Sunteți pe pagina 1din 31

1

Cand veti termina de studiat acest volum veti putea sa:

• Formulati pluralul substantivelor si sa


detectati genul cuvintelor.

• Folositi corect principalele timpuri verbale.

• Explicati de ce engleza pe care o vorbiti va


fi cu atat mai interesanta cu cat veti putea
folosi mai multe cuvinte descriptive.

CUPRINS

SELECTION 1 METODE DE STUDIU 3


Citire, ascultare, scriere

SELECTION 2 CUVINTE 5

2
Singularul si pluralul
Genul cuvintelor
Acum, mai tarziu sau saptamana trecuta
Cuvinte descriptive
Cuvinte pentru indicarea cantitatii

UNIT 1 REVISION: Plurals. Gender of Words.


Now, Yesterday or Tomorrow?
Present
Simple

UNIT 2 Descriptive Words 15

UNIT 3 The Future Tense-Simple Future 19

UNIT 4 Present Perfect 21

UNIT 5 Simple Present Continous 25


And
Simple Past Continous

UNIT 6 Present perfect Continous 29

METODE DE STUDIU
STUDIEREA CURSULUI
Studiul

3
Acesta este primul din cele trei volume de studiu “Telemarketing
Promotion” care ofera o introducere facila in folosirea limbii engleze , pentru
cei fara prea multe cunostinte in domeniu. Este de asemenea un excelent
curs de recapitulare pentru cei care au terminat scoala cu multi ani in urma si
care au uitat multe din cunostintele acumulate.

Veti vedea ca in aceste volume preliminare , in majoritatea exemplelor


date sunt folosite numai cuvinte simple. Gramatica este de asemenea
explicata intr-un mod simplu , fara a va solicita sa invatati prea multi termeni
de specialitate.

Dupa ce veti fi studiat cu atentie aceste trei volume, lucrand fiecare


set de verificari, pe masura ce ajungeti la ele in timplul studierii cursului,
veti fi invatat suficient pentru a va exprima corect si clar in limba engleza.

Fiecare mapa de curs contine un numar de 10 teste, care constituie o


parte importanta a studiului dumneavoastra. Fiecare test trebuie rezolvat
integral in scris si trimis spre corectare indrumatorului personal. In acest
fel, va verificati pas cu pas cunostintele acumulate.

In aproape fiecare casa se afla un dictionar englez – roman si orice


student care nu are acasa unul poate face rost. Tineti dictionarul langa
dumneavoastra in timp ce studiati sau cititi.

4
Folositi-va si timpul liber pentru a citi, nu numai perioadele de studiu.
In timp ce cititi, invatati cuvintele noi si modul in care ele se inlantuie in
fraze. Astfel, capacitatea dumneavoastra de a intelege engleza creste. Este
foarte important sa cititi: cititi articole din ziare si reviste – chiar si
reclame, desi acestea nu sunt totdeauna un ghid de incredere pentru o
engleza mai buna.

Faceti din ascultarea limbii engleze, ori de cate ori este posibil, o
parte a studiului dumneavoastra. Daca ascultati la radio sau la televizor, veti
invata mai multe cuvinte, cum sa le legati intre ele si cum sa le pronuntati
corect. A asculta si a sta de vorba cu alte persoane este un alt exercitiu, dar
aici exista in cele mai multe tari o dificultate, intru-cat nu toti oamenii
pronunta la fel, diferentele depinzand in primul rand de zona de origine a
persoanelor in cauza. Dumneavoastra trebuie sa invatati sa scrieti si sa
vorbiti engleza standard, adica acea forma a englezei care nu prezinta
variatii regionale. Nu exista in engleza standard cuvinte sau structuri
gramaticale care sa nu fie folosite in tarile unde se vorbeste engleza ca
limba nativa. Cand vorbim familiar, folosim probabil cuvinte specifice zonei in
care traim; dar dumneavoastra trebuie sa invatati sa scrieti si sa vorbiti
engleza standard. De asemenea, oamenii fac greseli in vorbirea englezei;
trebuie sa invatati sa depistati aceste greseli, astfel incat sa nu le repetati.
In sfarsit, engleza vorbita si cea scrisa nu sunt absolut identice; putem vorbi
mai liber, mai familiar decat scriem.

