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# Noise Figure Increase due to

ID(t)

vg(t)

VGS

## useful functions and identities

Units
Constants

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I. Introduction
II. Model Parameters
III. Inputs
IV. Calculations

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Introduction
A simple example of the current noise output from a MOSFET driven in saturation with a large sinusoid around
a DC bias. The analysis will be extended and used to analyze and design both bipolar and MOS oscillators.

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Model Parameters
2
cm
µ := 300⋅ Device mobility under bias
V⋅ sec

## tOX := 10⋅ nm Gate oxide thickness

εr := 3.9 Relative permittivity of silicon dioxide
− 12 F
ε0 := 8.8542⋅ 10 Permittivity of free space
m
ε r⋅ ε 0 fF
COX := COX = 3.453
tOX 2
µm
µA
µ ⋅ COX = 103.594
2
VT := 0.7V V
Gate threshold voltage
2
γ :=
3 Noise coefficient
T := ( 273 + 27)K Operating Temperature
2
− 23 V
k := 1.3806⋅ 10 Boltman's constant
ohm⋅ Hz⋅ K

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1
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Inputs
VGS := 1.5V
DC gate to source bias voltage
f0 := 1GHz Frequency of input sine wave
N := 100 Number of points in time vector
A := 200⋅ mV Amplitude of signal swing at gate
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Calculations
2 4 2
t := , .. Time vector
f0⋅ N f0⋅ N f0
(
v g( t) := A ⋅ sin 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t ) Large input signal
µ ⋅ COX W
⋅ ⋅ ( VGS − VT + v g( t) )
2
ID( t) := Large signal current in the device.
2 L

W
g m( t) := 2⋅ µ ⋅ COX⋅ ⋅ ID( t) Time varying small signal transconductance
L

⋅ ( VGS − VT − v g( t) )
W
g m( t) := µ ⋅ COX⋅ transconductance written another way
L
1
v n( t) := 4⋅ k⋅ T⋅ γ ⋅
g m( t) Input referred device thermal noise
µ ⋅ COX W
⋅ ⋅ ( VGS − VT + v g( t) + v n( t) )
2
Ispn( t) := Current of signal plus noise
2 L

## Expansion of current noise:

µ ⋅ COX W  2
Ispn( t) := (
⋅ ⋅  VGS − VT + A ⋅ sin 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t + 4⋅ k⋅ T⋅ γ ⋅ ) 1 
2
µ ⋅ COX⋅ ⋅ µ ⋅ COX⋅ ⋅ ( VGS − VT + A ⋅ sin ( 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t) ) 
2 L W W

 L L 
µ ⋅ COX W
⋅ ⋅ ( VGS − VT )
2
I0 :=
2 L
VDsat := VGS − VT
2

Ispn( t) := I0⋅  1 +
A
⋅ sin ( 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t) +
4⋅ k⋅ T⋅ γ 1 
⋅ 
 VDsat VDsat 2

µ ⋅ COX⋅ ⋅ I0⋅  1 + ⋅ sin ( 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t)  
W A

 L  VDsat  
2
 v n( t) 
⋅ sin ( 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t) +
A
Ispn( t) := I0⋅  1 + 
 VDsat VDsat 

## Expand and drop the vn(t)2 term (noise square is negligible

 v n( t) 2
Ispn( t) := I0⋅  1 + 4⋅ ⋅ sin ( π⋅ f0⋅ t) ⋅ cos ( π⋅ f0⋅ t) + 2⋅ ⋅ sin ( π⋅ f0⋅ t) ⋅ cos ( π⋅ f0⋅ t) + 4⋅ ⋅ sin ( π⋅ f0⋅ t) ⋅ cos
A A 2 2 A
+ 4⋅
 V Dsat VDsat 2 2
 VDsat VDsat
Trignometric substitution:
sin ( π⋅ f0⋅ t) ⋅ cos ( π⋅ f0⋅ t) = ⋅ sin ( 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t) sin ( 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t) = ⋅ ( 1 − cos ( 2⋅ π⋅ 2⋅ f0⋅ t) )
1 2 1
and
2 2
 v n( t) 2 v n( t) 
Ispn( t) := I0⋅ 1 + 2⋅
A
( )
⋅ sin 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t + 2⋅ +
A 1
( (
⋅ ⋅ 1 − cos 2⋅ π⋅ 2⋅ f0⋅ t )) + 2⋅ VA ( )
⋅ sin 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t ⋅ 
 VDsat VDsat 2 2 Dsat VDsat 
 VDsat 
Substitution 2
Substitution
2⋅ I0
g m0 :=
VDsat

