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rin
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et

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## Unit Number Page Number

Unit 1 03
ww 69
w.E Unit 2

Unit 3
asy 163
Unit 4 En 249
Unit 5
g324
ine
e rin
By www.EasyEngineering.net
g.n
et

1 Differential calculus

## wwDefinition. A function f is a rule that assigns to each element x in a set D exactly

w.E
one element, called f (x), in a set E.
The set D is called the domain of the function. The number f (x) is the value of

asy
f at x. The range of f is the set of all possible values of f (x) as x varies throughout
the domain. A symbol that represents an arbitrary number in the domain of a

En
function f is called an independent variable. A symbol that represents a number

gin
in the range of f is called a dependent variable.
Example. The area A of a circle depends on the radius r of the circle. The rule

ee
that connects r and A is given by the equation A = πr2 . With each positive number

rin
r, there is associated one value of A and we say that A is a function of r. Here, r is
the independent variable and A is the dependent variable.

g.n
We can think of a function as a machine. If x is in the domain of the function

et
f , then when x enters the machine, it is accepted as an input and the machine
produces an output f (x) according to the rule of the function. Thus, we can think
of the domain as the set of all possible inputs and the range as the set of all possible
outputs.
input x → f → f (x) output

## Another way to represent a function is by an Arrow diagram. Each arrow

connects an element of D to an element of E. The arrow indicates that f (x) is

2 Engineering Mathematics - I

x f (x)
a f (a)
y f (y)

## The most common method for visualizing a function is its graph. If f is a

wwfunction with domain D, then its graph is the set of ordered pairs {(x, f (x))/x ∈ D}.
In other words, the graph of f consists of all points (x, y) in the coordinate plane

w.E
such that y = f (x), and x is in the domain of f .

Y
Y

asy
(x, f (x))

En
f (x)
range y = f (x)

0 1
f (1)

2
f (2)

x gin X 0 Domain
X

ee rin
The graph of a function f gives us a useful picture of the behavior of a function.

g.n
Since the y−coordinate of any point (x, y) on the graph is y = f (x), we can read the
value of f (x) from the graph as being the height of the graph above the point x. The
graph of f also allows us to picture the domain of f on the x−axis and its range on
the y−axis. et
Example 1.1. Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2x + 1 and find the domain and range.
Solution.

Y
−1
x 0
2 1
y 1 0
X
−1/2

y = 2x + 1

Differential calculus 3

The equation of the graph is y = 2x + 1. This represents a line with slope 2 and
y−intercept 1. With these informations, we can sketch the portion of the graph of
f . The expression 2x + 1 is defined for all real numbers, and hence the domain of
f is the set of all real numbers, which we denote by R. The graph shows that the
range is also R.

Example 1.2. Sketch the graph of g(x) = x2 and find the domain and range.
Solution. The equation of the graph is y = x2 .

ww Y

w.E x
y
−2
4
−1
1
0
0
1
1
2
4
8
6

asy 4
2
y = x2

En −2 −1 0 1 2
X

gin
From the tabular column we can plot the points (−2, 4), (−1, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1) and (2, 4)

ee
and join them to produce the graph, which represents a parabola. The domain of

rin
g is R. The range of g consists of all values of g(x), that is, all numbers of the form
x2 . But x2 ≥ 0 for all numbers x and any positive number y is a square. Hence, the
range of g is {y : y ≥ 0} = [0, ∞].
g.n
the xy−plane represent the graph of some function. This can be answered by the
vertical line test.
et
The graph of a function is a curve in the xy−plane. But whether all curves in

The vertical line test. A curve in the xy−plane is the graph of a function of
x if and only if no vertical line intersects the curve more than once.
Consider the following graphs.

4 Engineering Mathematics - I

Y Y
(a, c)
x=a x=a

(a, b) (a, b)

X X
a 0 a
0

ww In the first graph, each vertical line x = a intersects the curve only once, at

w.E
(a, b), then exactly one function value is defined by f (a) = b. But in the second
graph, the line x = a intersects the curve twice at (a, b) and (a, c), that is, the

asy
function assigns two different values to a. Hence, the first curve represents the
graph of a function while the second graph is not.

En
As an illustration consider the parabola x = y2 − 4. The curve that represents
this equation is give below.
gin
Y
ee This curve does not represent the

rin
graph of a function of x because, we can
see that every vertical line intersects
x = y2 − 4

g.n
the parabola twice. This parabola is the
union of the graphs of two functions of
(−4, 0)

0 X

we get y = ± x + 2.
et
x. Rewriting the equation as y2 = x + 4

Hence, the upper and lower halves of the parabola are the graphs of the
√ √
functions f (x) = x + 4 and g(x) = − x + 4. The separate graphs are given below.

Differential calculus 5

Y
Y y= x+4

(−4, 0)
(−4, 0) 0 X
0 X

y=− x+4

## ww If we reverse the roles of x and y, then we get the equation x = h(y) = y2 − 4

definitely define x as a function of y with y as the independent variables and x as

w.E
the dependent variable and in this case, the parabola represent the graph of the
function h.

## Piecewise difined functions.

asy
En

1 − x , if x ≤ −1

Example 1.3. Consider the function f defined by f (x) =  .

gin

 x2

 , if x > −1

## For all x ≤ −1.

x -3 -2 -1
ee Y

6
rin
y=1−x 4 3 2
5
4 g.n
For all x > −1.
x
y = x2
-1
1
0
0
1
1
2
4
3
9
3
2
1
et
The combined graph of the function f is X
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4
as follows

Notice that the point (−1, 1) in y = x2 is not included and there is a discontinuity
between the graph for all x ≤ 1 (i.e.y = 1 − x) and the graph for all x > 1 (i.e. y = x2 ).

6 Engineering Mathematics - I

Example 1.4. Consider the absolute value function f (x) = |x|, which is defined as

x , if x ≥ 0

follows f (x) =  . The graph of f (x) consists of two branches namely

−x , if x < 0

y = x for all x ≥ 0 and y = −x for all x < 0.

## The combined graph of f is given below.

y = x (x ≥ 0)
Y

ww x
y
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
3 y = |x|

w.E x
y = −x (x < 0)
-3 -2 -1 0
2
1
X
y 3 2
asy
1 0
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4

En
Notice that the point (0, 0) is not included in the graph of y = −x (x < 0).

gin

x , if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1

ee

Example 1.5. Consider the function f (x) =  , if 1 < x ≤ 2 .

2−x

rin

0 , if x > 2

y = x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1)
y = 2 − x (1 ≤ x ≤ 2)
x 1 2 x g.n
y = 0 (x > 2)
2 3 4 5
x
y
0
0
1
1
y 1 0 y 0
et 0 0 0

## The graph of f is given below.

1
X
0 1 2 3 4 5

Differential calculus 7

Example 1.6. Consider the greatest integer function defined by f (x) = [x].
By definition [x]= Largest integer that is less than or equal to x
= max{m ∈ Z; m ≤ x}.
Example. [2.7] = 2, [−1.3] = −2, [4] = 4
The graph of the function is as follows

## The open dots are not included at the

Y

ww 5
corresponding points.
The Examples 1.3 to 1.6 indicate that

w.E 4
3
2
there is jump from one value to the
next. Hence, the above functions are
1

−2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
asy X
called piecewise functions. The function
discussed in Example 1.6 is called step
−1
−2 En function.

gin
symmetry

ee rin
Even function. If a function f satisfies f (−x) = f (x) for every number x in its
domain, then f is called an even function.

## Example. f (x) = x2 is even,

g.n
since f (−x) = (−x)2 = x2 = f (x).
Geometrically, tha graph of an even
Y

et
function is symmetric about the y−axis.
f (−x) f (x)
Consider the curve of y = x2 − 4.

0 X
−x x

8 Engineering Mathematics - I

Odd function. If f statifies f (−x) = − f (x) for every number x in the domain, then
f is called an odd function.
Example. Consider f (x) = x3
f (−x) = (−x)3 = −x3 = − f (x).
∴ f (x) = x3 is an odd function.
Y

f (x)
−x
X

ww − f (x)
0 x

w.E
The graph of the odd function is symmetric about the origin.

## (i) f (x) = x5 − x. asy

Example 1.7. Determine the nature of the following functions.
(ii) g(x) = 1 + x4 . (iii) h(x) = x + x2 .
Solution.
(i) f (x) = x5 − x. En
gin
f (−x) = (−x)5 − (−x) = −x5 + x = −(x5 − x) = − f (x).
∴ f (x) is odd.
(ii) g(x) = 1 + x4 . ee
g(−x) = 1 + (−x)4 = 1 + x4 = g(x).
rin
∴ g(x) is even.
(iii) h(x) = x + x2 . g.n
h(−x) = (−x) + (−x)2 = −x + x2 .
h(−x) , h(x) and h(−x) , −h(x)
et
∴ h(x) is neither even nor odd.

