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PHYS 572-01: Homework #5

Due on Friday, February 22, 2013

Susuzki 9:40

Derek F. Stampone

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Derek F. Stampone PHYS 572-01 (Susuzki 9:40): Homework #5

Contents
Problem #1 3

Problem #2 4

Problem #3 4
(a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
(b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
(c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

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Derek F. Stampone PHYS 572-01 (Susuzki 9:40): Homework #5

Problem #1
Kittel 4.4 Kohn Anomaly
We suppose that the inter planar force Cp between planes s and s + p is of the form

sin pk0 a
Cp = A
pa

where A and k0 are constants and p runs over all integers. Such a form is expected in metals. Use this and
Eq. (16a) to find an expression for ω 2 and also for ∂ω 2 /∂K. Prove that ∂ω 2 /∂K is infinite when K = k0 .
Thus a plot of ω 2 versus K or of ω versus K has a vertical tangent at k0 ; there is a kink at k0 in the phonon
dispersion relation ω(k).
Equation (16a) in the books tells us that

2 X sin pk0 a
ω2 = A (1 − cos pKa)
M p>0 pa

Taking the derivative with respect to K,

∂ω 2 2A X
= sin pk0 a sin pKa
∂K M p>0

We can use a trig sum rule to combine the two sine functions,

∂ω 2 A X
= (cos[(k0 − K)pa] − cos[(k0 + K)pk0 ])
∂K M p>0

When K = k0 ,
∂ω 2 A X
= (1 − cos[2k0 pk0 ])
∂K M p>0

Which will in general diverge because



X
1→∞
p>0

Problem #2
Kittel 4.5 Diatomic chain
Consider the normal modes of a linear chain in which the force constants between nearest-neighbor atoms
are alternately C and 10C. Let the masses be equal and let the nearest-neighbor separation be a/2. Find
ω(k) at K = 0 and K = π/a. Sketch in the dispersion relation by eye. Thus problem simulates a crystal of
diatomic molecules such as H2 .

Problem #2 continued on next page. . . Page 3 of 5


Derek F. Stampone PHYS 572-01 (Susuzki 9:40): Homework #5 Problem #2 (continued)

Following the derivation in the book for identical force constants and difference masses, we will make the
appropriate substitutions
d2 us
M 2 = C1 (vs − us ) + C2 (vs−1 − us )
dt
d 2 vs
M = C1 (us − vs ) + C2 (us+1 − vs )
dt2
Assuming a solution in the form of a traveling wave with different amplitudes, we get

−ω 2 M u = C1 (v − u) + C2 (ve−iKa − u)

and
−ω 2 M v = C1 (u − v) + C2 (ueiKa − v)
Putting that into the matrix and setting its determinant equal to zero,

(C1 + C2 ) − M ω 2 −(C1 + C2 e−iKa )




−(C1 + C2 eiKa ) =0
(C1 + C2 ) − M ω 2

When Ka = 0, ω 2 = 0 and 2(C1 + C2 )/M . When Ka = π, ω 2 = 2C1 /M and 2C2 /M

Problem #3
Kittel 4.6 Atomic vibrations in a metal
Consider point ions on mass M and charge e immersed in a uniform sea of conduction electrons. The ions are
imagined to be in stable equilibrium when at regular lattice points. If one ion is displaced a small distance
r from its equilibrium position, the restoring force is largely due to the electric charge within the sphere of
radius r centers at the equilibrium position. Take the number density of ions (or of conduction electrons) as
3/4πR3 , which defines R.

(a)
Show that the frequency of a single ion set into oscillation is
r
e2
ω=
M R3

Using Gauss’s law, we can show that the electric field inside a sphere of uniform charge distribution
is (in gaussian units)
e
E = 3r
R
That means
e2
M r̈ = 3 r
R (a)
For SHO,
r̈ = ω 2 r
Thus, r
e2
ω=
M R3

Problem #3 continued on next page. . . Page 4 of 5


Derek F. Stampone PHYS 572-01 (Susuzki 9:40): Homework #5 Problem #3 (continued)

(b)
Estimate the value of this frequency for sodium, roughly.
Sodium is a BCC lattice. We get that
r
3
= 2.11 × 10−10 m
3
R=a

M = 22.99 × 1.6 × 10−27 kg = 3.818 × 10−26 kg


(b)
e = 11 × 1.6 × 10−19 C = 1.762 × 10−18 C
Since these numbers are in SI units, we just need to slightly modify our equation,
s
e2
ω= = 2.6 × 1014 rad/s
4π0 M R3

(c)
From (a) and (b), and some common sense, estimate the order of magnitude of the velocity of sound
in the metal.
We can estimate the wavelength to be on the order of a lattice constant, λ ∼ 10−10 m then
(c)
ω ωλ
v= = ∼ 104 m/s
k 2π

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