Food production and service


Food production systems: eg cook-freeze, cook-chill, vacuum packaging, pre-prepared,
traditional partie system, modern partie system
Food production styles: eg banquet, buffet presentation (finger, fork, full), stages in the
food production process
Food and beverage service styles: eg banquet service, full silver service, family service,
French/Royal Household, lay-up styles, room plans, beverage service, alcoholic, non-
alcoholic
On and off-site considerations: equipment hire, staff utilisation, Hazard Analysis Critical
Control Point (HACCP), space realisation, transport, entertainment required
Menu planning: composition guidelines, legal requirements, marketing implications,
production and service capabilities

3 Ergonomic considerations
Space utilisation techniques: seating plans/room layout designs to accommodate guests,
style, comfort, types of event, computer-aided design packages (CAD)
Quality of environment: minimum and maximum space/floor occupancy, demands on floor
space, heating, ventilation, change of air rates, air-conditioning
Audio-visual: lighting, sound, special effects, video projections, computer disc
presentations, lighting technology, sound technology

4 Administrative procedures
Operational procedures: function sheets, internal and external documentation, events diary,
discounting initiatives, space allocation
Function etiquette and protocol: religious and cultural guidelines, protocol appropriate to
different occasions, weddings, formal dinners, room design, seating plans, role of master of
ceremonies
Marketing: material production, quality, image, advertising, open days, mailing-lists

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Examine the range of • describe the diversity of venues used for conference
strategic and operational and banqueting events
issues
• plan, implement and analyse the appropriate planning
techniques for a given conference or banqueting event
and evaluate appropriate performance and quality
review techniques at the end
2 Evaluate food production • evaluate the suitability of a range of food production
and service systems and styles and food and beverage service
styles for a given conference or banquet
• compare on and off-site considerations and analyse
the key menu planning considerations for a range of
conference and banqueting events
3 Analyse ergonomic • apply space utilisation techniques to a given
considerations conference or banqueting event
• evaluate influences which affect the quality of the
environment and analyse the range of audio-visual
techniques used for a given conference or banqueting
event
4 Evaluate administrative • explain operational procedures for a given conference
procedures. or banqueting event
• analyse the implications of function etiquette and
protocol for conference or banqueting events
• evaluate the marketing of a given conference or
banqueting event.

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Guidance

Delivery

A practical approach should be adopted using simulated exercises, research-driven assignments


or case-studies. Visits to commercial operations of different types and sizes will add currency
and vocational realism to the delivery of the unit. Visits to such operations, before, during and
after an event, will enable learners to observe the varied aspects of conference and banqueting
operations from an operational perspective. They may also have the opportunity, with the
approval of the operator, to discuss with clients different aspects of their needs and how these
needs have been met.
This unit will be more relevant if it is delivered following a period of work experience where
the learner has had exposure to a conference and/or banqueting operation. The delivery of this
unit will also be enhanced by a visit from external speakers such as conference and/or
banqueting manager. Tutors should also be aware of the value of input from specialist
providers of conference and banqueting services.
Case study materials will also be useful to highlight key issues or to explore problem areas that
learners may not otherwise experience.

Assessment

Evidence of outcomes may be in the form of assignments, case studies, and/or projects. These
may be set during periods of work experience within a conference and/or banqueting
environment. Learning and assessment can be across units, at unit level or at outcome level.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit provides and can be linked successfully with


• Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations
• Unit 9: Hospitality Operations Management
• Unit 12: Contract and Event Management
• Unit 15: Marketing.
This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your are of responsibility

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• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP OP04: Food and Beverage Skills and Knowledge
• OP07: Managing Food Production Operations
• OP08: Managing Food and Beverage Service.

Resources

It is important for centres to develop supporting relationships with local commercial providers.
These should be used for visits and as a source of visiting speakers. Case study materials, some
drawn from the trade press, are a necessary resource.
Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts and journals associated with
conference and banqueting operations, as well as access to the internet, and the use of relevant
software applications.

Support materials

Books
Callow J — The Sportsworld Guide to Corporate Hospitality (Kogan Page, 1995)
ISBN 0749417994
Cousins J, Foskett D and Gillespie C — Food and Beverage Management (Longman, 2002)
ISBN 0582452716
Davis B, Stone S and Lockwood A — Food and Beverage Management (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1998) ISBN 0750632860
Kinton R, Ceserani V and Foskett D — Theory of Catering (Hodder Arnold H&S, 1999)
ISBN 0340738103
Kotas R and Jayawardena C — Profitable Food and Beverage Management (Hodder Arnold
H&S, 1994) ISBN 0340595124
Lillicrap D — Food and Beverage Service (Hodder Arnold H&S, 2002) ISBN 0340847034
Shone A — The Business of Conferences: A Hospitality Sector Overview for the UK and
Ireland (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998) ISBN 0750640995
Teare R, Adams D and Messenger S — Managing Projects in Hospitality Organizations
(Thomson Learning, 1992) ISBN 0304325058
Waller K — Customer-centred Performance Improvement for Food and Beverage Operations
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996) ISBN 075062812X
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Conference and Banqueting
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)

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Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotel and Restaurant Magazine (Quantum)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Restaurant Magazine (The Restaurant Game)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Websites
www.bacd.org.uk British Association of Conference Destinations
(BACD) — provides event organisers with an
impartial venue-finding service throughout the
British Isles
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.conferencesearch.co.uk Conference Search website
www.sounds-commercial.co.uk free venue finding service for the UK, venue
search, business meeting venues, conference venue
finding
www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~cvs/cvs Conference Venue Search website
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

116 BH016271 – Guidance and units – Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management
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Unit 12: Contract and Event Management
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to investigate the extent and scope of the contract and event sector of the
hospitality industry. The learner will appreciate the services and products within this diverse
sector, and will recognise those factors which optimise management and business performance.
This unit will address the scope of strategic, operational and financial decisions which affect
the success and development of this sector.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Investigate the strategic issues which affect decision-making
2 Explore the operational issues which affect the success of contract and event management
3 Appreciate the financial processes involved in tendering and implementation.

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Content

1 Strategic issues
Diversity of sector: employee catering, hospital catering, school meals, conference centres,
location and outdoor events, banqueting, private functions
Types of event and contract service provision: food and beverage services, accommodation
services, reception, facilities management, linen and laundry, cleaning, administration, arts
and entertainments, hotel services, maintenance, security, purchasing, human resource
services
Component elements of the contract/event: menu design, food and beverage service style,
staffing, timing, space layout, decoration, entertainment, lighting and sound
Marketing and sales issues: product placement, merchandising, market share, targeting
Human resource issues: workforce, worker:management ratio, job skills and tasks, work
patterns, full-time or part-time employees, casual staff, training
Customer issues: service, service styles, interface skills, needs and expectations, client and
contractor relationship
Quality issues: standards of service, product quality, service quality, measurement of
quality

2 Operational issues
Elements of project management: action planning, product knowledge, decision-making,
scheduling, administration, client liaison, component elements of the event, liaison with
internal/external providers (executive chef, restaurant/bar manger, HR manager, front
office, AV technician, florist, artiste/agent)
Type and level of service: suitability of menu design, type of food service system for a
particular contract and event catering situation
Purchasing, delivering and storage systems: suitability of systems for different types of
contract and event catering
Client and contractor relationship: interpersonal skills, negotiating, bargaining during the
contract and event
Health, safety and hygiene: standards of equipment, utensils and supplies available,
problems with catering ‘off site’, legislation affecting transportation of cook-chill, cook-
freeze food materials

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3 Financial processes
Contracts: nature of contracts, writing specifications, negotiating contracts, fulfilling
contract requirements, breach of contract
Financial issues: budget setting and targets, competitive tendering, bidding for contracts,
competitiveness, economies of scale, contract law, profit generation, nil profit, subsidies
Business generation: tendering, opportunities for expansion, satisfaction of current
contracts, acquisitions and mergers, non-profit contracts, profit contracts
Corporate targets: management targets, financial targets, business performance targets,
business expansion targets, quality targets

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Investigate the strategic • identify the complex diversity of the contract and
issues which affect decision- event catering sectors, including the different types of
making event and contract service provision
• describe the component elements of the contract and
event
• describe the strategic issues affecting decision-
making including marketing and sales issues, human
resource issues, customer issues and quality issues
2 Explore the operational • explain the elements of project management which
issues which affect the are necessary to ensure effective contract and event
success of contract and event management
management
• describe the type and level of service associated with
a range of contract and event catering occasions
• explain the purchasing, delivering and storage
systems associated with different types of contract
and event catering
• explain the importance of a good client and contractor
relationship to ensure successful contract and event
catering
• explain the health, safety and hygiene problems
which can affect the operational success of contract
and event catering
3 Appreciate the financial • explain the process involved in drawing up contracts
processes involved in
• describe the financial issues which affect the
tendering and
implementation of a contract
implementation.
• explain the process of business generation within
contract and event management
• evaluate business success and achieving corporate
targets in corporate and event management.

120 BH016271 – Guidance and units – Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management
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Guidance

Delivery

Wherever possible a practical approach should be adopted using hands-on exercises, research-
driven assignments or case-study scenarios.
The relevance of this unit will be greatly improved if it is delivered following a period of
industrial work experience for those learners with no previous knowledge of the contract and
event management sector of hospitality.
This unit will also benefit from a visit from an external speaker such as a contract catering
manager or event management organiser.

Assessment

Evidence of outcomes may be in the form of tutor-led tests, assignments, case studies and/or
projects set during periods of work experience in the contract and event management sectors.
Learning and assessment can be across units, at unit level or at outcome level.
As a result much of the evidence for this unit may be accumulated by learners building a
portfolio through work experience.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit provides and can be linked successfully with:


• Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations
• Unit 11: Conference and Banqueting Management
• Unit 15: Marketing
• Unit 23: Financial Management.
This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A3: Develop your personal networks
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• D2: Develop productive working relationships with colleagues and stakeholders
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E3: Obtain additional finance for the organisation
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety

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• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers
• F10: Develop a customer focused organisation.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP29: Managing Catering and Multiple Service Contracts
• OP36: Special Events Management.

Resources

It is important for centres to develop supporting relationships with local commercial providers.
These should be used for visits and as a source of visiting speakers. Case study materials, some
drawn from the trade press, are a necessary resource.
Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts and journals associated with
contract and event management operations, as well as access to the internet, and the use of
relevant software applications.

Support materials

Books
Allen J — The Business of Event Planning: Behind the Scenes Secrets of Successful Special
Events (John Wiley & Sons, 2002) ISBN 047083188X
Allen J — Event Planning Ethics and Etiquette: A Principled Approach to the Business of
Special Event Management (John Wiley & Sons, 2003) ISBN 0470832606
Bowdin G et al — Events Management (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001) ISBN 0750647965
Callow J (editor) — The Sportsworld Guide to Corporate Hospitality (Kogan Page, 1995)
ISBN 0749417994
Foster-Walker M and Lemaire C — Start and Run an Event Planning Business (Self-Counsel
Press, 2004) ISBN 1551803674
Goldbatt J J — Special Events: The Art and Science of Modern Event Management (Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1997) ISBN 0442022077
McDonnell I, Allen J and O’Toole W — Festival and Special Event Management (Jacaranda
Wiley, 1999) ISBN 0471339342
Teare R (editor) — Managing Projects in Hospitality Organizations (Thomson Learning, 1992)
ISBN 0304325058
Thoren-Turner K — Start Your Own Event Planning Business (Entrepreneur Press, 2004)
ISBN 1932156844
Watt D — Event Management in Leisure and Tourism (Longman, 1998) ISBN 0582357063
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Cornell Quarterly
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)

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Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotel and Restaurant Magazine (Quantum)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Restaurant Magazine (The Restaurant Game)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Websites
www.bacd.org.uk British Association of Conference Destinations
(BACD)
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.conferencesearch.co.uk Conference Search website
www.laca.co.uk Local Authority Caterers Association
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
www.sodexho.co.uk Sodhexo — provider of food and management
services
www.sounds-commercial.co.uk free venue finding service for the UK, venue
search, business meeting venues, conference venue
finding
www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~cvs/cvs Conference Venue Search website
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 13: On-Licensed Trade Management
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit will allow the learner simultaneously to examine this specialist sector of the
hospitality industry and to apply the principles, knowledge and techniques learned in other
units to its unique situations. It provides learners with both the theoretical and practical skills
required to pursue a career in the licensed trade.
Learners will explore the current structure of the licensed trade, covering different types of
agreements and licensed premises. They will examine issues relating to the design,
development and operation of licensed premises and aspects of marketing. They will then
undertake and review a case study based on a local operation and provide feedback to the
owner/manager.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Define the current structure of the licensed trade
2 Examine the design, development and operation of on-licensed premises
3 Develop a marketing strategy for on-licensed premises
4 Undertake and review a case study of an on-licensed premises development.

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Content

1 Current structure
Brewing and the licensed trade: economic, social and legislative history
Agreements: freehold, leasehold, tenancy
Future developments: national, EU influences
Types of licensed premises: family, themed, community, country, town houses, branded
pubs

2 Design, development and operation


Design: interior and exterior design, ergonomics, customer and workflow, economic use of
space, provision for family areas (indoor/outdoor)
Regulatory constraints: licensing law, health authorities, the police, planning authorities,
licensing justices, weights and measures, safety, risk analysis
Product development: food, liquor, games, Amusement with Prizes (AWP) and Amusement
with Skills (AWS)
Stock and cash control: Electronic Point of Sale (EPOS) systems, associated integrated
software and paper systems
Staffing: structures, recruitment, training, retention

3 Marketing strategy
Marketing skills application: market research, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities,
Threats (SWOT) analysis, trend identification, target market identification, market
penetration
Sales: merchandising and promotional activities, Point of Sale (POS) materials, back bar
design

4 Case study
Development project: negotiate and agree with relevant people a development project,
company or brewer, objectives, targets, timescales, resources to be used
Focus: food, beverage, entertainment (consistent with target market)
Design: eg internal, external, current regulatory constraints
Systems: eg staffing structure, personnel policies, stock and cash control systems
Financial investment: eg wholesale and incremental project analysis, retail and operating
cost analysis, Return on Capital Employed (ROCE), payback, discounted cash flow, yield
Evaluate: types of activities undertaken, techniques used, interpersonal relationships,
benefits, difficulties, objectives, timescales, resources, feedback to owner/manager

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Define the current • describe the economic, social and legislative
structure of the licensed pressures that have created the present structure of the
trade licensed trade and that might determine its future
2 Examine the design, • design the production and commercial areas —
development and interior and exterior — of a public house, identifying
operation of on-licensed appropriate control systems
premises
• detail the constraints upon any design and
development activity
• identify appropriate food, liquor and entertainment
products for a specific type of public house
• design staffing structure and a training programme for
a specific type of public house
3 Develop a marketing • carry out a comprehensive market research exercise
strategy for on-licensed for licensed premises
premises
• plan and promote sales on site
4 Undertake and review a • agree a development project, including a development
case study of an on-licensed strategy
premises development.
• outline the product development area, design, systems
and financial investment
• evaluate the project against original objectives,
targets, timescales and resources to be used.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit addresses management issues for licensed trade operations. Tutors and learners will
initially need to share a common definition of the trade. Small discussion groups followed by
feedback will begin to outline the structure. Support from local brewers, pub management
companies and licensed trade organisations will develop the ideas generated and provide a
complete picture of the current state of the licensed trade industry. Tutors should ensure
learners experience different characteristics of licensed premises, such as national chains of
family pubs, small privately-owned operations, night-clubs and so on.
The unit enables learners to consider issues beyond the operation of licensed premises. They
should explore design features, which again can be supported by visiting speakers.
Contributions from national organisations may provide access to corporate design policies,
which may have links to marketing departments and feedback from customers. Further
considerations that learners should make include regulatory constraints. Presentations by
specialists or owners who have had experience of such constraints will add vocational currency
and highlight unique aspects that learners may not otherwise come across. Access to operations
implementing Amusement with Prizes (AWP) and Amusement with Skills (AWS) will establish
the issues that must be addressed by organisations wishing to offer such features.
Marketing principles are linked with other units within the programme, but should be addressed
here within the specific content of the licensed trade. Data generated will enable learners to
negotiate a suitable case study with a local commercial operation. Learners should agree the
focus of the study with the tutor and the owner/manager, which must relate specifically to
issues addressed by the content of the unit.
Overall, the delivery of the unit should include trips to breweries and appropriate licensed
premises that demonstrate current trends and innovative approaches to trading, as a way of
highlighting many of the issues addressed within the unit. Substantial case study material will
also address aspects that learners may not otherwise experience.

Assessment

Evidence of outcomes may be in the form of presentations to a group, which may include
representatives from industry such as visiting speakers or owners/managers of premises
involved in case study development. Learners should also produce a formal report that reflects
the nature of the unit. The two types of evidence may usefully be integrated. The opportunity to
develop a ‘live’ case study — based on on-licensed premises in need of redevelopment — may
be provided by a local brewing or pub company. Based on this, learners would need to give a
presentation of a complete development project to a joint academic and industry panel.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

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Links

This unit links the learner’s knowledge and understanding of the licensed trade sector of the
hospitality industry with several other units in the programme, notably:
• Unit 9: Hospitality Operations Management
• Unit 15: Marketing
• Unit 19: Facilities Management
• Unit 23: Financial Management.
This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B3: Develop a strategic business plan for your organisation
• B4: Put the strategic business plan into action
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• D4: Plan the workforce
• D7: Provide learning opportunities for colleagues
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety
• F1: Manage projects
• F2: Manage a programme of complementary projects
• F3: Manage business processes
• F4: Develop and review a framework for marketing.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP04: Food and Beverage Skills and Knowledge
• OP07: Managing Food Production Operations
• OP08: Managing Food and Beverage Service
• OP33: Licensed Retail Management
• OP38: Statutory Regulations and Legal Requirements.

Resources

Access to a sufficient number of commercial operations to sustain the delivery of the unit is
essential. These premises should provide access to the latest ICT capacity supporting the
licensed trade industry. Trade journals and newspapers should be made available to all learners.
Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts associated with the licensed trade
as well as access to the internet, and the use of relevant software applications.

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Support materials

Books
Boella M and Pannett A — Principles of Hospitality Law (Thomson Learning, 1999)
ISBN 0304704725
Bruning T and Blyth D (editors) — The Publican’s Handbook (Kogan Page, 2002)
ISBN 0749438460
Cousins J, Foskett D and Gillespie C — Food and Beverage Management (Longman, 2002)
ISBN 0582452716
Davis B, Stone S and Lockwood A — Food and Beverage Management (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1998) ISBN 0750632860
Flynn M, Ritchie C and Roberts A — Public House and Beverage Management: Key Principles
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000) ISBN 0750646780
Forsyth P — Maximising Hospitality Sales: How to Sell Hotels, Venues and Conference
Centres (Thomson Learning, 1999) ISBN 0304704288
Johns N and Edwards J S — Operations Management: Resource Based Approach for the
Hospitality and Tourism Industries (Thomson Learning, 1994) ISBN 0304329223
Kotas R and Jayawardena C — Profitable Food and Beverage Management (Hodder Arnold
H&S, 1994) ISBN 0340595124
Malison S — The Fundamentals of Hospitality Marketing (Thomson Learning, 2000)
ISBN 0826448321
Mill R C, Kaushill S and Kamra K (editor) — Hospitality: Operations and Management
(AH Wheeler, 2000) ISBN 8175441984
Rutherford D (editor) — Hotel Management and Operations (John Wiley & Sons, 1994)
ISBN 0471285684
Waller K — Customer-centred Performance Improvement for Food and Beverage Operations
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996) ISBN 075062812X
WSET — Behind the Label (Wine and Spirit Education Trust, 1999) ISBN 0951793659
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Websites
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.camra.org.uk Campaign for Real Ale
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.hospitalitynet.org Hospitality Net

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www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
www.riph.org.uk Royal Institute of Public Health
www.wset.co.uk Wine and Spirit Education Trust
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 14: People Management
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit introduces learners to the techniques concerned with the management of people
within service industries, such as hospitality, travel, tourism, sports, leisure and recreation. The
unit recognises the critical role that managing people has in the effectiveness and efficiency of
an organisation.
The unit provides learners with the opportunity to examine the various practices, procedures
and constraints that influence the management of people within a work environment.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Explain the processes and procedures involved in people management
2 Investigate working relationships within a services industry context
3 Evaluate methods of managing and developing human resources
4 Investigate industrial relations and legislation within the employment relationship.

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Content

1 Processes and procedures


Manpower planning: process, estimating manpower requirements, the labour market, needs
analysis and evaluation, recruitment and selection, training and development, cost
implications, market conditions, labour turnover, demographic issues, skills shortages, use
of part-time and older employees
Recruitment and selection: job descriptions, personnel specifications, recruitment sources,
advertising, relevant legislation eg equal opportunities, anti-discrimination; interviewing
techniques, selection tests eg psychometric, intelligence, personality
Contracts: types eg full/part-time, seasonal, sub-contracted, consultant, fractional posts,
outworking; associated legislation
Services industry context: eg hospitality, travel, tourism, sports, leisure, recreational
industries, public, private, voluntary (not-for-profit) sectors

2 Working relationships
Relationships: teams eg ad hoc, organised, long-term, short-term; individuals, peers,
hierarchical eg managerial, subordinate
Lines of authority and communication: within the organisation, within the team
Roles: operative, craft, supervisory, managerial, responsibilities
Objectives: induction, deployment and monitoring of employees, achieving organisation
targets, supporting team members, encouraging individuals, creating a cohesive workforce,
managing poor or ineffective performance, managing tensions and conflict
Managing sub-contractors: negotiating targets, deadlines and performance standards;
monitoring and assessing performance; operating within constraints; meeting financial
targets

3 Managing and developing human resources


Motivation: theories, methods, employee involvement, motivating individuals/teams
Training: techniques, induction, on- and off-the-job, in-house, contracted-out,
qualifications framework, current occupational standards, future needs
Appraisal and development: schemes, management development, preparing employees for
progression, matching organisational needs with employee potential
Reward systems: pay structures, performance related pay, incentive schemes, employee
benefits, pensions, company share schemes, medical insurance, sickness benefit,
promotions, team rewards
Benefits: for the individual eg motivation, pride, job satisfaction, job enrichment, job
enlargement, external qualifications; for the organisation eg qualified staff, increase in
skilled staff, improved results due to increase in quality, well-motivated staff, flexible staff

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4 Industrial relations and legislation
Contractual regulations: employment contract, pay, hours, conditions, right to trade union
membership
Employment practices: disciplinary and grievance procedures, employment tribunal
systems, appeals, arbitration procedures, the role of trade unions, collective bargaining, the
role of ACAS (Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service), codes of practice, head-
hunting staff
Termination of employment: types of dismissal, unfair dismissal, constructive dismissal,
redundancy, job restructuring, resignation, retirement
Legislation: UK and EU employment legislation eg Sex Discrimination Act 1975, Race
Relations Act 1976, Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974, Equal Pay Act 1970,
implications of the Working Time Regulation, TUPE (1981); legislation relating to
harassment, disciplinary/grievance interviews, first aid requirements, disabled provisions,
maternity/paternity issues, flexible employment practices eg job share, working from home)

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Explain the processes and • explain how workforce planning is used to assess
procedures involved in staffing requirements
people management
• explain how the general employment environment
affects workforce planning within an organisation
• demonstrate procedures and a range of selection
techniques that enable effective recruitment
2 Investigate working • explain the factors that influence working
relationships within a relationships
services industry context
• examine lines of authority within a given organisation
and explain their purpose
• discuss roles and responsibilities of employees within
a given organisation
• explain the relevance and objectives of working
relationships within an organisation
• explain the factors to be considered when employing
sub-contractors
3 Evaluate methods of • explain the importance of employee motivation and
managing and developing involvement
human resources
• evaluate a range of training techniques employed
within a services industry context
• explain the benefits of training and development to
the organisation and the individual
• explain the role of appraisal and management
development schemes within the organisation
4 Investigate industrial • describe contractual regulations of employment
relations and legislation
• describe at least two recognised employment
within the employment
practices that contribute to effective people
relationship.
management
• explain the constraints imposed by legislation on
termination of employment
• examine the main features of current employment
legislation.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit can be delivered in a wide variety of contexts, including hospitality, travel, tourism,
sports, leisure and recreational industries. Tutors should be aware of the context in which they
are delivering the unit and ensure that examples and support materials (eg recruitment and
selection documentation, codes of practice, staff handbooks, examples of relevant legislation,
case studies) are relevant.
To ensure maximum realism and relevance, all role-play exercises, examples and case studies
should be presented in the context of a relevant services industry, such as hospitality, travel,
tourism, sports, leisure or recreation. A practical approach should be adopted with learners
encouraged to seek their own evidence from organisations which they are in contact with.
Where examples are cited, learners should be coached to identify practical issues (eg levels of
staff sickness or turnover) and theoretical concepts (eg models for motivating staff). Whilst a
practical approach to this unit is desirable, it should not be at the expense of a sound theoretical
base.
Visits to commercial operations and talks by guest speakers will add currency and vocational
depth. As learners are dependent on gathering sensitive information from commercial
operations, tutors should ensure that contacts and appropriate briefings are made with co-
operative organisations well in advance.
Work experience gained through industrial placement or part-time employment would help
learners understand people management in an operational environment.

Assessment

Evidence of outcomes may be in the form of assignments, case studies, role-play exercises,
examinations or practical exercises using peer groups. Alternative forms of evidence might
include correspondence and research with actual organisations or individuals in relevant service
industries. Evidence should be from real situations where possible. Work experience gained
through industrial placement or part-time employment would help learners understand people
management in an operational environment.
A planned integrated assignment encompassing several overlapping outcomes in other units
would be particularly beneficial, helping to consolidate the learners’ overall learning.

Links

This unit links with a range of other units, particularly those with a focus on the management of
people. Examples include:
• Unit 1: The Contemporary Hospitality Industry
• Unit 2: The Developing Manager
• Unit 3: Customer Service
• Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations
• Unit 5: Rooms Division Operations
• Unit 7: Industry Experience.

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This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B5: Provide leadership for your team
• B6: Provide leadership in your area of responsibility
• B7: Provide leadership for your organisation
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• B9: Develop the culture of your organisation
• B11: Promote diversity in your area of responsibility
• B12: Promote diversity in your organisation.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP15: Human Resource Management
• OP16: Training and Developing Others
• OP38: Statutory Regulations and Legal Requirements.

Resources

Videos, software packages and appropriate management games can be used to support and
enhance the delivery of this unit. It is advisable that learners have access to personnel software
so that they can familiarise themselves with the processes and issues involved, such as data
protection.
Other sources of information can be provided by external organisations eg Advisory,
Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) and the Chartered Institute of Personnel and
Development (CIPD).

Support materials

Books
Barker D and Padfield C — Law Made Simple, Tenth Edition (Heinneman Educational, 1998)
ISBN 0750639148
Bland M and Jackson P — Effective Employee Communications (Kogan Page, 1992)
ISBN 0749407840
Boella M J — Human Resource Management in the Hospitality Industry (Nelson Thornes,
2000) ISBN 0748754660
Corbridge M and Pilbeam S — Employment Resourcing (FT Prentice Hall, 1998)
ISBN 0273625276
D’Annunzio-Green N, Maxwell G and Watson S — Human Resource Management:
International Perspectives in Hospitality and Tourism (Thomson Learning, 2002)
ISBN 0826457657
Denham P, Otter R and Martin J — Law: A Modern Introduction (Hodder Arnold H&S, 1999)
ISBN 0340704810
Gilmore S A — Cases in Human Resource Management in Hospitality (Prentice Hall, 2004)
ISBN 0131119834
Goldsmith A and Nickson D — Human Resource Management for Hospitality Services
(Thomson Learning, 1997) ISBN 1861520956

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Hollinshead G, Nicholls P and Tailby S — Employee Relations: A Contemporary Perspective
(FT Prentice Hall, 1999) ISBN 027362525X
Jerris L — Human Resources Management (Pearson US Imports, 1999) ISBN 013209164X
Maund L — Understanding People and Organisations: Introduction to Organisational
Behaviour (Nelson Thornes, 1997) ISBN 0748724044
Mullins L — Management and Organisational Behaviour (FT Prentice Hall, 1998)
ISBN 0273639102
Riley M — Human Resource Management in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry: Guide to
Personnel Management in the Hotel and Catering Industries (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996)
ISBN 0750627298
Torrington D, Taylor S and Hall L — Human Resource Management (FT Prentice Hall, 1998)
ISBN 0273687131
Further reading
Human Resource Management Journal (The Eclipse Group)
People Management (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development/Personnel
Publications)
Video/DVD
Companies such as Video Arts produce a variety of videos which may be useful in covering
human resource management topics. Examples include Managing Problem People, Team
Spirit? and Where There’s a Will.
Further details and catalogues are available from:
Video Arts
6–7 St Cross Street
London EC1N 8UA
www.videoarts.co.uk
Websites
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and tutors
www.cbi.org.uk Confederation of British Industry
www.cipd.co.uk Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development
www.dfes.gov.uk Department for Education and Skills
www.investorsinpeople.co.uk Investors in People
www.tuc.org.uk Trades Union Congress
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 15: Marketing
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to introduce learners to the key concepts and functions of marketing as
they apply to services industries, including hospitality, travel, tourism, sports, leisure, and
recreation. The unit aims to equip learners with knowledge and understanding of the key factors
affecting marketing environments and the role of marketing in different sectors of relevant
service industries.
The focus of this unit is initially on the concepts of marketing, moving on to the functional and
operational aspects of marketing as the unit progresses. Learners will investigate marketing in
the context of one of today’s competitive service industries.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Investigate the concepts of marketing in a services industry context
2 Analyse the role of the marketing mix
3 Evaluate the components of the promotional mix
4 Analyse the marketing cycle in a services industry environment.

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Content

1 Concepts of marketing
Core concepts: definition of marketing, customer needs, wants and demands, product and
services markets, value, customer satisfaction/retention, quality, cost/benefits,
efficiency/effectiveness, profitability, the growth of consumerism, strategic/tactical
marketing, reasons for growth, marketing as a business philosophy, relationship marketing,
changing emphasis of marketing
Marketing environment: micro environment the company, stakeholders eg suppliers,
intermediaries, owners, financiers, customers, competitors, local residents, pressure groups,
macro environment demographics, economy, society, ecology, technology, politics, legal,
culture, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis, political,
economic, social, technical (PEST) analysis, Porter’s competitive forces
Consumer markets: central role of the customer, customer culture, models and types of
behaviour, consumer orientation (internal and external), competitor orientation, decision
process, value chain, value and satisfaction, long-term relationships
Market segmentation: principles of segmentation, targeting and positioning, segmentation
bases eg geographic, demographic, behavioural, lifecycle stage, income, gender
Ethics and social responsibility: sustainability, social audit, public relations, legal and
regulatory considerations, public policy, third world issues, trends eg green issues,
environmentalism, pressure groups
Services industry context: eg hospitality, travel, tourism, sports, leisure, recreational
industries, public, private, voluntary (not-for-profit) sectors

2 Marketing mix
Marketing mix elements: nature and characteristics of products and/or services, service
quality, people, partnerships, programming, packaging
Products/services: characteristics, features/benefits, product strategy/mix, lifecycle,
development processes, test-marketing (simulated and controlled), concept development
and testing, unique selling points (USPs), branding
Place: distribution channels, customer convenience and availability, physical distribution
and logistics, niche marketing, vertical/horizontal integration, impact of technology,
franchising, ethical issues
Pricing: strategies eg skimming, penetration, product mix, price adjustments, competitor
analysis, policy eg cost-plus, break-even, value-based, competition-based, variable, price
setting considerations; factors affecting pricing decisions eg demand elasticity, competition,
ethics

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3 Promotional mix
Promotional mix: role eg public relations, sponsorship, personal selling, advertising and
sales promotions, branding, effective communications, communication channels, online
marketing, promotional-mix decisions, budgetary considerations, monitoring and evaluating
promotions
Advertising: objectives, methods, reach, frequency, impact, creating copy, costs and
budgeting
Campaign: format, objectives, target market, evaluation
Sales promotion: aims and objectives, reasons for growth, methods, tools, limitations,
branding and merchandising, evaluation

4 Marketing cycle
Research and information: relevance, new and existing products, services and markets,
market information systems, defining the market, measuring current demand, the marketing
research process, forecasting and demand measurement, positioning of products and
services, quality as an influence on customer perceptions
Data collection and analysis: needs, wants, location, focus group, primary research eg
questionnaires, surveys, interviews, samples, secondary research eg internal records,
statistics, published information, government publications, industry journals,
qualitative/quantitative data, analysis, evaluation
Communications: range of media eg television, newspapers, magazines, radio, billboards,
and posters, suitability for specific products, services and markets
Marketing plan: implementation, timescales, costs, evaluation eg objectives, revisions, and
outcomes

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Investigate the concepts of • explain the core concepts of marketing for a relevant
marketing in a services services industry
industry context
• assess the impact of the marketing environment on the
industry
• explain the relevance of consumer markets in the
industry
• identify and explain the rationale for developing
different market segments
2 Analyse the role of the • explain the key components of the marketing mix and
marketing mix assess their importance to the industry
• analyse and evaluate a range of pricing strategies and
policies in relation to the industry
3 Evaluate the components of • evaluate, using examples, the role of the promotional
the promotional mix mix
• plan an advertising campaign for a services industry
operation
• analyse the role that sales promotion and public
relations play in promotional efforts
4 Analyse the marketing • explain the relevance of market research to services
cycle in a services industry industry operations
environment.
• undertake market research for an appropriate product
or service, using primary and secondary research
methods and analyse and evaluate the resulting data
• analyse the suitability of a range of media for
marketing an appropriate product or service
• evaluate the implementation of the marketing plan for
an appropriate product or service.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit should be delivered in a sports, leisure and/or recreational context. Teachers should
be aware of the implications of the context in which they are delivering the unit and ensure that
examples and support materials eg brochures, catalogues, point of sales materials, case studies
are relevant. Learners must also share a common understanding and definition of marketing and
the relevant technical terminology.
The unit may be delivered as a stand-alone package, but the recommendation is that centres
plan to integrate this unit with others. As marketing underpins business operations, this should
be achievable without undue difficulty.
Although there must be a sound theoretical base for this unit, every effort should be made to
ensure that a practical, industry-related approach is taken to delivery, to enable learners to
appreciate the differences between marketing services and marketing products as well as the
management of intangibles. This may be achieved by a combination of visiting speakers and
visits to services industry operations to underpin currency and vocational relevance.
Learners will need to have a sound appreciation of marketing strategy, processes and practices.
Learners should be encouraged to ‘think marketing’ and to become aware of marketing in their
everyday lives. They should examine marketing practices in a sport, leisure and/or recreational
context. They should include both private and public sectors of their industry, as well as profit
and non-profit making organisations.
Breadth of knowledge and understanding may be achieved by a combination of visiting
speakers, visits to organisations and residential opportunities to cover key sectors of the
relevant services industry. Visits to industry exhibitions will enable learners to make
comparisons of promotional techniques used by exhibitors to support the delivery of outcome 4.
Case studies will enable learners to make comparisons of marketing opportunities and practices
in different types of organisations and will support learning for outcomes 2, 3 and 4. Moral and
ethical issues and examination of different marketing trends in the relevant industry will
encourage debate and exchange of ideas that will further develop learners’ understanding of
marketing decision-making.
It is important for learners to have practical experience of the marketing cycle, carrying out
appropriate marketing research in a relevant services industry. This should include subsequent
analysis of their findings, leading to rationalised conclusions.