## Increasing and decreasing functions. A function f is called increasing on an

interval I, if f (x1 ) < f (x2 ) whenever x1 < x2 in I.
It is called decreasing on I, if f (x1 ) > f (x2 ) whenever x1 < x2 in I.

Differential calculus 9

## Definition. Intuitive definition of a limit. Suppose f (x) is defined. When x is

near the number a, then we write lim f (x) = L. This means that the limit of f (x),
x→a
as x approaches a equals L.
lim f (x) = L can also be represented as f (x) → L as x → a.
x→a
One sided limits. The left hand limit of f (x) as x approaches a is written as
lim f (x) = L which means that the limit of f (x) as x approaches a from the left

ww x→a−
is equal to L if we can make the values of f (x) arbitrarily close to L by taking x
sufficiently close to a with x less than a.

w.E Similarly, if we require that x greater than a, we get the right hand limit of
f (x) as x approaches a is equal to L and we write lim f (x) = L.

## x→a asy x→a−

x→a+

Result. lim f (x) = L if and only if lim f (x) = L and lim f (x) = L.
x→a+

Infinite limits.
En
gin
(i) Let f ba a function defined on both sides of a, except possibly at a itself. Then
lim f (x) = ∞ means that the value of f (x) can be made arbitrarily large by taking x
x→a

ee
sufficiently close to a, but not equal to a.

rin
(ii) Let f be a function defined on both sides of a, expect possibly at a itself. Then

x→a
by taking x sufficiently close to a, but not equal to a. g.n
lim f (x) = −∞ means that the values of f (x) can be made arbitrarily large negative

1
Example. lim 2 = ∞.
x→0 x
1
!
lim − 2 = −∞.
x→0 x
et
Asymptote. The vertical line x = a is called a vertical asymptote of the curve
y = f (x) if atleast one of the following statements is true:
lim f (x) = ∞, lim f (x) = ∞, lim f (x) = ∞.
x→a x→a− x→a+
lim f (x) = −∞, lim f (x) = −∞, lim f (x) = −∞.
x→a x→a− x→a+
2x
Example. (i) For the function f (x) = , x = 3 is a vertical asymptote.
x−3

10 Engineering Mathematics - I

π
(ii) For the curve f (x) = tan x, x =
is a vertical asymptote.
2
Laws of limits. Suppose that c is a constant and the limits lim f (x) and lim g(x)
x→a x→a
exist, then the following laws are true.

## 1. lim f (x) + g(x) = lim f (x)+ lim g(x).

 
x→a x→a x→a
 
2. lim f (x) − g(x) = lim f (x) − lim g(x).
x→a x→a x→a
 
3. lim c f (x) = c lim f (x).
x→a x→a

## ww 4. lim f (x)g(x) = lim f (x) × lim g(x).

 
x→a x→a x→a
" # lim f (x)
f (x)

w.E 5. lim
x→a g(x)
= x→a

 
lim g(x)
x→a
. if lim g(x) , 0.

n
x→a

asy

x→a x→a

7. lim c = c.

En
x→a

8. lim x = a.

gin
x→a

## 9. lim xn = an , where n is a positive integer

x→a

10. lim
x→a

11. lim
√n

p
n
x=
√n

f (x) =
q
n lim f (x).
ee
a, where n is a positive integer and a > 0.

rin
g.n
x→a x→a

## Direct substitution property. If f is a polynomial or a rational function and a

is in the domain of f , then lim f (x) = f (a).
x→a
Theorem. If f (x) ≤ g(x), when x is near a and the limits of f and g both exist as x
approaches a, then lim f (x) ≤ lim g(x).
x→a x→a
et
The Squeeze Theorem. If f (x) ≤ g(x) ≤ h(x), when x is near a and
lim f (x) = lim h(x) = L, then lim g(x) = L.
x→a x→a x→a
The above theorem is sometimes called Sandwich Theorem or the Pinching
Theorem.
✎ ☞
Worked Examples
✍ ✌

Differential calculus 11

x→5

## Solution. lim (2x2 − 3x + 4) = lim 2x2 − lim 3x + lim 4

x→5 x→5 x→5 x→5

= 2 lim x2 − 3 lim x + 4
x→5 x→5
2
= 2 × 5 − 3 × 5 + 4 = 50 − 15 + 4 = 39.

x3 + 2x2 − 1
Example 1.9. Find lim .
x→−2 5 − 3x

wwSolution. lim
x→−2
x3 + 2x2 − 1
5 − 3x
=
lim x3 + 2x2 − 1
x→−2
lim 5 − 3x
x→−2

w.E =
lim x3 + lim 2x2
x→−2 x→−2
lim 5 − lim 3x
− lim 1
x→−2

asy
x→−2 x→−2
lim x3 + 2 lim x2 − 1
x→−2 x→−2
=

En
lim 5 − 3 lim x
x→−2 x→−2
−8 + 2(−2)2
−1
=

=gin 5 − 3(−2)
−8 + 8 − 1
=− .
1

## Example 1.10. Find lim

x→1
x2 − 1
x−1
.
ee
5+6 11

rin
Solution. lim
x2 − 1
x→1 x − 1
= lim
x→1
(x + 1)(x − 1)
x−1
= lim (x + 1) = 1 + 1 = 2.
x→1 g.n
Example 1.11. Find lim f (x) where f (x) = 
x→1

 x + 1 , ifx , 1

π
 , ifx = 1
. et
Solution. f is defined at x = 1 and g(1) = π.
But the value of a limit as x approahces 1 does not depend on the value
of the function at 1.
Since g(x) = x + 1 for x , 1, we have
lim g(x) = lim (x + 1) = 2.
x→1 x→1

12 Engineering Mathematics - I

(3 + x)2 − 9
Example 1.12. Evaluate lim .
x→0 x

(3 + x)2 − 9 (3 + x − 3)(3 + x + 3)
Solution. lim = lim
x→0 x x→0 x
x(6 + x)
= lim
x→0 x
= lim (6 + x) = 6.
x→0

x2 + 9 − 3
Example 1.13. Find lim .

ww x→0 x2
Solution. On rationalizing the numerator we get
√ √ √

w.E lim
x→0
x2 + 9 − 3
x2
= lim
x→0
x2 + 9 − 3

2
x2
x +9−9
× √
x2 + 9 + 3
x2 + 9 + 3

asy
= lim √
x→0 x2 x2 + 9 + 3

x2

En
= lim √
x→0 x2 x2 + 9 + 3
1 1 1
= lim √
x→0
gin =
x2 + 9 + 3 3 + 3 6
= .

x→0

## Solution. We know that |x| = 

x

ee
, ifx ≥ 0
−x , ifx < 0
.
rin
g.n

Since |x| = −x for x < 0, we have lim |x| = lim −x = 0.
x→0− x→0−
Also |x| = x for x > 0, we have lim |x| = lim x = 0.
∴ lim |x| = lim |x| = 0.
x→0− x→0+
Hence, lim |x| = 0.
x→0
x→0+ x→0+

et
|x|
Example 1.15. Prove that lim does not exist.
x→0 x

x , ifx ≥ 0

Solution. We know that |x| = 
 .
−x , ifx < 0

Differential calculus 13

|x| x
Now, lim = lim = 1.
x→0+ x x→0+ x
|x| −x
lim = lim = −1.
x→0− x x→0− x
|x| |x| |x|
Since lim , lim , lim does not exist.
x→0+ x x→0− x x→0 x
√
 x − 4 , ifx > 4

Example 1.16. If f (x) =  , determine whether lim f (x) exists.

 x→4
8 − 2x , ifx < 4

Solution. We have f (x) = x − 4 for x > 4.

ww

∴ lim f (x) = lim x − 4 = 0.
x→4+ x→4+
Also, f (x) = 8 − 2x for x < 4.

## w.E ∴ lim f (x) = lim (8 − 2x) = 0.

x→4− x→4−
Since lim f (x) = lim f (x) = 0, we have lim f (x) exists and lim f (x) = 0.

asy
x→4+ x→4− x→4 x→4

Example 1.17. Show that for the greatest integer function [x], lim [x] does not
x→3
exist.
En
Solution. By definition [x] = 3 for 3 ≤ x < 4.
∴ lim [x] = lim 3 = 3.
x→3+ x→3+ gin
Also [x] = 2 for 2 ≤ x < 3.
∴ lim [x] = lim 2 = 2.
x→3− x→3− ee
Since lim [x] , lim [x], lim [x] does not exist.
rin
g.n
x→3+ x→3− x→3

1.3 Continuity

## Definition. A function f is continuous at a number a, if lim f (x) = f (a).

x→a
et
f is discontinuous at a if it is not continuous at a.
Note. For proving a function f to be continuous, we have to prove the following.