5
Citind, ascultand si vorbind puteti invata nu numai cuvinte, ci si cum sa
le folositi in fraze, dar este chiar mai important sa exersati folosind aceste
cuvinte pentru a va exprima propriile idei. Incercati sa folositi cuvintele noi
pe care le auziti sau le cititi si curand va veti da seama ca puteti sa va scrieti
propriile ganduri.

Ar fi inutil sa invatati cum se scrie sau cum suna un cuvant, daca nu


stiti si ce inseamna: in aceasta consta ajutorul dictionarului. Trebuie sa fiti
pregatiti pentru o munca grea si constanta, dar asigurati-va ca stiti intelesul
fiecarui cuvant nou si in acest fel veti putea sa-l folositi corect.

SINGULARUL SI PLURALUL

6
Ce sunt cuvintele?

Cuvantul este reprezentat de un sunet sau un grup de sunete


Prin care toti membrii unui grup inteleg acelas lucru. Limba reprezinta
totalitatea cuvintelor.
Cand scriem, folosim litere pentru a nota sunetele cuvintelor. Fiecare
sunet existent intr-o limba poate fi reprezentat de o anumita litera sau de
un grup de litere. Scrierea s-a dezvoltat probabil intr-un mod similar limbii
vorbite. La inceput, se pare ca oamenii comunicau unul cu altul prin desene. In
timp desenele au ajuns sa reprezinte lucruri asociate cuvintelor, mai de graba
decat obiectul propriu-zis. Astfel un soare desenat putea insemna caldura
sau lumina. Prin repetitie, desenele s-ar fi simplificat din ce in ce mai mult,
ajungand in cele din urma sa arate ca literele alfabetului scris. Tot asa,
aceste simboluri ar fi ajuns sa reprezinte sunete independente( probabil
sunetele initiale ale obiectelor) si nu obiecte sau idei.

UNU SAU MAI MULT DE UNU?

Deseori dorim sa vorbim sau sa scriem despre mai mult de o persoana


sau un lucru, si cel mai simplu mod de a face acest lucru este sa adaugam
litere, ca in exemplele urmatoare:

Singular

A dog The dog One dog


Un caine Cainele Un caine,numeral

Plural

Two dogs Some dogs Several dogs


Doi caini Niste caini Mai multi caini

7
Termenii singular si plural sunt destul de expliciti :
Singular inseamna numai unul, in vreme ce plural inseamna mai mult de unul.

Exemplu :

Bed (pat) beds


House (casa) Houses
Picture (tablou) Pictures
Building (constructie) Buildings
Boat (barca) Boats
River (rau) Rivers
Tree (copac) Trees
Plant (planta) Plants
Flower (floare) Flowers
Girl (fata) Girls
Boy (baiat) Boys
Ship (vapor) Ships
Ball (minge) Balls
Ocean (ocean) Oceans
Mountain (munte) Mountains
Forest (padure) Forests
Lion (leu) Lions
Bird (pasare) Birds
Room (camera) Rooms

Exista cateva moduri de a forma pluralul cuvintelor. Acestea vor fi explicate


in cele ce urmeaza.

Plurals :

Solve the following exercises but do not send theam to Another Life
Services.

1. Write down the singular form of these words:

Geese

8
Feets
Mices
Sheeps

2. Write down the plural of the following words :

Street
Bus
Woman
Tooth

Nouns ending in “o”

Volcano volcanoes
Tomato tomatoes

Most words ending in “o” add “es” for plural; but when there is a vowel
before the “o” just add “s”.