Assessment

Evidence of outcomes may be in the form of written or oral assignments or tests, or by learners
building a portfolio of evidence. The assignments may focus on real problems or case studies.
Learning and assessment can be across units, at unit level or at outcome level. Evidence could
be at outcome level although opportunities exist for covering more than one outcome in an
assignment.
Assessment may consist of a combination of formative and summative assessments.
Learners should also have opportunities for peer and self-assessment in order to develop their
skills in being responsible for their own learning and development.

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Links

This unit can be linked to other units, depending on the style of delivery and learning,
including:
• Unit 3: Customer Service
• Unit 17: Quality Management
• Unit 20: External Business Environment
• Unit 21: Business Health Check
• Unit 22: Small Business Enterprise.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B3: Develop a strategic business plan for your organisation
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• C1: Encourage innovation in your team
• C2: Encourage innovation in your area of responsibility
• C3: Encourage innovation in your organisation
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• F1: Manage projects
• F3: Manage business processes
• F4: Develop and review a framework for marketing
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP14: Marketing.

Resources

Tutors should have experience of working at a senior level in marketing and ideally within the
relevant services industry.
Learners must have access to a library and research facilities, including use of the internet. Up-
to-date journals are important for learners to follow current developments in this competitive,
ever-changing industry.
Commercial operations within the relevant services industry should be approached to supply
authentic material for analysis or to support the development of case studies.

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Support materials

Books
Adcock D et al — Marketing: Principles and Practice (Pearson Education, 2003)
ISBN 0877785856
Brassington F and Pettitt S — Principles of Marketing (FT Prentice Hall, 2002)
ISBN 0273657917
Christopher M, Payne A and Ballantyne D — Relationship Marketing (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1993) ISBN 0750609788
Hsu C H and Powers T — Marketing Hospitality (John Wiley & Sons, 2002)
ISBN 0471348856
Jobber D — Principles and Practice of Marketing, Third Edition (McGraw-Hill Education,
2001) ISBN 0077096134
Kotler P, Bowen J and Makens J — Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism (Prentice Hall,
2002) ISBN 0130996114
Lewis R C and Chambers R E — Marketing Leadership in Hospitality: Foundations and
Practices (John Wiley & Sons, 2000) ISBN 0471332704
Lovelock C, Lewis B and Vandermerwe S — Services Marketing: European Perspectives
(FT PrenticeHall, 1999) ISBN 013095991X
Malison S — The Fundamentals of Hospitality Marketing (Thomson Learning, 2000)
ISBN 0826448321
Palmer A — Principles of Marketing (Oxford University Press, 2000) ISBN 0198775512
Raza I — Heads in Beds: Hospitality and Tourism Marketing (Prentice Hall, 2004)
ISBN 0131101005
Reid R and Bojanic D C — Hospitality Marketing Management (John Wiley & Sons, 2001)
ISBN 0471354627
Shaw M and Morris S V — Hospitality Sales: A Marketing Approach (John Wiley & Sons,
1999) ISBN 0471296791
Wearne N — Hospitality Marketing (Hospitality Press, 1994) ISBN 1862504431
Wearne N and Baker K — Hospitality Marketing in the E-Commerce Age (Hospitality Press,
2003) ISBN 186250511X
Woodruffe H — Services Marketing (FT Prentice Hall, 1998) ISBN 0273634216
Zeithaml V and Bitner M — Services Marketing (McGraw-Hill Education, 2000)
ISBN 0071169946
Further reading
Campaign
Event marketing
European Journal of Marketing
Harvard Business Review
Journal of Consumer Marketing
Journal of Marketing Management
Marketing

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Marketing Business
Marketing Review
Marketing Week
Quality daily newspapers contain business sections and market reports.
Video/DVD
The Marketing Mix at Cadbury’s (TV Choice, 1998)
Marketing Decisions (TV Choice, 1998)
What is Marketing? (TV Choice, 2001)
Websites
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and
tutors
www.dfes.gov.uk Department for Education and Skills
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 16: Sales Development and
Merchandising
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit aims to develop the learner’s understanding of the importance of sales development
and merchandising techniques in business and services operations, such as hospitality and
catering, hairdressing and beauty therapy, sports and leisure, travel and tourism. The unit is
broad-based in its approach, covering both theory and practical application of tools and
techniques, used internally and externally, to maximise sales from all aspects of the product
mix.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Investigate elements of the product in a business and services context
2 Examine external sales development techniques
3 Evaluate the tools and techniques of internal sales promotion and merchandising
4 Analyse the role of staff in maximising sales.

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Content

1 Product
Products/services: characteristics, features/benefits, product strategy/mix, life-cycle,
development processes, test-marketing — simulated and controlled, concept development
and testing, unique selling points (USPs), branding
Market segmentation: rationale for segmentation, methods of segmentation, recognising
market needs, matching ‘offer’ to market segment, benefits and constraints of branding,
theme developments
Context: eg hospitality and catering, hairdressing and beauty therapy, sports and leisure,
travel and tourism

2 External sales development techniques


Buyer behaviour: motivation theory, the purchase decision process
Advertising: media selection, costs, target markets, evaluating effectiveness, sales
promotion
External merchandising: design aspects — location, access, car parking, signage

3 Tools and techniques


Design considerations: customer ergonomics — ease of access to product and point of sale,
environment/ambience — heating, lighting, seating, noise, equipment
Internal merchandising: internal signage, sales materials, electronic sales aids, matching
materials to image created by external methods
Sales promotions: range of promotional activities, matching activities to market and outlet,
seasonal opportunities

4 Role of staff
Personal selling techniques: non-verbal communication, up-selling opportunities, customer
needs and wants, product knowledge, link between selling and service, encouraging repeat
business
Operational design: ergonomics, workflow, equipment
Training: incorporation of sales role, positive sales attitude, specific promotional training,
incentives and rewards, preparation of sales training programme

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Investigate elements of the • review and evaluate the key components of the
product in a business and product
services context
• evaluate the range of contributions to sales and profit
of elements in the product mix
• analyse how market segmentation contributes to sales
maximisation
2 Examine external sales • explain the factors affecting buyer behaviour
development techniques
• suggest appropriate advertising media for a range of
sales development situations
• evaluate the role of external merchandising in
maximising customer volumes
3 Evaluate the tools and • explain how design and layout might affect customer
techniques of internal sales spend
promotion and merchandising
• review and evaluate a range of internal
merchandising materials
• suggest promotional activities for a range of outlets
and scenarios
4 Analyse the role of staff in • apply personal selling techniques
maximising sales.
• explain the influence of operational design on sales
revenue
• identify key principles which should be included in a
sales training programme.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit encourages a learner-centred, research-based approach. A programme of formal


lectures and tutorials will provide the theoretical underpinning knowledge and will contain
practical activities in analysing examples of materials from industry and case studies. Research
will involve visits to local branded and non-branded licensed retail operations to gain first-hand
experience of the customer’s perspective and to collect examples of external and internal
merchandising materials.
The use of speakers from the management in the sector will also greatly enhance the quality of
delivery in this unit.
Learners need to appreciate:
• the product: eg alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, food, snacks, Amusement with
Prizes (AWP), accommodation, off-sales, Amusement with Skills (AWS), clothing and
related sports goods
• the product mix: ratios of wet to dry, relative profit contributions, sales volumes/average
spend per head relationship.

Assessment

Evidence for this unit may include individual or group industry-based projects, analytical case
studies, assignments, completed tests and/or evaluations of class-based exercises.

Links

This unit is closely linked with Unit 15: Marketing, exploring in more depth some of the
theories and how to apply those to the licensed retail sector of the hospitality industry.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A2: Manage your own resources and professional development
• B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• D2: Develop productive working relationships with colleagues and stakeholders
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP02: Sales Management in Hospitality.

Resources

Learners need access to different providers so that they can examine the range of products that
are offered.

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Support materials

Books
Adcock D et al — Marketing: Principles and Practice (Pearson Education, 2003)
ISBN 0877785856
Bareham J — Consumer Behaviour in the Food Industry: A European Perspective
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1995) ISBN 0750619317
Brassington F and Pettitt S — Principles of Marketing (FT Prentice Hall, 2002)
ISBN 0273657917
Hsu C H and Powers T — Marketing Hospitality (John Wiley & Sons, 2002)
ISBN 0471348856
Jobber D — Principles and Practice of Marketing, Third Edition (McGraw-Hill Education,
2001) ISBN 0077096134
Kotler P, Bowen J and Makens J — Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism (Prentice Hall,
2002) ISBN 0130996114
Lewis R C and Chambers R E — Marketing Leadership in Hospitality: Foundations and
Practices (John Wiley & Sons, 2000) ISBN 0471332704
Lovelock C, Lewis B and Vandermerwe S — Services Marketing: European Perspectives
(FT PrenticeHall, 1999) ISBN 013095991X
Malison S — The Fundamentals of Hospitality Marketing (Thomson Learning, 2000)
ISBN 0826448321
Palmer A — Principles of Marketing (Oxford University Press, 2000) ISBN 0198775512
Randall G — Branding: A Practical Guide to Planning Your Strategy (Kogan Page, 2000)
ISBN 0749432810
Raza I — Heads in Beds: Hospitality and Tourism Marketing (Prentice Hall, 2004)
ISBN 0131101005
Reid R and Bojanic D C — Hospitality Marketing Management (John Wiley & Sons, 2001)
ISBN 0471354627
Seaberg A — Menu Design: Merchandising and Marketing (John Wiley & Sons, 1990)
ISBN 0471289833
Shaw M and Morris S V — Hospitality Sales: A Marketing Approach (John Wiley & Sons,
1999) ISBN 0471296791
Teare R et al — Marketing in Hospitality and Tourism: A Consumer Focus (Thomson
Learning, 1994) ISBN 0304328251
Wearne N — Hospitality Marketing (Hospitality Press, 1994) ISBN 1862504431
Wearne N and Baker K — Hospitality Marketing in the E-Commerce Age (Hospitality Press,
2003) ISBN 186250511X
Weeks A and Mordaunt V — Effective Marketing Management: Using Merchandising and
Financial Strategies for Retail Success (Fairchild Books, 1991) ISBN 087005743X
Woodruffe H — Services Marketing (FT Prentice Hall, 1998) ISBN 0273634216
Zeithaml V and Bitner M — Services Marketing (McGraw-Hill Education, 2000)
ISBN 0071169946

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Further reading
Campaign
Marketing
Marketing Business
Marketing Review
Marketing Week
Quality daily newspapers contain business sections and market reports.
Video/DVD
The Marketing Mix at Cadbury’s (TV Choice, 1998)
Marketing Decisions (TV Choice, 1998)
What is Marketing? (TV Choice, 2001)
Websites
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and
tutors
www.dfes.gov.uk Department for Education and Skills
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 17: Quality Management
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to enable learners to understand the concept of quality and quality
management and define it in the context of business and services operations. Learners will
investigate the major quality schemes and evaluate these in terms of the benefits to the
organisation and to the customers they serve.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Examine the concept of quality management in a business and services context
2 Investigate four different quality management schemes appropriate to commercial
operations
3 Explore a range of quality controls and assess their benefits to the customer
4 Apply principles of quality management to improve the performance of an organisation.

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Content

1 Concept of quality management


Define quality: identifying and providing systems to meet/exceed customer
needs/expectations, notion of self-assessment to establish the current position of an
organisation, aims and objectives, areas for improvement, staff training needs, planning for
continuous improvement
Customer satisfaction: understanding the customer, needs and expectations, responding to
customer demand, meeting or exceeding expectations, value for money, added value and
repeat custom
Measurement of quality: systems documentation, procedures for all operations, evaluating
own procedures, comparisons with past performance/future plans (business aims and
objectives), competitors, industry standards, priorities for action, benchmarking
Context: eg hospitality and catering, sports and leisure, travel and tourism, hairdressing and
beauty therapy

2 Four different quality management schemes


Rationale: orientation/emphasis of approach eg ISO 9002, EFQM, Quest, Chartermark,
Citizens Charter, IIP
Organisations: inter-relationships between systems/staff/customer, appropriateness of each
to commercial operations
Similarities and differences: structures of schemes, applications, costs, implementation
periods, use of documentation, application of standards, identification of actions required,
assessment methodology, orientation towards customer/staff or organisation, effectiveness
as a means to improve service quality
Communication and record keeping: importance of communication across whole
organisation (vertical/horizontal), establishing agreement through consultation, notifying
actions required, currency, accuracy and relevance of records kept, comparison with
historical data, similar organisations elsewhere, industry standards, record keeping

3 Quality controls
Customer information: opening times, location, price lists, facilities, activities, staffing
levels, promotional material, raising awareness, creating true image, targeting all groups,
conveying value for money?
User and non-user surveys: profile of users, regularity of visits, spend/visit, facilities used,
likes, dislikes, preferences, suggestions, complaints
Profile of non-users: majority group, reasons for non-use, expectations/perceptions of
service, barriers to access, action required, encouraging and converting non-users
Consultation: questionnaires (distributed internally/externally), suggestion schemes,
complaints procedures, focus groups, open meetings, blanket maildrop, targeted maildrop,
direct approach to group leaders and groups

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Complaints: distribution of forms (send out/collect), internal/external, framing questions,
customer friendly/ICT friendly, easy to analyse, areas for improvement, response time,
period for remedial action, communication with complainants, measurement of customer
satisfaction

4 Principles of quality management


Self-assessment: validity of self-assessment eg subjective, bias, one dimensional;
judgement based on current practice, comparison eg with past performance of organisation,
against competition, against benchmarks for future; comparisons with similar
organisations/industry standards
Staff consultation: setting the scene, explaining rationale (objective of quality scheme),
processes involved, requirements and commitment from staff, communication and reporting
mechanisms, keeping team updated and engaged, implementation, feedback and review
Service improvements: application of concepts, documentation, administrative processes for
communication, applying standards, monitoring, action on improvements, performance
indicators, response times, feedback and review

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Examine the concept of • define quality in terms of businesses and services
quality management in a provision
business and services
• define quality in terms of customer satisfaction
context
• explain how quality management can be measured
2 Investigate four different • describe the rationale underpinning four quality
quality management schemes commonly adopted by commercial
schemes appropriate to operations
commercial operations
• identify the main similarities and differences between
four quality management systems
• explain the importance of communication and record
keeping in quality schemes
3 Explore a range of quality • assess the information made available to customers
controls and assess their and the importance given to effective marketing
benefits to the customer
• evaluate the benefit of user and non-user surveys in
determining customer needs
• examine the methods of consultation employed in one
quality scheme to encourage participation by under-
represented groups
• investigate the value of complaints procedures at two
different centres and analyse how each is used to
improve quality
4 Apply principles of quality • identify the role of self assessment in order to
management to improve determine an organisation’s current ‘state of health’
the performance of an
• explain the stages of staff consultation necessary for
organisation.
effective implementation of a quality scheme
• propose new systems or modifications to existing
systems that could improve service quality.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit should be delivered as a stand-alone unit though some underpinning knowledge for it
is provided by Unit 3: Customer Service. It is, therefore, recommended that this unit is
delivered after the option unit to provide a logical progression and prepare learners to develop
their knowledge base before investigating issues around quality.
This unit requires a considerable amount of research and guided reading will be an integral part
of the delivery. Considerable information can be accessed on the web and through published
literature. It is also important that learners have the benefit of site visits to assess for themselves
the application of quality management in ‘kite marked’ centres.
The unit could be delivered by other inputs including lead lectures, case studies, group work
(eg a quality circle) and discussion.

Assessment

Assessment could be of a formative or summative nature allowing learners either to build upon
the principles of quality and quality management and apply these to local commercial
operations or carry out a thesis/project approach to the whole unit. Assessments should be
planned to allow learners to visit centres that are quality assured (eg they have a quality
‘kitemark’) and assess the effectiveness of the scheme for themselves.
There is scope to combine assessments across all the unit outcomes by adopting a major project
approach (summative format) or assess each unit outcome separately (formative format).
Combined assessments could also provide opportunities for learners to work in groups and
evidence for the final assessment could be provided (at least in part) by a group presentation. In
doing so learners could also demonstrate the key skill of interacting with groups.
Other assessment instruments that would be appropriate to this unit include case studies, reports
and individual presentations.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit links with a wide range of others that are dependent on quality issues. Examples
include:
• Unit 3: Customer Service
• Unit 7: Industry Experience
• Unit 9: Hospitality Operations Management
• Unit 11: Conference and Banqueting Management
• Unit 12: Contract and Event Management
• Unit 13: On-licensed Trade Management
• Unit 26: Research Project.

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This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B3: Develop a strategic business plan for your organisation
• B6: Provide leadership in your area of responsibility
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• B9: Develop the culture of your organisation
• C1: Encourage innovation in your team
• C2: Encourage innovation in your area of responsibility
• C3: Encourage innovation in your organisation
• C4: Lead change
• C5: Plan change
• C6: Implement change
• F5: Resolve customer service problems
• F6: Monitor and solve customer service problems
• F7: Support customer service improvements
• F8: Work with others to improve customer service
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers
• F10: Develop a customer focused organisation
• F11: Manage the achievement of customer satisfaction
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP22: Managing Quality.

Resources

Examples of quality management manuals, policies and strategies will support learners’ work.
Case studies at this level will need careful preparation and management. There are numerous
examples of case studies focusing on business excellence in the public domain, frequently
through appropriate journals.
Learners should be encouraged to read the trade and specialist press and associated websites
regularly. They should also have full access to the internet for research purposes.

Support materials

Books
Banks J — The Essence of Total Quality Management (Prentice Hall, 1992) ISBN 013284902X
Bell D et al — Managing Quality (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005) ISBN 0750648376
Bendell T, Boulter L and Gatford K — The Benchmarking Workout: Toolkit to Help You
Construct a World Class Organisation (FT Prentice Hall, 1997) ISBN 0273626353
Brown M G — Baldridge Award Winning Quality: How to Interpret the Baldridge Criteria for
Performance Excellence (Productivity Press, 2000) ISBN 1563272326

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Camp R — Global Cases in Benchmarking (McGraw-Hill Education, 1998) ISBN 0873893883
Chang R Y and Kelly P K — Improving Through Benchmarking: A Practical Guide to
Achieving Peak Process Performance (Pfeiffer Wiley, 1999) ISBN 078795084X
Fitzsimmons J A and Fitzsimmons M J (editors) — New Service Development: Creating
Memorable Experiences (Sage, 2000) ISBN 0761917411
Huxtable N — Small Business Total Quality (Kluwer Academic, 1994) ISBN 0412602709
Juran J M — Juran’s Quality Handbook (McGraw-Hill Education, 2000) ISBN 0071165398
Kandampully J, Mok C and Sparks B A — Service Quality Management in Hospitality,
Tourism and Leisure (Haworth Press, 2001) ISBN 0789011417
Kunst P and Lemmink J — Managing Service Quality — Volume 3 (Paul Chapman, 1997)
ISBN 1853963623
Lockwood A (editor) — Quality Management in Hospitality: Best Practice in Action (Thomson
Learning, 1996) ISBN 0304334855
Oakland J S — Total Organizational Excellence: Achieving World Class Performance
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001) ISBN 0750652713
Thyne M and Laws E — Hospitality, Tourism and Lifestyle Concepts: Implications for Quality
Management and Customer Satisfaction (Haworth Press, 2005) ISBN 0789027542
Woods R H — Quality Leadership and Management in the Hospitality Industry (SOS Free
Stock, 1996) ISBN 0866120696
Zairi M — Benchmarking for Best Practice (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998) ISBN 0750639482
Further reading
Benchmarking: An International Journal
Benchmarking for Management and Technology
Business Process Management Journal
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed International)
Harvard Business Review
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management
Managing Service Quality
Total Quality Management
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Video/DVD
Broadcasts of commercial programmes relating to the hospitality industry
BBC Learning Zone — hospitality programmes

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Websites
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.dfes.gov.uk Department for Education and Skills
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel Catering and International Management
Association
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 18: Facilities Operations
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit
This unit develops the essential skills and knowledge required to deliver facilities operations in
a wide variety of contexts. These include hospitality and leisure venues, public arts venues,
tourist complexes, educational establishments such as colleges, universities, halls of residence,
hospitals, museums and many other operations which are becoming increasingly dependent on
facilities operations, as distinct from the primary function of the organisation or venue.
This unit focuses on the operational and administrative functions of the facilities role. Learners
will address the broad responsibilities and duties of a facilities manager, the legal, health and
safety obligations that fall within the remit of facilities operations and the various
administrative systems that support facilities operations. Learners will also evaluate and review
the quality and effectiveness of the facilities operation.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Investigate the operational responsibilities of a facilities manager
2 Examine the legal, health and safety obligations to be addressed by facilities operations
3 Develop and use a range of administrative systems to support facilities operations
4 Use appropriate criteria to carry out evaluation and review of the quality and effectiveness
of the facilities.

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Content

1 Operational responsibilities
Staff: structure and responsibilities, employment terms and conditions, training and
development, appraisal, legal issues eg equal opportunities, discrimination, dismissal,
working time regulations, transfer of undertakings
Buildings: uses, allocation of space, capacity, essential services and supplies (mechanical,
electrical, electronic), maintenance and repair (planned, preventative, emergency/reactive),
refurbishment and development, security
Customers: identifying and assessing needs, expectations and reactions, providing
information and advice, providing customer care and control, accessibility, safety and
security, legal obligations and liabilities, processing and monitoring sales and bookings,
maintaining communication systems and databases, ancillary services and sales
Employer/funding agencies: private and/or public ownership of facilities, management
board/trustees, local authority, funding partnerships and sources, financial management,
personal contract and accountability, lines of management responsibility, impact on
facilities operations

2 Legal, health and safety obligations


Statutory regulations: eg local authority, fire authority (expectations and requirements),
employment and insurance law, building and accessibility regulations, compliance,
licences, recording documentation
Health and safety measures: risk assessment procedures, regulations eg Control of
Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH); relevant authorities eg Health and Safety
Executive Inspectorate, Environmental Health Officer; compliance, recording
documentation

3 Administrative systems
Information processing: communications channels, ICT systems, property management
systems (PMS), management information systems (MIS), customer records, mailing
lists/databases, archive and record keeping
Control systems: budgeting and accounting, purchases and sales, human
resources/manpower planning, staff wages, salaries, statutory contributions
Building management: multi-use considerations, planning and scheduling, marketing and
publicity functions, services management, maintenance and refurbishment schedules and
records, equipment and resources controls

4 Evaluation and review


Criteria: qualitative, quantitative, objectives, targets
Evaluation: purpose, sources of information eg customers, colleagues, staff, management;
methods of data collection, types of written and oral feedback, accuracy, relevance,
reliability, validity, improvements and recommendations

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Investigate the operational • assess the responsibilities of the facilities manager for
responsibilities of a staff engaged in facilities operations
facilities manager
• identify the responsibility the facilities manager has
to operational aspects of the building
• explain, using examples, the responsibility the
facilities manager has towards customers using the
facility
• examine the impact on facilities operations of
employers and/or funding agencies
2 Examine the legal, health • assess the statutory regulations that will affect
and safety obligations to facilities operations in an agreed context
be addressed by facilities
• explain the health and safety measures that must be
operations
implemented by a facilities manager in a given
context
• describe the documentation required to account for
compliance with statutory regulations and health and
safety measures
3 Develop and use a range of • develop and deploy effective systems for processing
administrative systems to information and maintaining communications
support facilities operations
• identify the control systems required for effective
facilities operations within an agreed context
• explain the systems needed by a facilities manager to
support effective building management
4 Use appropriate criteria to • establish appropriate criteria to evaluate the quality
carry out evaluation and and effectiveness of facilities operations
review of the quality and
• implement evaluation and review procedures to
effectiveness of the
analyse the quality and effectiveness of facilities
facilities.
operations.

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Guidance

Delivery
This unit can be delivered in a wide variety of contexts, including service industries such as
hospitality, travel, tourism, sports, leisure and recreational industries. Teachers should be aware
of the implications of the context in which they are delivering the unit and ensure that examples
and support materials (eg marketing materials for the facility, job descriptions, examples of
documentation, feedback from facilities users, case studies, lists of useful websites) are
relevant. Learners must also share a common understanding and definition of facilities
management and the relevant technical terminology.
The unit may be delivered as a stand-alone package, but the recommendation is that centres
plan to integrate this unit with others. It is important for learners to understand the differences
between the operational and management levels of this area of study.
Lectures and seminars can be designed to deliver current knowledge and understanding of
professional facilities operations practice, together with an overview of the skills needed to
implement such knowledge and understanding in future practice. A programme of visits to
commercial establishments and visiting speakers will enhance the currency and vocational
relevance of this rapidly-developing industry. Learners should understand the importance of
keeping their knowledge of industry practice up to date. Case studies can be used to highlight
key issues, particularly to cover problem areas that may not occur naturally through visits or
visiting speakers.
Tutors should take care to deliver the knowledge and understanding of legal, health and safety
obligations at an appropriate level. This unit is an introductory unit for facilities operations and
it is important for learners to have an overview of the obligations rather than an in-depth study
of associated laws and regulations. More detailed study of safety management can be achieved
through the Higher Nationals in Facilities Management (Unit 4: Safety Management) if
required.

Assessment

Tutors and learners should be aware that delivery of this unit is dependent on the context in
which it is set. Learners should ensure that evidence they generate to demonstrate learning
outcomes is appropriate to the context in which they work or intend to work.
Learners are expected to carry out personal research and investigation based on a facility of
their choosing. This should relate to their future career aspirations in order to add value to their
work. Investigative work can include research on the internet as well as with real facilities
operators. Learners should consider their capabilities regarding interview skills, particularly
when investigating the operational responsibilities of a manager.
Evidence can be presented as a formal report or through a live presentation to a group, which
should include representatives from the facility investigated by the learner.

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Links

This unit has links with a number of other units within this qualification, including Unit 19:
Facilities Management.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• E4: Promote the use of technology within your organisation
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety
• F5: Resolve customer service problems
• F6: Monitor and solver customer service problems
• F7: Support customer service improvements
• F8: Work with others to improve customer service
• F10: Develop a customer focused organisation
• F11: Manage the achievement of customer satisfaction
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP27: Facilities Management
• OP28: Property and Estates Management.

Resources

It is important that centres establish supportive contact with a range of facilities operations in
the local area. Learners will need to make contact with such organisations to develop their
investigations into facilities operations.
Case studies will offer the opportunity to develop specific issues. Tutors should also gather a
bank of documentation used in facilities operations, such as marketing and administrative
materials.

Support materials

Books
Alexander K (editor) — Facilities Management: Theory and Practice (Spon Press, 1996)
ISBN 0419205802
Barrett P and Baldry D — Facilities Management: Towards Best Practice (Blackwell Science,
2003) ISBN 0632064455
Jones C et al — Accommodation Management (BT Batsford, 1998) ISBN 0713469374
Kirk D — Environmental Management for Hotels: A Student’s Handbook (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1995) ISBN 0750623802

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Medlik S and Ingram H (editor) — The Business of Hotels (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000)
ISBN 0750641150
Ransley J and Ingram H — Developing Hospitality Properties and Facilities (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 2004) ISBN 0750659823
Spedding A (editor) — CIOB Handbook of Facilities Management (Longman, 1994)
ISBN 0582257425
Further reading
Bulletin (BIFM)
Facilities Management Journal (Market Place Publishing)
Facilities Management UK (Heatherington Enterprises)
Facilities Management World (BIFM)
International Journal of Facilities Management (E&FN Spon)
Premises and Facilities Management (IMP Techpress)
Websites
www.bifm.org.uk British Institute of Facilities Management
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and
tutors
www.dfes.gov.uk Department for Education and Skills
www.fmlink.com FM Link
www.future-energy-solutions.com Future Energy Solutions
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 19: Facilities Management
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit builds on Unit 18: Facilities Operations and examines the wider management issues
that need to be addressed by a facilities management operation. The unit focuses on external
issues including customer services, quality and environmental issues, as well as the use and
management of buildings. Learners will also examine a range of support functions, such as:
procurement, ICT, financial and people management. They will also explore a range of strategic
issues, including project management and health and safety.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Investigate the public image of facilities management
2 Examine the support functions needed to underpin facilities management
3 Assess a range of issues relating to buildings, services and fabric
4 Consider the strategic issues facing a facilities manager.

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Content

1 Public image
Customer services: policy, customer-focused culture, requirements and satisfaction levels,
quality provision and systems eg Investors in People, European Model of Business
Excellence; benchmarking techniques, embedding customer service and quality
The environment: management of the environment, facilities management strategies
eg sourcing utilities, monitoring and targeting, opportunities, energy management, pollution

2 Support functions
Support services: in-house, out-sourced, service specifications, tendering, quality control,
benchmarking
Procurement: resource management, strategy and management, systems, processes, risks,
procurement officer, contracts, sourcing issues, purchasing power, pricing management
Information management and technology: hardware, software, communication systems,
collection and analysis of data, uses, flow of information, relevant legislation, trends,
technological developments, implications
Financial management: sources and flow of finance, planning and control systems,
performance, cost/budget centres
People management: recruitment and selection of staff, working relationships, managing
and developing human resources, industrial relations and legislation

3 Buildings, services and fabric


Property: fabric eg building construction and adaptation, design factors, external/internal
finishes; services eg mechanical, electrical, electronic; maintenance ie planned,
preventative, emergency/reactive
Space management: space evaluation, defining and measuring space, techniques, situations,
design solutions, layouts, space allocation, influences eg environmental, aesthetic, equal
opportunities, constraints, legislation
Property portfolio: legal framework, licenses, insurance, managing portfolios, investments,
tenancy agreements, property and asset registers

4 Strategic issues
Facilities management strategies: core business, analysis of requirements, decision-
making, applying solutions, management control systems, business continuity, security,
trends, socio-economic change, legal and political environments
Project management: project manager, brief, procurement, conflict, quality, planning and
evaluation, team management/building, evaluation techniques, communication and
reporting, importance to facilities management
Safety management: current legislation, regulatory authorities, risk identification and
management, problem solving, application and implementation, compliance, recording
documentation

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Investigate the public • assess the delivery of a range of customer services
image of facilities within a facilities management context
management
• explain the purpose of embedding customer service
and quality within facilities management provision
• describe different facilities management strategies
that contribute to management of the environment
2 Examine the support • describe a range of support functions in a given
functions needed to facilities management context
underpin facilities
• explain the contribution that different support
management
functions make to effective facilities management
3 Assess a range of issues • describe, using examples, the effective management
relating to buildings, of property fabric and services
services and fabric
• explain how space management impacts on facilities
management
• assess the implications of a property portfolio on
wider facilities management issues
4 Consider the strategic • explain a range of strategies for managing a facility
issues facing a facilities
• assess the importance of effective project
manager.
management in managing a facility
• analyse the implications of safety management in a
given facilities management context.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit can be delivered in a wide variety of contexts, including service industries such as:
hospitality, travel, tourism, sports, leisure and recreational industries. Tutors should be aware of
the context in which they are delivering the unit and ensure that examples and support materials
(eg case study materials, examples of working practices, documents such as outsourcing
contracts and procurement procedures) are relevant. Learners must also share a common
understanding and definition of facilities management and the relevant technical terminology.
The unit may be delivered as a stand-alone package, but the recommendation is that centres
plan to integrate this unit with others. Tutors should be aware of the links between this unit and
Unit 18: Facilities Operations. It is important for learners to understand the differences
between operational and management levels of this area of study.
Tutors should establish relationships with facilities managers in a range of commercial
operations. Such managers can be valuable as visiting speakers to underpin topics such as the
public image of facilities management or strategic management issues. Learners should be
encouraged to investigate a range of support issues, possibly through personal contact with a
facilities management operation or through research using the internet. Information
management and technology can be delivered through researching the range of software
available and presentations either by users or suppliers.
Learners should also understand the wider aspects of support functions including financial and
people management. This unit is not intended to provide the knowledge and understanding to
cover these specialist areas, but rather to clarify how each aspect contributes to effective
facilities management.
Delivery of issues relating to buildings, services and fabric should be supported by visits to
relevant commercial operations. Such visits should be hosted by a facilities management
specialist who has the capacity and knowledge to relate the visit to the unit content. This may
involve briefing the visit host in advance to highlight issues the tutor wishes to cover.

Assessment

Facilities management is a service-based sector. Tutors and learners should be aware that
delivery of this unit is dependent on the context in which it is set. Learners should ensure that
evidence they generate to demonstrate learning outcomes is appropriate to the context in which
they work or intend to work.
It is important for learners to establish good relations with commercial facilities managers in
order to provide currency and vocational realism. Evidence can be presented as a formal report
or through a live presentation to a group, which should include representatives from the facility
on which the learner’s work is focused.

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Links

This unit has links with a number of other units within this qualification, including Unit 18:
Facilities Operations.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• E4: Promote the use of technology within your organisation
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety
• F5: Resolve customer service problems
• F6: Monitor and solve customer service problems
• F7: Support customer service improvements
• F8: Work with others to improve customer service
• F10: Develop a customer focused organisation
• F11: Manage the achievement of customer satisfaction
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP27: Facilities Management
• OP28: Property and Estates Management.

Resources

It is important that centres establish supportive contact with a range of facilities operations in
the local area. Learners will need to make contact with such organisations to develop their
investigations into facilities management and to support issues relating to property fabric and
services. Tutors should include their own centre when considering such facilities.
Information management and technology forms a key area and centres should ensure they have
appropriate software for demonstration purposes.
Case studies will also offer the opportunity to develop specific issues. Tutors should also gather
a bank of documentation used in facilities management, such as customer service policies,
service specifications for outsourcing or procurement procedures.