## 2. lim f (x) exists.

x→a

14 Engineering Mathematics - I

## 3. lim f (x) = f (a).

x→a

x2 − x − 2
Example. Consider f (x) = .
x−2
Here, f (x) is not defined at x = 2.
∴ f is not continuous at x = 2.

x2 −x−2
, ifx , 2

 x−2

If we define f (x) as f (x) = 
 .
, ifx = 2

1

Then

## ww(i) f (2) is defined and f (2) = 1.

x2 − x − 2 (x − 2)(x + 1)

w.E
(ii) lim f (x) = lim
x→2 x→2 x−2
= lim
x→2 x−2
= lim (x + 1) = 3
x→2

## (iii) Since f (2) = 1 , lim f (x), f (x) is not continuous at x = 2.

x→2

asy
Definition. A function f is said to be continuous from the right at a number a if

En
lim f (x) = f (a), and f is said to be continuous from the left at a if lim f (x) = f (a).
x→a+ x→a−
Example. Consider the greatest integer function f (x) = [x]. We notice that

x→n+ x→n+
gin
lim f (x) = lim [x] = n = f (n)
lim f (x) = lim [x] = n − 1 , f (n).

left.
x→n− x→n−

ee
∴ f (x) = [x] is continuous from the right but not continuous from the

rin
Definition. A function f is continuous on an interval if it is continuous at every
number in the interval. g.n
Theorem. If f and g are continuous at a and c is a constant, then the following
functions are also continuous at a.
1. f + g 2. f − g 3. c f 4. f g 5.
f
g(a) , 0.
et
g
Theorem.

## (b) Any rational function is continuous wherever it is defined, i.e., it is continuous

on its domain.

Differential calculus 15

## Theorem. The following types of functions are continuous at every number in

their domains.

1. Polynomials.

2. Rational functions.

3. Root functions.

4. Trigonometric functions.

## w.E6. Exponential functions.

7. Logarithmic functions.

asy
Theorem. If f is continuous at b, and lim g(x) = b, then lim f (g(x)) = f (b).

En  x→a
 x→a
i.e., lim f (g(x)) = f lim g(x) .
x→a x→a

gin
Theorem. If g is continuous at a and f is continuous at g(a), then the composite
function f og given by ( f og)(x) = f (g(x)) is continuous at a.

ee
The intermediate value theorem. Suppose that f is continuous on the closed

rin
interval [a, b] and let N be any number between f (a) and f (b), where f (a) , f (b).

g.n
Then there exists a number c in (a, b) such that f (c) = N.
Result. The intermediate value theorem is useful in the location of the roots
of the given equation.

Example 1.18. Find the domain where the fnction f is continuous. Also find the
et
numbers  at which the function f is discontinous where
1 + x2

 , if x ≤ 0

f (x) =  , if 0 < x ≤ 2 . [A.U. Dec. 2015]

2−x

(x − 2)2 x

, if x > 2

Solution. The function f changes its value at x = 0, and x = 2.

16 Engineering Mathematics - I

## lim f (x) = lim (1 + x2 ) = 1.

x→0− x→0−
lim f (x) = lim (2 − x) = 2.
x→0+ x→0+
Since, lim f (x) = lim f (x), f is not continuous at x = 0.
x→0− x→0+
lim f (x) = lim (2 − x) = 0.
x→2− x→2−
lim f (x) = lim (x − 2)2 = 0.
x→2+ x→2+
Since, lim f (x) = lim f (x) = 0 = f (2), f (x) is continuous at x = 2.
x→2− x→2+
∴ The only number at which the function is discontinuous is at x = 0.

## ww The domain of continuity of f is {(−∞, 0) ∪ (0, ∞).

The graph of f is given below

w.E
For all x ≤ 0.
The combined graph of the function f is

y = f (x) = 1 + x2 .
asy as follows
Y
x
y
-3
10
-2
5
-1
2 En
0
1
10
9
For all 0 < x ≤ 2.
gin 1 + x2
8
7
y = f (x) = 2 − x.

x
y
0
2
1
1
2
0
ee 6
5
4 rin
For all x > 2. 3
g.n
y = f (x) = (x − 2)2 .

x
y
2
0
3
1
4
4
−4 −3 −2 −1 0
2
1
2−x

1 2
et3
(x − 2)2

4
X

Notice that the point (−1, 1) in y = x2 is not included and there is a discontinuity
between the graph for all x ≤ 1 (i.e.y = 1 − x) and the graph for all x > 1 (i.e. y = x2 ).

Example 1.19. Show that there is a root of the equation 4x3 − 6x2 + 3x − 2 between

Differential calculus 17

1 and 2.

## f (2) = 4(2)3 − 6(2)2 + 3(2) − 2

= 4 × 8 − 6 × 4 + 3 × 2 − 2 = 32 − 24 + 6 − 2 = 12 > 0.

## wwThe function changes its sign between 1 and 2.

w.E
Since f (x) is a polynomial, which is
continuous in its domain the graph of
Y

asy
y = f (x) must cross the x−axis atleast
at one point say x = c between x = 1
f (1)

En
and x = 2 such that f (c) = 0, which is c 2
X

gin
the root of the equation f (x) = 0. This
proves that the given equation f (x) = 0
1
f (2)

## has a root between 1 and 2.

ee rin
Example 1.20. Prove that the equation x3 − 15x + 1 = 0 has atmost one real root
in the interval [−2, 2].
g.n
[A.U.Nov.2016]
Solution. Let f (x) = x3 − 15x + 1

f (−2) = −8 + 30 + 1 = 23 = +ve.
et
f (−1) = −1 + 15 + 1 = 15 = +ve. + + +
f (0) = 1 = +ve.
f (1) = 1 − 15 + 1 = −13 = −ve. −2 −1 0 1 2
f (2) = 8 − 30 + 1 = −21 = −ve. − −

18 Engineering Mathematics - I

## Hence, f (0) > 0 > f (1).

f changes sign between 0 and 1.
∴ By intermediate value theorem, there is a number c between 1 and 2
such that f (c) = 0.
∴ The given equation has atleast one root c in the interval (0, 1).
Since f (x) changes sign in the interval [−2, 2] only once between 0 and
1, y = f (x) crosses the x axis only once.
i.e., f (x) attains 0 only once in [−2, 2]

ww Hence, there is atmost one real root in the interval [−2, 2].

w.E
1.4 Derivatives and differentiation rules

asy
Definition. The tangent line to the curve y = f (x) at the point P(a, f (a)) is the line
f (x) − f (a)
through P with slope m = lim
x→a
En x−a
.

gin
Definition. The derivative of a function f at a number a, denoted by f ′ (a) is
f (a + h) − f (a)
defined as f ′ (a) = lim

is f ′ (a) = lim
h→0

f (x) − f (a)
.
h
ee , if the limit exists.

rin
Note. Let x = a+h. As h → 0, x → a. The equivalent definition for the derivative

x→a x−a

Worked Examples

g.n
✍ ✌

et
Example 1.21. Find an equation to the tangent line to the parabola y = x2 at the
point P(1, 1).
Solution. Given a = 1, f (a) = 1, f (x) = x2 .

f (x) − f (1)
Slope m = lim
x→1 x−1
x2 − 1 (x − 1)(x + 1)
= lim = lim = lim (x + 1) = 1 + 1 = 2.
x→1 x − 1 x→1 x−1 x→1

Differential calculus 19

## Equation of the tangent line through (1, 1) is

y − y1 = m(x − x1 ).

y − 1 = 2(x − 1)

y = 2x − 2 + 1

y = 2x − 1.

## wwExample 1.22. Find an equation to the tangent line to the hyperbola y =

point (3, 1).
x
at the

w.E
Solution. Given a = 3, f (a) = f (3) = 1.

We have m = lim
f (a + h) − f (a)

asy
h→0

= lim
h
f (3 + h) − f (3)

En
h→0 h
3
−1
= lim 3+h
h→0

= lim gin
h
3−3−h
h→0 h(3 + h)

= lim
−h
ee
h→0 h(3 + h)
= lim
−1
h→0 (3 + h)
=
−1
3
.

rin
∴ The equation of the tangent line is

g.n
y − y1 = m(x − x1 ).

y−1=
−1
3
(x − 3)
et
3y − 3 = −x + 3

x + 3y − 3 − 3 = 0

x + 3y − 6 = 0.