Radio radios
Studio studios

And also :

Photo photos
Piano pianos

Nous ending in “ss”, “sh”, “ch”, “x” form their plural by adding an “es”

Class classes
Church churches
Brush brushes
Box boxes

THE GENDER OF NOUNS :

Masculine Feminine Common


Male female both sexes

9
Actor Actress Child, baby
Boy Girl Spouse
Husband Wife
king Queen Monarch
Lion Lioness Person
Man Women
Master Mistress
Steward stewardees

The ending “ess” is one of the ways of forming the feminine of a


masculine word :

1. Write down the feminine of the follwing words :


Prince
Dog
Baron

2. Write down the masculine of the following words :


Lady
Women
Cow

NOW , LATER OR LAST WEEK ?

TODAY, TOMORROW, YESTERDAY

“I” and the action

Tense Present Past Future


Aspect
SIMPLE I eat I eat yesterday I shall eat
tomorrow

10
CONTINUOUS I am eating I was eating I shall be
eating
PERFECT I have eaten I had eaten I shall have
eaten
PERFECT + I have been I had been I shall have been
CONTINUOUS Eating Eating eating

Note that each Tense has four aspects,that last one being a
combination of the previous two.The Continuous suggests a preogressive kind
of action, the Perfect – an action covering an interval of time, as opposed to
a moment ( as it is with the Simple Aspect ).

Regular verbs from the Past by adding –ed at the end, but there are
also verbs wich have two forms for the past : these are called irregular
verbs ( see Appendix 2 in the Preliminary Course )

Exemple:

“He, She, It” and the Action

PRESENT PAST FUTURE


He eats He eat He will eat
He is eating He was eating He will be eating
She eats She eat She will eat

REMEMBER

For the 3rd person singular, add “s” at the end of the verb!

The Present Tense of the Verb “ to like”

11
AFFIRMATIVE

SINGULAR PLURAL

I like we like
You like you like
He they like
She likes
It

Verbs ending in “s”, “ss” ,”ch”, “sh”, “z”, “o”, add “es” for the the 3rd person
singular:

To cross- he crosses
To buzz-it buzzes
To push-she pushes
To do-he does
To go-she goes

See also Appendix 3.

The Present of the Verb TO HAVE

AFFIRMATIVE 1 AFIRMATIVE 2 INTERROGATIVE


I have I’ve Have I?
You have You;ve Have you?
He has He’s Has he?
She has She’s Has she?
It has It’s Has it?
We have We’ve Have we?
You have You’ve Have you?

12
They have They’ve Have they?

NEGATIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE INTEROGARTIVE NEGATIVE


1 2 3 1 2
I have not I’ve not I’haven’t Have I not? Haven’t I?
You have You’ve not You haven’t? Have you not? Haven’t you?
not
He has not He’s not He hasn’t? He He
She has not She’s not She hasn’t? Has she not? Haven’t she?
It has not It’s not It hasn’t? it It
We have We’ve not We haven’t? Have we not? Haven’t we?
not
You have You’ve you You haven’t Have you not? Haven’t you?
not haven’t
They have They’not They Have they not? Haven’t
not haven’t? they?

Affirmative:
I have=I’ve

Present Tense of the Verb TO SEE

AFFIRMATIVE INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE


1 2 NEGATIVE
I see Do I see? I do not see I don’t see? Do I not see?
Don’t I see?
You see do you see? You do not You don’t Do you not see?
see? see? Don’t you see?

13
He see Does he see? He does not He doesn’t Doesn’t He see?
She sees Does she see? see see? Doesn’t she see?
It see Does It see? She does She doesn’t Doesn’t It see?
not see see?
It does not It doesn’t
see see?
We see Do we see? We do not We don’t Do we not see?
see see? Don’t we see?
you see Do you see? You do not You don’t Do you not see?
see see? Don’t you see?
They see Do they see? They do not They don’t Do they not see?
see see? Don’t they see?