Support materials

Books
Alexander K (editor) — Facilities Management: Theory and Practice (Spon Press, 1996)
ISBN 0419205802
Barrett P and Baldry D — Facilities Management: Towards Best Practice (Blackwell Science,
2003) ISBN 0632064455
Cole G A — Management Theory and Practice (Thomson Learning, 2003) ISBN 1844800881

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Jones C et al — Accommodation Management (BT Batsford, 1998) ISBN 0713469374
Kirk D — Environmental Management for Hotels: A Student’s Handbook (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1995) ISBN 0750623802
Medlik S and Ingram H (editor) — The Business of Hotels (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000)
ISBN 0750641150
Park A — Facilities Management: An Explanation (Palgrave Macmillan, 1998)
ISBN 0333737989
Ransley J and Ingram H — Developing Hospitality Properties and Facilities (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 2004) ISBN 0750659823
Spedding A (editor) — CIOB Handbook of Facilities Management (Longman, 1994)
ISBN 0582257425
Wustemann L et al — Facilities Management Handbook (LexisNexis, 2003) ISBN 0754523748
Further reading
Bulletin (BIFM)
Facilities Management Journal (Market Place Publishing)
Facilities Management UK (Heatherington Enterprises)
Facilities Management World (BIFM)
International Journal of Facilities Management (E&FN Spon)
Premises and Facilities Management (IMP Techpress)
Websites
www.bifm.org.uk British Institute of Facilities Management
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and
tutors
www.dfes.gov.uk Department for Education and Skills
www.fmlink.com FM Link website
www.future-energy-solutions.com Future Energy Solutions
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 20: External Business Environment
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit investigates the external factors that affect the operation and strategic development of
commercial organisations, with a focus on business and services operations, such as hospitality
and catering, hairdressing and beauty therapy, sports and leisure, travel and tourism.
It is a broad-based unit covering the diverse range of external influences that affect business
development, including socio-economic change, legal and political issues and the statutory
requirements for establishing and developing a business operation.
The unit provides the basis for more specific specialist study in aspects of business
management.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Investigate the impact of socio-economic change on the development of commercial
organisations in a business and services industry context
2 Investigate how the legal and political environments affect business and service industries
3 Consider the statutory requirements for establishing and developing a business and
services operation.

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Content

1 Socio-economic change
Structure and operation of UK economy: market structure, perfect/imperfect competition,
oligopoly, duopoly and monopoly, national/local factors, determinants of free-market
economy
Government economic policy: aims and influence, effects on employment policy, inflation,
balance of payments, economic growth in industry sector, current issues
Income, wealth, employment and occupational distribution: structure and composition of
business and services industry, patterns of demand for business and services, the socio-
economic framework of demand, labour demand in industry sector
Demographic trends: geographical pattern of labour demand, nature of employment in
business and services industries, employment profiles eg age, sex
Social structures: types of people employed, geographical variations, self-employed,
unemployed, labour turnover, levels of pay
Industry context: eg hospitality and catering, hairdressing and beauty therapy, sports and
leisure, travel and tourism

2 Legal and political environments


Structure, operation and influence of local government: structure, areas of control, limits of
authority, interface with national government, powers affecting business and services
industries
Role and influence of the EU: history of the EU, relationship with national and local
government, influence of the EU directly/indirectly on business and services industries
Pressure groups: role, types, political influence, why they emerge, reasons for existence,
memberships, influence of pressure groups on government, national and local issues,
overall impact
Legal framework within the UK: role of legislation within the UK, regional variations,
English system versus Scottish system, legal influences directly affecting business and
services industries, impact of national parliaments/assemblies
Legislative process: the structure of the legal system, the legislative process in relation to
national and local government, the legislative process and the individual

3 Statutory requirements
Business and services operations: types eg private ownership, partnership, companies,
public, private, limited by shares, limited by guarantee, unlimited companies, business
names
Registered companies: formation, structure, processes, dissolution, memorandum of
association, articles of association, statutory declaration, statutory list, responsibilities and
control eg agents, directors, senior executives, different types of company meetings, voting
rights

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Investigate the impact of • describe the structure and operation of the UK
socio-economic change on economy
the development of
• explain current government economic policy and its
commercial organisations in
effect on business and services industries
a business and services
industry context • explain income, wealth, employment and
occupational distribution in relation to the provision
of business and services operations
• assess the demographic trends that influence
employment patterns in business and services
industries
• analyse the social structures of people employed in
business and services industries
2 Investigate how the legal • describe the structure, operation and influence of
and political environments local government
affect business and service
• evaluate the role and influence of the EU, and its
industries
impact on business and services industries
• assess the role of pressure groups and their political
influence in relation to national and local issues
• summarise the legal framework within the UK,
identifying the main differences between the English
and Scottish systems
• explain the legislative process as it affects business
and services industries at both local and national level
3 Consider the statutory • describe the different types and characteristics of
requirements for business that operate within the business and services
establishing and developing sector
a business and services
• explain, using examples, the legal processes
operation.
necessary for formation and dissolution of a
registered company
• describe the structure and processes which determine
the responsibilities and control within a registered
company.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit can be delivered as a stand-alone package or integrated with others. For learners to
gain the most benefit from this unit, tutors should ensure that it is delivered in the context of
study appropriate to the learners’ needs, for example hospitality and catering, hairdressing and
beauty therapy, sports and leisure, travel and tourism. Support materials should reflect the focus
of the context in which the unit is being delivered.
Much can be achieved through discussion groups about various aspects of socio-economic
change. Research into issues such as demographics can support such discussions. A debate
forum can also be a useful way of exploring some of the issues covered by the content of this
section. Visiting speakers from national and multinational organisations will support the
context of this section. Other invited speakers could include representatives from industry-led
groups such as the Sector Skills Councils or the Learning and Skills Council.
The section on legal and political environments will require formal input to present a
comprehensive summary of issues such as the structure, operation and influence of local
government and the role and influence of the EU. Support from local political networks can be
useful, but should be handled sensitively to avoid any risk of political bias. Once this has been
achieved, further discussion and debate will extend learners’ thinking and enhance their
approach to the development of knowledge and understanding.
Statutory requirements will again require formal input to establish the frameworks for different
types of organisation and the procedures for establishing and dissolving business organisations.
Visiting speakers can be drawn from legal advisers such as solicitors and other sources of
advice such as business counsellors and banking experts, as well as local business people who
have direct experience of such activities. Once again, debate and discussion can highlight
advantages and disadvantages of different approaches.
Tutors should develop links with appropriate local businesses, which can be used to provide
real supporting materials to underpin various issues. Appropriate case study material will
enhance the delivery of this unit. For those learners with no previous knowledge of the
appropriate industry, the unit will be more relevant if it is delivered following a period of
industrial work experience. Learners will benefit from exposure to business and services
commercial operations. Wherever possible, a practical approach should be adopted with the use
of appropriate case studies.

Assessment

This unit addresses issues relating to the external business environment within the business and
services sector. This includes sports and leisure, hospitality and catering, hairdressing and
beauty therapy, travel and tourism. Learners should only be expected to provide evidence from
the sports and leisure sector, although some comparisons with other industries would be useful.
Tutors should be conscious of the risk of evidence being too theoretical, resulting in a dry and
meaningless portfolio of evidence. It is important for learners to base evidence on real local
businesses where possible. Case study material based on recent business events will add further
to currency and vocational realism.
Evidence of outcomes could be in the form of assignments, case studies, projects set during
periods of work experience in business and services industries and/or tests/examinations.

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This unit relies heavily on learners investigating the external factors which affect the operation
and strategic development of business and services industries. As a result, some of the evidence
may be accumulated by learners building a portfolio, which is best achieved through work
experience.

Links

This unit can be linked with a number of units, including:


• Unit 3: Customer Service
• Unit 19: Facilities Management
• Unit 24: Information Management and Technology.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A2: Manage your own resources and professional development
• A3: Develop your personal networks
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• B9: Develop the culture of your organisation
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links to the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP25: The European Business Environment.

Resources

Most clearing banks offer business packs which could serve as a useful teaching resource.
Additionally, Learning and Skills Councils and Chambers of Commerce can provide a wealth
of information to complement learning activities.

Support materials

Books
Baron D — Business and its Environment (Prentice-Hall, 2002) ISBN 0130470643
Blair A and Hitchcock D — Environment and Business (Routledge, 2000) ISBN 0415208319
Butler D — Business Planning: A Guide to Business Start-up (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000)
ISBN 075064706X
Campbell D and Craig T — Organizations and the Business Environment (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 2005) ISBN 0750658290
Cole G A — Management Theory and Practice (Thomson Learning, 1996) ISBN 1858051665
Dawson S — Analysing Organisations (Palgrave Macmillan, 1996) ISBN 0333660951
De la Torre J and Truitt W B — Business Planning: A Comprehensive Framework and Process
(Greenwood Press, 2001) ISBN 1567204759
Denham P, Otter R and Martin J — Law: A Modern Introduction (Hodder Arnold H&S, 1999)
ISBN 0340704810

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Yu L — The International Hospitality Business: Management and Operations (Haworth Press,
1999) ISBN 078900559X
Websites
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and
tutors
www.dfes.gov.uk Department for Education and Skills
www.future-energy-solutions.com Future Energy Solutions
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 21: Business Health Check
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit introduces learners to the process of carrying out a business health check. Learners
will learn how techniques can be applied to track the progress of a business and amend its
direction depending on what is happening inside and outside the business at any time. Learners
will also develop techniques that review management and staffing skill and enable them to
respond to new challenges.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Review the focus of the business
2 Develop plans for the business
3 Evaluate and develop skills of management and staff.

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Content

1 Focus of the business


Focus: current positioning of business, priorities, successes, distracters, current/future aims
eg short-, medium- and long-term; strengths and weaknesses, stakeholders, sources of
advice and guidance, potential for business improvement
Factors impacting on the business: external, internal, resources, opportunities, threats

2 Develop plans
Review: eg products/services, marketing, sales, finances, staffing; effectiveness, overall
business performance, business image, record keeping
Business planning: forecasting eg for marketing and sales, design, productivity, quality,
service, financial management systems; roles and responsibilities of staff and management,
performance monitoring, laws and regulations (including updating), action planning,
timescales, risk assessment, appropriate sources of advice, relevant information,
information handling and administration

3 Evaluate and develop skills


Evaluate: monitor performance eg current experience, skills and abilities (technical,
operational, managerial); effect of current performance on the business, assess targets set,
other relevant information, make informed judgements
Planning and development: assessing re-skilling/up-skilling needs, setting clear targets,
linking skills targets to business targets, advice and training, costs/benefits analysis
Support and advice: free and paid-for help, personal contacts, networks, fees, limitations of
advice and support, record keeping

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Review the focus of the • analyse the objectives of the business
business
• describe factors that impact on the business
• determine potential improvements to the business
organisation and/or operation
2 Develop plans for the • review the effectiveness of the business
business
• develop plans to improve the business
3 Evaluate and develop skills • evaluate the current skills of management and staff
of management and staff.
• outline plans for the development of skills for
management and staff
• explain what sources of support and advice are
available and how they can contribute to business
development.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit can be delivered in a wide variety of contexts, including service industries such as
hospitality, travel, tourism, sport, leisure and recreational industries. Tutors should be aware of
the context in which they are delivering the unit and ensure that examples and support materials
(eg copies of mission statements, business plans, case studies, cuttings from the business press)
are relevant.
The unit may be delivered as a stand-alone package, but the recommendation is that centres
plan to integrate this unit with others.
Business priorities will vary and discussion groups will enable learners to consider a broad
range of issues, such as turnover, profitability, sales and marketing, customer and employee
satisfaction, quality of products or services, productivity and product development. Learners
should understand the need to take into account the interests of stakeholders, such as owners,
customers, staff, backers and suppliers.
Discussion groups can also support consideration of factors that can impact on the business.
These again will vary, depending on the perspective of the learner and his or her focus of study.
External factors can include: customer demand, competition from other businesses, the amount
of money or backing that is available to the business, laws or regulations that apply to the
business, the tools, equipment, materials and staff needed to run the business and any new
developments in technology and materials (such as information and communications
technology). Learners should also consider the location of the business and environmental
issues, such as processing materials or disposing of waste.
Internal factors that may impact on the business include the organisation of staff, how
effectively the business is managed, the design and quality of the products or services, sales and
marketing issues, staff training and attitude, and the working environment. Operational issues
could cover interpreting financial statements or reports, evaluating actual performance against
targets. Learners can also discuss the resources that support a business, including finance, staff,
premises, materials, tools and equipment. These areas highlight the focus of the unit: to develop
learners’ understanding of how to carry out the processes supporting a business health check.
Tutors should resist, for example, directing learners in how to interpret financial statements.
Tutors should also develop learners’ understanding of a range of opportunities and threats that
may impact on a business. Discussion groups could focus on opportunities that include
expanding the existing market of a business, establishing new markets, developing new
products and services or improving existing ones, cutting costs or putting up prices, or
simplifying the organisation or operation of the business. Threats that learners should consider
might include changes in the market for the business’s products and services, competition, new
laws, or problems with suppliers or backers.
In reviewing a business in order to develop plans, tutors may choose for the learner group to
work as a whole unit to support an existing business, or to use a case study. It is important to
understand the development of health-check processes for the outcome of this unit. Capacity is
limited by the time frame for delivering and assessing the unit and a wider coverage can be
achieved through a group effort.
Learners need to understand the range of support and help they can utilise when carrying out a
business health check. Sources of advice and guidance they can explore include: business
associates, business advice centres, business advisers, counsellors, coaches or mentors,
specialist consultants, non-executive directors, mentors, accountants and other professionals.

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Learners can also discuss the benefits to be gained from personal contacts, for example, with
business associates, suppliers, members of professional associations and through internet chat
rooms; or through the development of networks, for example, through training events,
discussion groups, trade associations or clubs. Specialists could be invited in as guest speakers,
which would add valuable currency to the focus of the unit.

Assessment

Evidence should be gathered where possible from links with local business organisations
willing to support the delivery of this unit. Learners must respect the confidential nature of data
and other business-orientated information generated by their investigations. A clear policy
statement from the centre reflecting this may encourage local industry to support both delivery
and the generation of appropriate evidence.
In return, learners can then carry out an effective business health-check based on a real business
with potential outcomes. It is essential that learners confirm the outcomes of their work with the
tutor before presenting them to a business manager or owner. This is to ensure the accuracy and
validity of the guidance being proposed.
The results of learners’ work can be demonstrated through a presentation, although there are
issues of confidentiality and tutors should consider the time required to observe such
presentations on an individual basis. Learners can arrange to work in pairs and share the
delivery of the presentation, which itself will result in a more in-depth business health-check
being carried out.
Alternatively, the evidence can be presented in written report format. Either form of assessment
is equally valid in the business world, where consultants may be asked to provide feedback in
different ways.

Links

This unit has links with a number of other units within this qualification. Tutors and learners
should take into consideration the core operation of the business being investigated and ensure
that links with other relevant units are reflected in their work.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B3: Develop a strategic business plan for your operation
• B4: Put the strategic business plan into action
• B9: Develop the culture of your organisation
• B10: Manage risk
• B11: Promote diversity in your area of responsibility
• B12: Promote diversity in your organisation
• C1: Encourage innovation in your team
• C2: Encourage innovation in your area of responsibility
• C3: Encourage innovation in your organisation
• C4: Lead change
• C5: Plan change

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• C6: Implement change
• D5: Allocate and check work in your team
• D6: Allocate and monitor the progress and quality of work in your area of responsibility
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E3: Obtain additional finance for the organisation
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP19: Establishing a Small Business.

Resources

The principle resource for this unit is access to a range of local business operations who are
willing to co-operate with delivery and assessment, in return for practical guidance through the
outcome of learners’ work. This should be supported by case studies used to illustrate
theoretical points and issues, together with current cuttings and reports from the business press,
which will contribute to vocational realism.
Tutors should also establish relationships with business consultants and other providers of
business support. This can be delivered to learners either as stand-alone presentations of
business practice, or as part of a real business health-check being provided for a local
organisation.

Support materials

Books
Ace C — Effective Promotional Planning for E-Business: A Practical Guide to Planning and
Implementing a Promotional Plan That Works! (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001)
ISBN 0750652683
Arkebauer J B and Miller J — Leading Edge Business Planning for Entrepreneurs (Dearborn
Trade Publishing, 1999) ISBN 157410117X
Bangs D H — The Market Planning Guide: Creating a Plan to Successfully Market Your
Business, Product or Service (Dearborn Trade Publishing, 2002) ISBN 0793159717
Bowman C and Asch D — Managing Strategy (Palgrave Macmillan, 1995) ISBN 0333608887
Butler D — Business Planning: A Guide to Business Start-up (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000)
ISBN 075064706X
Chapman J — Successful Business Recovery Planning in a Week (Hodder Arnold H&S, 2002)
ISBN 0340804939
Chattell A — Managing for the Future (Palgrave Macmillan, 1995) ISBN 0333624890
Cole G A — Management: Theory and Practice (Thomson Learning, 1996) ISBN 1858051665
De la Torre J and Truitt W B — Business Planning: A Comprehensive Framework and Process
(Greenwood Press, 2001) ISBN 1567204759
Foster-Walker M and Lemaire C — Start and Run an Event Planning Business (Self-Counsel
Press, 2004) ISBN 1551803674

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Patsula P J — Successful Business Planning in 30 Days: A Step by Step Guide for Writing a
Business Plan and Starting Your Own Business (Patsula Media, 2004) ISBN 0967840236
Thoren-Turner K — Start your own Event Planning Business (Entrepreneur Press, 2004)
ISBN 1932156844
Woods K — From Acorns: How to Start Your Brilliant Business from Scratch (Prentice Hall,
2004) ISBN 1405801549
Websites
www.bizcoach.org BizCoach.org — common questions asked by
small-business owners
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and
tutors
www.cbi.org.uk Confederation of British Industry — the UK’s
leading employers’ organisation
www.dfes.gov.uk Department for Education and Skills
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 22: Small Business Enterprise
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
The unit is primarily designed for learners who are interested in small business enterprises and
looks at the development and expansion of such businesses. The unit draws together many of
the topics covered in other units and allows learners to practise the business skills required in a
small business.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Investigate performance of a selected small business enterprise
2 Propose changes to improve management and business performance
3 Revise business objectives and plans to incorporate proposed changes
4 Examine the impact and management of change in the business operations.

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Content

1 Investigate performance
Business profile: components of the business, objectives of the business, internal and
external factors affecting business performance, performance measures, constraints and
restrictions on business, responsibilities and liabilities of owner-manager
Comparative measures of performance: comparisons with other similar-sized businesses in
same geographical area, comparisons with businesses in same or similar industry,
comparisons with industry averages; comparisons should cover all areas — financial,
production, marketing, sales, human resources, use of technology
Analysis of business information: analysis of past and current business information —
financial, marketing information, sales, production, human resource efficiency,
management effectiveness — using ratios, budget information, market research results,
SWOT analysis, business reports eg production efficiency

2 Improve management and business performance


Overcoming weaknesses: problem-solving strategies, sources and availability of
professional advice in appropriate areas, finding solutions and alternatives, availability and
use of outsourcing for specific functions eg payroll, debt collection
Maintaining and strengthening existing business: maintaining appropriate performance
records, building on business strengths, maintaining market share/position, importance of
good customer/supplier/advisor relationships
New opportunities: identifying areas for expansion eg niche markets and export
opportunities where appropriate, research techniques, evaluating projects, assessing project
requirements, costing and finding finance for new projects, risk assessment
Evaluation of management and personnel: skills audit, self-evaluation, development of self
and associated personnel, assessing costs and benefits of self and staff development

3 Business objectives and plans


Business objectives: structure of business objectives, assessment of business objectives in
the light of current performance, making changes to business objectives, impact of changes
on business plans
Business plans: structure of integrated business plans (financial, sales and marketing,
production/output, personnel), use of business plans, evaluation of plans against business
objectives, incorporating changes to plans, budgeting for changes, preparation of business
forecasts
Action plans: plans to implement changes, systems to manage, monitor and evaluate
changes, performance measures, milestones, setting deadlines

4 Impact and management of change


Impact of change: effects of change on all areas of business — finance, workloads, morale,
job roles, physical aspects eg office space, production methods; use of technology,
anticipating possible obstacles/problems
Management of change: monitoring effects of change, maintaining systems and records to
evaluate impact of change, appropriate revision of plans in response to actual results

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Investigate performance • describe the profile of a selected small business
of a selected small business
• review and analyse the performance of the business
enterprise
• identify strengths and weaknesses of the business
2 Propose changes to • recommend appropriate actions required to overcome
improve management and the weaknesses identified
business performance
• investigate ways in which existing performance could
be maintained and strengthened
• suggest new areas in which the business could be
expanded, justifying suggestions
3 Revise business objectives • review existing business objectives and plans
and plans to incorporate
• revise business plans to incorporate appropriate
proposed changes
changes
• prepare action plans to implement changes
4 Examine the impact and • assess the impact of changes on the business and
management of change in associated personnel
the business operations.
• explain how the implementation of changes will be
managed in the business
• monitor improvements in business and management
performance over a given timescale.

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Guidance

Delivery

This specialist unit enables learners to explore the performance of a small business enterprise
and consider the critical management issues involved in ensuring its success.
Learners should be exposed to a variety of case studies from the hospitality industry in order to
gain coverage of the different aspects of small business management and development. They
will need to be able to identify the specific problems that a small business can face and find
workable solutions to ensure continuation of the business. In order to gain an insight into the
issues facing small businesses, learners would benefit from guest speakers, such as those
operating a small business or organisations that support small businesses. Visits to local
business enterprises would also help to develop learners’ understanding of the current issues
affecting these enterprises. Although there are generic issues which affect all small businesses,
learners should consider some of the hospitality-specific issues, including high susceptibility to
economic fluctuation and small profit margins.
In developing an awareness of business objectives and plans, learners should consider realistic
scenarios and understand the implications of proposed changes on the operation of the business.

Assessment

Learners will be expected to provide evidence of an investigation into the performance of a


selected small business. Some learners may be in a position to use their own employment as a
basis for the course. Family businesses may also provide opportunities for generating evidence.
Tutors should be aware that evidence collected from a real business is always most useful for
learners but, if necessary, case study material may be provided for the learner.
When proposing changes to improve the performance businesses, learners should be realistic
and demonstrate an awareness of the environment in which small businesses operate. Tutors are
advised that economic shifts and changes in legislation or fiscal policy will have an impact on
the validity of recommendations that learners make.
Although there are limitations to the level of reality that can be achieved, wherever possible
learners should focus their investigation on real businesses in order to minimise the levels of
simulation that are necessary.

Links

The unit can be linked with a number of others, including:


• Unit 20: External Business Environment
• Unit 21: Business Health Check
• Unit 23: Financial Management
• Unit 24: Information Management and Technology
• Unit 25: Introduction to Internet and E-Business.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A3: Develop your personal networks

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• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B3: Develop a strategic business plan for your organisation
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• C5: Plan change
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E3: Obtain additional finance for the organisation
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links to the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP19: Establishing a Small Business.

Resources

Some learners may be able to use their own experience of small business as a basis for work on
the course. Higher National Diploma learners will need to be given realistic case studies.
Local government reports and statistics relating to small businesses are available in most public
libraries.
The Open University Business School Small Business Programme publications provide a series
of titles covering accounting and finance, product development and marketing, and human
resource management and recruitment. Each publication provides knowledge and case study
examples. In some cases a video or audio tape is also available. Contact the Open University for
details.

Support materials

Books
Arkebauer J B and Miller J — Leading Edge Business Planning for Entrepreneurs (Dearborn
Trade Publishing, 1999) ISBN 157410117X
Bangs D H — The Market Planning Guide: Creating a Plan to Successfully Market your
Business, Product or Service (Dearborn Trade Publishing, 2002) ISBN 0793159717
Brown R (editor) — The Business Plan Workbook (Kogan Page, 2001) ISBN 0749434996
Butler D — Business Planning: A Guide to Business Start-up (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000)
ISBN 075064706X
De la Torre J and Truitt W B — Business Planning: A Comprehensive Framework and Process
(Greenwood Press, 2001) ISBN 1567204759
Foster-Walker M and Lemaire C — Start and Run an Event Planning Business (Self-Counsel
Press, 2004) ISBN 1551803674
Patsula P J — Successful Business Planning in 30 Days: A Step by Step Guide for Writing a
Business Plan and Starting Your Own Business (Patsula Media, 2004) ISBN 0967840236
Scarborough N M and Zimmerer T W — Effective Small Business Management: An
Entrepreneurial Approach (Prentice Hall, 2002) ISBN 0130081167
Stokes D — Small Business Management (Thomson Learning, 2002) ISBN 0826456790

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Vass J (editor) — The ‘Which?’ Guide to Starting Your Own Business: How to Make a Success
of Going Alone (Which? Books, 1999) ISBN 0852027699
Wilson P — The Barclays Guide to Financial Management for the Small Business (Blackwell,
1990) ISBN 0631172548
Woods K — From Acorns: How to Start Your Brilliant Business from Scratch (Prentice Hall,
2004) ISBN 1405801549
Zimmerer T — Essentials of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management (Prentice Hall,
2004) ISBN 0131491784
Further reading
A Guide to Help for Small Firms (Department of Trade and Industry)
Useful organisations
Small Firms Enterprise Development Initiative (SFEDI)
12 Stephenson Court
Fraser Road
Priory Business Park
Bedford MK44 3WH
Telephone/fax: 01234 831222
Website: www.sfedi.co.uk
Email: info@sfedi.co.uk
SFEDI is the standards setting body for the National Occupational Standards for small firms.
They publish a wide range of useful material. A catalogue is available from the above address.
Federation of Small Businesses
2 Catherine Place
Westminster
London SW1E 6HF
Telephone: 020 7592 8100
Fax: 020 7233 7899
Website: www.fsb.org.uk
The Prince’s Trust
18 Park Square East
London NW1 4LH
Telephone: 0800 842 842
Website: www.princes-trust.org.uk
The Small Business Bureau
Curzon House
Church Road
Windlesham
Surrey GU20 6BH
Telephone: 01276 452 010
Fax: 01276 451 602
Website: www.smallbusinessbureau.org.uk
Websites
www.abi.org.uk Association of British Insurers
www.british-franchise.org British Franchise Association
www.bvca.co.uk British Venture Capital Association

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www.chamberonline.co.uk British Chambers of Commerce
www.cim.co.uk Chartered Institute of Marketing
www.companies-house.gov.uk Companies House website
www.dti.gov.uk Department of Trade and Industry
www.sfedi.co.uk Small Firms Enterprise Development Initiative
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 23: Financial Management
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit will develop the learner’s ability to manipulate the techniques of financial accounting
that aid medium- and long-term financial decision-making. It will allow the learner to
contextualise operational financial considerations into the wider financial context, identifying
external as well as internal financial constraints upon performance and investment decision-
making.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National. Learners must ensure that their
evidence relates to the programme they are undertaking.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Analyse the suitability of various forms of finance available to UK businesses
2 Identify the significance of the various forms of taxation currently levied in the UK
3 Evaluate the viability of a range of investment opportunities
4 Analyse the business performance of quoted corporate bodies.

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Content

1 Various forms of finance


Internal: managing the elements of working capital to free resources, internally generated
funds, retained profits
External: short-, medium- and long-term, caring, risk and reward
Cost of capital: equity and loan capital costs, weighted average cost computations

2 Various forms of taxation


Systems: the main features of income and corporation tax, schedules, rates, personal and
capital allowances, tax credits and debits
Investment: government incentives, capital allowances, post-tax profit implications

3 Investment opportunities
Techniques: return on investment, overall return, average annual return, payback,
discounted Cash Flow, Net Present Value and Yield, before and after tax

4 Business performance
Ratios: earnings per share, price:earnings ratio, earnings yield, dividend yield, dividend
cover

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Analyse the suitability of • apply appropriate strategies for the efficient
various forms of finance management of working capital to meet a range of
available to UK businesses financial needs
• define the main sources of finance currently
available to UK business, evaluating their suitability
of application to long-, medium- and short-term
financial needs
• calculate the cost of a range of capital structures,
evaluating their potential for risk and reward
2 Identify the significance of • compute personal and business tax liability for sole
the various forms of traders, partners and limited companies
taxation currently levied in
• describe and analyse the tax incentives currently
the UK
applying to business investment decision-making in
the UK
3 Evaluate the viability of a • apply all appropriate project appraisal techniques to
range of investment an investment opportunity, analysing its viability
opportunities
• evaluate the effectiveness of each technique of
financial appraisal
4 Analyse the business • apply appropriate ratios to a quoted corporate body
performance of quoted in the hospitality sector, offering a comparative
corporate bodies. analysis of its performance to other comparable
companies.

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Guidance

Delivery

All worked examples and case study material should be based in the hospitality industry to
ensure maximum relevance and realism.

Assessment

Evidence of outcomes may be in the form of financial reports in response to fictional or real
case study material. All assessments should be analytical and evaluative in order to
demonstrate a deeper understanding of the implications of finance to the long-term success of
any business venture.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit can successfully be linked with:


• Unit 1: The Contemporary Hospitality Industry
• Unit 2: The Developing Manager
• Unit 6: Management Accounting for Hospitality
• Unit 7: Industry Experience
• Unit 9: Hospitality Operations Management
• Unit 11: Conference and Banqueting Management
• Unit 12: Contract and Event Management
• Unit 13: On-Licensed Trade Management
• Unit 15: Marketing
• Unit 16: Sales Development and Merchandising.
However, all opportunities to integrate assessed work with other units should be embraced so
as to avoid isolating finance from the operational aspects of the industry.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B3: Develop a strategic business plan for your organisation
• B4: Put the strategic business plan into action
• B10: Manage risk
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E3: Obtain additional finance for the organisation.

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This unit also links with the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP13: Budgeting and Accounting in Hospitality Operations.

Resources

Access to computers and appropriate software, and spreadsheets in particular, is essential.


Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts and journals associated with their
project as well as access to the internet, and the of use relevant software applications.

Support materials

Books
Atkinson H, Berry A and Jarvis R — Business Accounting for Hospitality and Tourism
(Thomson Learning, 1995) ISBN 1861524706
Atrill P and McLaney E — Accounting and Finance for Non-Specialists (FT Prentice Hall,
2003) ISBN 0273679627
Drury C — Management and Cost Accounting, Sixth Edition (Thomson Learning, 2004)
ISBN 1844800288
Dyson J R — Accounting for Non-Accounting Students (FT Prentice Hall, 1997)
ISBN 0273683853
Glautier M W and Underdown B — Accounting: Theory and Practice (FT Prentice Hall, 2000)
ISBN 0273651617
Guilding C — Financial Management for Hospitality Decision Makers (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 2002) ISBN 075065659X.
Kotas R and Jayawardena C — Profitable Food and Beverage Management (Hodder Arnold
H&S, 1994) ISBN 0340595124
Kotas R — Management Accounting for Hospitality and Tourism (Thomson Learning, 1999)
ISBN 1861524900
Mott G — Management Accounting for Decision Makers (FT Prentice Hall, 1991)
ISBN 0273033182
Owen G — Accounting for Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure (Longman, 1998)
ISBN 0582312957
Wood F and Sangster A — Business Accounting — Volume 2 (FT Prentice Hall, 2002)
ISBN 0273655574
Further reading
A series of articles and press releases are published on the website of the British Association of
Hospitality Accountants (BAHA) at www.baha-uk.org.
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hotel and Restaurant Magazine (Quantum)
Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)

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Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Restaurant Magazine (The Restaurant Game)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Websites
www.baha-uk.org British Association of Hospitality Accountants
(BAHA)
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and
tutors
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
Websites often make reference to other internet information sources. These resources should be
used with caution.

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Unit 24: Information Management and
Technology
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit
This unit gives learners an understanding of the management of information. It develops
appreciation of the fast-changing nature of information and communication technology and its
effects on the management of information. The unit enables learners to apply their
understanding to effectively manage information. The unit also enables learners to make
informed decisions about using ICT to enhance management effectiveness.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learners must:
1 Explain techniques for effective collection, analysis and use of data
2 Manage the flow of information required for management
3 Use and evaluate a variety of information technology
4 Consider legislation that relates to the use of information technology
5 Describe the implications of trends and developments in information technology.

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Content

1 Data
Collection: sources, internal, external; primary methods eg sampling, interview, survey,
observation; qualitative/quantitative; secondary methods eg sales and usage figures,
financial information, customer databases
Analysis: trends, patterns, accuracy, consistency, relevance, sufficiency, reliability, validity
Use: selection, application of statistical data, graphs, diagrams; dissemination eg oral,
written, electronic, presentations, meetings, networking, reports

2 Flow of information
Techniques: data management, document management, archiving and retrieval, inter-
relational databases, networks, backup
Management: access, manipulation, efficiency, cost-effectiveness

3 Variety of information technology


Hardware: computers; peripherals eg input devices, output devices, storage devices
Software: systems software eg operating systems; general applications software eg word
processors, databases, spreadsheets; industry specific software eg computer-aided design
(CAD)
Communication systems: networks eg local, wide, global; communication links eg
telephone, radio, cable

4 Legislation
Legislation: hardware and equipment eg portable appliance testing, health and safety
legislation, environmental legislation; data eg Data Protection Act 1998, Computer Misuse
Act 1990, Copyright Act 1976, Obscene Publications Act 1959, Telecommunications Act
1996; health and safety regulations

5 Trends and developments


Trends: common types of hardware and software, basic structure of ICT systems, control
systems, voice and data communication systems; impact on lifestyle, business practices, the
structure of society
Technological developments: fax, email, voicemail, video conferencing, pagers, mobile
phones, benefits of technological developments, personal laptops, the internet, visual
telephones, possible negative aspects
Implications: operational efficiency, cost-effectiveness, improved service to customers,
feasibility studies, evaluation, selection, purchasing, implementation, effects on business
operation eg reduced staffing, more staff working from home, greater reliance on
computers, advantages and disadvantages for a service-driven industry

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learners must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Explain techniques for • evaluate a range of methods and sources of data and
effective collection, analysis information collection used in management
and use of data
• apply and interpret statistical analysis to a given
management situation, using graphical illustrations
where appropriate
• explain how information should be selected and used
in the most appropriate manner
2 Manage the flow of • describe the techniques used for the storage,
information required for manipulation and flow of data and information
management
• explain how management of the flow of information
can contribute to the efficiency and cost-effectiveness
of an operation
3 Use and evaluate a variety • select and use a range of methods to collect and input
of information technology management data into systems
• use at least one general purpose and one industry-
specific software package to process data and present
information
• use at least two communication systems to transmit
and receive data
4 Consider legislation that • describe a range of current legislation that applies to
relates to the use of computer hardware, equipment and data
information technology
5 Describe the implications of • evaluate a range of current trends in the use of
trends and developments information technology and the implications for
in information technology. management
• discuss the effect that recent technology
developments have had on the learner’s industry.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit can be delivered in a wide variety of contexts, including hospitality, travel, tourism,
sports, leisure and recreational industries. Tutors should be aware of the context in which they
are delivering the unit and ensure that examples and support materials (eg recruitment and
selection documentation, codes of practice, staff handbooks, examples of relevant legislation,
case studies) are relevant.
The unit content allows for changing information needs and the fast-evolving nature of
information technology. Centres should take account of new developments when delivering this
unit.
The unit is designed to be delivered with a learner-centred focus involving a large proportion of
‘hands-on’ practical experience, particularly with information communication technology.
Some of the underlying principles will need to be delivered by lecture or demonstration,
establishing the link between the academic underpinning theory and its practical application.
Delivery will benefit from guest speakers from both the context industry and the ICT industry
and should include materials-based learning.