## Example 1.23. Find the derivative of the function f (x) = x2 − 8x + 9 at a number

20 Engineering Mathematics - I

a. Find also the equation the tangent line at the point (3, −6).
f (a + h) − f (a)
Solution. f ′ (a) = lim
h→0 h
(a + h) − 8(a + h) + 9 − (a2 − 8a + 9)
2
= lim
h→0 h
a + h + 2ah − 8a − 8h + 9 − a2 + 8a − 9
2 2
= lim
h→0 h
h2 + 2ah − 8h
= lim
h→0 h

ww = lim (h + 2a − 8) = 2a − 8.
h→0

## w.E ∴ The equation of the tangent line is

asy
y − y1 = m(x − x1 ).

y + 6 = −2(x − 3)

En = −2x + 6

gin
2x + y = 0.

ee
Derivative of a function. Let f (x) be a given function. The derivative of f (x) at
f (x + h) − f (x)
any variable point x is defined by f ′ (x) = lim .
h→0 h
Example 1.24. If f (x) = x3 − x, find a formula for f ′ (x). rin
Solution.Given f (x) = x3 − x. g.n
f ′ (x) = lim
h→0

= lim
f (x + h) − f (x)
h
(x + h)3 − (x + h) − (x3 − x)
et
h→0 h
x + 3x h + 3xh2 + h3 − x − h − x3 + x
3 2
= lim
h→0 h
2 2
3x h + 3xh + h − h3
= lim
h→0 h
= lim 3x2 + 3xh + h2 − 1 = 3x2 − 1.
h→0

Differential calculus 21

Example 1.25. If f (x) = x, find the derivative of f . State the domain of f ′ .

Solution.Given f (x) = x.
f (x + h) − f (x)
f ′ (x) = lim
h→0 h
√ √
x+h− x
= lim
h→0 h
√ √ √ √
x+h− x x+h+ x
= lim × √ √
h→0 h x+h+ x

ww = lim  √
h→0 h
x+h−x
x+h+ x
√ 

w.E = lim  √
h→0 h
h
√ 
x+h+ x
1 1 1

asy
= lim  √
h→0
√ = √
x+h+ x
√ = √ .
x+ x 2 x

En
From this we notice that f ′ (x) exists if x > 0.
∴ The domain of f ′ is (0, ∞).

gin
ee
Example 1.26. Where is the function f (x) = |x| differentiable. [A.U. Nov. 2015]

x if x ≥ 0

rin

Solution. We have that |x| =  .
−x if x < 0

Consider x > 0. Then |x| = x. We choose h small enough such that x + h > 0.
∴ |x + h| = x + h. g.n
∴ When x > 0,

f ′ (x) = lim
f (x + h) − f (x)
et
h→0 h
|x + h| − |x|
= lim
h→0 h
x+h−x h
= lim = lim = lim 1 = 1.
h→0 h h→0 h h→0

## ∴ f is differentiable for x > 0.

22 Engineering Mathematics - I

Consider x = 0.

f (0 + h) − f (x)
f ′ (0) = lim
h→0 h
|0 + h| − |x|
= lim
h→0 h
|h|
= lim [if it exists]
h→0 h

## Let us find the left and right limits.

|h| h
lim = lim = lim 1 = 1.

ww
h→0+ h h→0+ h h→0+
|h| −h
lim = lim = lim −1 = −1.
h→0− h h→0− h h→0
Since the two limits are different, f ′ (0) does not exist.

## w.E ∴ f is not differentiable at x = 0.

Consider x < 0.

asy
In this case |x| = −x.

En
Choose h small so that x + h < 0.
∴ |x + h| = −(x + h)
∴ For x < 0,
gin
f ′ (x) = lim
h→0

= lim
h→0
h
−(x + h) − (−x)
h
ee
f (x + h) − f (x)

rin
= lim
h→0
−x − h + x
h
= lim
−h
h→0 h
= lim −1 = −1.
h→0
g.n
∴ f is differentiable for x < 0.
et
Combining all the three cases we obtain that f is differentiable at all x except 0.

ifx > 0
1

∴ f (x) = 
 .
−1 ifx < 0

## Theorem. If f is differentiable at a, then f is continuous at a.

Proof. Given that f is differentiable at a.
f (x) − f (a)
f ′ (x) = lim exits. (1)
x→a x−a

Differential calculus 23

f (x) − f (a)
Now, f (x) − f (a) = (x − a)
x−a
Taking limits as x → a both sides we get
f (x) − f (a)
lim f (x) − f (a) = lim (x − a)
x→a x→a x−a
f (x) − f (a)
= lim × lim (x − a)
x→a x−a x→a

x→a

 
x→a x→a

## = lim + lim ( f (x) − f (a))

w.E x→a

= f (a) + 0
x→a

[by (1)]

x→a

asy
lim f (x) = f (a)

∴ f (x) is continuous at a.

En
Result. The converse of the above theorem is false.

gin
i.e., If a function is continuous at a need not be differentiable at a.

## For example consider the function f (x) = |x|.

lim f (x) = lim |x| = 0 = f (0).
x→a x→a
ee
But by example 1.26, f (x) = |x| is not differentiable at 0.
rin
g.n
Higher derivatives. If a function f is differentiable, then its derivative f ′ is also
a function. Hence, f ′ may have a derivative of its own denoted by ( f ′ )′ = f ′′ . f ′′ is
called !the second derivative of f . The second derivative of y = f (x) is denoted by
d dy
dx dx
d2 y
= 2 . In a similar way we can have the third derivative of f denoted by
dx
d d2 y
!
d3 y
et
( f ′′ )′ = f ′′′ . If y = f (x) then we have y′′′ = f ′′′ (x) = = . If this process is
dx dx2 dx3
continued we can get in general, the nth derivative of f denoted by f (n) is obtained
dn y
by differentiating f n times. Generally if y = f (x) then we write y(n) = f (n) (x) = n .
dx
Rules on differentiation

## 1. The sum rule. If f and g are both differentiable, then

24 Engineering Mathematics - I

d   d   d 
g(x) .

f (x) + g(x) = f (x) +
dx dx dx
Proof. Let F(x) = f (x) + g(x). Then,

F(x + h) − F(x)
F ′ (x) = lim
h→0 h
f (x + h) + g(x + h) − [ f (x) + g(x)]
= lim
h→0 h
[ f (x + h) − f (x)] + [g(x + h) − g(x)]
= lim
h→0 h
[ f (x + h) − f (x)]
= lim + lim [g(x + h) − g(x)]h

ww h→0 h
= f ′ (x) + g′ (x).
h→0

## w.E 2. Constant multiple rule. If c is a constant and f is a differentiable function,

then
d  
c f (x) = c
d  
f (x) .
dx
asy
dx
Proof. Let F(x) = c f (x). Then,

En F ′ (x) = lim
h→0
F(x + h) − F(x)
h

gin = lim
h→0
c f (x + h) − c f (x)
h

ee
c[ f (x + h) − f (x)]
= lim
h→0 h
= c lim
h→0
[ f (x + h) − f (x)]
h
rin
= c f ′ (x) = c
d
dx
 
f (x) .
g.n
3. The difference rule.
d 
dx

f (x) − g(x) =
d 
dx
f (x) −
If f and g are both differentiable, then
 d 
dx

g(x) .
et
Proof. We have f (x) − g(x) = f (x) + (−)g(x).

d   d  
f (x) − g(x) = f (x) + (−1)g(x)
dx dx
d   d  
= f (x) + (−1)g(x) [by sum rule]
dx dx
d   d  
= f (x) + (−1) g(x) [by constant multiple rule]
dx dx

Differential calculus 25

d   d  
= f (x) − g(x) .
dx dx

## 4. The product rule. If f and g are both differentiable, then

d   d   d  
f (x) × g(x) = f (x) g(x) + g(x) f (x) .
dx dx dx

f (x + h)g(x + h) − f (x)g(x)
Proof. ( f (x)g(x))′ = lim
h→0 h
f (x + h)g(x + h) − f (x + h)g(x) + f (x + h)g(x) − f (x)g(x)
= lim
h→0 h

ww = lim
h→0
f (x + h){g(x + h) − g(x)} + g(x){ f (x + h) − f (x)}
(
h
g(x + h) − g(x) f (x + h) − f (x)
)

w.E = lim f (x + h)
h→0

= lim f (x + h) lim
h
+ g(x)
g(x + h) − g(x)
h
+ lim g(x) lim
f (x + h) − f (x)

asy
h→0 h→0

## ( f (x)g(x))′ = f (x)g′ (x) + g(x) f ′ (x).

h h→0 h→0 h

5. Quotient rule. En
 If f d and g are both differentiable, then
"
d f (x)
dx g(x)
#
=
d
g(x) dx
[g(x)] 2 gin
f (x) − f (x) dx g(x)
.

