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 Literature
 Comes from the latin word “litera” which means letter.
 Body of written works and sometimes spoken material.
 Prose
 Form of language that has no formal metrical structure.
 Natural flow of speech.

 Fiction – is a prose writing about imagined events and character.

 Fairy tales – simple children’s story about magical creatures.
 Myths – traditional story concerning early history, characters are usually
supernatural beings.
 Saga – series of interconnected stories.
 Legend – old stories with little or no evidence to prove them.
 Fables – story that is usually about animals and that is intended to teach a
 Parables – stories recorded in the bible, teaches a moral/spiritual lesson.
 Short story – a work of fiction usually with only one plot.
 Novels – narrative in book length.
 Novelette – a short novel.
 Drama – a piece of writing that tells a story and is performed on a stage.
 Non-fiction – writing that is about facts or real events.
 Essay – a piece of writing on a particular subject.
 Biography – a story of a real person’s life written by someone other than the
 Autobiography – a biography written by the person it is about.
 News – report about something that happened recently.
 Oration – a formal speech.

 Poetry
 Comes from the greek word “poiesis” which means making/creating.
 Artistic writing that attempts to stir a reader’s imagination or emotions.

 Narrative Poetry – form of poetry that tells a story.

 Ballad – poem narrating a story.
 Epic – narrative poem depicting the journey or adventure of a heroic figure.

 Lyric Poetry – delivered with the accompaniment of musical instrument particularly

 Elegy – express grief at death.
 Ode – commemorating event.
 Sonnet – 14 lines poem

 Dramatic Poetry – any drama that is written in verse that is meant to be recited.
 Monologue/Soliloquy – one character on stage speaking or thinking aloud.
 Poetic License
 Artistic license
 Literary license
 Dramatic license
 Narrative license
 Licentia poetica

 Poetic license – liberty taken by a poet, prose writer, or other artists in deviating from
rules, conventional form, logic or fact in order to produce a desired effect.

 Elements of Fiction
A. Setting – the story element describing the background of the story in relation to the time
and place it occurred.
B. Plot – chain of related events that takes place in the story, sequence of events in the story.
 Introduction / Exposition
 Rising action
 Climax
 Falling action
 Denouement / Resolution
C. Conflict – opposition of forces in the story, the struggle or problem between opposing
D. Characters – people that take part in the story.
 Types of characters
 Major characters – play the primary role
 Minor characters – supporting characters
 Identification of major characters
 Protagonist – leading character
 Antagonist – Villain(s)
 Identification of minor characters
 Foil -
 Confidant -
 Kinds of characters
 Round – undergo development or change of personality
 Flat – static, do not change throughout the story
E. Characterization – the description of the personalities of the characters in the story.
 Methods of characterization
 Direct
 Indirect
F. Point of View – the way in which the story is written / narrated.
 First Person Participant – the author writes as a participant in the action.
 First Person Observer – the author writes as someone who is present but
not participating in the action.
 Third Person Omniscient – the author writes impersonally and present
action from a point completely out of the story. He has no participation
all though apparently knowing the thought and feelings of the characters
in the manner he describes them.
G. Theme – the main idea of the story.
H. Lesson – values
I. Symbol – suggest other meaning/ deeper meaning to an object/ person/ situation/action.

 Elements of Poetry
A. Stanza – group of lines in a poem
B. Rhyme – repetition of same or similar sounds at the end of the lines.
C. Rhythm – repetition of stress within the poem.
D. Rhyme Scheme – the rhyming pattern that is created at the end of the lines of poetry.
E. Speaker – created narrative voice of the poem.
F. Line – unit of language into which a poem is divided / verse – a line of a metrical writing.
G. Meter – beat or the stressed/ unstressed syllable in a poem.
H. Feet – basic unit of measurement in poetry.
 Iamb – a foot which starts with an unstressed and with a stressed syllable.
 Trochee / trochaic – begins with a stressed syllable then followed by an
unstressed syllable.
 Dactyl – a foot including a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed
 Anapest – a foot which has two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed
 Spondee – a foot consisting of two stressed syllables.
 Pyrrhic – a foot including two unstressed syllables.
I. Imagery – language that causes people to think or imagine pictures in their mind.
J. Tone – attitude towards the subject of the poem. (serious, sad, humorous)
K. Theme – the statement of the poem that the poet makes about its subject.(Love will not
work without trust )
L. Subject – general or specific topic of the poem(love)
M. Mood – atmosphere (romantic, mournful)
N. Figurative language – poetic devices in which two images or objects are compared to
make language more interesting and meaningful.

Prepared by:

Part- time Instructor