Assessment

Evidence may be in the form of completed tests or questionnaires set by the tutor, reports,
printouts of automated procedures, learner-designed materials, observed presentations, witness
testimony or a video/audio tape of learner work. Assignments can be based on real problems or
case studies.

Links

This unit can be linked successfully with most of the other units, in particular:
• Unit 9: Hospitality Operations Management
• Unit 11: Conference and Banqueting Management
• Unit 12: Contract and Event Management
• Unit 13: On-Licensed Trade Management
• Unit 15: Marketing.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A2: Manage your own resources and professional development
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• E4: Promote the use of technology within your organisation
• F12: Improve organisational performance.

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Resources

Case studies, videos and documented examples of current practice — eg letters, memos, reports
from industry — will illustrate the dynamic nature of this unit and add to its currency and
vocational relevance.
Appropriate ICT hardware, software and communication systems are required for the delivery
of this unit. This will enable learners to use general-purpose and industry-specific application
software, as well as communication systems for email, information transmission and retrieval.

Support materials

Books
Anderson D L — Management Information Systems (Addison Wesley, 1999)
ISBN 0201611767
Avgerou C and Cornford T — Developing Information Systems: Concepts Issues and Practice
(Palgrave Macmillan) ISBN 0333732316
Barker D L and Padfield C — Law: Made Simple (Heinemann Educational, 1998)
ISBN 0750639148
Chaffey D, Bocij P, Greasley A and Hickie S — Business Information Systems: Technology,
Development and Management for the E-Business (FT Prentice Hall, 2002) ISBN 027365540X
Cobham D and Curtis G — Business Information Systems: Analysis, Design and Practice
(FT Prentice Hall, 2004) ISBN 0273687921
Harry M — Business Information: A Systems Approach (FT Prentice Hall, 2001)
ISBN 0273646702
Laudon K C and Laudon J — Essentials of Management Information Systems: Managing the
Digital Firm (Prentice Hall, 2004) ISBN 0131273116
Lucey T — Management Information Systems (Thomson Learning, 1998) ISBN 1858053900
Morgan T — Business Rules and Information Systems: Aligning IT with Business Goals
(Addison Wesley, 2002) ISBN 0201743914
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hospitality Network Newsflash (Hospitality Training Foundation)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research (International Council on Hotel and Restaurant
Education (CHRIE))
Journal of Management Information Systems (M. E. Sharpe Inc., New York)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)

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Websites
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and
tutors
www.brint.com/isresearch.htm Brint Institute — management information
systems research
www.dfes.gov.uk Department for Education and Skills
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 25: Introduction to Internet and
E-Business
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit
This unit introduces the learner to the scope of e-business and the benefits it offers to an
organisation through the different business models. It also provides sufficient understanding of
internet technology for learners to appreciate the potential, and the limitations, of using the
internet for business. The features of good website design (ease of navigation, speed) are also
covered.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Explain the scope of e-business
2 Describe how the internet works
3 Differentiate between e-business models
4 Investigate features of good website design.

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Content

1 Scope of e-business
Definitions: the internet, the worldwide web (www) intranets, extranets, e-business and
e-commerce and the distinction between business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-
business (B2B) transactions
Benefits to businesses: why a company should have a web presence, how the use of internet
technology can reduce transaction costs
Trust for e-business: the risks of conducting business through the internet, the importance
of trust for e-business transactions
Security and data protection: how security and data protection play an important part in
e-business
Nature of communication: difference between mass communication (one-to-many),
personal communication (one-to-one) and internet communication (many-to-one and many-
to-many)

2 How the internet works


Internet technology: the importance of agreed non-proprietary standards, how messages are
transferred across the global communications network using packet switching, TCP/IP,
FTP, HTTP, POP, IMAP and the use of URLs, bandwidth as a measure of capacity; why
this is an important consideration
Introduction to HTML: the main features of HTML as the language of the www, defines
format of the information and how it is presented, but not its content as in EDI; (Elements
(<Tags>)) — head, body, title, break, headings, forms, paragraphs, lists, tables, links and
images); highlight the number of software packages available to users who can now build
pages without learning HTML brief overview of XML
Clients, servers and browsers: the functions of servers and clients and use of two-tier and
three-tier architectures, the role of the browser to interpret the HTML and present the data
to fit the user’s computer screen, the way information is presented varies according to
user’s screen size and set-up
Intranets and extranets: differences between the use of the internet, an intranet and an
extranet, explain how they can improve security

3 E-business models
The five business models: the different ways in which the internet may be used to generate
revenue by supporting the sale of a product, or service eg CDs, flights; supplying electronic
information, or media services eg reports or music; charging per transaction for the
provision of a service eg airline booking; charging a subscription for an information service
eg news; advertising revenue, from an attractive website

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4 Website design
Search engines: to find specific information on the internet (the logic of structuring search
questions using venn diagrams) and identify the elements of a web page that may be used
by search engines (head — title, description, keywords; body — content and links)
Attractive web pages: the design features that make a web page attractive to the visitor ie
speed, attractive page layout, colour scheme, pictures and links, clear and informative,
consistent with image of the business (brand), builds trust, encourages visitor to return
Website usability: what makes a website easy for the visitor to use (meets needs of different
stakeholders, good website navigation, availability in different languages to suit the
visitor); what legal requirements must be met (disabled user — eg visually impaired and
colour blind)

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Explain the scope of • differentiate between business-to-consumer (b2c)
e-business and business-to-business (b2b) transactions
• explain how a business benefits from having its own
website
• analyse the nature of e-business communication
2 Describe how the internet • explain how messages are transferred across the
works internet
• describe the main features of HTML, the language
of the web
• differentiate between the internet, intranets and
extranets
3 Differentiate between • describe how the internet can be used for selling a
e-business models product, or service
• differentiate between other business models for
generating revenue from the internet
• identify other uses of the internet, which may not
generate revenue
4 Investigate features of good • identify those elements of a web page that may be
website design. used by search engines
• explain the design features that make a web page
attractive to the visitor
• describe what makes a website easy for the visitor to
use
• explain the legal requirements of site design.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit should to be taught with learners exploring websites and, therefore, seeing the
application of theories in practice. They could work individually or in pairs around an internet
access point, usually a personal computer
The preferred pattern for a teaching session would be for instruction to be given on a topic, or
concept, then for learners to review its application for selected websites, followed by discussion
of their findings to consolidate learning.
Learners would also be expected to explore the use of these techniques by independent research
of texts and websites.
The opportunity to design a simple web page using a web page editor may also be provided to
learners, to encourage creativity and stimulate an appreciation of web page design.

Assessment

Assignments that require learners to demonstrate their understanding of theories and concepts
by reviewing e-business websites are recommended. These are most suitable for coursework
assignments where learners have more scope to develop their ideas, but can also be used for
examination questions.
Knowledge of internet terminology can best be assessed in short-answer tests, or examinations.
An appreciation of website design can be developed and assessed by learners designing their
own web page, where the resources, including web-page editor software, are available.
Exercises in the use of search engines should also be encouraged.

Links

This unit is an introduction to e-business and the internet and has some links with Unit 15:
Marketing. It also links with the following units:
• Unit 9: Hospitality Operations Management
• Unit 11: Conference and Banqueting Management
• Unit 12: Contract and Event Management
• Unit 13: On-Licensed Trade Management
• Unit 21: Business Health Check
• Unit 22: Small Business Enterprise.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A2: Manage your own resources and professional development
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• C1: Encourage innovation in your team

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• C2: Encourage innovation in your area of responsibility
• C3: Encourage innovation in your organisation
• E4: Promote the use of technology within your organisation.
This unit also links with the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP41: Hospitality Technology.

Resources

Texts should be supported by the use of websites and case studies. For those part-time learners
working in business, their experience of work should be made use of in comparing approaches
adopted.
Websites can be useful in providing information and case studies (eg www.bized.ac.uk which
provides business case studies appropriate for educational purposes).

Support materials

Textbooks
Avgerou C and Cornford T — Developing Information Systems: Concepts, Issues and Practice
(Palgrave Macmillan) ISBN 0333732316
Chaffey D — E-Business and E-Commerce Management (FT Prentice Hall, 2003)
ISBN 0273683780
Cobham D and Curtis G — Business Information Systems: Analysis, Design and Practice
(FT Prentice Hall, 2004) ISBN 0273687921
Cumming T — Little e, Big Commerce (Virgin Books, 2001) ISBN 0753505428
Harry M — Business Information: A Systems Approach (FT Prentice Hall, 2001)
ISBN 0273646702
Laudon K C and Laudon J — Essentials of Management Information Systems: Managing the
Digital Firm (Prentice Hall, 2004) ISBN 0131273116
Laudon K C and Traver C G — E-Commerce: Business, Technology, Society (Addison Wesley,
2002) ISBN 032112202X
Morath P — Success at E-Business (McGraw Hill, 2000) ISBN 0077096258
Nielsen J — Designing Web Usability (New Riders, 2000) ISBN 156205810X
Oz E — Foundations of E-Commerce (Prentice Hall, 2001) ISBN 013030686X
Salter B and Langford-Wood N — A Simple Guide to E-Commerce (Prentice Hall, 2000)
ISBN 0130286494
Schneider G P and Perry J T — Electronic Commerce (Course Technology, 2002)
ISBN 0619063114
Sleight S — Moving to E-Business (Dorling Kindersley, 2001) ISBN 0751312150
Turban E — Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective (Prentice Hall, 2002)
ISBN 0130653012

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Websites
www.aw-bc.com/laudon-traver collated e-commerce material and research
www.bized.ac.uk a business and economics service for learners and
tutors
www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/e-government Cabinet Office’s E-Government Unit
www.informationcommissioner.gov.uk Information Commissioner’s Office
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 26: Research Project
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit is designed to introduce learners to the techniques and methods of research. The unit
addresses a variety of research methodologies, including the opportunity to carry out
interventionist or action research.
Learners will be required to produce a project report based on independent research into an area
of professional business practice that interests them and will add to their professional
development.
The study should use both primary and secondary sources of information, and should be an
exploration of a current major issue. The study undertaken should build on knowledge, skills
and understanding that have been achieved in other units. Tutor approval should be sought
before commencing study.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Prepare a research proposal relating to a specified area of business
2 Conduct research using primary and secondary sources of information
3 Carry out the research project into a specified area of business
4 Present and evaluate the findings with regard to the initial proposal.

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Content

1 Research proposal
Research methodologies: intervention, non-intervention, action research
Hypothesis: definition, suitability, skills and knowledge to be gained, aims, objectives,
terms of reference, duration, ethical issues
Action plan: rationale for research question or hypothesis, task dates, review dates,
monitoring/reviewing process, strategy

2 Primary and secondary sources


Primary: questionnaires — type, layout, distribution, original research data gathered by the
learner; interviews, selecting interviewees, bias, verification of data, time, place, style
Secondary: eg books, journals, library search, use of ICT, internet, media

3 Research project
Preparation: identifying ideas/topics/areas of investigation, research question(s), scope and
feasibility, hypothesis, literature search, agreeing the process, targets, milestones, action
plan, timetable and procedure, monitoring and revision
Methodology: literature search eg library, internet, sector data sources; pure and applied
research, developmental, longitudinal, survey, case study, research and development,
concepts and theories, terminology, validity and reliability
Qualitative data analysis: interpreting transcripts, coding techniques, categorisation,
relationships, trends, use of computers; presentation of data
Quantitative data analysis: coding/values, manual/electronic methods, specialist software;
presentation of data eg bar/pie charts, graphs, statistical tables; comparison of variables,
trends, forecasting

4 Present and evaluate


Presentation: eg formal written format, by viva voce or oral presentation, diagrammatic or
graphical figures
Methodology: presentation eg ICT, audio, visual aids, time, pace; delivery critique of the
methods used in the study, recommendations eg using the findings, recommendations for
the future, areas for future research
Evaluation: planning, objectives, focus, benefits, difficulties
Criteria: purpose, editing, format, sequencing success, critical analysis, discussion of
evidence and findings

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Prepare a research proposal • identify a research question or hypothesis and
relating to a specified area of justify choice
business
• justify the chosen methodology in terms of the
research question
• prepare an action plan with target dates and methods
for monitoring and updating
• devise a code of ethics for the conduct of the study
2 Conduct research using • undertake primary and secondary research relating
primary and secondary to the proposal
sources of information
• describe and justify the chosen methodology
3 Carry out the research • prepare for the research project and agree process
project into a specified area and action plan with supervisor
of business
• monitor and revise schedule when required
• collect and review data using appropriate methods,
including primary and secondary research
techniques
• analyse and interpret appropriate qualitative and
quantitative data
4 Present and evaluate the • record findings in an accepted format
findings with regard to the
• present and summarise the findings using suitable
initial proposal.
methods
• evaluate the methodology used and critically
analyse the findings
• propose recommendations based on the findings
which identify and justify areas for future research.

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Guidance

Delivery

Learners may have developed a range of investigative skills during the programme of study, but
this unit formalises the research into a style similar to a thesis. It is important that learners
understand the elements that make up formal research, including the different methodologies,
the proposal, action planning, carrying out the research itself and presenting their findings.
Tutors will need to cover the theory underpinning formal research to enable learners to
complete this unit satisfactorily.
The research project itself is dependent on the learner, the context of their area of learning,
their focus of interest and the anticipated outcomes. The unit should draw together a range of
other areas of content within the programme of study to form a holistic piece of work that
makes a positive contribution to commercial practice. To accomplish this, learners will need to
establish relationships with commercial and industrial organisations in order to generate data
that will lead them to such conclusions. It is essential for the tutor to monitor the development
of individual research projects closely to ensure they are following the correct guidelines and
working towards agreed objectives.
Learners will need further guidance to support the presentation and evaluation of their work.
The presentation of their research should follow formal presentation practice, with correct
referencing and bibliography details. Tutors should deliver an appropriate session to underpin
this approach, but the teaching of presentation skills should not be the focus of this area of
work.

Assessment

Evidence for this unit should be generated through a written assignment or report,
demonstrating a sound understanding of research methods and protocol. The study should show
evidence of both primary and secondary research. It should look at the present day and the
current culture and operation of the service, with a view on the issues which impact most
strongly upon it. There should also be an appreciation of historical events which impact most
strongly on current structure and operations. The learner will need to demonstrate the ability to
work independently, and to provide evidence of an individual approach in the finished work.
Learners will require close supervision and organised tutor support in order to design a study
which is realistic, achievable and economically viable within the scope of the unit. Tutor
approval should be sought before beginning the study.

Links

This unit offers learners the opportunity to develop their interest in hospitality and links may be
established with all other units in the qualification.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A1: Manage your own resources
• A2: Manage your own resources and professional development
• A3: Develop your personal networks
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates

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• B9: Develop the culture of your organisation
• E4: Promote the use of technology within your organisation
• F1: Manage projects.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP17: Self Development and Personal Skills
• OP18: Management Studies
• OP37: The Hospitality Industry.

Resources

Tutors will need to establish the availability of resources to support the independent study
before allowing the learner to proceed with the proposal.
Where learners are engaged in primary research, the tutor must check that access has been
negotiated and that ethical research procedures are being followed. Learners will need access to
ICT and to appropriate commercial organisations.
Learners will need access to ICT when analysing their findings and writing up their reports.

Support materials

Books
Bell J — Doing Your Research Project (Open University Press, 2005) ISBN 0335215041
Bernard H R — Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
(Sage, 2000) ISBN 076191403X
Black T R — Quantitative Research Design for the Social Sciences (Sage, 1999)
ISBN 0761953531
Bryman A — Social Research Methods (Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0199264465
Coghlan D and Brannick T — Doing Action Research in Your Own Organization (Sage, 2004)
ISBN 1412902460
Denscombe M — The Good Research Guide: For Small-Scale Social Research Projects
(Open University Press, 1998) ISBN 0335198066
Field A — Discovering Statistics using SPSS for Windows: Advanced Techniques for Beginners
(Sage, 2000) ISBN 0761957553
Hart C — Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination
(Sage, 1998) ISBN 0761959750
Kane E et al — Doing Your Own Research: In the Field and on the Net (Marion Boyars, 2001)
ISBN 0714530433
Lashley C and Best W — 12 Steps to Study Success (Thomson Learning, 2003)
ISBN 0826467903
Lock D — Project Management (Gower, 2003) ISBN 056608578X
McNiff J — Action Research: Principles and Practice, Second Edition (RoutledgeFalmer,
2001) ISBN 0415219949
Neuman W L — Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
(Allyn and Bacon, 2002) ISBN 0205374077

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Saunders M N K, Lewis P and Thornhill A — Research Methods for Business Students
(FT Prentice Hall, 2002) ISBN 0273658042
Seale C (editor) — Social Research Methods: A Reader (Routledge, 2003) ISBN 0415300835
Veal A J — Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism: A Practical Guide (FT Prentice Hall,
2005) ISBN 0273682008
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Cornell Quarterly
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Hotel and Restaurant Magazine (Quantum)
Restaurant Magazine (The Restaurant Game)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)

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Unit 27: Cellar and Bar Operations
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit is designed to give learners an overall understanding of cellar and drink management
which is fundamental to the licensed retail trade. This unit will give learners an introduction to
these principles by involving them in practical activities.
Learners will review contemporary cellar and bar management techniques, including
operational aspects, staffing, quality issues, hygiene and safety. They will also explore
developments in technology and the benefits they provide. Learners will also examine a range
of ethical issues relating to the customer and to business operations.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Review cellar management techniques
2 Review bar management techniques
3 Investigate the application of technology
4 Deal with ethical issues.

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Content

1 Cellar management techniques


Cellar operations: size of operation, preparing cask ales, changing keg/cask barrels and
CO2 cylinders, cellar maintenance, maintenance and cleaning of dispensing equipment for a
range of draft products, hygienic methods of working
Safety: handling of caustic solutions, Control of Substances Harmful to Health (COSHH),
kinetic handling, storage of wet and dry stock and cleaning materials, safe use of CO2, safe
delivery methods
Hygiene: hygienic storage of a range of wet and dry stocks, cleaning materials, Hazard
Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), environmental procedures
Product quality: standards, consistency, market needs, stock rotation, temperature controls

2 Bar management techniques


Bar operations: size of operation, drink dispensing methods, use of optics, glass
identification, customer relations, recent and future developments, trends
Methods: bottling-up-and-down, consumption analysis, stock and cash control
Safety and hygiene: handling, cleaning
Staff issues: productivity, staff rostering, training

3 Application of technology
Developments: hardware and software, Electronic Point of Sale (EPOS), MIS, cellar
management systems, swipe cards, cashless-payment system, future developments
Benefits: efficiency gains, speed of service, improved customer care, stock control
Security systems: closed circuit television (CCTV), electronic entrance/exit systems,
dispense monitoring systems

4 Ethical issues
Issues: drunks, drugs, violence, prostitution, under-age drinking, door security
Relationships: licensing justices, environmental health, customs and excise, trading
standards, local authorities, police
Business implications: theft, pilferage, cost of stock losses, enhancement to or loss of
reputation

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Review cellar management • assess the best methods of dealing with dangerous
techniques and heavy loads
• review relevant environmental health procedures
• demonstrate the use of a range of cellar equipment
• assess the effectiveness of different control systems
• establish criteria for ensuring consistent product
quality
2 Review bar management • devise and present a training session
techniques
• demonstrate the use of a range of bar equipment
• demonstrate application of safe and hygienic methods
of working
• review and evaluate a range of control methods
3 Investigate the application • evaluate technological developments and their
of technology impacts and benefits
• suggest potential technological developments and
their likely impact
4 Deal with ethical issues. • explain how a range of ethical issues could be applied
when dealing with customers
• define key relationships of any licensee
• measure the business implications of stock losses.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit is essentially practical in nature and tutors should ensure that learners have access to
an appropriate working environment, either through links with suitable commercial operations
or as part of a realistic working environment within a centre. This unit would be enhanced by a
period of work placement in a licensed retail outlet.
For both cellar and bar management techniques, visits to commercial operations and
presentations by visiting specialists will add currency and vocational relevance to delivery.
Discussion groups can explore initial ideas about cellar and bar management techniques.
The key issues of safety and hygiene in cellar management are best explored through visits to
appropriate organisations. Tutors should expose learners to the differences between large
corporate operations and small privately owned premises. Case study materials can highlight
problem issues that may not occur naturally.
Cellar operations must by their nature be delivered in a practical environment. Learners must be
given the opportunity to practice the preparation and changing of kegs and cask barrels and CO2
cylinders, as well as maintaining, cleaning and operating dispense equipment. Case studies will
again highlight problem issues in a safe manner.
Lectures and discussion groups will expand the content of bar management techniques. Tutors
should again introduce issues based on the differences between large corporate operations and
small privately-owned premises. Learners should develop their knowledge of historical
development and their expectations for the future, particularly in the light of the substantial
changes to bar management and the potential for the future.
These aspects also relate well to the content of technology and its applications. Learners should
understand the significant advances that technology has achieved in recent years and the
contributions it can make to both cellar and bar operations. Tutors should seek to expose
learners to the latest applications of technology through visits to commercial operations, trade
fairs and exhibitions and associations with manufacturers and suppliers.
Learners also need to develop a sound understanding of ethical issues. These relate to
customers and the public relations aspects of bars management, as well as the operational issues
of relationships with licensing justices, environmental health and so on. Learners need to be
keenly aware of the impact on the operation’s reputation of good or bad handling of ethical
issues.

Assessment

Evidence of the outcomes should be mainly in the form of continuous assessment related to the
learner’s practical and managerial skills within licensed retail outlets. Such continuous
assessment should be supported by appropriate assignments, case studies, role plays,
presentations and projects.
Evidence generated through a work placement within licensed premises would be particularly
applicable.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

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Links

This unit provides and can be linked successfully with other units in the licensed trade pathway:
• Unit 13: On-Licensed Trade Management
• Unit 16: Sales Development and Merchandising
• Unit 28: Law for Licensed Premises
• Unit 29: Introduction to Brewing Science.
This unit should also be closely linked with:
• Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations
• Unit 37: Food Hygiene and the Environment.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• C1: Encourage innovation in your team
• C2: Encourage innovation in your area of responsibility
• C3: Encourage innovation in your organisation
• D1: Develop productive working relationships with colleagues
• D2: Develop productive working relationships with colleagues and stakeholders
• D7: Provide learning opportunities for colleagues
• E4: Promote the use of technology within your organisation
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety
• F7: Support customer service improvements
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP33: Licensed Retail Management
• OP38: Statutory Regulations and Legal Requirements.

Resources

The provision of an appropriate working environment is essential to the success of this unit,
either through links with suitable commercial operations or as part of a realistic working
environment within a centre. Centres must provide appropriate facilities for practical
demonstrations, such as the capacity to prepare and change keg and cask barrels, maintain,
clean and operate dispensing equipment. Access to commercial operations that are able to
demonstrate the latest technology in action are also critically important.

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Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts and journals associated with cellar
and bar operations, as well as access to the internet, and the of use relevant software
applications.

Support materials

Books
Bruning T and Blyth D (editors) — The Publican’s Handbook (Kogan Press, 2002)
ISBN 0749438460
Davis B, Stone S and Lockwood A — Food and Beverage Management (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1998) ISBN 0750632860
Flynn M, Ritchie C and Roberts A — Public House and Beverage Management: Key Principles
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000) ISBN 0750646780
Lillicrap D — Food and Beverage Service (Hodder Arnold H&S, 2002) ISBN 0340847034
Waller K — Customer-Centred Performance Improvement for Food and Beverage Operations
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996) ISBN 075062812X
Websites
www.bbc.co.uk/food BBC website with online information, including
nutritional, calorie and fat content values
www.bii.org British Institute of Innkeeping
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.camra.org.uk Campaign for Real Ale
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.hospitalitynet.org Hospitality Net
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
www.riph.org.uk Royal Institute of Public Health
www.wset.co.uk Wine and Spirit Education Trust
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 28: Law for Licensed Premises
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to allow learners to develop a practical understanding of the legislation
relating to the management of licensed premises. Learners are not expected to have an in-depth
knowledge of the legislation but they need to develop an understanding of the implications of
the legislation on licensed premises from a management perspective.
Learners will examine the effects of licensing legislation. They will look at types of licences,
types of licensed premises, the procedures involved in applying for a licence, and conduct and
security issues relating to the management of licensed premises. Learners will also investigate
consumer protection, including weights and measures, employer liability and issues relating to
misleading information.
Learners will focus on health and safety legislation and regulations and the duties and
responsibilities of the licensee, as well as the legislative responsibilities of employers in
relation to their staff.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Examine the effects of licensing legislation
2 Investigate consumer protection
3 Review the implications of health, safety and hygiene legislation
4 Examine the legislative responsibilities of employers in relation to staff.

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Content

1 Licensing legislation
Types of licensed premises: managed houses, tenancies, leasehold, freehold; public houses,
restaurants, hotels, clubs (members, proprietary, night); outside catering, events
Types of licence: personal licence, premises licence, gaming permit, music copyright
Procedures: local authorities; application (new, renewal); fees
Conduct of licensed premises: prevention of crime and disorder, prevention of public
nuisance, public safety, protection of children from harm

2 Consumer protection
Misleading information: advertisements, prices, food labelling, alcoholic strengths, display
of prices (food, drink, accommodation), trade descriptions
Employer liability: sale of goods, supply of goods and services, consumer protection,
product liability directive, negligence, effect of European Union directives
Weights and measures: beer and cider, spirits, wines, HM Customs & Excise

3 Health, safety and hygiene legislation


Regulations: health and safety, noise at work, electricity at work, display screen equipment,
manual handling operations, reporting of injuries/diseases and dangerous occurrences, first
aid, Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH)
Duties and responsibilities: common law, employers’ liability, employees’ liability, risk
assessment, fire regulations
Food safety and hygiene: food safety requirements and offences, food hygiene regulations,
temperature controls, labelling, food handling, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
(HACCP), defences, enforcement, registration of premises

4 Legislative responsibilities
Employers’ responsibilities: appointment and contract, working hours, pay (deductions,
payslips, sick, maternity, service charges and gratuities, holidays), insurance, termination of
employment, redundancy, retirement
Discrimination: sex, trade union membership, race, disability, rehabilitation of offenders,
equal pay, current issues

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Examine the effects of • categorise the different types of licensed premises
licensing legislation
• explain the differences between a personal licence
and a premises licence
• outline the procedures for licence applications
• devise a set of guidelines on the conduct of licensed
premises for use by staff
2 Investigate consumer • determine the consequences of providing consumers
protection with misleading information
• assess the extent of employer liability in the
protection of consumers
• develop a policy for ensuring that all aspects of
weights and measures legislation are implemented
3 Review the implications of • summarise the key components of a range of
health, safety and hygiene regulations
legislation
• explain the duties and responsibilities associated with
the management of licensed premises
• carry out a detailed risk assessment for one type of
licensed premises
• review and evaluate the impact of food safety and
hygiene legislation
4 Examine the legislative • detail the responsibilities of employers in employing
responsibilities of of staff
employers in relation to
• identify the key aspects of discrimination legislation.
staff.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit suits being delivered through a blend of theory and practice. It is important for
learners to understand certain aspects of legislation in the context of the licensed trade industry
and to be able to translate this into practical scenarios. Tutors must be aware of any changes to
legislation (including European Union directives and guidelines) and ensure that learners are
given up-to-date information.
Discussions in small groups will help to identify what learners already know about licensed
premises legislation and also allow the exchange of ideas and information. A certain amount of
formal input will be required, together with visits to appropriate, contrasting premises, for
example a national chain of family pubs, a small privately-owned operation and a more unusual
example such as a nightclub or an outside catering operation. The procedures for applying for a
licence could be presented to the learners by a visiting specialist eg a licence holder. Other
visiting speakers from local licensed premises could underpin the unit content relating to the
conduct of licensed premises, as well as adding currency by highlighting topical issues.
Formal input will be required to support different aspects of the unit relating to consumer
protection, including key legislation. A visiting speaker could deliver an overview of the role of
HM Customs & Excise and the importance of weights and measures. Suitable case study
materials will help provide examples of key issues.
Health and safety legislation is underpinned by the content from other units. Tutors should
ensure that this legislation is delivered in the context of the licensed trade.
Case studies and other examples of legal cases can help to clarify issues relating to the legal
responsibilities of employers for their staff. Again, this should have a specific focus on the
licensed trade, for example by relating to issues about working hours.

Assessment

Tutors should consider the nature of the unit when looking at types of evidence. Case studies,
for example, would be a useful way of presenting a wide variety of information within a single
assignment.
Research and investigative work alone may not provide sufficient evidence to achieve the unit
but can be linked with other forms of evidence to cover the outcomes and assessment criteria.
Learners could also provide personal accounts from any work placements they may have
experienced.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit can be linked with the following units within the qualification:
• Unit 13: On-Licensed Trade Management
• Unit 16: Sales Development and Merchandising

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• Unit 27: Cellar and Bar Operations
• Unit 29: Introduction to Brewing Science.
As this unit underpins much of the Hospitality Management (Licensed Trade) pathway, there
are links with units in that pathway, for example:
• Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations
• Unit 7: Industry Experience
• Unit 14: People Management
• Unit 15: Marketing
• Unit 19: Facilities Management.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety
• F10: Develop a customer focused organisation.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP06: Managing Food Hygiene
• OP08: Managing Food and Beverage Services
• OP11: Managing Hospitality Operations
• OP15: Human Resources Management
• OP33: Licensed Retail Management
• OP38: Statutory Regulations and Legal Requirements.

Resources

Access to a range of licensed premises is important, together with support from visiting
speakers, who will add currency and vocational relevance to the unit. Tutors should develop a
bank of up-to-date case study materials which highlight key issues, particularly where problem
areas or other contentious issues cannot be covered elsewhere.
Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts and journals associated with the
licensed trade, as well as access to the internet, and the use of relevant software applications.

Support materials

Books
Barth S and Hayes D — Hospitality Law: Managing Legal Issues in the Hospitality Industry
(Wiley, 2001) ISBN 047134849X
Barth S et al — Restaurant Law Basics (Wiley, 2001) ISBN 0471402729
Boella M and Pannett A — The Principles of Hospitality Law (Thomson Learning, 2000)
ISBN 0826452736

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Davis B, Stone S and Lockwood A — Food and Beverage Management (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1998) ISBN 0750632860
Flynn M, Ritchie C and Roberts A — Public House and Beverage Management: Key Principles
(Butterworth-Heinneman, 2000) ISBN 0750646780
Kolvin R — Licensed Premises: Law and Practice (Tottel, 2005) ISBN 1845920236
Kotas R and Jayawardena C — Profitable Food and Beverage Management (Hodder Arnold,
1994) ISBN 0340595124
Peters R — Essential Law for Catering Students (Hodder Arnold, 1996) ISBN 0340630787
Waller K — Customer-Centred Performance Improvement for Food and Beverage Operations
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996) ISBN 075062812X
Further reading
Catering, Health and Safety, Food Safety (Croner Publications)
Croner’s Licensed Trade Management (Croner Publications)
Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995 (Stationery Office Books, 1995)
ISBN 0110532279
Websites
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.bii.org British Institute of Innkeeping
www.camra.org.uk Campaign for Real Ale
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.cieh.org Chartered Institute of Environmental Health
www.food.gov.uk Food Standards Agency
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.hospitalitynet.org Hospitality Net
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
www.riph.org.uk Royal Institute of Public Health
www.rsph.org Royal Society for the Promotion of Health
www.wset.co.uk Wine and Spirit Education Trust
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 29: Introduction to Brewing Science
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit has been designed to introduce the biochemical and biophysical aspects of brewing
technology. It has been designed in such a way as to allow flexibility of delivery. It will support
and reinforce the knowledge and appreciation of fermentation systems which will be vital to a
proposed career in either brewing, fermentation technology or the licensed trade sector. It also
allows the learner to apply this knowledge, through a practical environment.
It is assumed that, prior to undertaking this unit, the learner has a working knowledge of the
basic concepts of biological processes as defined in Unit 38: Nutrition and Diet.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Investigate fermentation systems
2 Examine the biochemistry of malting and mashing
3 Explore the biochemical conversions in the copper
4 Examine yeast physiology and microbiology
5 Identify fermentation and associated quality control systems.

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Content

1 Fermentation systems
Microbial groupings: microbial range and form
Unicellular fungi: importance to the fermentation process especially saccharomyces sp
History of fermentation advances: metabolic pathways of respiration, dynamics of
anaerobic respiration/fermentation, methods of controlling a fermentation (tops and
bottoms), principal steps in the brewing process

2 Biochemistry of malting and mashing


Barley physiology: choice of cereal, biochemical changes affected by the malting process
Wort composition: biochemical/biophysical conversions
Malting process: the enhancement of diastatic power, control of N2-content, development
of colour
Mashing process: the ionic balance of the liquor (Burtonization), factors affecting
extraction and enzymatic conversion in the grist, importance of temperature and time
controls, monitoring ‘run-off’ from the mash tun for turbidity and specific gravity

3 Biochemical conversions
Hop variety: varieties of hops available (including brief histories and geographical
location), characteristic properties of each variety, hop additions to brews (biochemistry of
action), hop quality (appearance, feel, aroma)
Hop biochemistry: the ratio of α and β-acids, oxidative conversions to humulones and
hulupones, the effect of seed content on hop property and the principle contributors to
aroma
The copper: inactivation of enzymes, precipitation of proteins, polyphenols and some
lipids, production of hop-derived flavours and aromas, sterilisation of the wort, further
precipitation of Ca(PO4)2 (and its effect on pH), the distillation of volatile materials, water
evaporation and subsequent wort concentration, enhancement of colour (caramelization,
melanoidin formation, oxidation of tannins), reduction of surface tension
Practical control: timescales involved in boiling and the stage points of hop introduction

4 Yeast physiology and microbiology


Yeast physiology: saccharomyces cerevisiae, saccaromyces carlsbergensis, saccaromyces
uvarum, selection of yeast strains and their properties, differences between top-fermenting
and bottom-fermenting strains, the role of recombinant DNA technology in future yeast
research, economic role
Yeast chemistry: yeast metabolism of macro-nutrients and the effect of these metabolites on
the fermentation product, yeast metabolism of micro-nutrients and their effect on product
quality, the role of exoenzymes, cell-permeability and physiological state, the importance of
aeration to the fermentation process

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5 Quality control systems
Physical control systems: parameters instrumental in determining pitching rate, effect that
fluctuation of temperature control will have on yeast physiology and end product quality,
the relationships between hydrometer readings, temperature, specific and original gravities,
determining when a fermentation has ‘run its course’ (end point determinants), remedial
measures to correct fermentation deviance
Physiology of human sensory perception: biology of human senses
Beer flavour influences: key contributing agents to beer flavour ie yeast (pitching rate,
viability/vitality, strain purity/contamination), wort composition (dissolved O2
concentration, OG, temperature, adjuncts and trub), fermentation vessel (size and
geometry)
Beer flavour biochemistry: specific beer flavourants such as CO2, ethanol, glycerol, fusel
oils, esters, organic acids, aldehydes, ketones, S2-compounds
Industrial quality control: the industry practices of product evaluation, blind tasting
philosophy, factors affecting the flavours of ‘regionality’, beer styles and types

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate the


ability to:
1 Investigate • review microbial range and form
fermentation
• review and evaluate the basic biological concepts of
systems
fermentation design
• identify the principal steps of the brewing process
2 Examine the • explain the role of barley in the malting process highlighting
biochemistry of the biochemical changes to the barley
malting and
• distinguish between the biochemical processes involved in
mashing
the malting and mashing processes
• apply the practical controls and monitoring systems needed
to ensure uniformity of clarified wort ‘run-off’ at least three
times
3 Explore the • categorise the variety of hops available, listing historical
biochemical aspects and identifying geographical locations
conversions in the
• describe the biochemical conversions that take place during
copper
the boiling and hopping process
• evaluate the practical systems used to maximise flavour and
colour profiles and ensure uniformity of the end product
4 Examine yeast • analyse the physiological and economic role played by
physiology and yeasts in fermentation systems
microbiology
• describe the biochemical conversions affected by yeasts
during a fermentation and evaluate how these conversions
can be controlled by environmental ‘adjustment’
• discuss the present and suggest the future roles played by
industry in the development of more active fermentation
strains
5 Identify fermentation • describe and apply the main concepts of regulatory control
and associated of a fermentation
quality control
• use relevant data sources to identify SG and predict a brew’s
systems.
final OG and apply these at least twice in a practical
fermentation environment
• discuss and analyse the contributory factors that determine
beer flavour
• carry out practical quality analyses of different beer types
and account for regional characteristics of similar brews on
at least two occasions
• appraise the role of blind tasting and quality control systems
used by the industry.