Proof.
f (x)
g(x)
!′ 

= lim 
h→0 

ee
 f (x+h) f (x) 
 g(x+h) − g(x) 
h

rin
= lim
h→0
(
f (x + h)g(x) − g(x + h) f (x)
hg(x + h)g(x)
)

g.n
= lim
h→0

= lim
(

(
hg(x + h)g(x)
g(x)[ f (x + h) − f (x)] − f (x)[g(x + h) − g(x)]
et
f (x + h)g(x) − f (x)g(x) + f (x)g(x) − g(x + h) f (x)

)
)

## h→0 hg(x + h)g(x)

f (x+h)− f (x)
− f (x) g(x+h)−g(x)
 
 g(x)

 h h

= lim 

g(x + h)g(x)

h→0 
 

f (x + h) − f (x) g(x + h) − g(x)
lim g(x) − lim f (x)
h→0 h h→0 h
=
lim g(x + h)g(x)
h→0

26 Engineering Mathematics - I

## f (x + h) − f (x) g(x + h) − g(x)

lim g(x) lim − lim f (x) lim
h→0 h→0 h h→0 h→0 h
=
g(x)g(x)
g(x) f ′ (x) − f (x)g′ (x)
= .
[g(x)]2

## Derivatives of simple functions

d
1. If c is a constant, prove that (c) = 0.
dx
Proof. Let f (x) = c.

ww f (x + h) − f (x)
f ′ (x) = lim
h→0 h

w.E = lim
c−c
h→0 h
0
= lim = 0.
h→0 h

asy
2. If n is a positive integer, then prove that
Proof. Let f (x) = xn .
d n
dx
(x ) = nxn−1 .

En
f (x + h) − f (x)
f ′ (x) = lim
h→0

= lim
h
(x + h)n − xn
gin
ee
h→0 h
x + C1 xn−1 h + nC2 xn−2 h2 + nC3 xn−3 h3 + · · · + hn − xn
n n

rin
= lim
h→0 h
n−1 n(n−1) n−2 2 n(n−1)(n−2) n−3 3
nx h + 2 x h + x h + · · · + hn

g.n
6
= lim
h→0 h
n−1 n(n − 1) n−2 1 n(n − 1)(n − 2) n−3 2
= lim nx + x h + x h + · · · + hn−1
h→0

## = lim nxn−1 + lim

h→0 h→0
2
n(n − 1) n−2 1
2
x h + lim
h→0
6
n(n − 1)(n − 2) n−3 2
6
et
x h + · · · + lim hn−1
h→0

= nxn−1 + 0 + 0 + · · · + 0 = nxn−1 .

d n
General rule. If n ia any real number, then (x ) = nxn−1 .
dx

Differential calculus 27

d x
3. Derivative of e x . Prove that (e ) = e x .
dx
eh − 1
Definition of the number e. e is a number such that lim = 1.
h→0 h
Proof. Let f (x) = e x .
f (x + h) − f (x)
f ′ (x) = lim
h→0 h
e x+h − e x
= lim
h→0 h
e e − ex
x h

ww = lim
h→0

= lim e
h
h
x e −1
!

w.E h→0

x
= lim e × lim
h
eh − 1
h
!
= ex × 1 = ex .

asy
h→0 h→0

## 1. Prove that lim

sin θ
θ→0 θ
= 1.
En
gin
Proof. Consider a circle with center
D

## O and radius 1 unit.

subtends an angle θ at the centre
π
ee
Let arc(AB) B

rin E
and assume that 0 < θ < . Draw
2
BC perpendicular to OA. Let the
θ
0 C
g.n A

## tangents at A and B meet at E.

Produce AE and OB to intersect at D. et
Now we have arcAB = θ.
BC BC
From ∆OAB, sin θ = OB = 1 .
∴ |BC| = sin θ.
From the figure we have
|BC| < |AB| < arcAB.

28 Engineering Mathematics - I

∴ sin θ < θ.
sin θ
⇒ < 1. (1)
θ
Again form the figure,
arcAB < |AE| + |EB|
∴ θ = arcAB < |AE| + |EB| < |AB| + |ED| = |AD| = |OA| tan θ = tan θ.

∴ θ < tan θ.
sin θ
i.e., θ <

ww cos θ
θ cos θ < sin θ
sin θ

θ

<1 [by(1)]

## lim cos θ < lim

θ→0
sin θ
θ→0 θ asy
< lim 1
θ→0

1 < lim
θ→0 θ
sin θ
<1
En
sin θ
By squeeze theorem lim
θ→0 θ
gin= 1.

## 2. Prove that lim

θ→0
cos θ − 1
θ
= 0. ee rin
Proof. lim
θ→0
cos θ − 1
θ
= lim
θ→0
cos θ − 1 cos θ + 1
θ
2
×
cos θ + 1
− sin2 θ
g.n
et
cos θ − 1
= lim = lim
θ→0 θ(cos θ + 1) θ→0 θ(cos θ + 1)
sin θ sin θ 0
= − lim × lim = −1 × = 0.
θ→0 θ θ→0 (cos θ + 1) 1+1

cos θ − 1
∴ lim = 0.
θ→0 θ

## Derivatives of trigonometric functions

d
1. Prove that (sin x) = cos x.
dx

Differential calculus 29

## Proof. Let f (x) = sin(x)

f (x + h) − f (x)
f ′ (x) = lim
h→0 h
sin(x + h) − sin(x)
= lim
h→0 h
sin(x) cos(h) + cos(x) sin(h) − sin(x)
= lim
h→0 h
sin(x)(cos(h) − 1) + cos(x) sin(h)
= lim
h→0 h
!
sin(x)(cos(h) − 1) cos(x) sin(h)
= lim +

ww h→0

= lim sin(x)
h
(cos(h) − 1)
h
h

+ lim cos(x)
sin(h)
h
!

w.E
h→0 h→0
!
(cos(h) − 1) sin(h)
= sin(x) lim + cos(x) lim
h→0 h h→0 h

asy
= sin(x) × 0 + cos(x) × 1 = 0 + cos(x) = cos(x).

2. Prove that
d
dx
En
(cos x) = − sin x.

gin
Proof. Let f (x) = cos(x)
f (x + h) − f (x)
f ′ (x) = lim
h→0

= lim
h→0

= lim
ee h
cos(x + h) − cos(x)
h
cos(x) cos(h) − sin(x) sin(h) − cos(x)
rin
h→0

= lim
h
cos(x)(cos(h) − 1) − sin(x) sin(h)
g.n
h→0

= lim
h→0 h
h
cos(x)(cos(h) − 1) sin(x) sin(h)

(cos(h) − 1)

h
!

sin(h)
!
et
= lim cos(x) − lim sin(x)
h→0 h h→0 h
= cos(x) × 0 − sin(x) × 1 = − sin(x).

f ′ (x) = − sin x.

d
3. Prove that (tan x) = sec2 x.
dx

30 Engineering Mathematics - I

## Proof. Let f (x) = tan(x)

d d
cos x dx (sin x) − sin x dx (cos x)
!
d d sin x
(tan x) = = 2
dx dx cos x cos x
cos x × cos x − sin x × (− sin x)
=
cos2 x
2
cos2 x + sin x 1
= = = sec2 x.
cos2 x cos2 x
d
4. Prove that (cosecx) = −cosecx cot x.
dx

ww Proof.
d
dx
(cosecx) =
d 1
dx sin x
!
=
d
sin x dx
sin2 x
d
(1) − 1 × dx (sin x)

w.E =
sin x × 0 − 1 × (cos x)

− cos x
sin2 x
−1 cos x
=

asy 2
sin x
= ×
sin x sin x
= −cosecx cot x.

