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1.The heredity endowment ,which serves as the
foundation for later development, is fixed,
once and for all, at this time.

2.Favourable conditions in the mothers body

can foster the development of hereditary
potentials while unfavorable conditions can
stunt their development, even to the point of
distorting the pattern of future development.
3. The sex of the newly create individual is fixed
at the time of conception and conditions
within the mothers body will not affect it.

4. Proportionally greater growth and

development take place during the prenatal
period than at any other time through the
individuals entire life.
• The prenatal period is the time of many
hazards, both physical and psychological.
• New life begins with the union of male and
female sex cells.

• These sex cells are developed in the sex cells –


• Male sex cells – spermatozoa

• Female sex cells - ova
• The male and female sex organs are similar
and they contain 23 chromosomes in each sex
cells .

• Each of them contains genes.

• Male and female sex cells differ in 2 important

1. In the mature ovum there are 23 matched

• While in the mature spermatozoon there are
only 22 matched chromosomes.
2. Both the sex cells must go through
preliminary stages of development.

• They differ in number of preparatory stages

of development they pass through before they
are ready to produce a new human being.
Males go through 2 preliminary stages

• Maturation
• fertilization
Females pass through 3 stages

• Maturation
• Ovulation
• fertilization
• Maturation is a process of chromosome
reduction through cell division that means
one chromosome from each pair goes to a
subdivided cell.

• It in turn splits and forms two new cells.

• the mature cell which contains 23

chromosomes , is known as haploid cell.
• Maturation of sex cell does not happen until
sex maturity has been attained that is.,
following the puberty in both boys and girls.

• Spermatozoon can de divided into 4 new cells

-- spermatids, and each of these is capable of
fertilizing an ovum.
• In the division of ovum one chromosome
from each pair is pushed outside the cell wall.

• This new cell is known as the polar body.

• Three polar bodies are formed in the process

of division.
• These polar bodies cannot be fertilized, while
the fourth cell ovum can.

• If ovum is not fertilized it disintegrates and

pass from the body with the menstrual flow.

• Any possible combination of chromosomes

from male and female may be found in the
new cell after division .
• Ovulation is the preliminary stage of
development which is limited to female sex cells.
• it refers to the release of an egg during
menstruation in females.
• It is the process of escape of one mature ovum
during the menstrual cycle.
• It is believed that 2 ovaries alternate in producing
a ripe ovum during each menstrual cycle.
• After release, the egg travels down the fallopian
tube, where it may be met by a sperm and
become fertilized.
• A fertilized egg will be implanted into the womb,
while an unfertilized egg slowly stops producing
hormones and dissolves within 24 hours.
• The lining of the uterus also begins to break
down and prepares to exit the body during
menstruation, or menses.
• Fertilization occurs at the time of conception and
is the third stage of preliminary development.

• It normally occurs when the ovum is in the

fallopian tube.

• It is believed that fertilization takes place within

12 to 36 hours after ovum has entered the
fallopian tube.
• During the sexual intercourse or coitus sperms
are deposited at the mouth of uterus.

• Through strong hormonic attraction , they are

drawn into the tube, where they are aided in
making their way up by rhythmic muscular
• After the sperm has penetrated the ovum, the
surface of the ovum changes in such a way
that no other sperms can enter.

• After the sperm cells penetrate the walls of

the ovum, nuclei from each 2 cells approach
each other.
• There is a breakdown in the membrane
surrounding each nucleus and this allows the
2 nuclei to merge.
• Thus 46 chromosomes which constitute
everything of heredity has been determined in
the child.

• At the time of conception four important

conditions are determined that influence the
individuals later development
Hereditary endowment
• The first important happening at the time of
conception is the determination of the newly
created individuals heredity endowment.

• Hereditary endowment is determined once

and for all at the tie of conception.
• The determination of hereditary endowment
affects later development in 2 ways.

• First hereditary places limits beyond which

individuals cannot go. That is, it determines
what we can do
• The second important thing is that it is
entirely a matter of chance.

• There is no known way to control the number

of chromosomes from the maternal or
paternal side that will be passed on to the
• Determination of individuals sex is the second
important happening at the time of
• Sex depends upon the kind of spermatozoon
that unites the ovum.
• Two kinds of mature spermatozoa are
produced in equal numbers
• First contains 22 matched chromosomes plus
one X chromosome.

• Second contains 22 matched chromosomes

and one Y chromosomes.

• The X and Y chromosomes are the sex

determining chromosomes.
• If the ovum is fertilized with a Y bearing
spermatozoa the offspring will be a boy.

• If the ovum is fertilized with a X bearing

spermatozoa the offspring will be a Girl.

• Whether the individual is male or female will

have a life long effect on the individuals
pattern of behaviour and personality.
• There are 3 reasons why the sex of an
individual is important for life long.

• First, each year children come under

increasing cultural pressures from the society
at a large to develop attitudes and behaviour
patterns that are considered appropriate for
the members of their sex.
• Second, learning experience are determined
by the individuals sex.

• Third, attitudes of parents and other family

members toward individual because of their
Number of offspring
• The third important happening is the
determination of the number of offspring.
Ordinal position
• The fourth thing that happens at the time of
conception is the establishment of the new
child’s ordinal position among siblings.

• Length – 9 calendar months

Attitudes of different people
• Many factors influence the formation of attitude
towards the children.

1. Earlier experience with the children.

2. Experience of the friends either past or present.
3. Parent or grandparent who loves children and
who pities people who are childless.
4. Stereotypical ideas of the person about the sex
of the child
Conditions affecting attitudes of
significant people
• Mothers attitude

• Fathers attitude

• Siblings attitude

• Grandparents attitude
Persistence of attitudes
• Two reasons for the persistence of attitudes

1. Attitudes are based on the beliefs the

individual considers to be valid and justified.

2.They are highly emotionally toned.

Effects of attitudes on children
• Development of the fetus during the prenatal
Conditions influencing the physical
• Rubella during the first trimester of pregnancy
• Female hormones when taken in early stages
of pregnancy
• Malnutrition
• Maternal age
• Certain kinds of work,exposure to chemicals
and other hazards faced in work place.
• Multiple births
Attempts to cope up with
developmental irregularities

• Genetic counseling

• Amniocentesis
• Traditional beliefs
• Maternal stress
• unfavorable attitudes on the part of the
significant people