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Guidance

Delivery

A combination of key lectures supported by seminars, tutorials and workshop sessions is


recommended. Laboratory-based exercises should be incorporated when necessary (eg
fermentations). The use of a micro-brewery facility (or equivalent) would enable the practical
competencies of the unit to be assessed.

Assessment

Evidence of outcomes may be in the form of individual or group assignments centred around
primary research bases, investigative reports and individual or group seminar presentations, all
of which should show the learner’s ability to solve problems or produce sustainable theorems.
With a unit of this nature, an ability to demonstrate practically based competencies is essential
and therefore the need for a substantial practically assessed component to the unit is expected
to reflect this need.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit can be linked with the following units within the qualification:
• Unit 13: On-Licensed Trade Management
• Unit 16: Sales Development and Merchandising
• Unit 27: Cellar and Bar Operations
• Unit 28: Law for Licensed Premises.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ unit:
• A2: Manage your own resources and professional development.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP33: Licensed Retail Management
• OP38: Statutory Regulations and Legal Requirements.

Resources

Learners will need access to laboratory facilities, food sensory facilities (for flavour evaluations
and blind tastings) and the use of a micro-brewery facility. Site visits and guest speakers from
industry will greatly enhance delivery.
Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts and journals associated with
brewing science as well as access to the internet, and the use of relevant software applications.

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Support materials

Books
Boulton C and Quain D — Brewing Fermentation and Yeast Biotechnology (Blackwell
Science, 2001) ISBN 0632054751
Fix G J — Principles of Brewing Science: A Study of Serious Brewing Issues (Brewers, 1999)
ISBN 0937381748
Hough J S, Briggs D E, Young T W and Stevens R — Malting and Brewing Science: Malt and
Sweet Wort — Volume 1 (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, 1981) ISBN 0412165805
Priest F G and Campbell I (editors) — Brewing Microbiology (Kluwer AcademicPlenum, 2002)
ISBN 0306472880
Protz R — The Organic Beer Guide (Carlton, 2002) ISBN 1842225758
Smart K A (editor) — Brewing Yeast Fermentation Performance (Blackwell, 2005)
ISBN 140511908X
Stevens R, Young T W, Hough J S and Briggs D E — Malting and Brewing Science: Hopped
Wort and Beer — Volume 2 (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, 2002) ISBN 0834216841
Websites
www.breweryhistory.com Brewery History Society
www.brewingservices.co.uk Brewing Services website — brewery
development, installation and consultancy
company
www.brewingtechniques.com US-based archive of articles from the now defunct
Brewing Techniques technical magazine
www.camra.org.uk Campaign for Real Ale
www.darwinbrewery.com Darwin Brewery in Sunderland
www.ibd.org.uk Institute of Brewing and Distilling (formerly
Institute and Guild of Brewing)
www.murphyandson.co.uk Murphy & Son — suppliers of processing aids and
additives to the brewing industry
www.siba.co.uk Society of Independent Brewers — professional
body representing the small brewery industry
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 30: Menu Planning and Product
Development
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit brings together three interdependent and rapidly developing aspects of food and
beverage operations. Changes in consumers’ knowledge and expectations of food and drink,
much of them achieved through the contribution made by the media in publicising the
innovations of popular and notable chefs, have focused the need to develop menus, products
and services that will continue to meet consumers’ needs and expectations.
Learners will have the opportunity to develop the application of management skills involved in
the development of products and services as well as research and evaluation of current
innovations.
The unit will provide opportunities for investigation, development and analysis of menus,
products and services, as well as enabling learners to demonstrate a creative, artistic and
innovative approach to this important aspect of the hospitality industry.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Evaluate the application of current food hygiene legislation and regulations
2 Assess and interpret consumer awareness and expectations of product
3 Plan and develop an innovative and creative range of menus, recipes and service styles
4 Explore the application of design principles within a food service environment
5 Initiate and apply a costs and quality control process.

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Content

1 Food hygiene legislation and regulations


Legislation and regulations: food safety act, food hygiene regulations, menu terminology
Implications: compliance, due dilligence, hygiene audits, cleaning schedules, maintenance
schedules, management and operational responsibilities, training, recording and monitoring
documentation

2 Consumer awareness and expectations


Awareness and expectations: trends, fashions, healthy or dietary needs, spending power,
expectations, competitive awareness, interpreting data, predicting demand, field testing,
feasibility studies, decision-making, customer profiles, spending power

3 Menus, recipes and service styles


Menu development: principles of menu planning, types of menu, menu balance, creativity,
consumer expectations, religious, cultural, ethnic and social influences, fads and trends,
fashions, themes
Menu compilation: eg taste, colour, texture, portion size, temperature, appearance,
commodity planning, seasonal factors
Recipe development: creativity, cookery styles, nutritional composition, consistency of
product, methods eg fresh commodities, prepared foods, combination of fresh and prepared
foods, cook-chill/freeze, batch cookery, call order; timing
Service development: variations to standard service methods eg silver, table, buffet, tray,
counter; food presentation, addressing consumer needs and expectations; timing

4 Design principles
Menu presentation: language, terminology, design styles, colour, pictures, size, ‘white
space’, theme reflection
Ambience: creativity, theme relationships, the meal experience, service staff uniforms or
dress code, selection of furniture, decoration, lighting, music, background sound, use of
glass, mirrors, wood, contemporary materials

5 Costs and quality control


Costs control: principles of costing, appropriate commodities, purchasing, stock control,
portion control, waste/loss control
Quality control: critical control points, consistency and standardisation, staff capabilities,
equipment selection and improvisation, service styles to meet demand

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Evaluate the application of • assess the implications of current food hygiene
current food hygiene legislation and regulations to a commercial food
legislation and regulations development environment
• prepare appropriate working, recording and
monitoring documentation that will ensure
compliance with relevant food hygiene legislation and
regulations
2 Assess and interpret • assess consumer awareness and expectations relating
consumer awareness and to a range of menus, recipes and service styles
expectations of product
• interpret and present data gathered from consumers
• explain how interpretation of data will support and
inform decision-making
3 Plan and develop an • apply principles of menu planning to compile an
innovative and creative innovative and creative menu
range of menus, recipes
• develop, prepare and produce a range of recipes that
and service styles
reflect consumer awareness and expectations
• develop a style of service appropriate to the menu,
recipes and consumer expectations
4 Explore the application of • develop and present a menu design to reflect the
design principles within a menu compilation and recipe development
food service environment
• assess and apply the development of the ambience of
the environment to support menu, recipe and service
developments
5 Initiate and apply a costs • analyse and apply a range of cost controls to support
and quality control menu, recipe and service development
process.
• evaluate a range of quality controls appropriate to the
development of menus, recipes and service styles.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit should be delivered through a combination of theory, research, investigation and
practical application. It is essential before embarking on the main focus of the unit to establish
the parameters of food hygiene and safety. This should be achieved by relating it to application
in other units, such as Unit 31: Planning and Managing Food Production or Unit 34: World
Cuisine. It is important for learners to understand the importance of food hygiene and safety
throughout their work and particularly in this unit.
Discussion groups can open up the development of the unit. Thought-showers can support the
creative and innovative approach that should be reflected throughout this unit. It is important to
free learners of conventional constraints. This can then lead to investigation and research into
consumer awareness and expectations. Learners should approach consumers through a variety
of contexts in order to develop their knowledge of consumer awareness and expectations. This
can usefully be linked to Unit 15: Marketing, the product of which can be used to develop the
thinking and development work relating to menus, recipes and service.
Learners must have a sound understanding of the principles of menu compilation, which can be
developed in conjunction with Unit 33: Contemporary Gastronomy. Case study materials for
this and other aspects of this unit will offer useful support for delivery. Once this has been
achieved, creativity and innovation should then be applied, provided that this is used to develop
the consumer needs and expectations identified earlier. It is important for learners to understand
that creativity serves no purpose if there is no consumer demand. The same principle applies to
learners’ approaches to recipe and food service developments. Visits to commercial operations
that reflect the principles of this unit would be a useful contribution to delivery, as would a
presentation by a visiting speaker. However, it is important to choose such operations or
speakers with care, to ensure that they properly support delivery of the unit.
Visits to commercial operations and hospitality exhibitions can also add currency and
vocational relevance to the development of design principles. This is a more difficult aspect to
deliver and needs the support of experiential learning, particularly when considering the
ambience of the environment. Creativity and innovation should again be encouraged, especially
in the creation of menus, seeking new ways of presenting and enhancing menu information.
Finally, it is important for learners to understand that the creativity and innovation they have
demonstrated during the unit must be accounted for through costs and quality control. Again,
these aspects can be delivered in conjunction with other units, but it is the particular aspects of
development work that must be considered.

Assessment

Evidence for this unit should combine formal reports or presentations with practical evidence,
including tastings and feedback from consumers. Recording and monitoring documentation to
ensure compliance with food hygiene and safety legislation and regulations must be prepared
and applied during learners’ practical work.
Learners should develop a portfolio of work relating to menu, recipe and service development
that includes discarded ideas as well as successful ones. During the development stages,
presentations can be made to explore and expand proposals. It is strongly recommended that
when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to the latest technological
equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

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Practical work involving the preparation and cooking of recipes should include feedback from a
range of participants, including peers, tutors and consumers. This should also take account of
the menu that has been compiled, its design as presented to the customer and the service that is
used to deliver the food to the customer.
Learners must also include evidence of costing methods applied to control the development.
These could include costings sheets, analysis of staffing needs or selection of commodities.
Quality control documentation should also be included showing what aspects have been
considered and applied.

Links

This unit can be linked with the following units within the qualification:
• Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations
• Unit 7: Industry Experience
• Unit 15: Marketing
• Unit 33: Contemporary Gastronomy (double unit)
• Unit 34: World Cuisine
• Unit 35: Creative Patisserie (double unit)
• Unit 36: Catering Technology
• Unit 37: Food Hygiene and the Environment
• Unit 38: Nutrition and Diet.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A2: Manage your own resources and professional development
• B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• B11: Promote diversity in your area of responsibility
• B12: Promote diversity in your organisation
• C1: Encourage innovation in your team
• C2: Encourage innovation in your area of responsibility
• C3: Encourage innovation in your organisation
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety
• F1: Manage projects
• F2: Manage a programme of complementary projects
• F4: Develop and review a framework for marketing

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• F8: Work with others to improve customer service
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers
• F10: Develop a customer focused organisation
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP04: Food and Beverage Skills and Knowledge
• OP42: Food and Society.

Resources

Tutors should have technical qualifications and experience of working in food preparation and
service operations. Experience of industrial developmental techniques through some form of
work experience will be a distinct advantage. The learning for this unit will require access to
appropriate centre facilities including industrial-standard food preparation and service
environments. It would also be useful if this area utilised a food and beverage ICT system.
Tutors should also integrate some practical ‘laboratory’ work to support recipe development.
Access will also be needed to commercial environments to support the experiential aspects of
delivery, as well as a range of investigative and research opportunities, such as contact with
consumers when investigating consumer awareness and expectations. A range of appropriate
case study materials and development materials from commercial organisations would be
useful.
Learners must also have access to library and research facilities, including use of the internet. It
is essential for learners to read the trade press and up-to-date journals regularly in order to
follow current developments within the industry.

Support materials

Books
Bode W K H — European Gastronomy: The Story of Man’s Food and Eating Customs (Hodder
& Stoughton, 1996) ISBN 0470235721
Ceserani V, Kinton R and Foskett D — Practical Cookery (Hodder & Stoughton, 2004)
ISBN 0340811471
Cousins J, Foskett D and Gillespie C — Food and Beverage Management (Longman, 2002)
ISBN 0582452716
Davis B, Stone S and Lockwood A — Food and Beverage Management (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1998) ISBN 0750632860
Fine G A — Kitchens: The Culture of Restaurant Work (University of California Press, 1996)
ISBN 0520200780
Foulkes C (editor) — Larousse Encyclopaedia of Wine (Larousse Kingfisher Chambers, 2001)
ISBN 2035850134
Gillespie C and Cousins J — European Gastronomy into the 21st Century (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 2001) ISBN 0750652675
Katz J B — Restaurant Planning, Design and Construction: A Survival Manual for Owners,
Operators and Developers (John Wiley & Sons, 1997) ISBN 0471136980

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Kinton R, Ceserani V and Foskett D — The Theory of Catering (Hodder Arnold H&S, 2003)
ISBN 0340850418
Kotas R and Jayawardena C — Profitable Food and Beverage Management (Hodder Arnold
H&S, 1994) ISBN 0340595124
Lawson F — Restaurants, Clubs and Bars: Planning, Design and Investment in Food Service
Facilities (Architectural Press, 1995) ISBN 0750620765
Lillicrap D — Food and Beverage Service (Hodder Arnold H&S, 2002) ISBN 0340847034
Manask A and Schechter M E — The Complete Guide to Foodservice in Cultural Institutions:
Keys to Success in Restaurants, Catering and Special Events (John Wiley & Sons, 2001)
ISBN 0471396885
Miller J E, Hayes D K and Dopson L R — Food and Beverage Cost Control (John Wiley &
Sons, 2004) ISBN 0471477869
Morrison P, Ruys H and Morrison B — Cost Management for Profitable Food and Beverage
Operations (Hopitality Press, 1998) ISBN 1862504776
Peters R — Essential Law for Catering Students (Hodder Arnold H&S, 1996)
ISBN 0340630787
Telfer E — Food for Thought: Philosophy and Food (Routledge, 1996) ISBN 0415133823
Unwin T — Wine and the Vine: A Historical Geography of Viticulture and the Wine Trade
(Routledge, 1996) ISBN 0415144167
Waller K — Customer-centred Performance Improvement for Food and Beverage Operations
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996) ISBN 075062812X
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Cornell Quarterly
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995 (HMSO, 1995) ISBN 0110532279
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hotel and Restaurant Magazine (Quantum)
Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Restaurant Magazine (The Restaurant Game)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Websites
www.acfws.org Academy of Food and Wine Service
www.askachef.com Ask a Chef
www.bbc.co.uk/food BBC Food pages
www.bda.uk.com British Dietetic Association

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www.beveragenet.net Adams Beverage Group — an information source
for the beverage alcohol industry
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.bii.org British Institute of Innkeeping
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.dine-online.co.uk Dine Online — independent reviews
www.ecagb.co.uk European Catering Association (Great Britain)
www.ehotelier.com eHotelier website — one-stop website for hoteliers
www.fcsi.org Foodservice Consultants Society International
www.foodserviceworld.com Foodservice World
www.food.gov.uk Food Standards Agency
www.foodlaw.rdg.ac.uk University of Reading’s food law website
www.foodservice411.com/rimag Restaurants and Institutions magazine
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.hospitalitynet.org Hospitality Net
www.ih-ra.com International Hotel and Restaurant Association
www.intowine.com Into Wine website — covering various aspects of
wine
www.nutrition.org.uk British Nutrition Foundation
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
www.ranw.com Food & Beverage Manager
www.webtender.com Webtender — an online bartender
www.wine.com Wine.com
www.winespectator.com Wine Spectator online
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 31: Planning and Managing Food
Production
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit is designed to plan for the needs of quality food production management applicable in
all hospitality operations. The unit will enable learners to experience the principles and
concepts of food production management, which they can apply in business.
Learners will develop the necessary tools to allow them to apply objective, constructive and
evaluative management skills across a range of settings and situations. New technology will
interface with this unit.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Compare and contrast different systems and equipment used for volume food production
in different contexts
2 Analyse and critically assess purchasing management for materials, commodities and
equipment
3 Produce and critically assess food production plans
4 Investigate food quality control processes and policies for volume food production.

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Content

1 Systems and equipment


Systems: manufacturing, traditional, sous-vide, cook-chill/freeze, cook-to-order, batch,
centralised, pre-prepared, individual, multi-portion; communications, technology
applications, operational/management requirements, reporting procedures
Equipment: specialist, volume, equipment specifications, economics, ergonomics,
integration, maintenance and ‘down time’
Contexts: eg contract catering, events catering, conference and banqueting

2 Purchasing management
Supplier: contract, purchasing specification, monitoring, vendor ratings, implications for
organisation
Factors influencing choice: eg capacity, production issues, reliability, transportation and
delivery, discounts, technology applications, contingency arrangements
Materials, commodities and equipment: branded/non-labelled, customised, quality,
availability, delivery

3 Food production plans


Plans: staffing levels and abilities, resource issues eg physical, financial; planning meetings
Methodology: production schedules and methods, consistency and standardisation of
product, technology applications, work flow, estimates, budgets, cleaning programmes,
organisational policy
Strategies: information sources, legislation, internal/external contacts, communication
systems, recording
Presentation: eg traditional, family, silver, plated, individual, multi-portioned, modern,
futuristic, creative, imaginative; design, colour, texture, flavour
Portion control systems: eg preparation, service and point-of-sale applications;
specifications and methods, tools and equipment, technology applications, visual aids,
monitoring and recording, effectiveness
Implications: costs, yields, yield analysis, product specification, nutritional aspects

4 Food quality control processes and policies


Processes: receipt, storage, preparation, production, distribution/transportation, quality
assurance, technology applications
Policies: hazard analysis (HACCP), assured safe catering (ASC), risk assessment
(HASAWA), in relation to food safety acts and Food Standards Agency, organisational
policy, nutritional, content specification, compliance, monitoring and recording systems
and documentation

250 BH016271 – Guidance and units – Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management
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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Compare and contrast • compare and contrast systems of volume food
different systems and production in different contexts
equipment used for volume
• identify and critically evaluate types and
food production in different
specifications of a range of volume food production
contexts
equipment
2 Analyse and critically assess • analyse the implications for the organisation of
purchasing management choosing different types of supplier
for materials, commodities
and equipment • explain the factors associated with supplier selection
• evaluate the considerations to be made and the
decision-making strategy when selecting
materials/commodities
3 Produce and critically assess • analyse the strategies that support the development of
food production plans a production schedule
• evaluate the resources and methodologies needed to
support the development of a production schedule
• prepare a production schedule for a defined event
• evaluate the effectiveness of a range of portion
control systems
4 Investigate food quality • identify and evaluate the process required to maintain
control processes and a quality assured food production process
policies for volume food
• compare and contrast a range of food quality control
production.
policies currently used by commercial organisations
• produce appropriate documentation consistent with
current operational quality standards.

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Guidance

Delivery

The learning approach for this unit should be based on a combination of practical work and
experiential learning, supported by formal input and development of associated theory. Visits to
commercial operations will provide a useful opening to the units, exposing learners to a range
of different food production systems and equipment in a range of contexts. Particular attention
should be given to operations involved in volume production, such as conference and
banqueting operations, events provision, hospital or airline catering, or contract catering in its
varied forms. Visiting speakers can usefully extend the range of operations covered by visits.
Learners also need to experience a range of purchasing management functions and the factors
that influence the purchasing manager’s choice. A visiting speaker will provide a sound basis
for learning in this area, supported by case studies. Materials, products and specifications from
providers of purchasing management systems will be a valuable resource to underpin the range
of different applications. Learners should be exposed to as wide a coverage as possible.
Learners also need to examine the management functions of food production planning. This is
above the level of speciality evening work popular at National Certificate and Diploma levels
and should explore a wider range of issues. Case study material will help to establish the nature
of this aspect of management for learners. Tutors should adopt a similar approach to the
delivery of topics relating to food quality control processes and policies. Learners need to
understand the management perspective they are being asked to consider. The creation of such
processes and policies is an important issue, as well as their application. Again, case study
materials will offer useful support, particularly to highlight key problems that should not occur
within a commercial operation.
The practical application of portion control systems and their impact on the operation of a food
production area can be delivered through discussion groups, supported by materials from
appropriate suppliers of portion control systems and equipment. Case studies can highlight
issues reflecting the impact of poor or non-existent portion control on a commercial operation.

Assessment

Learners will have the opportunity to develop evidence through initial research, practical
production sessions, team/group discussions and through the presentation of their findings.
This could be as a presentation to a group It is strongly recommended that when learners are
delivering presentations, they have access to the latest technological equipment eg laptop
computers, LCD projectors, presentation software. Alternatively, learners could present a
written assignment or a formal report. Tutors should be clear about what is required of the
report format if this is chosen.
Food production plans could be applied through other units, but evidence must be focused on
the plan itself and whether this could effectively be put into operation. Experience of
commercial operations through some form of work experience will be a distinct advantage.
Food quality control processes and policies, together with portion control systems, can be
reflected in the plan or considered separately, but learners should adopt an integrative approach
to their work.

252 BH016271 – Guidance and units – Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management
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Links

This unit is linked to:


• Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations
• Unit 7: Industry Experience
• Unit 32: Planning and Managing Food and Beverage Service
• Unit 33: Contemporary Gastronomy (double unit)
• Unit 34: World Cuisine
• Unit 35: Creative Patisserie (double unit)
• Unit 36: Catering Technology
• Unit 37: Food Hygiene and the Environment
• Unit 38: Nutrition and Diet.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E4: Promote the use of technology within your organisation
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP07: Managing Food Production Operations.

Resources

Tutors should be technically qualified and have up-to-date knowledge of modern food
production operations and centres should have access to industrial standard food preparation
and production areas. The learning for this unit also relies upon support by laboratory-based
learning environments.
Access to a broad range of food production operations in the commercial field is important to
provide a wide exposure to different systems, procedures and policies. Centres should also
ensure that they can involve visiting speakers where appropriate. Case study materials can be
used to highlight key issues that may not occur naturally in commercial environments.
Learners must also have access to library and research facilities, including use of the internet. It
is essential for learners to read the trade press and up-to-date journals regularly in order to
follow current developments within the industry.

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Support materials

Books
Bode W K H — European Gastronomy: The Story of Man’s Food and Eating Customs (Hodder
& Stoughton, 1996) ISBN 0470235721
Ceserani V, Kinton R and Foskett D — Practical Cookery (Hodder & Stoughton, 2004)
ISBN 0340811471
Cousins J, Foskett D and Gillespie C — Food and Beverage Management (Longman, 2002)
ISBN 0582452716
Davis B, Stone S and Lockwood A — Food and Beverage Management (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1998) ISBN 0750632860
Dittmer P R and Griffin G G — Principles of Food, Beverage and Labor Cost Controls
(John Wiley & Sons, 2002) ISBN 0471397032
Fine G A — Kitchens: The Culture of Restaurant Work (University of California Press, 1996)
ISBN 0520200780
Gillespie C and Cousins J — European Gastronomy into the 21st Century (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 2001) ISBN 0750652675
Kinton R, Ceserani V and Foskett D — The Theory of Catering (Hodder Arnold H&S, 2003)
ISBN 0340850418
Kotas R and Jayawardena C — Profitable Food and Beverage Management (Hodder Arnold
H&S, 1994) ISBN 0340595124
Lillicrap D — Food and Beverage Service (Hodder Arnold H&S, 2002) ISBN 0340847034
Manask A and Schechter M E — The Complete Guide to Foodservice in Cultural Institutions:
Keys to Success in Restaurants, Catering and Special Events (John Wiley & Sons, 2001)
ISBN 0471396885
Miller J E, Hayes D K and Dopson L R — Food and Beverage Cost Control (John Wiley &
Sons, 2004) ISBN 0471477869
Morrison P, Ruys H and Morrison B — Cost Management for Profitable Food and Beverage
Operations (Hopitality Press, 1998) ISBN 1862504776
Peters R — Essential Law for Catering Students (Hodder Arnold H&S, 1996)
ISBN 0340630787
Telfer E — Food for Thought: Philosophy and Food (Routledge, 1996) ISBN 0415133823
Waller K — Customer-centred Performance Improvement for Food and Beverage Operations
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996) ISBN 075062812X
Wood R — Strategic Questions in Food and Beverage Management (Butterworth-Heinemann,
2000) ISBN 075064480X
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995 (HMSO, 1995) ISBN 0110532279
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hotel and Restaurant Magazine (Quantum)

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Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Restaurant Magazine (The Restaurant Game)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Websites
www.acfws.org Academy of Food and Wine Service
www.askachef.com Ask a Chef
www.bbc.co.uk/food BBC Food pages
www.bda.uk.com British Dietetic Association
www.beveragenet.net Adams Beverage Group — an information source
for the beverage alcohol industry
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.bii.org British Institute of Innkeeping
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.dine-online.co.uk Dine Online — independent reviews
www.ecagb.co.uk European Catering Association (Great Britain)
www.ehotelier.com eHotelier website — one-stop website for hoteliers
www.fcsi.org Foodservice Consultants Society International
www.foodserviceworld.com Foodservice World
www.food.gov.uk Food Standards Agency
www.foodlaw.rdg.ac.uk University of Reading’s food law website
www.foodservice411.com/rimag Restaurants and Institutions magazine
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.hospitalitynet.org Hospitality Net
www.ih-ra.com International Hotel and Restaurant Association
www.intowine.com Into Wine website — covering various aspects of
wine
www.nutrition.org.uk British Nutrition Foundation
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
www.ranw.com Food & Beverage Manager
www.webtender.com Webtender — an online bartender
www.wine.com Wine.com
www.winespectator.com Wine Spectator online
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 32: Planning and Managing Food and
Beverage Service
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit is designed to enable learners to develop skills within the dynamic environment of
food and beverage service systems. This development will occur through practical application
and management activities.
Learners will develop the essential practical and management tools to allow them to make
objective, constructive evaluative judgements across a range of situations.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Research and implement different food and beverage systems
2 Investigate and apply control systems associated with food and beverage service
3 Explore the implications of staff management and development for food and beverage
service systems
4 Review the importance of the customer in the provision of food and beverages.

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Content

1 Food and beverage systems


Outlets: eg hotel, restaurant, contract catering, conference and banqueting, events catering,
food courts
Systems: food service eg silver, buffet, family, room; drinks service eg bar, table, dispense,
wine, trolley/geuridon; relevance to type of outlet, fitness for purpose, high-volume
systems, technology applications, forecasting
Resource implications: eg physical, financial, human
Operational tools: eg menu, wine list, drinks list; style and type, contribution to
management of food and beverage, service area layout
Legislation: current hygiene regulations, hazard analysis, risk assessment, due diligence,
advertising/merchandising, labelling, display signs (HM Customs & Excise), health and
safety, compliance, recording and monitoring documentation, impact of legislation on food
and beverage service systems

2 Control systems
Stock and resources: purchasing, requisitions, stocktaking, furnishings, large and small
equipment eg crockery, cutlery, glassware, table coverings and accessories, electrical
equipment; technology applications
Financial: costing and pricing calculations, billing function eg cash/credit/debit systems,
floats, reconciliation, security; technology applications eg electronic point of sale (EPOS),
payment controls
Reservation systems: manual, computerised, management information, forecasting
techniques
Quality control: eg critical control points, consistency and standardisation, staff
capabilities, appropriate use of equipment, service styles to meet demand

3 Staff management and development


Management: job specifications, work study, task analysis, levels of output, de-skilling,
appraisal eg individuals, teams; styles of feedback
Development: evaluating food and beverage training needs, methods and techniques, on/off
the job, off site
Implications: eg skills gaps/shortages, multi-skilling, support for food and beverage service
system, cost/benefits analysis

4 Importance of the customer


The meal experience: customers’ needs and expectations, ambience of the food and
beverage environment, enquiries, incidents, complaints, emergencies
Legal: use of menu and beverage terminology, responsibility for safety and safe
environments

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Research and implement • evaluate and implement different food and beverage
different food and service systems
beverage systems
• assess the resource implications for contrasting food
and beverage service systems
• explain the contribution of the menu, wine and drinks
list to the management of food and beverage
• summarise current legislation affecting food and
beverage service and assess the influence it has on the
choice of food and beverage service system
2 Investigate and apply • evaluate and implement stock and resources control
control systems associated systems
with food and beverage
• analyse the financial control systems needed for a
service
given food and beverage operation
• compare and contrast manual and computerised
reservation systems for a food and beverage operation
• assess and apply a range of quality controls used to
support food and beverage service systems
3 Explore the implications of • analyse the staff management implications for
staff management and different types of food and beverage service systems
development for food and
• analyse the implications of staff management and
beverage service systems
development for contrasting food and beverage
management systems
4 Review the importance of • explain the impact of customers’ needs and
the customer in the expectations on contrasting food and beverage service
provision of food and systems
beverages.
• analyse the customer’s meal experience for
contrasting food and beverage service systems.

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Guidance

Delivery

The learning approach for this unit should be based on a combination of practical work and
experiential learning, supported by formal input and development of associated theory. Visits to
commercial operations will provide a useful opening to the units, exposing learners to a range
of different food and beverage service systems in a range of contexts, some of which they need
to apply in a practical situation. Learners should consider the human, financial and physical
resource requirements of each system they examine. Particular attention should be given to
operations involved in volume service, such as conference and banqueting operations, events
provision, or contract catering in its varied forms. Visiting speakers can usefully extend the
range of operations covered by visits. Such visits and speakers will add vocational relevance
and currency to the delivery of this unit.
Learners should develop their understanding of the legislation relevant to food and beverage
service. This must cover food hygiene and safety and also legislation governing the public face
of food and beverage service, such as advertising and merchandising. Learners must also
consider legislation governing the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. These aspects can be
delivered in conjunction with other units, such as Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations. Case
study materials can usefully support problematic aspects of legislation.
The unit is dependent on a systems approach. Although it is possible for learners to examine
different control systems in isolation, tutors should seek to develop an integrated approach,
enable learners to understand how different systems work with each other to provide
comprehensive overall systems of food and beverage service which they can put into practice.
As future managers, learners also need to develop their understanding of staff management and
development and the implications for different food and beverage systems. In future years, they
may be faced with a choice that will respond to the available workforce and it is important for
them to understand the issues that will influence this choice.
In delivering an appropriate food and beverage system, learners will be conscious of meeting
customers’ needs and expectations, but they should understand the importance of the customer
in managing the delivery of food and beverages. Different systems will impact in different ways
on the meal experience and learners need to understand how different aspects will affect the
overall delivery.
Learners would benefit greatly if opportunities occur for the group to implement a food and
beverage service system in a commercial environment. Such an opportunity would not
necessarily mean a change to the commercial operation, but would involve learners in the
implementation of the system used within the operation and would usefully expose them to a
range of relevant management issues.

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Assessment

Evidence for this unit should be in the form of a presentation to a group, or through written
results. Both forms of evidence should draw together the different aspects of the unit into an
integrated summary of food and beverage systems. The evidence should include accounts of
how the learners have applied different food and beverage service systems in practical
situations. This unit would benefit from delivery in conjunction with Unit 4: Food and
Beverage Operations, which requires learners to plan, implement and evaluate a hospitality
event. Different systems can be used to support a range of such events, exposing the learner
group to a variety of systems. Observation of practical applications can contribute to the
learner’s overall evidence for the unit.
Written evidence could be in the form of a project or assignment, or as a formal report. Tutors
should be clear about the format of such a report if used. Presentations to a group should be
appropriately illustrated. It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering
presentations, they have access to the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD
projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit is linked to:


• Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations
• Unit 7: Industry Experience
• Unit 15: Marketing
• Unit 30: Menu Planning and Product Development
• Unit 31: Planning and Managing Food Production
• Unit 36: Catering Technology.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B5: Provide leadership for your team
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• D1: Develop productive working relationships with colleagues
• D2: Develop productive working relationships with colleagues and stakeholders
• D3: Recruit, select and keep colleagues
• D4: Plan the workforce
• D5: Allocate and check work in your team
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E4: Promote the use of technology within your organisation
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers

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• F11: Manage the achievement of customer satisfaction
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following block of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP08: Managing Food and Beverage Service.

Resources

Tutors should have technical qualifications and experience of working in food and beverage
service operations. Experience of commercial operations through some form of work
experience will be a distinct advantage. The learning for this unit will require access to
appropriate centre facilities including industrial-standard food and beverage service
environments. It would also be useful if this area utilised a food and beverage ICT system.
Access to a broad range of food and beverage service operations in the commercial field is
important to provide a wide exposure to different systems and to support the experiential
aspects of delivery. Learners should also be provided with a range of investigative and research
opportunities to examine different food and beverage service systems being operated on a
commercial basis. Appropriate case study materials reflecting food and beverage service within
commercial organisations could be used to highlight key issues that may not occur naturally in
commercial environments. Centres should also ensure that they can involve visiting speakers
where appropriate.
Learners must also have access to library and research facilities, including use of the internet. It
is essential for learners to read the trade press and up-to-date journals regularly in order to
follow current developments within the industry.