 2
1  I0⋅ A
2
Ispn( t) := I0⋅  1 +
A
⋅ ( (
+ g m0⋅ A ⋅ sin 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t )) −
1
( )
⋅ ⋅ cos 2⋅ π⋅ 2⋅ f0⋅ t ...
 2 2 2 2
 VDsat  VDsat
v n( t)
+ g m0⋅ v n( t) + g m0⋅ A ⋅ sin 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t ⋅ ( ) VDsat
This expression represents both the large signal currents and the noise currents. The large signal currrent by itself is:
  I0⋅ A 2 1 
1 
2
 + ( g m0⋅ A ⋅ sin ( 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t) ) −  ⋅ ⋅ cos ( 2⋅ π⋅ 2⋅ f0⋅ t) 
A
ID( t) := I0⋅ 1 + ⋅
 2 2 V 2 2 
 VDsat   Dsat 
which consists of three components: A DC (or time average) component, the fundamental input component times the
small signal transconductance and a second harmonic distortion component. The noise current terms are time varying
are represented below
v n( t)
In( t) := g m0⋅ v n( t) + g m0⋅ A ⋅ sin 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t ⋅ ( ) VDsat
This equation contains two components. The first is a linear cyclostationary white noise component. If viewed under a
spectrum analyzer at a rate much less than the input oscillation frequency, the time vary component averages out and
the DC component is left
W
g m( t) := 2⋅ µ ⋅ COX⋅ ⋅ ID( t) Time varying small signal transconductance
L

g m( t) := µ ⋅ COX⋅
W
L
(
⋅ VGS − VT − A ⋅ sin 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t ( ))
1
v n( t) := 4⋅ k⋅ T⋅ γ ⋅
g m( t) Input referred device thermal noise
1
v n( t) := 4⋅ k⋅ T⋅ γ ⋅
µ ⋅ COX⋅
W
L
(
⋅ VGS − VT − A ⋅ sin 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t ( ))
The time average voltage is
2⋅ π
1 ⌠ 1
v nave := 4⋅ k⋅ T⋅ γ ⋅ ⋅ dx
µ ⋅ COX⋅
W  (VGS − VT − A ⋅ sin ( x) )

L 0

 
4⋅ k⋅ T⋅ γ csgn  ( VGS − VT ) ⋅ (VGS − VT )2 − A 2
v nave := ⋅ 2⋅ π⋅
(VGS − VT )2 − A 2
W
µ ⋅ COX⋅
L
4⋅ k⋅ T⋅ γ
v nave :=
⋅ ( VGS − VT )
W
µ ⋅ COX⋅
L
Or better written as the output referred current noise:
in( t) := 4⋅ k⋅ T⋅ γ ⋅ µ ⋅ COX⋅
W
L
(
⋅ VGS − VT − A ⋅ sin 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t ( ))
The time average of this is
⋅ ( VGS − VT )
W K
inave := 4⋅ k⋅ T⋅ γ ⋅ µ ⋅ COX⋅ v nave = 4⋅ k⋅ T⋅ γ ⋅ g m0 +
L f
which is the same without the large signal input. The last noise term represents a mixing term:
( ) (
cos 2⋅ π⋅ f1 ⋅ cos 2⋅ π⋅ f2 = ) 1
2
⋅ ( cos ( f1 + f2) + cos ( f1 − f2) )
3
( 1) ( 2) 2
1 2 1 2

v n( t)
( )
g m0⋅ A ⋅ sin 2⋅ π⋅ f0⋅ t ⋅
VDsat
If the noise is white than noise from one location replaces noise from another location and
the resultant is a white noise floor. Since noise is uncorrelated from one frequency point to the next it will add
uncorrelated to the first component of noise
inwhite( f ) := 4⋅ k⋅ T⋅ γ ⋅ g m0⋅  1 +
A 

 VDsat 
But, any low frequency noise components such as 1/f noise will noise mix around the carrier. 1/2 will go to one side of
the carrier and 1/2 will go to the other side of the carrier

⋅  
A K K
in1_f ( f ) := g m0⋅ + 
VDsat  2⋅ ( f + f0) 2⋅ ( f − f0) 
The net result is:
1. The output current increases by (1+A2/VDsat 2/2)
2. The output white current noise increases by (1+A/VDsat)
3. The output 1/f noise is simply gm0*K/f
4. Two new 1/f terms are added: gm0*A/VDsat *K/2*(1/(f-f0)+1/(f-f0))
5. The fundamental exists: gm0*vi
6. A second harmonic existis: gm0*A/VDsat /2*vi

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