Present Tense of the Verb TO READ

AFFIRMATIVE INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE 1 NEGATIVE 2 INTERROGATIVE


NEGATIVE
I read Do I read? I do not read I don’t read? Do I not read?
Don’t I read?
You read Do you read? You do not You don’t Do you not read?
read read? Don’t you read?

14
He reads Does he read? He does not He doesn’t Doesn’t he read?
She reads Does she read read read? Doesn’t she
It reads Does it read? She does not She doesn’t read?
read read? Doesn’t it read?
It does not It doesn’t
read read?

We read Do we read? We do not We don’t Do we not read?


read read? Don’t we read?

You read Do you read? You do not You don’t Do you not read?
read read? Don’t you read?
They read Do they read? They do not They don’t Do they not
read read? read?
Don’t they read?

DESCRIPTIVE WORD

What kind of? Person or thing?


The way we speak would be very boring without using various
descriptive word to help us express ( and explain ) the colour, shape and size
. the feautures of the things we speak about.

15
Here you have some adjectives. Look in the dictionary for their
meaning and write it down in the coumms bellow.

Red White
Green Black
COLOUR Yellow Purple
Blue Pink
Orange Brown
Square Straight
SHAPE Oval Flat
Round Curved
Triangular
Excellent Kind
Pleasant Generous
CHARACTERISTICS Delicious Friendly
+ Beautiful Helpful
Nice Happy
Unpleasant Mean
CHARACTERISTICS Awful Miserable
- Ugly Nasty
Big Gigantic
Enormous Huge
High Little
SIZE Large Long
Medium Minute
Small Tall
Tiny Vast
Try to find other words that express shape, characteristics ( good or bad ),
kind and size and add them to the ones given here. As you have probably
noticed, there are people using a word or a couple of word very often. Try to
avoid this and learn as many descriptive word as you can, rather than saying:
“ a nice evening , some nice people, a nice soup, nice books, nice movies, an
enjoyable holiday”.

EXERCISE:

16
Answer the following questions but do not send them to ANOTHER
LIFE SERVICES. Use a dictionary to identify the following word. You are
given the first two letters of the word, the number of letters of the whole
word and its meaning.

ci..................... 8 letters shaped like a circle

ch………………….. 8 letters bright and lively

be…………………. 9 letters lovely to look at

de…………………. 9 letters tasting very pleasant

ex…………………. 8 letters stirring stimulating

en………………… .. 9 letters which gives pleasure or joy

ex……………….. .. 9 letters very good indeed

me………………….. 6 letters neither large nor small

mi…………………… 6 letters very small indeed

mi……………………. 9 letters very sad and depressed

WORD TO SHOW QUANTITY

“How much” and “How many”?

Fiind in the dictionary the meaning of the words:

About

Any

17
Few

Little

Much

Many

None

Several

Some

Compare

Womens Oil
Many Objects BUT Much Water
Cups of coffee coffee

The Future Tense-Simple Future

The Simple Future of the Verb “TO WATCH”

AFFIRMATIVE 1 AFFIRMATIVE 2 TRADUCERE

18
I shall watch I’ll watch Voi privi
You will watch You’ll watch Vei privi
He will watch He’ll watch
She will watch She’ll watch Va privi
It will watch It’ll watch
We shall watch We’ll watch Vom privi
You will watch You’ll watch Veti privi
They will watch They’ll watch Vor privi

NEGATIVE 1 NEGATIVE 2
I shall not watch I shan’t watch
You will not watch You won’t watch
He will not watch He won’t watch
She will not watch She won’t watch
It will not watch It won’t watch
We shall not watch We won’t watch
You will not watch You won’t watch
They will not watch They won’t watch

INTERROGATIVE INTERROGATIVE INTERROGATIVE


NEGATIVE 1 NEGATIVE 2
Shall I watch Shall I not watch? Shan’t I watch?
Will you watch Will you not watch? Won’t you watch?
Will he watch Will he not watch? Won’t he watch?
Will she watch Will she not watch? Won’t she watch?
Will it watch Will it not watch? won’t il watch?
Shall we watch Shall we not watch? Won’t we watch?
Will you watch Will you not watch? Won’t you watch?
Will they watch Will they not watch? Won’t they watch?