Support materials

Books
Cousins J, Foskett D and Gillespie C — Food and Beverage Management (Longman, 2002)
ISBN 0582452716
Davis B, Stone S and Lockwood A — Food and Beverage Management (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1998) ISBN 0750632860
Dittmer P R and Griffin G G — Principles of Food, Beverage and Labor Cost Controls
(John Wiley & Sons, 2002) ISBN 0471397032
Durkan A and Cousins J — The Beverage Book (Hodder Arnold H&S, 1995)
ISBN 0340604840
Katz J — Restaurant Planning, Design and Construction: A Survival Manual for Owners,
Operators and Developers (John Wiley & Sons, 1997) ISBN 0471136980
Kinton R, Ceserani V and Foskett D — The Theory of Catering (Hodder Arnold H&S, 2003)
ISBN 0340850418
Kotas R and Jayawardena C — Profitable Food and Beverage Management (Hodder Arnold
H&S, 1994) ISBN 0340595124
Lawson F — Restaurants, Clubs and Bars: Planning, Design and Investment in Food Service
Facilities (Architectural Press, 1995) ISBN 0750620765
Lillicrap D — Food and Beverage Service (Hodder Arnold H&S, 2002) ISBN 0340847034

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Manask A and Schechter M E — The Complete Guide to Foodservice in Cultural Institutions:
Keys to Success in Restaurants, Catering and Special Events (John Wiley & Sons, 2001)
ISBN 0471396885
Miller J E, Hayes D K and Dopson L R — Food and Beverage Cost Control (John Wiley &
Sons, 2004) ISBN 0471477869
Morrison P, Ruys H and Morrison B — Cost Management for Profitable Food and Beverage
Operations (Hopitality Press, 1998) ISBN 1862504776
Peters R — Essential Law for Catering Students (Hodder Arnold H&S, 1996)
ISBN 0340630787
Waller K — Customer-centred Performance Improvement for Food and Beverage Operations
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996) ISBN 075062812X
Wood R — Strategic Questions in Food and Beverage Management (Butterworth-Heinemann,
2000) ISBN 075064480X
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Cornell Quarterly
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995 (HMSO, 1995) ISBN 0110532279
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hotel and Restaurant Magazine (Quantum)
Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Restaurant Magazine (The Restaurant Game)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Websites
www.acfws.org Academy of Food and Wine Service
www.askachef.com Ask a Chef
www.bbc.co.uk/food BBC Food pages
www.bda.uk.com British Dietetic Association
www.beveragenet.net Adams Beverage Group — an information source
for the beverage alcohol industry
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.bii.org British Institute of Innkeeping
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.dine-online.co.uk Dine Online — independent reviews

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www.ecagb.co.uk European Catering Association (Great Britain)
www.ehotelier.com eHotelier website — one-stop website for hoteliers
www.fcsi.org Foodservice Consultants Society International
www.foodserviceworld.com Foodservice World
www.food.gov.uk Food Standards Agency
www.foodlaw.rdg.ac.uk University of Reading’s food law website
www.foodservice411.com/rimag Restaurants and Institutions magazine
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.hospitalitynet.org Hospitality Net
www.ih-ra.com International Hotel and Restaurant Association
www.intowine.com Into Wine website — covering various aspects of
wine
www.nutrition.org.uk British Nutrition Foundation
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
www.ranw.com Food & Beverage Manager
www.webtender.com Webtender — an online bartender
www.wine.com Wine.com
www.winespectator.com Wine Spectator online
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 33: Contemporary Gastronomy
Learning hours: 120
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to develop learners’ knowledge, skills and understanding of gastronomy
and gastronomic principles. The unit addresses essential academic and organoleptic skills,
together with an appreciation of how such skills can be applied to contemporary gastronomy.
Learners initially develop an overview of gastronomy, which leads to an investigation of
gastronomic trends. The content is flexible, enabling learners to respond to trends as they
develop and to anticipate where they may lead in the future.
Learners will develop their knowledge, skills and understanding of how the five senses can be
used to assess the acceptability and quality of food and drink. They will examine ratings scales
and the values and criteria that determine results. Finally, they will apply their learning to the
evaluation of food and wine using a gastronomic approach.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Apply gastronomic study principles to an exploration of gastronomy
2 Investigate contemporary gastronomic developments and trends and consider how these
might develop in the future
3 Use food preparation and cooking knowledge and skills to prepare a range of
gastronomic dishes in a professional, safe and hygienic manner
4 Apply sensory evaluation techniques to assess food and beverage acceptability and
quality
5 Analyse and evaluate the application of gastronomic principles and practices within
contemporary food and beverage settings.

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Content

1 Gastronomic study principles


Approaches to the study of gastronomy: definitions, practical, theoretical, technical and
food gastronomy, gastro-history and gastro-geography
Professional study: academic, practical, experiential, academic and organoleptic skills
Exploring gastronomy: fine dining, history and development, regional gastronomy, status in
society, major influences eg historical, geographical, European; gastronomic milestones,
events, personalities, table etiquette dissemination of knowledge, service development
Gastronomy principles: menu and dish construction, beverage selection, fundamental
constructs of major culinary traditions, association of food and wine, phraseology of menus
and wine lists

2 Contemporary gastronomic developments and trends


Contemporary developments and trends: eg diversity of development, operations and
systems management, service methods, client base and choices, menu and beverage
provision, sourcing of commodities, organic foods, availability of international foods,
widening choice in New World wines, development and effects of concept cuisines, trends
in airline catering, role of skilled workers and their effects on quality, entrepreneurial skills,
élite establishments, branded food outlets, design
Contemporary influences: key contemporary personalities, role, effectiveness,
regional/national/international, potential key influences, political, economic, social,
technological considerations, wisdom and fallacies of food choice, vision and leadership
Relationship between food and drink: construction of menus and dishes, changes in balance
between food and wine, other alcoholic/non-alcoholic beverages, changing nature of dining,
service development, modern restaurant concepts, increased diversity, future development
of trends

3 Food preparation and cooking


Preparation: time planning, food orders, selecting and using appropriate equipment,
commodities and methods, food safety
Cooking: methods, processes, timing, quality, selecting and using appropriate equipment
Professional: attitude, high standard of personal appearance including proper uniform,
good hygienic practices, attentiveness, body language, attention to detail, treating
colleagues with respect, effective communications eg listening, speaking, relaying
messages and orders accurately and promptly; teamwork, codes of practice
Safety and hygiene: key legislation eg food safety, cross contamination, monitoring and
control points; maintaining quality, use of resources, appearance and acceptability, codes of
practice

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4 Sensory evaluation techniques
Human senses: the role of the five senses, primary tastes and taste sensitivity, importance of
smell, detection and perception of flavour and texture, wisdom and fallacy of food and
beverage choice
Rating scales: eg hedonic, numeric; criteria and values
Sensory techniques: understanding the senses, recording and analysing results, assessing
and interpreting sensory perceptions, presenting results

5 Application of gastronomic principles and practices


Gastronomic approach: differences between fine dining and the consumption of foods and
beverages, food and beverage harmony
Food and beverage: aesthetic presentation of food and beverage, appearance, taste, colour,
texture, timing, quality, relationship between food and beverage, matching selections of
beverages
Environment: food preparation and cooking, food and beverage service
Evaluation techniques: collecting information, qualitative/quantitative feedback, dish
analysis sheets, timing schedules, working methods, making reasoned judgements based on
available information, recommendations for improvement

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Apply gastronomic study • distinguish between practical, theoretical, technical
principles to an exploration and food gastronomy
of gastronomy
• summarise the development of gastronomy of a
particular region
• identify major gastronomic influences on
contemporary cuisine
• give examples of the fundamental principles of
significant gastronomic traditions and cuisine
2 Investigate contemporary • explain a range of contemporary developments and
gastronomic development trends in gastronomy
and trends and how these
• justify the contemporary focus of the developments
might develop in the future
and trends
• identify key contemporary personalities and evaluate
their role and effectiveness
• describe the principles of achieving the balance
between food and wine and other beverages
• apply gastronomic principles in the construction of
various menus, dishes and the selection of appropriate
beverages
3 Use food preparation and • describe the equipment, commodities and methods
cooking knowledge and used to prepare and cook gastronomic dishes
skills to prepare a range of
• demonstrate skills in the preparation and cooking of a
gastronomic dishes in a
range of gastronomic dishes
professional, safe and
hygienic manner • demonstrate a professional attitude at all times
• follow safe and hygienic working practices
4 Apply sensory evaluation • evaluate the inter-relationship between food and
techniques to assess food beverages and the five senses
and beverage acceptability
• identify an appropriate rating scale with criteria and
and quality
values to determine the acceptability and quality of
food and drink
• apply various sensory evaluation techniques to assess
the acceptability and quality of food and drink
• present and interpret the results of the assessment

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Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
5 Analyse and evaluate the • distinguish between dining and the consumption of
application of gastronomic food and wine
principles and practices
within contemporary food • apply gastronomic principles in the practical
and beverage settings. preparation of foods and matching selection of
beverages
• present foods, dishes and matching selection of
beverages in compliance with aesthetic and
gastronomic principles
• analyse and evaluate the application of gastronomic
principles.

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Guidance

Delivery

The delivery of this unit develops learners’ knowledge and understanding of contemporary
gastronomy. Initial discussions will help to assess learners’ level of knowledge at the outset of
the unit and will support tutors in focusing delivery to support those areas where additional
work may be necessary.
Learners should explore the underpinnings for the subject before tackling contemporary issues.
This must be preceded by a shared understanding of the approaches to the study of gastronomy,
including appropriate definitions of practical, theoretical, technical and food gastronomy.
Learners also need to understand the need for professional study, including the development of
academic and organoleptic skills. Academic skills may be cross-referenced with other units, for
example Unit 26: Research Project.
The development of organoleptic skills can be achieved alongside the exploration of
gastronomy through visits to appropriate establishments, linked with an analysis of the menu
and dishes from a gastronomic perspective. Visiting speakers will also support this area.
Specialists may be invited in to deliver presentations to support practical, theoretical, technical
and food gastronomy. Tutors should also consider the value of inviting visiting chefs with a
gastronomic focus (such visits should be linked with an appropriate practical Culinary Arts
pathway unit). Case study materials will usefully focus on specific issues that are not otherwise
covered through theory, visits, visiting speakers or other research.
Throughout the development of the knowledge base, tutors should demonstrate and highlight
the application of gastronomy principles, such as menu and dish construction, the association of
food and wine, or the constructs of culinary traditions.
Once this knowledge base is soundly established, delivery of the unit can move on to
contemporary developments and trends in gastronomy. Common agreement is also important
about what constitutes a contemporary issue. Learners must be clear in their thoughts and in
their evidence about why a particular issue is contemporary. Narrow thinking, focusing on only
one or two developments, would not be acceptable. Contemporary ideas should address a broad
range of issues. The content of this section is flexible to allow learners to investigate current
issues. Tutors must also be conscious that the flexible nature of this unit may lead to a narrow
perspective and should take steps to ensure that learners keep an open and broad approach to
their investigations. The unit should develop their thinking processes, enabling them to consider
such issues effectively during their future career.
As part of this section, learners need also to consider contemporary influences, including the
key personalities who are dominant in this field at the time of study. They should also consider
and challenge traditional wisdom in food choices and the fallacies that have become evident in
recent years.
Learners must have the opportunity to develop their skills and knowledge of gastronomy
through demonstration, preparation and cooking of a range of gastronomic dishes. Dishes
should be produced to a standard that would be acceptable to paying customers, although
learners may need extensive support during the initial stages of delivery. Tutors should ensure
that practical work carried out by learners reflects the purpose of the unit. Learners should also
be encouraged to be creative in their work, provided that this is achieved within the scope of the
unit and does not become stressful.

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Learners will need support to develop and apply their understanding of sensory perception.
This should include ways of recording tasting sessions in a way that supports a gastronomic
approach. Examples of rating scales, their uses and ways of interpreting data will support
understanding and enable learners to select and apply a suitable scale with appropriate criteria
and values, which they should determine.
The final goal of the unit is for learners to apply a gastronomic approach to the evaluation of
food and wine. At this stage, they should be clear about the differences between the fine dining
of a gastronomic circle and other instances of food and drink consumption. Learners should be
able to apply their knowledge of gastronomy to assess food and wine through the application of
appropriate evaluation techniques.

Assessment

Much of the evidence for this visit will be generated through assignment work, experimental
and development work. Practical work will highlight the role of sensory aspects in food
appreciation.
A large part of the assessment might be an individual assignment focused on the contemporary
gastronomy of a specific region, or focused on key developments of, or influence on, a
particular aspect of contemporary gastronomy. Evidence of key personalities should be
included. The whole assessment can be drawn together through a presentation, but this could be
appropriately supported by an academic paper developing the key points.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit is linked to practical units within the qualification, particularly those within the
Culinary Arts pathway such as:
• Unit 10: Food and Society
• Unit 30: Menu Planning and Product Development
• Unit 34: World Cuisine
• Unit 35: Creative Patisserie (double unit).
There are further links through the development of academic study with Unit 26: Research
Project.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A1: Manage your own resources
• A2: Manage your own resources and professional development
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• B11: Promote diversity in your area of responsibility
• C1: Encourage innovation in your team
• C2: Encourage innovation in your area of responsibility
• C3: Encourage innovation in your organisation
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers

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• F10: Develop a customer focused organisation
• F11: Manage the achievement of customer satisfaction
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP04: Food and Beverage Skills and Knowledge
• OP42: Food and Society.

Resources

In addition to formal lectures and seminars, the learning for this unit should be supported by
elements of experiential learning. Access to outlets that support gastronomic principles, such as
a fine dining restaurant, is essential to enable learners to experience gastronomy as a consumer.
Provision of gastronomy-driven menus and dishes to a local gastronomy society will provide an
ideal focus for many practical aspects of this unit and add realism and vocational relevance.
Specialist resources should include case study materials, videos and documented examples of
current practice eg reports from the hospitality industry. A bank of current case study materials
(which may be drawn from the trade press) is also an essential resource. In addition learners
should be strongly encouraged to read professional journals and relevant texts at every
opportunity to support the development of their knowledge and to develop their awareness of
contemporary issues.

Support materials

Books
Ackerman D — A Natural History of the Senses (Phoenix, 1996) ISBN 1857994035
Bode W K H — European Gastronomy: The Story of Man’s Food and Eating Customs
(Hodder & Stoughton, 1996) ISBN 0470235721
Ceserani V, Foskett D and Kinton R — Practical Cookery (Hodder & Stoughton, 2004)
ISBN 0340811471
Cousins J, Foskett D and Gillespie C — Food and Beverage Management (Longman, 2002)
ISBN 0582452716
Davis B, Stone S and Lockwood A — Food and Beverage Management (Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1998) ISBN 0750632860
Durkan A and Cousins J — The Beverage Book (Hodder Arnold H&S, 1995)
ISBN 0340604840
Fine G — Kitchens: The Culture of Restaurant Work (University of California Press, 1996)
ISBN 0520200780
Foulkes C (editor) — Larousse Encyclopaedia of Wine (Larousse Kingfisher Chambers, 2001)
ISBN 2035850134
Gillespie C and Cousins J (editor) — European Gastronomy into the 21st Century
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001) ISBN 0750652675
Katz J — Restaurant Planning, Design and Construction: A Survival Manual for Owners,
Operators and Developers (John Wiley & Sons, 1997) ISBN 0471136980
Kinton R, Ceserani V and Foskett D — The Theory of Catering (Hodder Arnold H&S, 2003)
ISBN 0340850418

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Lawson F — Restaurants, Clubs and Bars: Planning, Design and Investment in Food Service
Facilities (Architectural Press, 1995) ISBN 0750620765
Lillicrap D — Food and Beverage Service (Hodder Arnold H&S, 2002) ISBN 0340847034
Manask A and Schechter M E — The Complete Guide to Foodservice in Cultural Institutions:
Keys to Success in Restaurants, Catering and Special Events (John Wiley & Sons, 2001)
ISBN 0471396885
Martin D W et al — The Ultimate Wine Book: Everything You Need to Know about Wine
Appreciation, Wine with Food and the Latest Health Findings (Discover Guides, 1999)
ISBN 094205329X
Miller J E, Hayes D K and Dopson L R — Food and Beverage Cost Control (John Wiley &
Sons, 2004) ISBN 0471477869
Montagne P — The Concise Larousse Gastronomique: The World’s Greatest Cookery
Encyclopedia (Hamlyn, 2003) ISBN 0600608638
Robinson J — The Oxford Companion to Wine (Oxford University Press, 1999)
ISBN 019866236X
Simon J — Wine with Food: The Ultimate Guide to Matching Wine with Food for Every
Occasion (Mitchell Beazley, 1999) ISBN 1840001798
Telfer E — Food for Thought: Philosophy and Food (Routledge, 1996) ISBN 0415133823
Tuor C — Wine and Food Handbook: Aide Mémoire for the Sommelier and the Waiter
(Hodder Arnold H&S, 2002) ISBN 0340848529
Unwin T — Wine and the Vine: An Historical Geography of Viticulture and the Wine Trade
(Routledge, 1996) ISBN 0415144167
Visser M — The Rituals of Dinner: The Origins, Evolution, Eccentricities and the Meaning of
Table Manners (Penguin, 1992) ISBN 0140170790
Waller K — Customer-centred Performance Improvement for Food and Beverage Operations
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996) ISBN 075062812X
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Cornell Quarterly
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Current Awareness Bulletin for Hospitality Management (HCIMA — published quarterly)
Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995 (HMSO, 1995) ISBN 0110532279
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hotel and Restaurant Magazine (Quantum)
Hospitality Review (Threshold Press — published quarterly)
Hospitality Year Book (HCIMA)
Hotels (official journal of the International Hotel and Restaurant Association — an online copy
is available from www.getfreemag.com)
Restaurant Magazine (The Restaurant Game)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)

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Websites
www.acfws.org Academy of Food and Wine Service
www.askachef.com Ask a Chef
www.bbc.co.uk/food BBC Food pages
www.bda.uk.com British Dietetic Association
www.beveragenet.net Adams Beverage Group — an information source
for the beverage alcohol industry
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.bii.org British Institute of Innkeeping
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.dine-online.co.uk Dine Online — independent reviews
www.ecagb.co.uk European Catering Association (Great Britain)
www.ehotelier.com eHotelier website — one-stop website for hoteliers
www.fcsi.org Foodservice Consultants Society International
www.foodserviceworld.com Foodservice World
www.food.gov.uk Food Standards Agency
www.foodlaw.rdg.ac.uk University of Reading’s food law website
www.foodservice411.com/rimag Restaurants and Institutions magazine
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.hospitalitynet.org Hospitality Net
www.ih-ra.com International Hotel and Restaurant Association
www.intowine.com Into Wine website, covering wine regions, how
wine is made, storage, enjoying wine, wine and
health and wine resources
www.nutrition.org.uk British Nutrition Foundation
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
www.ranw.com Food & Beverage Manager
www.webtender.com Webtender — an online bartender
www.wine.com Wine.com
www.winespectator.com Wine Spectator online
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 34: World Cuisine
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit
This unit introduces learners to aspects of world cuisine. Learners will develop an
understanding of how menus are structured in different world regions and will investigate
current and developing trends. They will have the opportunity to use specialist equipment,
commodities and specific methods relevant to different world cuisines.
Learners will have opportunities to practice and develop their skills in preparing and cooking a
range of dishes from different world regions, following professional, safe and hygienic
practices. The unit also develops learners’ skills in evaluating dishes and suggesting
improvements.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Examine characteristics and trends in world cuisine
2 Investigate equipment, commodities and methods used in world cuisine
3 Use food preparation and cooking knowledge and skills to prepare dishes from different
world regions in a professional, safe and hygienic manner
4 Apply evaluation techniques and criteria to a range of dishes.

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Content

1 Characteristics and trends


World regions: eg European, the Americas, Caribbean, Pacific Rim, Far East, Middle East,
Indian sub-continent, Africa, Australasia
Characteristics: conventional menu structures eg starters, main courses, sweets; regional
and cultural variations; sequencing of courses/dishes
Trends: recipe development, dietary/special requirements; health issues eg lifestyle,
balanced diet, anaphylactic shock; fusion with different cuisines; changes in customer
demand, changes in menu structure

2 Equipment, commodities and methods


Large equipment: in addition to conventional preparation and cooking equipment, the
following specialist equipment should be considered:
• handis (large surface-area saucepans)
• open ring stoves
• tandoori ovens and seekhs (skewers)
• atmospheric steamer
• bamboo steamer
• Chinese burner (wok cooker)
Small equipment: in addition to conventional preparation and cooking equipment, the
following specialist equipment should be considered:
• tawa (type of griddle pan)
• kadai (cast iron wok)
• karchi (type of stirring spoon)
• heavy-duty mixers/blenders
• thali (silver/stainless steel service dish)
• Chinese ladles
• chopsticks
• cleavers
• mortar and pestle (or grinder)
• rice bowls
• woks
Commodities: meat, poultry, fish, seafood, vegetables (including exotic vegetables eg
pumpkin, okra, baby aubergine), fruit, yoghurt, ghee, breads, rice, lentils, pulses, spices
(powdered and whole), herbs, sesame seeds, tamarind, nuts, dried fruits, Chinese fruit and
vegetables (eg lychees, melons, water chestnuts, bamboo shoots), sauces (eg soy, black
bean), batters, noodles, tofu, herbs and spices, rice vinegar, rice wine

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Categories: eg fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, vacuum packed
Methods: storage methods and procedures, preparation eg peeling, chopping, blanching,
sealing, dicing, boning, marinading, skinning, filleting, coating, seasoning; cooking
eg roasting, baking, shallow/deep frying, stir-frying, grilling, broiling, poaching, baking,
braising, stewing, steaming, pot roasting, bhunno (browning), liaison, tandoori cooking

3 Food preparation and cooking


Preparation: time planning, food orders, selecting and using appropriate equipment,
commodities and methods, food safety
Cooking: methods, processes, timing, quality, selecting and using appropriate equipment
Professional: attitude, high standard of personal appearance including proper uniform,
good hygienic practices, attentiveness, body language, attention to detail, treating
colleagues with respect, effective communications eg listening, speaking, relaying
messages and orders accurately and promptly; teamwork, codes of practice
Safety and hygiene: key legislation eg food safety, cross contamination, monitoring and
control points; maintaining quality, use of resources, appearance and acceptability, codes of
practice

4 Evaluation techniques and criteria


Techniques: collecting information, sources of information eg customers, colleagues;
qualitative/quantitative feedback, dish analysis sheets, timing schedules, working methods,
making reasoned judgements based on available information, recommendations for
improvement
Criteria: timing, quality, appearance, taste, colour, texture, cost, aesthetic appeal,
specialised equipment, reasons for change

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Examine characteristics • compare and contrast the characteristics of different
and trends in world cuisine world region cuisines
• explain and justify trends in regional or world cuisine
2 Investigate equipment, • describe the equipment and methods used to prepare
commodities and methods and cook dishes from different world regions
used in world cuisine
• compare and contrast the commodities and flavours
used in different world cuisines
3 Use food preparation and • demonstrate skills in the preparation and cooking of a
cooking knowledge and range of dishes from different world cuisines
skills to prepare dishes from
• demonstrate a professional attitude at all times
different world regions in a
professional, safe and • follow safe and hygienic working practices when
hygienic manner preparing and cooking dishes
4 Apply evaluation • evaluate clearly and coherently a range of dishes from
techniques and criteria to different world cuisines
a range of dishes.
• make valid recommendations for improvement.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit is primarily practical and will focus on the preparation and cooking of dishes from
different world regions. It is important at the outset of the unit to deliver two or three sessions
through demonstration, during which different menu structures can be explained, for example,
Indian or Chinese. These sessions can be supported or delivered by experienced visiting chefs.
Such visits should be an on-going feature of delivery to respond to learners’ needs.
Learners must develop their theoretical understanding of different world cuisines before
tackling practical work. Learners should also be encouraged to discuss possible trends from an
early stage, but this must not be detrimental to their understanding of the characteristics that
reflect different regions. Tutors can support learners’ investigations by giving them direction,
for example with websites, by arranging visits to suitable restaurants and encouraging them to
read the trade press. Tutors should encourage the group to explore a broad range of world
regional cuisine, enabling learners to appreciate regional variations. It is important that tutors
do not simply give learners a pack of information, but encourage them to apply the investigative
skills that will be useful to them in their future careers as chefs.
Learners must have the opportunity to explore different cuisines through the preparation and
cooking of a range of dishes, which must cover the full spectrum of menu structure, enabling
learners to develop a wide range of knowledge and skills. Dishes should be produced to a
standard that would be acceptable to paying customers, although learners may need extensive
support during the initial stages of delivery. Tutors should promote the use of specialist
equipment where this is available. It is important for learners to have some exposure to such
equipment through demonstration or practical work. Tutors should ensure that practical work
carried out by learners reflects the purpose of the unit.
Learners should also be encouraged to be creative in their work, provided that this is achieved
within the scope of the unit and does not become stressful. This will provide the opportunity to
experiment with possible trends, such as recipe development or fusion with other cuisines.
The evaluation of dishes when they have been prepared and cooked is an important element and
learners will initially need guidance on how best to achieve this. Guidance must also be given
where appropriate regarding acceptable taste, appearance, quality, flavour and so on.
Recommendations for improving dishes through changes to preparation or cooking methods,
commodities, or improved use of specialist equipment will need tutor support in the early stages
of the unit. Later in the unit, learners should take greater control over the evaluation of dishes,
whilst still involving the tutor as an informed observer.

Assessment

Evidence for this unit should primarily be practical and assessed through observation of
learners’ skills in preparing and cooking a range of dishes from different world regions,
recorded as witness statements or in other appropriate formats. Diaries or logs of activities
would provide useful support for records of observation.

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It is important, however, to ensure that evidence is presented to demonstrate knowledge and
understanding of the characteristics and trends in different regional cuisines, such as the
equipment, commodities and methods used. Evaluation of dishes can be evidenced through
group discussions and again could be recorded in logs or diaries. Formal work involving written
assignments is not appropriate for this type of unit. Commodities and equipment have been
included within the unit as they provide the vehicle for development of primary and creative
skills.

Links

This unit is linked to practical units within the qualification, particularly those within the
Culinary Arts pathway:
• Unit 10: Food and Society
• Unit 30: Menu Planning and Product Development
• Unit 33: Contemporary Gastronomy (double unit)
• Unit 35: Creative Patisserie (double unit).
There are further links through the development of academic study with Unit 26: Research
Project.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A2: Manage your own resources and professional development
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• B11: Promote diversity in your area of responsibility
• B12: Promote diversity in your organisation
• C1: Encourage innovation in your team
• C2: Encourage innovation in your area of responsibility
• C3: Encourage innovation in your organisation
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E4: Promote the use of technology within your organisation
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety
• F2: Manage a programme of complementary projects
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP04: Food and Beverage Skills and Knowledge
• OP42: Food and Society.

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Resources

The provision of commercial catering equipment that reflects Indian cuisine (eg tandoori ovens,
kadais) is essential to the delivery of this unit. The use of such equipment and the substantial
use of specialist commodities will be a heavy demand that centres must be sure they can meet.
ICT is not a major feature of this unit but will be useful in enabling learners to research
different types of Indian cuisine.
Photographic evidence will support the learner’s portfolio development, therefore access to
appropriate equipment will be an advantage but not a priority.

Support materials

Books
Bode W K H — European Gastronomy: The Story of Man’s Food and Eating Customs
(Hodder & Stoughton, 1996) ISBN 0470235721
Ceserani V and Foskett D — Advanced Practical Cookery (Hodder Arnold H&S, 2002)
ISBN 0340848537
Civitello L — Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People (John Wiley & Sons, 2003)
ISBN 0471202800
Cousins J, Foskett D and Gillespie C — Food and Beverage Management (Longman, 2002)
ISBN 0582452716
Doeser L — Classic Chinese Cooking: Tempting Tastes from the East (Lorenz Books, 2000)
ISBN 075480092X
Hellon J — The Blue Elephant Cookbook (Pavilion Books, 2001) ISBN 1862053030
Hobson W (editor) — The Classic 1000 Chinese Recipes (Foulsham, 2002) ISBN 0572028490
Hom K — The Taste of China (Paragon, 1995) ISBN 1858131499
Kotas R and Jayawardena C — Profitable Food and Beverage Management (Hodder Arnold
H&S, 1994) ISBN 0340595124
Philip T E — Modern Cookery for Teaching and the Trade (Sangam Books, 2003)
ISBN 8125025189
Shulman M R — Mediterranean Light: Delicious Recipes from the World’s Healthiest Cuisine
(Morrow Cookbooks, 2000) ISBN 0688174671
Sobell C — New Jewish Cuisine: Contemporary Kosher Cooking from Around the World
(Interlink Books, 2004) ISBN 1566564514
Thompson D — Thai Food (Pavilion Books, 2002) ISBN 1862055149
Van Aken N and Van Aken J — New World Kitchen: Latin American and Caribbean Cuisine
(Ecco, 2003) ISBN 0060185058
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Chef (Reed International)
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Kitchen equipment catalogues

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Menu specifications
Tandoori magazine (Subcontinent Publishing)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
CD ROMs
Catering, Health and Safety, Food Safety (Croner Publications)
Video/DVD
BBC Learning Zone — hospitality programmes
Broadcasts of commercial programmes relating to the hospitality industry
Websites
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
http://chinesefood.about.com Chinese food information
www.chopstix.co.uk Chinese food and culture
www.croner.co.uk Croner Publishing
www.ethnicgrocer.com International recipes and ingredients for Asian
cuisine
www.food.gov.uk Food Standards Agency
www.foodlaw.rdg.ac.uk University of Reading’s food law website
www.foodservice411.com/rimag Restaurants and Institutions magazine
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.hospitalitynet.org Hospitality Net
www.kitchenlink.com Kitchen Link — world-wide recipes
www.nutrition.org.uk British Nutrition Foundation
www.pacificrim-gourmet.com Pacific Rim cuisine
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
www.ranw.com Food & Beverage Manager
www.riph.org.uk Royal Institute of Public Health
www.tandoorimagazine.com Tandoori Magazine
www.tarladalal.com Indian recipe site
www.thaicuisine.com Thai cuisine recipes, restaurants and ingredients
www.world-cuisines.com World cuisine recipes
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 35: Creative Patisserie
Learning hours: 120
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit will develop learners’ knowledge and skills in the creative preparation of patisserie
goods. The provision, composition and presentation of patisserie items changes continually,
either through evolving eating trends, availability of seasonal produce or as a reflection of
healthy eating. Learners need to be able to adapt to these changes, taking into consideration
aspects such as food costs, materials, equipment and ingredients available.
Learners will also be able to apply creative flair in the preparation of patisserie dishes and
develop an innovative approach to their work. They will also have the opportunity to evaluate
products and make recommendations as to how they could be improved.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Explain the use of equipment and methods for creative patisserie work
2 Use food preparation and cooking knowledge and skills to prepare different patisserie
items
3 Explain and demonstrate professional, safe and hygienic kitchen practices
4 Apply evaluation techniques and criteria to a range of patisserie items.

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Content

1 Equipment and methods


Equipment: large equipment eg conventional stoves/ovens, salamanders, bains-marie,
griddles; small equipment eg knives, chopping boards, mixers; specialist equipment
eg moulds, provers, thermometers/probes, specialist sugar/chocolate equipment
Preparation: eg creaming, folding, mixing, whisking, aeration, moulding, incorporating
fat/salt/sugars/yeast, boiling, separating, relaxing, kneading, conditioning, cooling/chilling,
stretching paste, sifting, rubbing in, blending, manipulating, spreading
Processing: eg reducing, liquidising, blending, emulsifying, flavouring, colouring,
laminating, cutting, rolling, piping, glazing, developing, fermenting, extruding, extruding,
tempering, melting
Cooking: eg steaming, shallow/deep-fat frying, boiling, re-heating, baking, poaching
Finishing: eg grilling, coating, piping, portioning, moulding/de-moulding, glazing, filling,
dipping, flambé, cooling/chilling/freezing, dusting, shaping, stippling, spreading,
decorating

2 Patisserie items
Pastes: sweet, savoury, short, puff, filo, noodle, strudel, ravioli, hot water, pie, choux;
speciality pastes eg German, Linzer, Sable, Almond
Fermented goods: rolls, breads, sweet bread products eg cookies, doughnuts, savarines;
enriched dough, laminated dough
Sponges and cakes: slab cake, fruit cake, small, individual, sponge products eg roulade,
Swiss roll; gateaux, afternoon tea goods
Meringues: cold, warm, hot
Ice confections: ice creams, frozen yoghurt, crème fraiche, sorbets, water ices, parfaits,
bombes, coupes, sundaes
Sugar work: boiling, use of sugar at different degrees, production of flavouring, sauces and
decorative pieces for garnish, display work, pastillage and royal icing
Marzipan and fondant: as an ingredient, as a covering medium, as a decoration, display
pieces/items, petits fours
Chocolate: flavoured coating, couverture, as an ingredient, as a coating medium, display
items, petits fours
Mousses and Bavarin creams: charlottes, individuals, use in other items eg tortes, slices
Sundry items: hot and cold sweets, puddings, soufflés, fresh and convenience fruits,
premixes, chemically aerated goods, fresh/synthetic cream, pastry creams, almond fillings

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3 Professional, safe and hygienic
Professional: attitude, high standard of personal appearance including proper uniform,
good hygienic practices, attentiveness, body language, attention to detail, treating
colleagues with respect, effective communications eg listening, speaking, relaying
messages and orders accurately and promptly; teamwork, codes of practice
Safety and hygiene: key legislation eg food safety, cross contamination, monitoring and
control points; maintaining quality, appearance and acceptability, use of resources, codes of
practice

4 Evaluation techniques and criteria


Techniques: collecting information, sources of information eg customers, colleagues;
qualitative/quantitative feedback, dish analysis sheets, timing schedules, working methods,
making reasoned judgements based on available information, recommendations for
improvement
Criteria: timing, quality, appearance, taste, colour, texture, cost, reasons for change

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Explain the use of • describe a range of large, small and specialist
equipment and methods equipment used in the preparation, processing,
for creative patisserie work cooking and finishing of patisserie items
• explain the methods used for a range of patisserie
items
2 Use food preparation and • demonstrate preparation, processing, cooking and
cooking knowledge and finishing skills for a range of patisserie items
skills to prepare different
patisserie items
3 Explain and demonstrate • demonstrate a professional attitude at all times
professional, safe and
• use relevant personal, social and technical skills when
hygienic kitchen practices
preparing, processing, cooking and finishing pastry
items
• explain and demonstrate at all times safe and hygienic
working practices
4 Apply evaluation • evaluate clearly and coherently a range of patisserie
techniques and criteria to items
a range of patisserie items.
• make valid recommendations for improvement.

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Guidance

Delivery

Professionalism in the hospitality and catering industry is vital both to the success of the
hospitality organisation and the learner’s future career. Future employers will expect recruits to
demonstrate a professional attitude to their work, to themselves, to colleagues and to their
employers. Tutors must take great care throughout their work to reinforce the importance of
maintaining the right professional attitude, in terms of personal, social and technical skills and
safe and hygienic working practices when working with and communicating with others.
This unit is primarily practical and focuses on the development of preparation, processing,
cooking and finishing skills for patisserie items. Learners must have the opportunity to develop
a wide range of knowledge and practical skills. Dishes should be produced to a standard that
would be acceptable to paying customers, although learners will need extensive support during
the initial stages of delivery. Learners must also be encouraged to be creative in their work,
provided that this is achieved within the scope of the unit and does not become stressful.
The evaluation of patisserie items is an important element and learners will initially need
guidance on how best this can be achieved. Later in the unit, learners should take greater
control over the evaluation of dishes, whilst still involving the tutor as an informed observer.