En
d
5. Prove that (sec x) = sec x tan x.
dx

gin d
cos x dx d
(1) − 1 × dx (cos x)
!
d d 1
Proof. (sec x) = = 2
dx dx cos x cos x
=

=
sin x
2
=
ee
cos x × 0 − 1 × (− sin x)
cos2 x
sin x
cos x cos x cos x
×
1
= sec x tan x.
rin
6. Prove that
d
(cot x) = −cosec2 x. g.n
et
dx
d d
d d  cos x  sin x dx (cos x) − cos x × dx (sin x)
Proof. (cot x) = =
dx dx sin x sin2 x
sin x × (− sin x) − cos x × (cos x)
=
sin2 x
− sin2 x − cos2 x −(sin2 x + cos2 x) 1
= 2
= 2
= − 2 = −cosec2 x.
sin x sin x sin x

## The chain rule. If g is differentiable at x and f is differentiable at g(x), then the

composite function F = f og defined by F(x) = f (g(x)) is differentiable at x and F ′ is

Differential calculus 31

## given by the product F ′ (x) = f ′ (g(x)) × g′ (x).

Proof. Let y = F(x) = f (g(x))
Let u = g(x) ⇒ y = f (u)
Let ∆x be a small change in x, then ∆u is the corresponding change in u.
∆u = g(x + ∆x) − g(x).
Then the corresponding change in y is given by
∆y = f (u + ∆u) − f (u)

dy ∆y

ww Now, = lim
dx ∆x→0 ∆x
= lim
∆y ∆u
×

w.E ∆x→0 ∆u

= lim
∆y
∆x→0 ∆u
∆x
× lim
∆u
∆x→0 ∆x

= lim
asy
∆y
∆x→0 ∆u
dy du
× lim
∆u
∆x→0 ∆x
[∆u → 0 as ∆x → 0]

= ×
du dx
d En d

d
=
du
gin
( f (u)) ×
dx
(g(x)) = f ′ (u) × g′ (x)

## [F(x)] = f ′ (g(x)) × g′ (x)

dx

ee
F ′ (x) = f ′ (g(x)) × g′ (x)

rin

Worked Examples

1 + cos 2x

g.n
Example 1.27. Evaluate limπ

Solution. limπ
1 + cos 2x
=
x→ 2

lim
(π − 2x)2

2 cos2 x
.

et
[A.U.Jan. 2015]

x→ 2 (π − 2x)2 x→ π2 (π − 2x)2
π
Let −x=y
2
π
As x → , y → 0
2
1 + cos 2x 2 cos2 x
∴ limπ = limπ 
x→ 2 (π − 2x)2 x→ 2
2
4 π−x 2

32 Engineering Mathematics - I

 
1 cos2 π2 − y
= lim
2 y→0 y2
1 sin2 y
= lim 2
2 y→0 y
!2
1 sin y
= lim
2 y→0 y
!2
1 sin y 1 1
= lim = × 12 = .
2 y→0 y 2 2

## wwExample 1.28. If y = x8 + 12x5 − 4x4 + 10x3 − 6x + 5, find

dy
dx
.

w.E
Solution. Given, y = x8 + 12x5 − 4x4 + 10x3 − 6x + 5
dy d  8

asy

= x + 12x5 − 4x4 + 10x3 − 6x + 5
dx dx
d 8 d d d d d
=
dx
En
(x ) + (12x5 ) − (4x4 ) + (10x3 ) − (6x) + (5)
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
= 8x8−1 + 12 (x5 ) − 4 (x4 ) + 10 (x3 ) − 6 (x) + 0
dx

dx
gin dx dx dx
= 8x7 + 12 × 5(x5−1 ) − 4 × 4(x4−1 ) + 10 × 3(x3−1 ) − 6 × 1

ee
= 8x7 + 60x4 − 16x3 + 30x2 − 6.

rin
ex
Example 1.29. If y = − x, find
dy
dx
d2 y
and 2 .
dx g.n
Solution. Given y = e x − x.

dy
dx
= ex − 1
et
d2 y
= ex .
dx2

dy
Example 1.30. If y = x2 sin x, find .
dx
Solution. Given y = x2 sin x.

Differential calculus 33

## Applying the product rule we obtain

dy d  2 
= x sin x
dx dx
d d
= x2 (sin x) + sin x (x2 )
dx dx
= x2 × (cos x) + sin x × (2x)

= x2 cos x + 2x sin x.

sec x dy
Example 1.31. If f (x) = , find . For what values of x, does the graph of

ww 1 + tan x
f , has a horizontal tangent.
Solution. Given f (x) =
sec x
.
dx

w.E 1 + tan x
By the quotient rule, we have

asy
d d
(1 + tan x) dx (sec x) − sec x dx (1 + tan x)
f ′ (x) =
(1 + tan x)2

En
 
(1 + tan x)(sec x tan x) − sec x 0 + sec2 x
=
(1 + tan x)2

=
gin
sec x tan x + sec x tan2 x − sec3 x
(1 + tan x)2

=
ee
sec x(tan x + tan2 x − sec2 x)
(1 + tan x)2
sec x(tan x − (sec2 x − tan2 x))
rin
=
(1 + tan x)2
sec x(tan x − 1) g.n
f ′ (x) =
(1 + tan x)2
sec x(tan x − 1)
(1 + tan x)2
. et
The points where the graph of f has a horizontal tangent are given by f ′ (x) = 0

sec x(tan x − 1)
i.e., =0
(1 + tan x)2
⇒ sec x(tan x − 1) = 0

But sec x , 0

34 Engineering Mathematics - I

∴ tan x − 1 = 0
π
i.e., tan x = 1 ⇒ x = nπ + , n is an integer.
4

Example 1.32. Find the points on the curve y = x4 − 6x2 + 4 where the tangent line
is horizontal.
dy
Solution. Horizontal tangent occur at points where = 0.
dx

i.e.,4x3 − 6 × 2x = 0

ww 4x3 − 12x = 0

4x(x2 − 3) = 0

w.E √
i.e.,x = 0 or x2 − 3 = 0 ⇒ x2 = 3 ⇒ x = ± 3.

asy
When x = 0, y = 4.
The point is (0, 4).

When x = 3, y =
En
 √ 4  √ 2
3 − 6 3 + 4 = 9 − 18 + 4 = −5.

gin

The point is ( 3, −5).
√  √ 4  √ 2
When x = − 3, y = − 3 − 6 − 3 + 4 = 9 − 18 + 4 = −5.

The point is (− 3, −5).
ee √

rin√
The given curve has horizontal tangents at the points (0, 4), ( 3, −5) and (− 3, −5).

g.n
Example 1.33. At what point on the cure y = e x , is the tangent line parallel to the
line y = 2x.
Solution. Given y = e x ⇒ y′ = e x .
slope of the tangent at x = e x .
et
Since the tangent line is parallel to the line y = 2x,
Slope of the tangent = 2.
i.e., e x = 2 ⇒ x = log 2.
When x = log 2, y = elog 2 = 2.
∴ The required point is (log 2, 2).

Differential calculus 35

## Example 1.34. If f (x) = xe x find f (n) (x).

Solution. Given f (x) = xe x .

d
f ′ (x) = xe x

dx
d x d
=x e + e x (x) = xe x + e x .1 = e x (x + 1).
dx dx
d
f ′′ (x) = (x + 1)e x

dx
d x d
= (x + 1) e + e x (x + 1)
dx dx

ww = (x + 1)e x + e x .1 = e x (x + 1 + 1) = e x (x + 2).
d

## w.E f ′′′ (x) = (x + 2)e x


dx
d x d
= (x + 2) e + e x (x + 2)
dx dx

asy
= (x + 2)e x + e x .1 = e x (x + 2 + 1) = e x (x + 3).

En
Applying this process successively n times we get

## gin f (n) (x) = e x (x + n).

Example 1.35. If y =
x2 + x − 2
3
x +6

x2 + x − 2
ee
, find
dy
dx
.

rin
Solution. Given y =

dy
x3 + 6
d
(x3 + 6) dx
.
d
(x2 + x − 2) − (x2 + x − 2) dx (x3 + 6) g.n
dx

=
=
(x3 + 6)2
(x3 + 6)(2x + 1) − (x2 + x − 2)(3x2 )
(x3 + 6)2
et
2x + x + 12x + 6 − 3x4 − 3x3 + 6x2
4 3
=
(x3 + 6)2
−x4 − 2x3 + 6x2 + 12x + 6
= .
(x3 + 6)2

ex
Example 1.36. Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve y = at the
1 + x2

36 Engineering Mathematics - I

e
point (1, ).
2
ex
Solution. Given y =
1 + x2
ex
!
dy d
=
dx dx 1 + x2
d d
(1 + x2 ) dx (e x ) − e x dx (1 + x2 )
=
(1 + x2 )2
(1 + x2 )e x − e x 2x
=
(1 + x2 )2

ww !
=
e x (1 + x2 − 2x) e x (1 − x)2
(1 + x2 )2
=
(1 + x2 )2

w.E
dy e(1 − 1)
e ! = = 0.
dx 1, (1 + 1)2
2

asy
∴ Slope of the tangent m = 0.
Equation of the tangent line is

y − y1 = m(x − x1 )
e En
y − = 0(x − 1)
2
e
y − = 0. gin
2

ee
Example 1.37. Find F ′ (x) if F(x) = x2 + 1.

Solution. Let y = x2 + 1, let u = x2 + 1 and y = u.
rin
NowF ′ (x) =
dy du
× .
du dx g.n
Example 1.38. Find
1 −1
2
dy
1
= u 2 × 2x = √ x = √
u
x
2
x +1
.

## if (i) y = sin(x2 ) (ii) y = sin2 x.

et
dx
Solution. (i) Given y = sin(x2 ).
Let u = x2 . Then y = sin u.
dy dy du
Now = × .
dx du dx
= cos u × 2x = cos(x2 )2x = 2x cos(x2 ).