19
The Present Perfect Tense

The Present Perfect of the Verb “TO PLAY”

20
AFFIRMATIVE 1 AFFIRMATIVE 2 INTERROGATIVE
I have played I’ve played Have I played?
You have played You’ve played Have you played?
He has played He’s played Has he played?
She has played She’s played Has she played?
It has played It’s played Has it played?
We have played We’ve played Have we played?
You have played You’ve played Have you played?
They have played They’ve played Have they played?

NEGATIVE 1 NEGATIVE 2
I have not played I’ve not played
You have not played You’ve played
He has not played He’s not played
She has not played She’s not played
It has not played It’s not played
We have not played We’ve not played
You have not played You’ve not played
They have not played They’ve not played

INTERROGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
1 2
Have I not played? Haven’t I played?
Have you not played? Haven’t you played?
Has he not played? Hans’t he played?
Has she not played? Hans’t she played?
Has it not played? Hans’t it played?
Have we not played? Haven’t we played?
Have you not played? Haven’t you played?
Have they not played? Haven’t they played?

21
The Present Perfect of the Verb “ TO DO”

AFFIRMATIVE 1 AFFIRMATIVE 2 INTERROGATIVE

I have done I’ve done Have I done?


You have done You’ve done Have you done?
He has done He’s done Has he done?
She has done She’s done Has she done?
It has done It’s done Has it done?
We have done We’ve done Have we done?
You have done You’ve done Have you done?
They have done They’ve done Have they done?

NEGATIVE 1 NEGATIVE 2
I have not done I’ve not done
You have not done You’ve not done
He has not done He’s not done
She has not done She’s not done
It has not done It’s not done
We have not done We’ve not done
You have note done You’ve not done
They have not done They’ve not done

22
INTERROGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
1 2
Have I not done? Haven’t I done?
Have you not done? Haven’t you done?
Has he not done? Hasn’t he done?
Has she not done? Hasn’t she done?
Has it not done? Hasn’t it done?
Have we not done? Haven’t we done?
Have you not done? Haven’t you done?
Have they not done? Haven’t they done?

THE SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS AND


THE SIMPLE PAST CONTINOUS

The Present Continous of the verb “TO SMILE”

Affirmative 1 Affirmative 2 Interrogative

I am smiling I’msmiling Am I smiling?


You are smiling You’re smiling Are you smiling?

23
He is smiling He’s smiling Is he smiling?
She is smiling She’s smiling Is he smiling?
We are smiling We’re smiling Are we smiling?
You are smiling You’re smiling Are you smiling?
They are smiling Ther’re smiling Are they smiling?

NEGATIVE 1 NEGATIVE 2

I am not smiling I’m not smiling


You are not smiling You’re not smiling
He is not smiling He’s not smiling
She is not smiling She’s not smiling
It is not smiling It’s not smiling
We are not smiling We’re not smiling
You are not smiling You’re not smiling
They are not smiling They’re not smiling

INTERROGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
1 2
Am I not smiling? Aren’t I smiling?
Are you not smiling? Aren’t you smiling?
Is he not smiling? Isn’t he smiling?
Is she not smiling? Isn’t she smiling?
Is it not smiling? Isn’t it smiling?
Are we not smiling? Aren’t we smiling?
Are you not smiling? Aren’t you smiling?
Are they not smiling? Aren’t they smiling?