Assessment

Evidence for this unit should primarily be practical and assessed through observation of
learners’ skills in preparing, processing, cooking and finishing a range of patisserie items,
recorded as witness statements or other appropriate formats. Diaries or logs of activities would
provide useful support for records of observation.
Evaluation of dishes can be evidenced through group discussions and again could be recorded
in logs or diaries. Formal work involving written assignments is unlikely to be appropriate for
this type of unit.

Links

This unit is linked to practical units within the qualification, particularly those within the
Culinary Arts pathway:
• Unit 10: Food and Society
• Unit 30: Menu Planning and Product Development
• Unit 33: Contemporary Gastronomy (double unit)
• Unit 34: World Cuisine.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A2: Manage your own resources and professional development
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility

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• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP04: Food and Beverage Skills and Knowledge
• OP42: Food and Society.

Resources

The provision of commercial catering equipment is essential to the delivery of this unit. The use
of such equipment together with the substantial use of commodities will be a heavy demand
that centres must be sure they can meet.
ICT is not a major feature of this unit but will enable learners to research ideas and
developments in patisserie work.

Support materials

Books
Bacon J — Patisserie of Vienna (McGraw-Hill Education, 1988) ISBN 0070233179
Hanneman L J — Patisserie (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993) ISBN 0750604301
Juillet C — Classic Patisserie (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998) ISBN 075063815X
Maree A — Patisserie: An Encyclopedia of Cakes, Pastries, Cookies, Biscuits, Chocolate,
Confectionery and Desserts (HarperCollins, 1994) ISBN 020718478X
Roux M and Roux A — The Roux Brothers on Patisserie (Little Brown, 1993)
ISBN 0316905593
Wright J — Patisserie of Italy (McGraw-Hill Education, 1988) ISBN 0070720908
Further reading
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Hospitality Matters (British Hospitality Association)
Hotel and Restaurant Magazine (Quantum)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
Websites
www.acfws.org Academy of Food and Wine Service
www.askachef.com Ask a Chef
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.food.gov.uk Food Standards Agency
www.foodlaw.rdg.ac.uk University of Reading’s food law website
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association

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www.hospitalitynet.org Hospitality Net
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 36: Catering Technology
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to introduce learners to the principles and practical applications of
catering technology. The unit also focuses on the creation of new food products and their
assessment as suitable for a prescribed clientele. Learners will initially explore the issues
surrounding the development of a new product or the modification of an existing one, including
the issues involved in large-scale production.
They will also use testing techniques to investigate the quality of food products. These will
include subjective testing, such as taste, texture, colour and flavour, as well as scientifically-
based objective testing. This aspect will include evaluating the responses of customers to the
new product.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Develop a new or modify an existing food or beverage product
2 Evaluate the issues of large-scale production
3 Investigate food quality using subjective and objective tests
4 Evaluate the responses of customers to the new product.

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Content

1 Modify an existing food or beverage product


Design: concept research, small-scale development, corporate development programmes,
costings, specification manual, presentation methods, food stabilisers, food enhancers,
trend analysis, consumer reactions, timescales for development, risk assessment
Legislation: eg food labelling, additives, food safety, risk analysis
Influences: eg food fashions, globalisation, ethnic cookery influences, vegetarian and
healthy eating concepts

2 Large-scale production
Production: project design and management
Packaging: role of packaging in demand and acceptance, technological developments,
materials, environmental issues, distribution channels
Equipment: appliances and their versatility, new equipment requirements, up-skilling/re-
skilling of staff, operating procedures
Technology systems: eg testing and evaluation equipment, analysis software and hardware,
temperature controls and recording, storage monitoring, stock rotation systems

3 Subjective and objective tests


Subjective tests: eg taste, colour, texture, smell, flavour
Objective tests: physio-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic techniques

4 Evaluate the responses


Evaluation techniques: market research, questionnaires, focus groups, tasting panels, pilots,
sampling, validity
Process: identifying opportunity, selecting sample, establishing procedure, recording and
analysing results

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Develop a new or modify • design a new food or beverage product, adhering to
an existing food or the design specifications and associated legislation
beverage product and taking account of current influences
• explain the role of legislation in the development of a
new product
2 Evaluate the issues of large- • explain how the development of packaging,
scale production equipment and technological systems have affected
large-scale production as well as the design and
management of the product
3 Investigate food quality • design, implement and evaluate simple subjective and
using subjective and objective tests for sensory evaluation of food
objective tests
4 Evaluate the responses of • design and carry out a range of evaluation techniques
customers to the new to assess the success of a product
product.
• evaluate the validity of each of the techniques used.

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Guidance

Delivery

Tutors can begin the delivery of this unit through discussion groups to examine case studies of
food or beverage products that have recently completed the development cycle. Learners can be
given freedom to explore the influences that drive product development. Both tutors and
learners must be aware that such influences change over time and may themselves be short or
long-term. This will affect the development processes, particularly with respect to the cost of
development.
The discussions can lead to ideas from learners about products they might like to develop or
modify. Some theoretical input will be required, particularly to cover issues of legislation.
Learners will need considerable support to understand issues relating to large-scale production.
Delivery will be enhanced by site visits and guest speakers from the industry. Such associations
should ensure that the latest applications of ICT are properly covered. This is a rapidly
changing aspect of catering technology that can only be satisfactorily covered through
connections with industry.
It is important that learners understand wider issues that would affect a major commercial
operation, as well as smaller scale issues that will affect the development work they will
undertake within the centre. Proper facilities must be provided for development and testing
work, including appropriate storage, preparation and cooking equipment, as well as laboratory
equipment to undertake objective tests. Suitable recording documentation should be provided,
some of which may be designed by learners. Tutors should be aware of the potentially complex
nature of recording documentation for scientific testing and should not allow design by learners
to detract from the focus of the unit.
The issue of subjective testing can then be extended into the market place by evaluating
customer response to the new product. This needs to include decisions by learners about which
evaluation techniques they will use and agreement on the process of involving potential
customers with evaluation. Again, learners must be aware of the differing implications of
implementing evaluation for a large-scale commercial operation and for the development work
they have completed within the centre.

Assessment

Tutors should be aware of the highly practical nature of this unit and make appropriate
provision for establishing evidence, such as reports and results of laboratory tests and
examinations. These may be presented in a formal report format or delivered to a group, which
may include representatives from industry. (This would be a useful opportunity to extend the
involvement of visiting speakers or those who have hosted visits to commercial operations.)
Such reports or presentations can be extended to include accounts of the exploratory and
investigative reports that led to laboratory development, as well as the outcomes of the
evaluation by potential customers. This would include all aspects of the development process
from initial concept through to scale development. The outcome would result in the building of
a portfolio of product development, as a complex but holistic piece of work that would reflect
the outcomes of a client or company brief, if this were happening in industry. This approach
would need careful initial briefing and subsequent close monitoring by the tutor as work
progresses.

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It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit can be linked successfully with a range of practical and related units within the
programme.
• Unit 10: Food and Society
• Unit 15: Marketing
• Unit 33: Contemporary Gastronomy (double unit)
• Unit 37: Food Hygiene and the Environment
• Unit 38: Nutrition and Diet.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• A2: Manage your own resources
• B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B3: Develop a strategic business plan for your organisation
• B4: Put the strategic business plan into action
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• C1: Encourage innovation in your team
• C2: Encourage innovation in your are of responsibility
• E1: Manage a budget
• E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
• E4: Promote the use of technology within your organisation
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective approach to health and safety
• F1: Manage projects
• F3: Manage business processes
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers
• F10: Develop a customer focused organisation
• F11: Manage the achievement of customer satisfaction
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP07: Managing Food Production Operations
• OP41: Hospitality Technology
• OP43: Food Science.

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Resources

Proper facilities must be provided for development and testing work, including appropriate
storage, preparation and cooking equipment. Learners will need access to a food laboratory
with appropriate objective testing equipment and food sensory facilities for taste panels.
Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts, journals and packs on the
associated legislation and food and equipment safety.
Access to the internet is particularly important, together with the use of relevant software and
hardware applications.

Support materials

Books
Bell J — Doing Your Research Project (Open University Press, 2005) ISBN 0335215041
Cousins J, Foskett D and Gillespie C — Food and Beverage Management (Longman, 2002)
ISBN 0582452716
Inwood D and Hammond J — Product Development: An Integrated Approach (Kogan Page,
1993) ISBN 0749410043
Jones P and Merricks P (editors) — The Management of Food Service Operations
(Thomson Learning, 1994) ISBN 030432907X
Knight J B and Kotschevar L H — Quantity Food Production, Planning and Management
(John Wiley & Sons, 2000) ISBN 0471333476
Lockwood A (editor) — Quality Management in Hospitality: Best Practice in Action
(Thomson Learning, 1996) ISBN 0304334855
Loken J K (editor) — The HACCP Food Safety Manual (John Wiley & Sons, 1995)
ISBN 0471056855
Further reading
Food Catalogue (Fisher Scientific) — a 128-page catalogue with dedicated ranges of laboratory
essentials covering consumables, capital equipment, chemicals and microbiological media
(available online from www.fisher.co.uk/catalogues/food.htm)
Hotel and Catering Technology
Websites
www.foodtech.org.uk food technology website including online
analytical tools, direct links with professionals;
case studies supported by video clips
www.netcomuk.co.uk/~media/foodtech.htm food technology website that provides basic
information for learners
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 37: Food Hygiene and the Environment
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to define the importance of the hygienic storage, preparation and serving
of food in a controlled environment, and investigate the underlying principles of food hygiene.
Food hygiene is becoming increasingly important from the perspective of both the operator and
the consumer. The intention of this unit is to give a broad insight into the subject from a
management perspective.
Learners will initially develop their understanding of food poisoning and the processes that can
prevent food spoilage and preserve food quality. They will also examine a range of prevention
systems and how they can be implemented. Their learning will be underpinned through the
analysis of the importance of risk assessment and quality control systems.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Describe the agents of food poisoning and food-borne disease
2 Analyse the processes that can effectively prevent food spoilage and preserve food quality
3 Explain the importance of effective prevention systems in the control of food
contamination
4 Analyse the importance of risk assessment and quality control systems.

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Content

1 Agents of food poisoning


Bacteriology: main bacteria of concern — salmonella, clostridia, listeria, Ecoli,
staphylococcus aureus, growth conditions, characteristics, incubation and onset times of
illness
Physical contamination: explanation of physical contaminants, prevention of physical
contamination, methods of control
Chemical contamination: types of chemical contaminants, prevention of chemical
contamination, methods of control
Food poisoning: causes, symptoms, duration
Food-borne infections: difference between food-borne infection and food poisoning, agents
of food-borne disease, sources of contamination, prevention measures
High-risk foods: foods which are most likely to cause food poisoning

2 Processes
Food spoilage agents: bacteria, yeasts, moulds, enzymatic activity
Food preservation methods: chemical, physical
Special processes to prolong shelf-life: irradiation, microwaves, vacuum packing

3 Effective prevention systems


Storage: methods and types of storage, storage controls — temperature, humidity,
cleanliness, labelling, stock rotation, use-by dates, cross-contamination
Personal hygiene: legislation related to personal hygiene, protective clothing, cross-
contamination, notification of illness, personal hygiene through training
Cleaning and disinfection: definition of detergent, disinfectant, sanitiser, sterilant, storage
and use of chemicals, Control of Substances Harmful to Health (COSHH) regulations,
modes of action of cleaning materials, design, implementation and monitoring of cleaning
schedules
Pests: types of pests in food establishments, methods of entry, signs of infestation, control
and monitoring
Design and construction of premises: systems approach to designing premises, importance
of barrier control, legislation of design, cleaning considerations
Training: importance of training in how to monitor the systems employed

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4 Risk assessment and quality control systems
Quality control systems: assured safe catering, risk assessment, good manufacturing
practice and supplier safety assurance
Hazard Analysis and Control of Critical Points (HACCP): implementation, process flow
diagrams, monitoring and evaluation, training
Legislation: Food Safety Act 1990, Food Safety (Temperature Control) Regulations 1995,
Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995; replacement legislation where
applicable

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Describe the agents of food • determine the importance of bacteriology in the
poisoning and food-borne prevention of food poisoning
disease
• describe physical and chemical contaminants and how
they can be prevented
• define the causes, symptoms, duration and onset times
of food poisoning with reference to specific causes
• explain the term ‘food-borne illness’, the associated
agents and how it can be prevented
2 Analyse the processes that • summarise the types of food-spoilage agents and the
can effectively prevent food conditions in which they grow
spoilage and preserve food
• describe the methods of food preservation and their
quality
effectiveness in controlling food spoilage
• identify the special processes available and how they
work
3 Explain the importance of • summarise the methods for safe storage of food
effective prevention
• describe the importance of personal hygiene in the
systems in the control of
control of food contamination
food contamination
• assess cleaning and disinfection as an integral part of
safe food production
• discuss the problems associated with various pests in
food establishments
• evaluate the need for careful design and construction
of premises with respect to food hygiene
• explain the importance of training as a management
function
4 Analyse the importance of • describe the various types of quality control systems
risk assessment and
• prepare a risk assessment and quality control system
quality control systems.
and apply current food safety legislation.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit would be best delivered as a stand-alone package in order to ensure all the learning
outcomes are achieved. However, it should also be linked to practical units in order to underpin
the relevance of the subject and the outcomes to the overarching hospitality industry. Delivery
should include theory supported by practical laboratory work. Visiting speakers including food
hygiene specialists should be used where possible to add currency and vocational relevance.
There are plentiful resources produced by the industry, the Environmental Health Office and
other agencies such as the Royal Institute of Public Health that highlight a range of specific
issues.
Tutors should begin with the theory of agents of food poisoning. There are plentiful packages
and support resources available in this area, which should be used to support vocational
relevance. Theory should be supported by laboratory work in a controlled environment, with a
focus on the growth of food poisoning cultures. Further experimentation can examine the
additional hazards posed by high-risk foods, as well as expected and unexpected forms of
physical and chemical contamination. Tutors should also use focused case studies, many of
which are regrettably based in real life, but nonetheless underpin the serious implications of
this unit.
Theory should establish the processes involved in the prevention of food spoilage and food
preservation. Laboratory experiments can explore the scientific aspects of the processes,
although some may necessarily take place over a longer time period to assess the effects of
preservation processes.
This work will lead to a range of effective prevention systems. Although theory will be
necessary to introduce concepts, this aspect begins to link theory with practice. Learners will be
able to observe a range of effective prevention systems in practice within the centre’s realistic
working environment. Visits to a range of commercial operations will expose learners to a
wider variety of prevention systems, such as controlled stock rotation and monitoring of storage
temperatures in a hospital cook-chill system. Such environments may also clarify issues of
design and construction of premises in a way that may not be so apparent in converted
premises, for example a hotel or restaurant.
The final learning outcome will require delivery using a blend of theory and practice. Issues
relating to quality control and risk assessment are linked to other units within the programme,
but tutors should reinforce the importance of such practices from the food hygiene perspective.
Learners will also have the opportunity to carry out risk assessment in a range of areas and
compare their results with risk assessment in practice.

Assessment

By its nature, the unit will require evidence of theoretical learning, which is likely to be based
on report writing. Accounts of laboratory experiments will also be required. However, tutors
should not overlook the advantages of presentations to a group, particularly where the group
includes industry specialists such as the local Environmental Health Officer or the food safety
officer for the local hospital. Logs of practical work, such as the risk assessment and its
outcomes, also provide alternative forms of evidence.

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There is the potential to design a single assignment covering all aspects of evidence required by
the unit. This would make a comprehensive assessment vehicle that would add value to
learners’ work but tutors must ensure that this is not at the expense of fundamental
understanding of the subject.
It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit provides and can be linked successfully with a wide range of units. Examples include:
• Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations
• Unit 13: On-Licensed Trade Management
• Unit 27: Cellar and Bar Operations
• Unit 29: Introduction to Brewing Science
• Unit 30: Menu Planning and Product Development
• Unit 31: Planning and Managing Food Production
• Unit 32: Planning and Managing Food and Beverage Service
• Unit 35: Creative Patisserie (double unit).
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
• E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
• E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety
• F12: Improve organisational performance.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP06: Managing Food Hygiene
• OP07: Managing Food Production Operations
• OP38: Statutory Regulations and Legal Requirements
• OP41: Hospitality Technology
• OP43: Food Science.

Resources

Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts, journals and specialist CD ROMs
associated with food hygiene as well as access to the internet, and the use of relevant software
applications. Details of suggested reading materials are provided below.
Laboratory facilities would be helpful to support exploratory work. Tutors should also develop
a bank of case study materials, some of which will probably be drawn from the trade press, to
add currency and vocational relevance.

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Support materials

Books
Blanch S — Food Hygiene (Hodder Arnold H&S, 2003) ISBN 0340858079
Chesworth N — Food Hygiene Auditing (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 1996)
ISBN 0834216809
Dillon M and Griffith C — How to Audit: Verifying Food Control Systems (MD Associates,
1997) ISBN 1900134055
Dillon M and Griffith C — How to HACCP: An Illustrated Guide (MD Associates, 2000)
ISBN 1900134128
Garbutt J — Essentials of Food Microbiology (Hodder Arnold, 1997) ISBN 0340677015
Hobbs B C and Roberts D (editor) — Food Poisoning and Food Hygiene (Hodder Arnold,
1993) ISBN 034053740X
Knowles T — Food Safety in the Hospitality Industry (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002)
ISBN 0750653493
Leach J — A Guide to Customer Perceptions of Food Hygiene (Chadwick House, 2003)
ISBN 1904306004
Macdonald D J, Engel D and Woffenden C (editor) — A Guide to HACCP: Hazard Analysis
for Small Businesses (Highfield, 1996) ISBN 1871912903
Mortimore S, Wallace C A and Cassianos C — HACCP: Executive Briefing (Blackwell
Science, 2001) ISBN 0632056487
Sprenger R A — Hygiene for Management (Highfield, 2004) ISBN 1904544258
Trickett J — Food Hygiene for Food Handlers (Thomson Learning, 1996) ISBN 1861526903
Further reading
Assessing Food Hygiene (FST Interactive — www.fastrain.co.uk)
Caterer and Hotelkeeper (Reed Business Information)
Croner Guide: The A-Z to Catering (Croner Publications)
Croner’s Catering Magazine (Croner Publications)
Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995 (Stationery Office Books, 1995)
ISBN 0110532279
Hospitality (Reed Business Information)
Industry Guide to Good Hygiene Practice: Catering Guide (Department of Health/Chadwick
House, 1997) ISBN 0900103000
Managing Food Safety (FST Interactive — www.fastrain.co.uk)
Voice of the BHA (British Hospitality Association)
HCIMA produce a number of copyright-free technical briefs on most aspects of hospitality and
catering which are available for free download — see the HCIMA website (details below).

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Health and Safety Executive Books are available from:
HSE Books
PO Box 1999
Sudbury
Suffolk CO10 2WA
Telephone: 01787 881 165
Website: www.hsebooks.com
Useful HSE publications include A Guide to Information, Instruction and Training and
Catering Guidance Sheets.
Video/DVD
BBC Learning Zone — hospitality and catering programmes
Broadcasts of commercial programmes relating to the hospitality and catering industry
Essential Food Hygiene (Royal Society of Health)
CD ROM
Basic Food Hygiene (Highfield Publications — www.highfield.co.uk)
Websites
www.bha-online.org.uk British Hospitality Association
www.caterer.com Caterer and Hotelkeeper website
www.cieh.org Chartered Institute of Environmental Health
www.croner.co.uk Croner Publications
www.defra.gov.uk Department for Environment, Food and Rural
Affairs
www.fastrain.co.uk FST Interactive
www.food.gov.uk Food Standards Agency
www.hcima.org.uk Hotel and Catering International Management
Association
www.hse.gov.uk Health & Safety Executive
www.people1st.co.uk People 1st (formerly Hospitality Training
Foundation)
www.phls.co.uk Health Protection Agency
www.riph.org.uk Royal Institute of Public Health
www.rsph.org Royal Society for Promotion of Health
www.sofht.co.uk The Society of Food Hygiene Technology
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 38: Nutrition and Diet
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to investigate a number of areas of nutrition, including contemporary
ideas regarding diet and health such as food choice and the influences of society, in order to
devise and analyse menus for a variety of customers in various sectors of the hospitality
industry.
Learners will develop their understanding of nutritional principles, which underpin the links
between diet and health. They will then be able to use this to explore the role of nutrition in the
planning and management of food production operations.
Learners will also have the opportunity to plan and analyse diet and menus for a range of
situations and customers. This will lead to wider issues relating to the role of nutrition in
hospitality management.
It is assumed that, prior to undertaking the unit, the learner has a basic knowledge of nutrition.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Explain nutritional principles
2 Investigate the links between diet and health
3 Plan and analyse diet s and menus
4 Examine the role of nutrition in hospitality management.

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Content

1 Nutritional principles
Food choice: factors influencing food choice and dietary habits (socio-economic, cultural,
religious, ethical, psychological, media, sensory perception), current food trends (eg fast
foods, snacking)
Food classification: main food groups (meat, fish and alternatives, milk and dairy foods,
bread and cereal foods, fruit and vegetables, fatty and sugary foods), nutritional values of
common foods
Nutritional requirements: dietary reference values (DRVs) for nutrients and energy,
nutrient and energy needs of population subgroups (children, physically active, elderly,
pregnancy and lactation)
Nutritional status: assessment of the nutritional status of populations and individuals
(anthropometric assessment), body mass index (BMI), biochemical, measurement of food
and nutrient intake (24 hour recall, weighed inventory, National Food Survey), use of food
tables

2 Diet and health


Health: obesity and overweight (nature and extent, causes, treatment, coronary heart
disease, dietary fats (saturates, monosaturates, polyunsaturates, omega-3 fatty acids, trans-
fatty acids) and effects on serum cholesterol (LDL and HDL), diet and dental health,
fibre/NSP (non-starch polysaccharides) and bowel disorders, diet (eg antioxidant vitamins)
and cancer, salt and hypertension
Deficiency diseases: folic acid deficiency, anaemia, other vitamin and mineral deficiencies
Healthy eating: healthy eating guidelines, 1983 NACNE report, nutrient and food
recommendations of 1994 COMA report
Therapeutic diets: diabetic, weight-reducing and gluten-free diets
Alcohol: physiological/psychological effects of alcohol in the body (short- and long-term),
behavioural effects, product development trends linked to customer demands, current
market share for alcoholic beverages
Allergies: eg peanut, colourings

3 Diets and menus


Meal/menu planning: construction of healthy, palatable meals and menus for a variety of
situations and customers including vegetarian, vegan, diabetic, weight-reducing and gluten-
free diets
Analysis of menus and diets: measurement, calculation and estimation of weights of foods
in meals and diets, use of food tables and computer programmes in the analysis of the
nutrient and energy contents of a variety of menus and diets, evaluation of the suitability of
menus for the intended customers
Menu modification: adaptation of recipes, menus and diets to comply with healthy eating
guidelines (reduced fat, sugar, salt and increased fibre)

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4 Role of nutrition
Food production methods: effects of different food production methods and cooking
techniques on the nutritional values of foods (eg conventional large-scale cooking methods,
microwave cooking, cook-chill, sous vide)
Nutrition in different sectors of the industry: application of nutritional principles and
relative importance of nutrition in a variety of catering outlets (eg schools, hospitals,
residential homes, employee feeding, hotels, restaurants, fast-food outlets)
Promotion of healthy eating: importance of a good diet, presentation of nutritional
information to customers and staff, nutrition education

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Explain nutritional • describe the factors affecting food choice and current
principles food trends
• classify foods according to type and nutrient content
• describe nutritional requirements of individuals and
groups
• explain methods used for measuring nutritional status
and food intake
2 Investigate the links between • describe the relationships between diet and health
diet and health
• explain the principles of healthy eating
• describe the use of diet in the treatment of diabetes,
obesity and coeliac disease
• appraise the effects of alcohol on the human body and
the hospitality world
3 Plan and analyse diets and • prepare and develop healthy, palatable meals for a
menus variety of customers and situations
• analyse menus and diets using food tables and
computer programmes
• modify existing recipes, meals and menus to
implement healthy eating principles
4 Examine the role of • describe the effects of different food production
nutrition in hospitality methods on the nutritional value of foods
management.
• compare the importance of nutrition and the different
nutritional principles involved in a variety of catering
outlets
• produce material which provides nutrition
information and promotes concepts of healthy eating
suitable for use in the catering industry.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit requires delivery using a combination of theory and practical application. Initial
discussions by small groups of learners, followed by feedback and wider discussion, will help
to focus learners’ current knowledge of diet and nutritional principles. Theoretical input will be
required to develop learners’ knowledge of food classifications and nutritional requirements.
This is a useful opportunity to develop contributions from visiting specialists, such as a
nutritional specialist from the local hospital, where the effective application of diet and
nutrition can be critical. Other possibilities may include sports coaches or food consultants with
a remit for schools provision. Visits to industry to observe the preparation of food and drink
that reflects the broad coverage of this unit will provide vocational relevance.
When investigating the links between diet and health, theoretical input will form the basis of
delivery. Tutors should use case study material to highlight key diet issues, such as evidence of
deficiency diseases, particularly in the third world. However, it is important to highlight the
risks to the western diet, such as those caused by the passing trend of junk fast food.
Diet and health issues can be readily related to learners’ own lifestyles, opening opportunities
for dietary analysis on a personal level. This can subsequently be extended to cover a range of
other food users. If directed by the tutor, learners can explore a wide variety of user groups and
provide feedback to their peers, thus extending substantially their range of knowledge. Tutors
should focus on the capacity for menu modification to underpin healthy diets, which can be
supported by visits to industry. Learners need to be able to link concepts of diet and nutrition to
contemporary food and beverage provision, such as the changes from junk fast food to healthier
alternatives that can still be produced and provided quickly.
Learners need to draw together their learning by examining the role of nutrition in hospitality
management. It is important for them to understand that the concept extends beyond hospital
and health care provision into everyday hospitality operations. They need to understand the
capacity of hospitality managers and practitioners to manage and influence dietary choice and
to promote healthy eating. Further visits to industry will enable learners to investigate
management policy regarding the nutritional aspects of food provision and the choices available
to managers and chefs in practical environments.

Assessment

Tutors and learners should be aware of the importance of persuading user groups to consider
the implications of diet and nutrition. As such, lengthy reports are unlikely to be an effective
assessment vehicle. Presentations that enable learners to demonstrate a variety of
communication skills will enhance the presentation of evidence, particularly when the audience
includes dietary specialists.
Visual support for presentations, such as posters, photographs, modified and ‘healthy’ recipes,
material or displays for promotion of nutritional and healthy eating concepts and particularly
graphical representations of dietary analysis will add meaning and relevance to the
presentation. Learners should also include evidence of how menus have been modified for a
variety of customers and outlets.

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It is strongly recommended that when learners are delivering presentations, they have access to
the latest technological equipment eg laptop computers, LCD projectors, presentation software.

Links

This unit provides and can be linked successfully with a wide range of units. Examples include:
• Unit 4: Food and Beverage Operations
• Unit 29: Introduction to Brewing Science
• Unit 30: Menu Planning and Product Development
• Unit 31: Planning and Managing Food Production
• Unit 32: Planning and Managing Food and Beverage Service
• Unit 35: Creative Patisserie (double unit)
• Unit 36: Catering Technology.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
• F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers
• F10: Develop a customer focused organisation
• F11: Manage the achievement of customer satisfaction.
This unit also links with the following blocks of the HCIMA Corpus of Knowledge:
• OP05: Nutrition and Diet
• OP43: Food Science.

Resources

Learners will need access to laboratory facilities and software packages for analysis of diets
and menus.
Learners will need access to a library with a variety of texts and journals associated with
nutrition and diet as well as access to the internet, and the use of relevant software applications.

Support materials

Books
Barasi M — Human Nutrition: A Health Perspective (Hodder Arnold, 2003) ISBN 0340810254
Bender D A — Nutritional Biochemistry of the Vitamins (Cambridge University Press, 2003)
ISBN 0521803888
Byrom S E — Pocket Guide to Nutrition and Dietetics (Churchill Livingstone, 2002)
ISBN 0443071365
Cataldo C B, Debruyne L and Whitney E — Nutrition and Diet Therapy (Wadsworth, 1999)
ISBN 0534545947
Garrow J S and James W P T — Human Nutrition and Dietetics (Churchill Livingstone, 1999)
ISBN 0443056277

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Mann J and Truss S (editors) — Essentials of Human Nutrition (Oxford University Press, 2002)
ISBN 0198508611
Parker R — Introduction to Food Science (Delmar, 2001) ISBN 0766813142
Peckenpaugh N — Nutrition and Essential Diet Therapy (Saunders, 2002) ISBN 0721695329
Phillips B — Eating for Life: Your Guide to Great Health, Fat Loss and Increased Energy
(High Point Media, 2003) ISBN 0972018417
Shepard R — Handbook of the Psychophysiology of Human Eating (John Wiley & Sons, 1989)
ISBN 0471914959
Stanfield M S — Nutrition and Diet Therapy (Jones and Bartlett, 2003) ISBN 0763721409
Webb G — Nutrition: A Health Promotion Approach (Hodder Arnold, 2002)
ISBN 0340760699
Further reading
Dietary Reference Values of Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK (Department of
Health/Stationery Office Books, 1991) ISBN 0113213972
Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (World Health Organisation, 2003)
ISBN 924120916X
McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods: Summary Edition (Food Standards
Agency/Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002) ISBN 0854044280
Manual of Nutrition (MAFF/Stationery OfficeBooks, 1995) ISBN 0112429912
Nutritional Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease (Health Development Agency, 1996)
ISBN 0752105957
Websites
www.50plushealth.co.uk nutrition and diet advice for the over-50s
www.eatwellcard.co.uk nutritional and healthy lifestyle advice
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 39: The Sport and Leisure Industry
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to give learners an understanding of the sport and leisure industry and
the environment in which the industry operates. This unit develops the underpinning knowledge
for this qualification so that learners have a broad understanding of the range, growth and
expansion of the sport and leisure industry.
Learners will be able to examine the expansion and influence of the sport and leisure industry
over the last twenty years as well as the interrelationship between the different partners within
the industry.
Learners will be expected to look at the role and impact of the political environment, which
influences the sport and leisure industry, as well as the role of both government and
government agencies. Learners will also be able to evaluate the implementation of government
policy at a local level.
Learners will also explore the significance of key impacts and current issues that affect the
sport and leisure industry using relevant economic, social/cultural and environmental theories.
Learners will be expected to prepare management strategies to meet these impacts and issues at
a local level.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Examine the growth and influence of the sport and leisure industry
2 Explore the range of sport and leisure providers
3 Investigate the role of government and the political environment in the context of the
sport and leisure industry
4 Investigate the key impacts and current issues that affect sport and leisure.

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Content

1 Growth and influence


Sport and leisure industry: facilities and activities, outdoor and indoor, minority sports,
professional clubs, entertainment, hospitality and exhibitions, fashionable sport and leisure
and trends in sport and leisure, commercial and private providers, professional sport,
cinemas and theatres, exhibitions, health clubs and spas, sports merchandise, voluntary
eg local sports clubs, drama groups, public eg local authority leisure, national stadia, venue,
parks and events, schools and specialist sports colleges, further education centres of
excellence, government organisations, other agencies and providers
Growth and expansion: related to age, gender, socio-economic group, lifestyle,
geographical location, disability/health status, governmental imperatives, improved choice,
health clubs, specialist activities, purpose built facilities, educational eg new sports colleges
and centres of excellence, events management, recreation, arts and entertainment, outdoor
activities, adventure tourism, sports development policy and planning, consumer
consumption, lifestyle, national governing bodies, sector skills councils, sports councils to
reflect national government policy on sport and associated areas eg fitness, elite training
facilities and services eg growth of youth academies for different sports, lottery funding,
professional bodies eg ISRM and ILAM

2 Sport and leisure providers


Organisation: funding, objectives, structure and significance of commercial, voluntary and
public provision, relationships between the providers, funding similarities, commercial
activities by public and voluntary providers, community activities by commercial providers
Management: lines of communication within and external to the organisation, structure
eg hierarchical, management by objectives, scientific management, autocratic, democratic
Mission, values and objectives: concept of corporate vision, mission statements, equality of
access and opportunity eg women and disabled participants, profits and market share, sales,
level of service, customer friendly, key legal responsibilities to the consumer and employee,
health and safety, data protection, ethical and environmental practices, values and ethics
and their use within related activities, other stakeholders, setting industry standards,
management training for different aspects of the sector eg National Occupational Standards,
Modern Apprenticeships

3 Role of government and the political environment


Role: governmental departments and their interrelationship eg education and health, social
inclusion, health and obesity in school children, crime prevention, widening participation,
central government policy in sport and leisure, local authority strategies, implementation
and success, government targets, quasi-governmental institutions and government
sponsored bodies, major event planning
Policy: support and priority for sport and leisure, economic growth, full employment,
inflation, health and social inclusion agenda, inner cities and crime rates, new sports
colleges and centres of excellence

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Local authority: eg discretionary power to provide sport and leisure activities to improve
health, accessible facilities for different community groups eg age, culture, sports
development policy and implementation

4 Key impacts and current issues


Impacts: economic eg influence on the growth of other sectors within the economy
eg manufacturing of sports-related goods, high levels of importation of related goods and
services, seasonality, generation of revenue; social and cultural eg income and employment,
quality of life, health and well-being, anti-drug, anti-crime, education and lifelong learning,
regeneration of communities, achievement in school, pride, work/life balance, transport,
use of non-work time and increased leisure time, higher leisure spend, greater provision by
local authorities, improved choice and ‘value for money’, unemployment trends, barriers to
participation eg age, gender, disability; environmental eg pollution, land use, energy
conservation, planning and land use, brown field sites versus green field sites, loss of
school playing fields, sustainable transport links, waste management and recycling
Issues: economic, health of the nation eg obesity, media coverage and influence on
participation eg use of selected advertisements to promote sports-related foods,
development of national stadia, hosting of a major games, work-life balance/leisure time
Strategies: for economic, environmental, social and cultural impacts and issues, increased
participation, improve revenue and facilities, policy planning and management structures,
marketing events, open days and access for specialist sports, activities and events

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Examine the growth and • use relevant data to analyse the growth, expansion
influence of the sport and and influence of the sport and leisure industry over
leisure industry the last 10 years
• explain the range of sport and leisure providers in
terms of their roles, funding, interrelationship,
participants, facilities and services
2 Explore the range of sport • explain the mission, values and objectives of key
and leisure providers sport and leisure providers, assessing their impact,
effectiveness and contribution to the sector
• review the organisation, governance and management
of key sport and leisure providers
• explain the similarities and differences in the
organisation of the key sport and leisure providers
• evaluate the extent to which local sport and leisure
providers meet the needs of the community and
predict future trends and possible changes
3 Investigate the role of • describe the role and interrelationship of national
government and the government departments with a remit that includes
political environment in sport and leisure related activities, identifying areas
the context of the sport and of interest and potential conflict
leisure industry
• explain current government policy and its effect on
the sport and leisure industry
• evaluate the implementation and success of current
government policy and local authority strategy in a
selected locality using relevant research data
4 Investigate the key impacts • explain and assess the significance of key impacts and
and current issues that current issues that affect sport and leisure, using
affect sport and leisure. relevant social, cultural, economic and environmental
theories
• prepare strategies that can be used to manage a range
of sport and leisure issues and impacts.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit can be delivered using a mixture of class discussions, formal lectures, visits and case
study material. Learners should be able to visit a range of sports and leisure organisations in
order to understand and discuss the breadth and influence of the industry. They will also need
to be able to discuss current government policies and their impact on sport and leisure. A full
discussion with local sports development officers can help raise awareness of local priorities
that relate to government policies. Learners will also need to appreciate the role and
significance of governmental departments.