Differential calculus 37

## (ii) Given y = sin2 x

Let u = sin x. Then y = u2 .

dy dy du
Now = × .
dx du dx
= 2u cos x = 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x.

## Example 1.39. Differentiate the following functions

ww 3
(i) y = (x − 1) 100
.
(iv) y = esin x .

w.E
(ii) y = √
3
1
x2 + x + 1
.
(v) y = sin(cos(tan x)).

(vi) y = esec 3x .

## (iii) y = (2x + 1)5 (x3 − x + 1)4 . asy (vii) y =

x−2
2x + 1
!9
.

En
Solution. (i) Given y = (x3 − 1)100

gin
Let u = x3 − 1. Then y = u100 .

Now
dy dy du
= × .
dx du dx ee
= 100u99 × 3x2 = 300x2 (x3 − 1)99 . rin
(ii) Given y = 1 g.n
et

3
x2 +x+1
−1
Let u = x2 + x + 1. Then y = u 3 .

dy dy du
Now = × .
dx du dx
−1 −1 −1
= u 3 × (2x + 1)
3
−1 −4 −1 −(2x + 1)
= u 3 × (2x + 1) = 4 × (2x + 1) = 4
.
3 3u 3 3(x2 + x + 1) 3

## (iii) Given y = (2x + 1)5 (x3 − x + 1)4

38 Engineering Mathematics - I

−1
Let u = x2 + x + 1. Then y = u 3 .

dy d  
Now = (2x + 1)5 (x3 − x + 1)4
dx dx
d  3  d  
= (2x + 1)5 (x − x + 1)4 + (x3 − x + 1)4 (2x + 1)5
dx dx
   
= (2x + 1) 4(x − x + 1) (3x − 1) + (x − x + 1)4 5(2x + 1)4 × 2
5 3 3 2 3

## ww = 2(2x + 1)4 (x3 − x + 1)3 {12x3 − 4x + 6x2 − 2 + 5x3 − 5x + 5)}

w.E
(iv) Given y = esin x
= 2(2x + 1)4 (x3 − x + 1)3 {17x3 + 6x2 − 9x + 3)}.

dy
dx asy
= esin x cos x.
(v) Given y = sin (cos(tan x)).

En
dy
dx gin
= cos (cos(tan x)) (− sin(tan x)) sec2 x

## (vi) Given y = esec 3x .

ee
= − cos (cos(tan x)) sin(tan x) sec2 x.

rin
dy
= esec 3x × sec 3x × tan 3x × 3 = 3 sec 3x tan 3xesec 3x .
g.n
dx

(vii) Given y =
x−2
!9
.
et
2x + 1

!8 !
dy x−2 (2x + 1) × 1 − (x − 2) × 2
=9
dx 2x + 1 (2x + 1)2
!8
(x − 2)8
!
x−2 2x + 1 − 2x + 4
=9 = 45 .
2x + 1 (2x + 1)2 (2x + 1)10

Differential calculus 39

## 1.5 Implicit differentiation, logarithmic differentiation and

Inverse trigonometric function.

## Whenever an equation containing two variables x and y, it is not always

dy
possible to express y interns of x and it is not easy to find directly. In such
dx
case, we differentiate both sides with respect to x and then solve the resultant
dy
equation for .
✎ ☞ dx
Worked Examples
✍ ✌

## wwExample 1.40. If x2 + y2 = 25, find

dy
dx
. Find also the equation of the tangent to the

w.E
circle at the point (3, 4).
Solution. Given x2 + y2 = 25.

asy
Differentiating both sides w.r.to x we get
dy

En
2x + 2y =0
dx
dy
x+y =0

y
dx
dy
= −x ⇒ gin
dy −x
= .

ee
dx dx y
dy −3
At (3, 4)
dx
=
4
.
−3 rin
Slope of the tangent at (3, 4) = m =
Equation of the tangent is
4
.

g.n
y−4=
−3
4
(x − 3)

4y − 16 = −3x + 9
et
3x + 4y = 16 + 9

3x + 4y = 25.

dy
Example 1.41. If x3 +y3 = 6xy, find . Find the tangent to the Folium of Descartes
dx
x3 + y3 = 6xy at the point (3, 3). At what point in the first quadrant is the tangent

40 Engineering Mathematics - I

line horizontal.
Solution. Given x3 + y3 = 6xy.
Differentiating both sides w.r.to x we get
" #
2 2 dy dy
3x + 3y =6 x +y×1
dx dx
" #
2 2 dy dy dy
x +y = 2 x + y = 2x + 2y
dx dx dx
dy dy
y2 − 2x = 2y − x2
dx dx

ww dy 2
dx
(y − 2x) = 2y − x2
dy 2y − x2

w.E At(3, 3)
=
dx y2 − 2x
dy 2 × 3 − 32
=
.

= −1.

asy
dx 32 − 2 × 3

## Slope of the tangent at (3, 3) = m = −1 .

En
The equation of the tangent is y − 3 = −1(x − 3) = −x + 3 ⇒ x + y = 6.
dy

2y − x
i.e., 2
2
=0gin
The points at which the tangent line is horizontal are given by
dx
= 0.

y − 2x
i.e., 2y − x2 = 0
i.e., y = .
x2
2
ee rin
Substituting y =
x2
2
g.n
in the equation of the curve we obtain

3
x +

x3 +
x2
2
x6
!3

!
= 6x ×

= 3x3
x2
2 et
8
x6
− 2x3 = 0
8
3
!
3 x
x −2 =0
8
 
x3 x3 − 16 = 0

Differential calculus 41

x3 = 0 or x3 − 16 = 0

x3 = 0 or x3 = 16

But x , 0
4
∴ x3 = 16 = 24 ⇒ x = 2 3 .
4  4 2 8 8 5
when x = 2 3 , y = 12 2 3 = 12 2 3 = 2 3 −1 = 2 3 .
4 5
∴ In the first quadrant, the tangent line is horizontal at (2 3 , 2 3 ).

dy

## wwExample 1.42. Find

dx
if sin(x + y) = y2 cos x.
Solution. Given sin(x + y) = y2 cos x.

## w.E Differentiating both sides w.r.to x we get

cos(x + y) 1 +
dy
!
= y2 (− sin x) + cos x × 2y
dy

asy dx
cos(x + y) + cos(x + y)
dy
= −y2 sin x + 2y cos x
dy
dx

dy
En
cos(x + y) − 2y cos x
dx
dy 2
= −y sin x − cos(x + y)
dx

gin
dx dx
dy  
(cos(x + y) − 2y cos x) = − y2 sin x + cos(x + y)
dx

ee
 
2
dy − y sin x + cos(x + y)
=
dx (cos(x + y) − 2y cos x)
y2 sin x + cos(x + y)
rin
g.n
= .
2y cos x − cos(x + y)

et
dy
Example 1.43. If sin y = x sin(a + y) find .
dx
Solution. Given sin y = x sin(a + y)
sin y
∴x=
sin(a + y)
Differentiating with respect to y we get

## dx sin(a + y) cos y − sin y cos(a + y) sin(a + y − y) sin(a)

= 2
= 2
=
dy sin (a + y) sin (a + y) sin2 (a + y)
dy sin2 (a + y)
∴ = .
dx sin(a)

42 Engineering Mathematics - I

p √ dy 1
Example 1.44. If x 1 + y + y 1 + x = 0, prove that =− .
p √ p dx √ (1 + x)2
Solution. Given x 1 + y + y 1 + x = 0 ⇒ x 1 + y = −y 1 + x
squaring both sides we get

x2 (1 + y) = y2 (1 + x)

x2 + x2 y = y2 + y2 x

x2 + x2 y − y2 − y2 x = 0

x2 − y2 + x2 y − y2 x = 0

ww (x − y)(x + y) + xy(x − y) = 0

## w.E (x − y)(x + y + xy) = 0

∴ x − y = 0 or x + y + xy = 0

asy
i.e.,x = y or x + y + xy = 0

But x , y.
∴ x + y + xy = 0 En (1)

gin
Differentiating both sides w.r.to x we get

ee
!
dy dy
1+ + x +y =0
dx dx
1+
dy
dx
dy
+x +y=0
dx rin
dy
dx
(1 + x) = −y − 1
g.n
dy −(y + 1)
dx
=
(1 + x)
.

## But form (1) we have y(1 + x) = −x ⇒ y =

−x
.
et
x
1+x
dy 1 − 1+x 1+x−x 1
∴ =− =− 2
=− .
dx 1+x (1 + x) (1 + x)2
r q √ dy
Example 1.45. If y = x + x + x + · · · ∞, find .
r dx
q √
Solution. Given y = x + x + x + · · · ∞.