24
Simple Past Continous of the Verb “TO SMILE”

AFFIRMATIVE
I was smiling
You were smiling
He was smiling
She was smiling
It was smiling
We were smiling
You were smiling

25
They were smiling

INTERROGATIVE
Was I smiling?
Were you smiling?
Was he smiling?
Was she smiling?
Was it smiling?
Were we smiling?
Were you smiling?
Were they smiling?

NEGATIVE 1 NEGATIVE 2

I was not smiling I wasn’t smiling


You not were smiling You weren’t smiling
He was not smiling He wasn’t smiling
She was not smiling She wasn’t smiling
It was not smiling It wasn’t smiling
We were not smiling We weren’t smiling
You were not smiling You weren’t smiling
They were not smiling They weren’t smiling

INTERROGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
1 2
Was I not smiling? Wasn’t I smiling?
Were you not smiling? Weren’t you smiling?
Was he not smiling? Wasn’t he smiling?
Was she not smiling? Wasn’t she smiling?
Was it not smiling? Wasn’t it smiling?
Were we not smiling? Weren’t we smiling?
Were you not smiling? Weren’t you smiling?
Were they not smiling? Weren’t they smiling?

26
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUSLY

Present Perfect Continuous of the Verb “TO PLAY”

AFFIRMATIVE 1 AFFIRMATIVE 2 INTERROGATIVE

27
I have been playing I’ve have been playing Have I been playing?
You have been playing You’re have been playing Have you been playing?
He has been playing He’s have been playing Has he been playing?
She has been playing She’s have been playing Has she been playing?
It has been playing It’s have been playing Has it been playing?
We have been playing We’re have been playing Have we been playing?
You have been playing You’re have been playing Have you been playing?
They have been playing They’re have been playing Have they been playing?

NEGATIVE 1 NEGATIVE 1

I have not been playing I’ve not been playing


You have not been playing You’ve not been playing
He has not been playing He’s not been playing
She has not been playing She’s not been playing
It has not been playing It’s not been playing
We have not been playing We’ve not been playing
You have not been playing You’ve not been playing
They have not been playing They’ve not been playing

INTERROGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
1 2
Have I not been playing? Haven’t I been playing?
Have you not been playing? Haven’t you been playing?
Has he not been playing? Hans’t he been playing?
Has she not been playing? Hans’t she been playing?
Has it not been playing? Hans’t it been playing?
Have we not been playing? Haven’t we been playing?
Have you not been playing? Haven’t you been playing?
Have they not been playing? Haven’t they been playing?

28
Aspectele verbului in limba engleza

Verbele in limba engleza pot avea patru aspecte: simplu ( Simple ), progresiv
( Continous ), pefect ( Perfect ) si perfect progresiv ( Perfect Continous ). Fiecare

29
dintre aceste aspecte poate aparea la oricare dintre cele trei timpuri: present
(Present ), trecut ( Past ) si viitor ( Future ).

Aspectele progresiv si perfect le corespunde cate un “ verb auxiliar” ( cu


care se formeaza ), care preia timpul si persoana verbului de conjugat ; aspectul
progresiv perfect se formeaza prin combinarea celor doua auxiliare .

Astfel:

“ Continous Tense” se formeaza cu auxiliarul “ to be” :


“ to be” + infinitivul verbului de conjugat + “ing”
( la timpul si persoana verbului conjugat )

“Perfect Tense” se formeaza cu auxiliarul “to have” :


” to have” ( la timpul si persoana verbului de conjugat ) + forma a 3 a verbului
conjugat

“ Perfect Continous Tense” se formeaza cu ambele auziliare.” to be” si “to have”:


To have + been + infinitivul de conjugat + “ing”.

Transformarea timpurilor verbale in trecerea de la vorbire directa la cea


indirecta

30
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

Present Continuous Past Continuous


Present Simple Past Simple
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Past Perfect No change
Past Simple Past Perfect
Past Continuous No change
Shall/will Would
Can No change
Must Could
Could No change
Ought to No change
May Might

31