Assessment

Evidence for this unit can be presented as:


• formal reports showing the expansion and growth of the industry over the last 10 years
• presentations for a selected audience illustrating the organisation of key sport and leisure
providers
• a series of newspaper articles that show the range of issues that impact on sport and leisure
and strategies for managing any changes that can meet the needs of the industry.

Links

This unit links to the following Management NVQ unit:


• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates.
It also links with occupational standards for professional qualifications such as those offered by
the Institute of Sport and Recreation Management (ISRM) certificate and the Institute of
Leisure and Amenity Management (ILAM) diploma.

Resources

Learners need access to a range of sport and leisure providers as well as current government
policies on sport and leisure.

Support materials

Books
Cossons N and Anderton D — Looking at Leisure (Hodder Arnold H&S, 1992)
ISBN 0340570415
Eastwood N — The Sports Funding Guide (Directory of Social Change, 1999)
ISBN 1900360497
Haywood L — Understanding Leisure (Nelson Thornes, 1995) ISBN 0748720596
Hill J — Sport, Leisure and Culture in 20th Century Britain (Palgrave Macmillan, 2002)
ISBN 0333726871

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Holt R and Mason T — Sport in Britain since 1945 (Blackwell, 2000) ISBN 0631171541
Torkildsen G — Leisure and Recreation Management (Routledge, 2005) ISBN 0415309964
Wolsey C and Abrams J — Understanding Leisure Organisations (Longman, 2001)
ISBN 0582381657
Further reading
Health Club Management
Leisure Management
Leisure Manager — ILAM journal
Recreation — ISRM journal
Sport and Recreation: Learning from Audit, Inspection and Research (Audit Commission,
2002) ISBN 1862403589
Websites
www.audit-commission.gov.uk Audit Commission
www.culture.gov.uk Department for Culture, Media and Sport
www.ilam.co.uk Institute of Leisure and Amenity Management
www.isrm.co.uk Institute of Sport and Recreation Management
www.sportengland.org Sport England
www.statistics.gov.uk National Statistics
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 40: Heritage and Cultural Management
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to investigate heritage and cultural management and its role within the
leisure sector. Throughout the unit learners will gain an awareness of definitions of heritage
and culture, the organisations involved in the management of heritage and the different forms of
ownership.
This unit will provide an in-depth understanding of the economic growth development of the
heritage and cultural industry. The learner will also be able to look at potential conflicts within
the industry and the influence of technology.
Learners will also be expected to investigate the role and scope of interpretation within this
sector and its impact on participants and management.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Investigate the growth and development of heritage and cultural providers within the
contexts of natural and constructed environments
2 Examine the roles of heritage and cultural attractions within the leisure industry
3 Explore the ownerships and organisations involved in the heritage and cultural industry
4 Investigate the role of interpretation within the heritage and culture providers.

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Content

1 Growth and development of heritage and cultural providers


Heritage: definitions of heritage, analysis of its importance and interest
Natural: aspects of heritage including landscape, coastlines, national parks, forests,
woodlands, wildlife, other habitats; impact of the leisure industry on the conservation and
sustainability of such sites
Constructed: built heritage environment; museums, historic buildings, artefacts,
archaeological sites, transport, industrial heritage, sport-related heritage sites, themed sites,
public art, sculpture and monuments
Cultural heritage: role of heritage industry in shaping and sustaining cultural identity;
regional and national costume, song, dance, myth, legend, folklore, language and food;
impact of issues such as the European Capital of Culture bids
Conflicts of interest: access versus conservation, erosion, impact of visitors on sites and
their immediate environments, presentation of heritage and culture to visitors, planning and
land use, brown field sites versus green field sites, conservation threats imposed by further
growth, potential role and impact of new technologies eg virtual reality and interactive
software, access to the new technologies eg capital costs and revenue generation, training
and up-skilling of staff, management of change

2 Roles of heritage and cultural attractions


Scope of heritage and culture: education, research, recreation, entertainment
Attractions: differing types of attractions, sites and venues, accessibility and sustainability
of transport, up-skilling and re-training staff, changing staff profiles
Audiences: segmentation, target groups, visitor levels and usage rates, overall status of
heritage and culture as a leisure activity, income generation and links with tourism and
urban regeneration, specialist groups

3 Ownerships and organisations


Ownership of heritage and culture: public and commercial ownership, mission and values,
objectives and income generation; role in education, training and conservation; control of
access and preservation of cultural heritage; role and operation of charitable trusts, mission
and values, management roles and responsibilities
Organisations: eg structure and remits of the National Trust, government agencies
eg English Heritage, Cadw, Historic Scotland; quangos and voluntary bodies eg the Civic
Trust, Environment Agency, the Countryside Agency, the National Parks, Wildlife Trusts,
government departments eg DCMS, regional/local authority departments and specialist
conservation groups, role of national governmental departments
Roles and responsibilities: funding, advisory and legislative, changes eg new technologies,
changes in attractions and income generation, new merchandising

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4 Role of interpretation
Interpretation: importance of interpretation to the visitor experience; relevance of a
thematic approach to interpretation
Media for interpretation: published material, audio-visual, interactive technology, drama
and role play, audio and other sensory techniques
Meeting audience needs: importance of establishing audience needs for effective
interpretation; language levels, combination of interpretative media to achieve appropriate
effects

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Investigate the growth and • analyse the economic growth of the heritage and
development of heritage cultural industry using examples from the natural and
and cultural providers constructed environments
within the contexts of
• explain and exemplify potential conflicts between
natural and constructed
leisure activities and the conservation of heritage and
environments
cultural resources using relevant data, policies and
legislation
• analyse the impact of technology on the management
of the culture and heritage industry
2 Examine the roles of • compare the scope of heritage and cultural providers
heritage and cultural and the range of attractions that need to be managed
attractions within the in order to meet the needs of different audiences and
leisure industry venues
• classify heritage and cultural attractions using
audience profiles and venues
3 Explore the ownerships • compare the different forms of ownership within the
and organisations involved cultural and heritage industry and the impact on
in the heritage and cultural income generation and responsiveness to changing
industry audience needs
• summarise the structure and management of key
heritage organisations and their inter-relationships
• evaluate the success of two organisations involved in
the management of heritage and cultural sites
4 Investigate the role of • explain the scope and affect of interpretation within
interpretation within the the heritage and cultural industry
heritage and culture
• evaluate the impact of contrasting media and the way
providers.
they affect interpretation
• prepare an interpretation plan for a specific heritage
site which takes account of potential audiences and
their needs.

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Guidance

Delivery

Whilst much background information required for this unit can be delivered through lectures
and seminars, these should include a wide range of heritage case studies to help emphasise the
diversity of the sector and the variety of organisations involved in the management of heritage.
The delivery programme should include as many site visits as possible so that learners can be
encouraged to evaluate a range of approaches to conservation and interpretation in practice.
The nature of the unit content also permits a wide range of opportunities for independent
research.
Using case studies can promote the development of skills of analysis and synthesis. The
consideration of issues such as conservation versus access within the unit is an ideal
mechanism for developing a wide range of analytical skills.
Whilst this unit deals specifically with the management of heritage and cultural attractions,
learners should acknowledge, and be able to discuss, the role of heritage within the structure of
the wider leisure industry and appreciate the significance of heritage attractions within the
social contexts of leisure activity.

Assessment

This unit will be assessed through the presentation of a study of a chosen heritage cultural site.
The presentation may be in written format or delivered orally. Where an oral presentation is
used as the basis for assessment the learner should submit relevant supporting material,
including an account of research sources, to the tutor.
Whichever form of submission is used, the following areas should be included in the study:
• categorisation of the sites being compared
• an analysis of the scale of the sites in terms of their role as visitor attractions and their
contribution to local economies
• potential conflicts between leisure activities and the sustainability of the sites and their
local environments
• the impact of the different forms of ownership on the sites
• an outline of the heritage management organisations relevant to the sites, and their potential
contribution to their management and development
• an evaluation of existing forms of interpretation used in the sites, and a plan outlining their
improvement using a range of media.
In developing their submissions for this assessment, learners may benefit from considering the
relevance of knowledge and understanding gained in other units.

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Links

There are links between this unit and other related units such as Unit 39: The Sport and Leisure
Industry and Unit 26: Research Project.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ unit:
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates.

Resources

Learners need access to a range of cultural and heritage sites as well as use of the internet and
any related case studies.
Various government papers and reports on the cultural and heritage industry would also be an
advantage as well as documents produced by a range of organisations such as the
National Trust.

Support materials

Books
Ashworth G and Howard P — European Heritage Planning and Management (Intellect Books,
1999) ISBN 1841500054
Goodey B — Heritage Interpretation Management (John Wiley & Sons, 1997)
ISBN 0471971200
Hall C M and McArthur S — Integrated Heritage Management (John Wiley & Sons, 1998)
ISBN 0471974048
Hooper-Greenhill E — Museums and Their Visitors (Routledge, 1994) ISBN 0415068576
Howard P — Heritage: Management, Interpretation, Identity (Continuum International, 2003)
ISBN 082645898X
Leaske A and Yeoman I — Heritage Visitor Attractions: An Operations Management
Perspective (Thomson Learning, 1999) ISBN 0304702927
Merriman N — Beyond the Glass Case: The Past, the Heritage and the Public (University of
London Institute of Archaeology, 2000) ISBN 0905853377
Videos
A Watching Brief (National Trust)
Keeping House (National Trust)
Living History (English Heritage)
Protecting our Past (English Heritage)
Role up (English Heritage)
Sitework (English Heritage)
The Past Replayed (English Heritage)
Using Museums (Fulcrum/Channel 4)

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Websites
www.english-heritage.org.uk English Heritage
www.hlf.org.uk Heritage Lottery Fund
www.nationaltrust.org.uk The National Trust
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 41: Entertainment and Venue
Management
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
This unit is designed to give an over-arching view of the arts and entertainment industry with a
particular emphasis on venue management, operation and funding of live performance. The unit
explores the industry’s dynamic structure through an identification of trends in the public,
private and voluntary sectors’ involvement in the world of entertainment. A range of activities
and venues and the corresponding levels of public usage and support are explored. This will
provide the learner with an insight into the management and operation of a range of activities
and venues; the influence of contrasting financial practices and the underlying trends within the
arts and entertainment industry.
The impact of large-scale venues needs to be considered in the wider context of leisure
management given the vast range of possible entertainment opportunities offered by
multi-purpose arena and stadia offering venues for major sporting events, popular music
concerts, opera, ice shows, televised events and the attendant venue management problems
relating to licensing, health, safety and security.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Examine the contribution of the arts, entertainment and venue management industry to
the national economy
2 Investigate the range of activities offered by the arts, entertainment and venue
management industry
3 Explore the management and operation of different types of venues
4 Investigate current and future trends in the arts, entertainment and venue management
industry.

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Content

1 The arts, entertainment and venue management industry


Data: analysis of data from the entertainment and venue industry eg DCMS Annual
Reports; Leisure Tracking Survey, the Henley Centre; Target Group Index, BMRB
International; General Household Survey
Economy: ways the arts, entertainment and venue industry have contributed to the national
economy and the development and distribution of different activities
Agencies: comparison of local, regional and national funding agencies, their impact on the
arts, entertainment and venue management industry

2 Range of activities
Activity: by type eg public, private, voluntary; by performers eg professional, semi-
professional, amateur; by venue eg venue-specific, touring, festivals; by art forms eg live
performance including music, opera, theatre, dance, cabaret, comedy, visual arts and crafts
including exhibitions, film and video including recording, photography
Audiences: national usage figures, age and socio-economic breakdown, spectator and
participatory activity; widening choice
Venues: major entertainment venues eg Arenas, Stadia, NEC; dedicated spaces eg theatres,
concert halls, arts centres, clubs, cinemas, galleries; non-dedicated spaces eg streets,
schools, pubs, homes, outdoor spaces, community halls; urban/rural provision
For-profit sector: areas of private provision eg concerts, festivals, cinema, theatre, popular
music and recording industry, bingo, television, clubs; opportunity-led provision; ‘space to
sell’ concept, commercial sponsorship
Not-for-profit sector: public and voluntary sectors; role of Government and funding
agencies, non-statutory provision, Arts Council, regional arts boards, local authorities,
voluntary organisations eg ‘Friends’; principles of revenue and capital subsidy, National
Lottery, arts sponsorship; direct and indirect economic benefits

3 Management and operation


Strategies: management and operational strategies of organisations within the industry
Income generation: revenue generation and procedures within the industry; front of house
operations, box office
Influences: status eg for-profit, not-for-profit; direction eg programming, scheduling;
administration eg licensing, staffing, budgeting, resource planning
Audience and performance needs: health, safety and security, cleaning and maintenance,
catering and bars, technical and production staff, performers
Marketing needs: publicity, promotion, merchandising and point-of-sale, media relations
Employment: managerial and supervisory levels in each sector
Staffing: work and responsibilities for selected venues commenting on current practices,
deployment of staff to ensure a smooth and effective organisation

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4 Current and future trends
Opportunities: current opportunities in the arts and entertainment industry
Future trends: purpose built, multi-purpose facilities, partnership funding, commercial
approach to management; cultural provision as part of major international sports events
Technological influences: technical, production, new technologies, effect of technological
changes

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Examine the contribution of • analyse data from the arts entertainment and venue
the arts, entertainment industry highlighting ways that they have contributed
and venue industry to the to the national economy and the development and
national economy distribution of different activities
• compare local, regional and national funding agencies
and their impact on the arts, entertainment and venue
industry
2 Investigate the range of • compare the scope of the arts entertainment and
activities offered by the venue industry and the range of activities offered
arts, entertainment and
• classify performing arts and entertainment activities
venue management industry
using audience profiles and venues
3 Explore the management • compare management and operational strategies for
and operation of different two selected venues, commenting on their revenue
types of venues generation and procedures
• evaluate different areas of work and responsibilities
for two selected venues, commenting on current
practices, deployment of staff to ensure a smooth and
effective organisation
4 Investigate current and • analyse current trends in the arts entertainment and
future trends in the arts, venue industry
entertainment and venue
• explain the affect of current funding arrangements in
management industry.
the arts and entertainment industry and future
potential developments
• analyse the impact of technological changes in the
management and operation of arts and entertainment
providers.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit uses both primary and secondary research methods, project-based enquiry, case study
discussion and contact with arts practitioners and managers. This will enable the learners to
understand and explain the context within which arts practitioners operate.
It is advised that research and analysis is undertaken at two levels. It is important that at the
national level statistics such as participation rates by age, gender, socio-economic grouping are
identified and analysed. The complex nature of the industry however means that obtaining such
findings is time consuming and it is suggested that this work should be carried out in teams
with information pooled.
At the local level it is suggested that the learners concentrate individually on the investigation
of two contrasting local venues and that the subsequent analysis of findings is undertaken
within the over-arching context of the national arts and entertainment industry.

Assessment

This is an internally assessed unit with continuous assessment taking place. Assessment should
be of a formative inter-linked nature to enable learners to develop and build upon the
knowledge and skills identified in the learning outcomes.
Evidence for this unit can be:
• a report on the current and future trends in the management, operation and funding in the
arts and entertainment world
• a case study of a related heritage and/or cultural provider that can be used as a management
tool for implementing change such as the use of new technologies to increase audience type
and income generation.

Links

This unit can be linked to a number of others which relate to the principles of financial
management, human resource management and marketing.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ units:
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements.
• F10: Develop a customer focused organisation.

Resources

Learners should be given access to a wide range of publications to reflect the diverse nature of
this subject area. These include:
• local and national press
• company, agency and venue reports eg Arts Council, BBC

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• local authority information eg economic development, tourism and visitor material
• professional bodies eg ILAM, EAM, LA
• charitable trust publications eg Carnegie, Gulbenkian, Rowntree
• statistics as provided by DCMS Annual Reports; Leisure Tracking Survey, the Henley
Centre; Target Group Index, BMRB International; General Household Survey.

Support material

Books
Pick J and Anderton M — Arts Administration (Spon Press, 1995) ISBN 041918970X
Torkildsen G — Leisure and Recreation Management (Routledge, 2005) ISBN 0415309964
Waters I and Duffield B S (editor) — Entertainment, Arts and Cultural Services (Longman,
1994) ISBN 0582239052
Further reading
Leisure Management
Leisure Manager
NME
Sight and Sound
The Stage
Websites
www.24hourmuseum.org.uk National Virtual Museum
www.artscouncil.org.uk Arts Council
www.culture.gov.uk Department for Culture, Media and Sport
www.ilam.co.uk Institute of Leisure and Amenity Management
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 42: Sport and Leisure Tourism
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to provide learners with an understanding of the tourism industry
particularly in relation to sport and leisure. In this unit, learners will be able to examine the
theoretical concept of tourism, its structure and organisation. Emphasis is given to the role of
sport and leisure-related tourism in the economy and its socio-cultural and environmental
implications.
Throughout the unit learners will be expected to use relevant data in order to analyse the trends
and nature of demand for sport and leisure tourism. Learners will also be expected to prepare
data to support a particular sport and leisure-related activity.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Investigate the structure of the sport and leisure-related tourism industry
2 Explore the trends and demands for sport and leisure tourism
3 Examine the economic, socio-cultural and environmental issues that affect sport and
leisure tourism
4 Investigate strategies that can be used to maximise the growth of sport and leisure-related
tourism.

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Content

1 Sport and leisure-related tourism industry


Concept of tourism: models and approaches, definitions of tourism and tourists, tourism
motivators and barriers, classification of tourism types, tourism sectors including products
and services
Historical developments: early origins, growth of spa and seaside towns, introduction of
paid holidays, role of transport, mass tourism, eco-tourism, technological developments in
sport and leisure-related tourism
Role of public sector: government legislation, tourism authorities, national and regional
tourist boards, local government, amenity agencies, public sector initiatives, comparative
government structures
Role of private and voluntary sectors: private sector organisations eg tourist attractions and
accommodation providers; voluntary sector organisations eg hotels, hostels, partnerships,
national and international professional organisations
Tourism law: effects of EU and international legislation, tourist movement law eg
passports, passenger carriage law, consumer protection law, planning regulations, laws
relating to tourist attractions

2 Trends and demands


Sources of tourism data and statistics: international sources, National Training
Organisations, regional tourist boards, sector-specific studies eg accommodation surveys,
independent surveys, local, national, international statistics
Characteristics and contribution of tourism: patterns of demand, supply characteristics,
future markets, contribution to national economy and balance of payments, tourism-related
employment, career pathways
Tourism resources: natural, constructed, labour, tourism infrastructure including air, sea
and road, effects of deregulation, ownership and operation of airports, airlines, shipping,
rail and coach travel, impact of tourism and infrastructure on tourism demand

3 Economic, socio-cultural and environmental issues


Economic: national, local and regional impacts, measuring economic impact, multiplier and
leakage effects, cost and benefit analysis, sources of finance for tourism, funding and
grants, political costs and benefits
Socio-cultural: social impact models, socio-cultural costs and benefits, effects of
intercultural contact on host communities, effects of intercultural contact on tourists
Environmental: positive and negative environmental impacts, environmental impact
assessments, protection measures, sustainable development, competition and conflict
issues, government and organisational body initiatives

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4 Strategies
Regional and national strategies: eg Health of the Nation, crime prevention, anti-social
behaviour, juvenile crime, accessibility, transport sustainability, education and training,
new technologies eg interactive software, corporate-related, strategies related to employee
recruitment and training and management expertise
Events: eg sporting and leisure events, corporate, educational
Influence: of major initiatives eg Commonwealth Games, Ryder Cup, Grand National,
Wimbledon, Premier League events

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Investigate the structure of • compare the structure and operation for two selected
the sport and leisure- sport and leisure-related tourism providers analysing
related tourism industry their audience profiles and range of activities
• evaluate the contribution of the public, commercial
and voluntary sectors to the growth and development
of the sport and leisure-related tourism sector
• analyse the impact of historical developments and
concepts on the growth of the sport and leisure-
related tourism industry
• evaluate the value of EU and international law that
affect the sport and leisure-related tourism industry
2 Explore the trends and • present a statistical analysis identifying trends and the
demands for sport and nature of demand for sport and leisure-related tourism
leisure tourism in the UK
• evaluate the nature and availability of sport and
leisure related tourism resources
3 Examine the economic, • evaluate the contribution of the sport and leisure-
socio-cultural and related tourism industry to the UK economy
environmental issues that
• analyse the socio-cultural and environmental factors
effect sport and leisure
and their impact on the sport and leisure-related
tourism
tourism industry
4 Investigate strategies that • evaluate regional, national and local strategies that
can be used to maximise the have influenced the growth and demand for sport and
growth of sport and leisure leisure-related tourism activities
related tourism.
• prepare data that can be used to manage the growth
and demand for a selected sport and leisure-related
tourism activity.

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Guidance

Delivery

Whilst much of the factual information relevant to this unit may be delivered through lectures
and seminars there is considerable scope for the deployment of case study approaches, and
visits to relevant tourism destinations where learners can discuss relevant data trends and
developments. Learners should also be encouraged to draw on their own experiences of travel
and tourism and look at the range of materials produced by different tour operators. Visiting
talks can also help stimulate discussion as well as opportunities to visit different providers.

Assessment

Assessment for this unit should take the form of an evaluative case study of a major tourism
destination where sport and leisure has had an impact. The evaluation should include details of
the historical development of the destination; the organisations involved in its management and
development, and any legal obligations which influence or affect tourism operations. An
analysis of relevant trends and statistics should be included, as well as substantive comment on
the impacts, both positive and negative, which tourism has on the destination. Current
marketing for the destination should be analysed, with recommendations for its improvement,
using visitor profiling and a range of promotional media. The destination report may be
delivered orally but whether written or oral, the evaluation should be substantiated with
references and a supporting bibliography of research sources.

Links

There are links between this unit and other units within the Leisure and Tourism endorsed title.
This unit also links to the following Management NVQ unit:
• B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates.

Resources

Learners will need access to a range of sport and leisure-related tourism venues as well as
suitable case study material. Access to material produced by the English Tourism Council and
other organisations such as major tour operators will also be useful.

Support materials

Books
Hall C M and Page S J — The Geography of Tourism and Recreation: Environment, Place and
Space (Routledge, 2001) ISBN 0415250811
Judd D R and Fainstein S S (editors) — The Tourist City (Yale University Press, 1999)
ISBN 0300078463
Pender L, Abson D, Gray P and Seaton P — Marketing Management for Travel and Tourism
(Nelson Thornes, 1998) ISBN 0748727833

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Swarbrooke J and Horner S — Consumer Behaviour in Tourism: An International Perspective
(Heinemann Educational, 1999) ISBN 0750632836
Veal A J — Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism (FT Prentice Hall, 1997)
ISBN 0273620525
Further reading
Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing
Tourism Geographies
Websites
www3.visitbritain.com/ukindustry Visit Britain UK industry website
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 43: The Travel and Tourism
Environment
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit
This unit will provide learners with an understanding of the global environment within which
the travel and tourism industry operates. The unit examines the historical evolution of tourism,
the current structure of the tourism industry, the external influences on tourism and the impact
tourism has on host communities and the environment.
Learners will also undertake an investigation of international and national policies and assess
their influence on the tourism industry. The effects of political change on the industry’s
operation will also be examined.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Examine the history and structure of the travel and tourism industry
2 Explore the influence of local and national governments and international agencies on
the travel and tourism industry
3 Investigate the effects of supply and demand on the travel and tourism industry
4 Investigate the positive and negative impacts of tourism.

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Content

1 History and structure


History: ancient times, post industrial revolution, post war, current; factors facilitating
growth eg technology, time, money, freedom of movement, infrastructure, social
conditions; possible future developments
Structure of the travel and tourism industry: tourist boards, transport providers,
accommodation providers, attractions, tour operators and travel agents, ancillary services;
relationships and links between, levels of integration; Liepers tourist system, chain of
distribution; private, public and voluntary sectors

2 Influence of local and national governments and international agencies


Influence: direct, indirect; economic policy, political change, planning to minimise negative
effects of tourism
Government: levels eg local, regional, national, European Union; government sponsored
bodies eg Visit Britain, English Heritage, regional tourist boards, English Countryside;
functions, inter-relationships
International agencies: eg United Nations, World Tourism Organisation, World Travel and
Tourism Council, International Civil Aviation Organisation, International Air Transport
Association; functions, inter-relationships with governments

3 Effects of supply and demand


Demand: demographics, technological, emerging economies, political stability, changing
work patterns and workforce, environmentalism, globalisation, macro-economics eg
influence of currency exchange rates, interest rates, inflation, level of disposable income
Supply: provision eg accommodation, tour operators, quality, service, types of products,
seasonality, technology intermediaries, sustainability

4 Positive and negative impacts of tourism


Positive: economic eg direct and indirect income, direct and indirect employment,
multiplier effects, contribution to Gross National Product, influence on the growth of other
sectors within the economy, generation of foreign exchange and government revenues;
environmental eg conservation and enhancement of natural areas, historic and cultural sites,
infrastructure improvement, increasing environmental awareness by tourists and host
communities; social eg conservation/preservation of cultural heritage, cross cultural
exchange and education
Negative: economic eg leakage, inflation, seasonality, over-dependence; environmental eg
pollution, damage to natural and built environment, wildlife, water overuse, waste disposal;
social eg loss of amenity to host community, overcrowding, commercialisation of culture,
reinforcement of stereotypes, loss of authenticity, rise in crime

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Examine the history and • summarise key historical developments in the travel
structure of the travel and and tourism industry
tourism industry
• describe the structure of the travel and tourism
industry
2 Explore the influence of local • explain the function of government, government
and national governments sponsored bodies and international agencies in
and international agencies travel and tourism
on the travel and tourism
• explain how local and national economic policy
industry
influences the success of the travel and tourism
industry
• explain the implications of political change on the
travel and tourism industry in two countries
3 Investigate the effects of • describe the main factors affecting tourism demand
supply and demand on the
• explain how supply has changed to meet the effects
travel and tourism industry
of demand
4 Investigate the positive and • identify the main economic, environmental and
negative effects of tourism social impacts of tourism
• explain strategies that can be used to minimise the
negative impacts whilst maximising the positive
impacts
• analyse the inter-relationship between these
impacts.

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Guidance

Delivery

This unit forms the basis of learners’ study for the whole course. It is not a requirement of the
course to have studied travel and tourism before, so some learners may be unfamiliar with
definitions of tourism, the structure of the industry and basic functional distinctions such as that
between a travel agent and a tour operator. Tutors will need to balance the needs of both groups
of learners in their delivery strategy.
Learners should be encouraged to keep up to date with current issues that may influence the
industry. It should be strongly recommended to learners that they engage in regular research
through a variety of sources eg reading quality newspapers, trade journals, and watching news
and current affairs programmes on television.
Centres could help learners with this research by inviting guest speakers on such topics as
politics, the inter-relationship between sectors, chains of distribution, impacts of tourism
development, and local and national economic policies.
This unit may be delivered through the use of group discussions, lectures, seminars, site visits,
audio/visual aids, case studies, external speakers and individual projects.

Assessment

This unit is internally assessed and should involve learners in an examination of the
environment within which the travel and tourism industry operates. It should incorporate all the
criteria set but should also reflect current issues that influence the travel and tourism
environment.
There are various ways for learners to present their evidence including case studies, oral
presentations, class discussions, formal reports, etc. Learners can work either individually or in
groups but tutors will need to be able to assess each team member’s contribution.
The assessment strategy should be designed to suit the needs of the individual learners and the
local work environment. Assessment should encourage learners to apply and reflect on their
studies within and across units.

Links

As the environment within which the travel and tourism industry operates is crucial to the
overall study of the industry, this unit could link generally to all other units studied within the
travel and tourism pathway.
This unit maps to the following Management NVQ unit:
• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements.

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Resources

Learners must have access to library and research facilities, including the worldwide web,
travel and tourism publications and information on the organisations involved in the industry.
Media coverage of the industry is high profile and learners should have access to newspaper,
magazine and journal articles, television/videos, and the travel trade press. It could be
beneficial for learners to visit travel and tourism organisations. A range of guest speakers
would also be beneficial.

Support materials

Books
Bray R and Raitz V — Flight to the Sun: The Story of the Holiday Revolution
(Thomson Learning, 2001) ISBN 0826457622
Brendon P — Thomas Cook: 50 Years of Popular Tourism (Secker and Warburg, 1991)
ISBN 0436199939
Holloway J C — The Business of Tourism (FT Prentice Hall, 2001) ISBN 0273655639
Inglis K — The Delicious History of the Holiday (Routledge, 2000) ISBN 041513305X
Lickorish L and Jenkins C — An Introduction to Tourism (Heinemann Educational, 1997)
ISBN 0750619562
Pimlott J A R — Englishman’s Holiday: A Social History (Harvester, 1976) ISBN 0855272295
Sharpley R (editor) — The Tourism Business: An Introduction (Sunderland Business Education
Publishers, 2002) ISBN 1901888231
Sharpley R — Tourism, Tourists and Society (Elm, 1999) ISBN 1854504177
Tribe J — The Economics of Recreation, Leisure and Tourism (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999)
ISBN 0750661801
Van Harssel J — Tourism: An Exploration (Prentice Hall, 1995) ISBN 0139233431
Walton J — The British Seaside: Holidays and Resorts in the Twentieth Century
(Manchester University Press, 2000) ISBN 0719051703
Withey L — Grand Tours and Cook’s Tours: A History of Leisure Travel 1750–1915
(Aurum Press, 1998) ISBN 1854105485
Further reading
Insights
Journals eg Tourism Intelligence Quarterly, Journal of Tourism Management
Quality newspapers
Tourist board reports
Trade magazines eg Travel Trade Gazette, Travel Weekly
TV programmes
Current affairs programmes eg Newsnight, Question Time
Travel programmes eg Wish You Were Here, Holidays from Hell

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Websites
www.keynote.co.uk Key Note — market information
www.mintel.com Mintel — provides media, product and
consumer information
www.staruk.com English tourism statistics
www.statistics.gov.uk National Statistics Online — official UK
statistics
www.travelmole.com Travel and tourism news
www.visitbritain.com Visit Britain — travel guide to Britain
www.wttc.org World Travel and Tourism Council
Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

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Unit 44: Tourism Development Planning
Learning hours: 60
NQF Level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2

Description of unit
The aim of this unit is to increase learners’ awareness of the need to plan and manage tourism
at all levels within an international, national, regional and local framework. Emphasis is placed
on current trends in planning for tourism development in a range of destinations. The stages in
the planning process are identified and learners will be encouraged to apply theoretical models
to practical case studies and site visits.
The principles and philosophy of sustainable development are introduced in this unit and
learners will be required to show an in-depth understanding of issues such as carrying
capacities, environmental impact and the guest-host relationships as they relate to current
tourism initiatives eg access, conservation, enclave tourism.
This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes


To achieve this unit a learner must:
1 Examine the rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry
2 Investigate the various approaches to tourism planning and development
3 Examine the need for planning for sustainable tourism
4 Investigate current issues related to tourism development planning.

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Content

1 Rationale
Rationale: to achieve the determined objectives eg improved employment opportunities,
protection and conservation of wildlife, landscape, co-ordination between public/private
partners, to maximise benefits, provide infrastructure, co-ordinate development, consumer
protection, involvement of stakeholders eg developers, tourism industry, tourists and host
community; public/private partnerships and advantages/disadvantages of, effective use of
resources eg infrastructure; natural, cultural, heritage, human resources

2 Planning and development


Planning: environmental; economic; social; international; national; regional; local;
strategic; short term; qualitative; quantitative; methods of measuring tourism impact eg
Cambridge Economic Impact Model (STEAM), Environmental Impact Studies, Pro Poor
Tourism; Responsible Tourism, interactive planning systems and processes
Development: preservation, conservation, new build

3 Sustainable tourism
Sustainable tourism: definitions eg Brundtland Report (1987), Triple Bottom Line, World
Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) Principles for Sustainable Development (1995)

4 Current issues
Current issues: conflict eg tension between the planner, tour operator, tourist, government,
developer, local community, guest-host relationship; impacts eg economic, social,
environmental; access eg balance of supply and demand, imposition of limits, pressure on
finite resources; enclave tourism eg advantages and disadvantages to the local community,
moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism

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Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate


the ability to:
1 Examine the rationale for • explain how all stakeholders can benefit from
planning in the travel and planning of tourism developments with reference to
tourism industry a current case study
• summarise the rationale for careful planning in the
development of new tourist attractions
• explain the advantages and disadvantages of
public/private sector tourism planning partnerships
drawing on a current example
2 Investigate the various • analyse the main features of tourism development
approaches to tourism planning at different levels
planning and development
• evaluate the significance of interactive planning
systems and processes in tourism developments
• examine the different methods available to measure
tourist impact
3 Examine the need for • define ‘sustainable tourism’ and justify the
planning for sustainable introduction of the concept of sustainability in
tourism tourism development
• examine factors that may prevent/hinder sustainable
tourism development
• analyse the main stages in planning for
sustainability and apply to a case study/destination
that has been through such a planning process
4 Investigate current issues • explain the most appropriate methods of resolving a
related to tourism conflict of interests to ensure the future well-being
development planning. of a developing tourism destination
• critically analyse the implications of balancing
supply and demand
• evaluate the moral and ethical issues of enclave
tourism.

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Guidance

Delivery

Where possible, visits to relevant destinations in the UK and abroad should be undertaken.
Tutors could also make considerable use of case studies (educational, TV current affairs and
travel videos) and texts to bring the planning issues to life. Learners should be strongly
encouraged to become familiar