Differential calculus 43

y= x+y
y2 = x + y.
Differentiating w.r.to x we get
dy dy
2y =1+
dx dx
dy
(2y − 1) = 1
dx
dy 1
= .
dx (2y − 1)
r q √ dy

## wwExample 1.46. If y = sin x + sin x + sin x + · · · ∞, find

r q √
Solution. Given y = sin x + sin x + sin x + · · · ∞.
dx
.

w.E p
y = sin x + y.
Squaring on both sides we get
y2 = sin x + y.
asy
En
Differentiating w.r.to x we get
dy dy
2y = cos x +
dx dx

dy
dy dy
2y −
dx dx
= cos x
gin
dx
dy
(2y − 1) = cos x

=
cos x
dx (2y − 1)
. ee rin
Example 1.47. Find y′′ if x4 + y4 = 16.
Solution. Given x4 + y4 = 16 g.n
Differentiating w.r.to x we get

4x3 + 4y3
dy
=0
et
dx
dy
x3 + y3 =0
dx
3 dy
y = −x3
dx
dy x3
=− .
dx y3

44 Engineering Mathematics - I

## Again differentiating w.r.to x

dy
d2 y y3 × 3x2 − x3 × 3y2
=− dx
dx2 y6
! !
2 2 dy 2 2 dy
−3x y y − x −3x y y − x
dx dx
= =
y6 y6
−x3
!!
2
−3x y − x 3  
y −3x2 y4 + x4 −3x2 × 16 −48x2
= = = = .
y4 y7 y7 y7

## wwDerivative of Inverse Trigonometric functions

w.E 1. Find
dy
dx
if y = sin−1 x.
Solution. Given y = sin−1 x.
sin y = x.
asy
Differentiating w.r.to x
cos y
dy
dx
=1
En
gin
dy 1 1 1 1
= = p = q = √ .
dx cos y cos2 y 2 1 − x 2
1 − sin y

dy
2. If y = cos−1 x, find
dx
.
Solution. Given y = cos−1 x.
ee rin
cos y = x.
Differentiating w.r.to x g.n
− sin y
dy
=
dx sin y
dy
dx
−1
=1

= q
−1
2
= p
1
−1
− cos 2y
= √
1
−1
− x 2
.
et
sin y

dy
3. If y = tan−1 x, find
.
dx
Solution. Given y = tan−1 x.
tan y = x.
Differentiating w.r.to x

Differential calculus 45

dy
sec2 y =1
dx
dy 1 1 1
= = = .
dx sec y 1 + tan y 1 + x2
2 2

dy
4. If y = cot−1 x, find
.
dx
Solution. Given y = cot−1 x.
cot y = x.
Differentiating w.r.to x
dy
−cosec2 y

ww
=1
dx
dy −1 −1 −1
= = = .
dx cosec y 1 + cot y 1 + x2
2 2

w.E dy
5. If y = sec−1 x, find
dx
.
Solution. Given y = sec−1 x.
sec y = x.
asy
sec y tan y
dy
En
Differentiating w.r.to x
=1
dy
=
dx
1
gin
= p
1
= p
1
= √
1
dx sec y tan y x tan2 y x sec2 y − 1 x x2 − 1
.

dy
6. If y = cosec−1 x, find
dx
.
Solution. Given y = cosec−1 x.
ee rin
cosecy = x.
g.n
Differentiating w.r.to x
−cosecy cot y
dy
=
−1
dy
dx
=1

= p
−1
= p
−1
= √
−1
dx cosecy cot y x cot y x cosec y − 1 x x2 − 1
2 2
.
et
✎ ☞
Worked Examples
✍ ✌
1 √ 
Example 1.48. Find the derivatives of (i) −1 (ii) x tan−1 x.
sin x
1 
−1 −1

Solution. (i) Let y = = sin x .
sin−1 x

46 Engineering Mathematics - I

dy  −2 1 1
= (−1) sin−1 x √ = 2 √ .
dx 1 − x2 sin−1 x

1 − x2
√ 
(ii) Let y = x tan−1 x .

dy 1 −1 √ x .1 = x −1 √ x .
   
1
= (x) √ 2 × 2√ x
+ tan 2(1+x) + tan
dx 1 + ( x)
√ 
Example 1.49. Differentiate w.r.to x (i) sin−1 x (ii) (1 + x2 ) tan−1 x
 cos x 
(iii) sec−1 (x4 ) (iv) tan−1 .
√1 + sin x
Solution. (i) Let y = sin−1 ( x).
dy 1 1 1 1

ww dx
= q
1− x
 √ 2 × 2 √ x = 2 √ x √1 − x = 2 √ x(1 − x) .

## (ii) Let (1 + x2 ) tan−1 x.

w.E dy
dx
= (1 + x2 ) ×
1
1 + x2
+ tan−1 x × 2x = 1 + 2x tan−1 x.

1 asy
(iii) Let sec−1 (x4 ).
dy
× 4x3 = √
4
.

En
= q
dx 4 4
2 x x 8−1
x x −1
 cos x 
(iv) Let y = tan−1
1 + singin
x 
.

ee

 sin π2 − x 
 
−1 
= tan    .

rin

π
1 + cos 2 − x
  
 sin 2 π4 − 2x 

= tan−1  
π
1 + cos 2 4 − 2 x 
  .
g.n
et
   
 2 sin π4 − 2x cos π4 − 2x 

= tan−1     .
2 π x
2 cos 4 − 2

  π x 
= tan−1 tan − .
π x 4 2
y= −
4 2
dy −1
= .
dx 2
!
−1 2x dy
Example 1.50. If y = tan 2
find .
1−x dx

Differential calculus 47

!
−1 2x
Solution. Given y = tan .
1 − x2
Let x = tan θ !
−1 2 tan θ
∴y = tan = tan−1 (tan 2θ) = 2θ
1 − tan2 θ
y = 2 tan−1 x.
dy 2
= .
dx 1 + x2
  dy
Example 1.51. If sin−1 3x − 4x3 find .
  dx
−1 3
Solution. Let y = sin 3x − 4x .

ww Let x = sin θ.
y = sin−1 (3 sin θ − 4 sin3 θ) = sin−1 (sin 3θ) = 3θ = 3 sin−1 x.

w.E dy
dx
= √
3
1 − x2
.

## Example 1.52. If y = tan−1

asy
 a−x 

 a − x  1 + ax
find
dy
dx
.

Solution. y = tan−1
1 + ax
En
Let a = tan α, x = tan θ.
∴ y = tan−1
gin
 tan α − tan θ 
1 + tan α tan θ
= tan−1 (tan(α − θ)) = α − θ = α − tan−1 (x).

ee
dy −1
= .
dx 1 + x2

Logarithmic Differentiation
dy rin
Result. If y = loge x, find
Solution. Given y = loge x
dx
.
g.n
∴ x = ey .
Differentiating w.r.to y
dx
= ey = x
et
dy
dy 1
= .
dx x
dy
Note. (i) If y = b x find .
dx
Solution. Given y = b = e x log b
x

Differentiating w.r.to x

48 Engineering Mathematics - I

dy
= e x log b log b = b x log b.
dx
dy
(ii) If y = logb x find .
dx
Solution. Given y = logb x
∴ by = x.
Differentiating w.r.to x
dy
by log b = 1.
dx
dy
= y1 = 1 .
dx b log b x log b ✎ ☞

ww Worked Examples
✍ ✌

w.E
Example 1.53.! Differntiate (i) log(x3 + 1) (ii) log(sin x) (iii) log(2 + sin x)
x+1 p

asy
(iv) log √ (v) log |x| (vi) log(x).
x+2

En
dy
= 3
1
dx x + 1
3x2 = 3
gin
3x2
x +1
.

## (ii) Let y = log(sin x).

dy
=
1
dx sin x
ee
cos x = cot x.
rin
(iii) Let y = log10 (2 + sin x).
dy 1 cos x g.n
=
dx (2 + sin x) log 10

## (iv) Let y = log √

x+1
x+2
!
.
cos x =

√ 
(2 + sin x) log 10
.

et
= log (x + 1) − log x + 2 .

## = log (x + 1) − log (x + 2)1/2 .

1
= log (x + 1) −
log (x + 2) .
2
dy 1 1
= − .
dx (x + 1) 2(x + 2)

Differential calculus 49

log x , if x > 0

(v) Let y = log |x| =  .

log(−x) , if x < 0

 
1 1
, if x > 0  x , if x > 0
 
dy 
 

x
 
= = .
dx 

 1 (−1) , if x < 0 

  1 , if x < 0

−x x
dy 1
∴ = for allx , 0.
dx x
(vi) Let y = log x = log x 1/2 .
p 

ww dy 1
dx 2
= log x −1/2 =
 1
p
1
x 2x log x
.

w.E
Example 1.54. If y =
3
3 √
x 4 x2 + 1
(3x
√ + 2) 5
, find
dy
dx
.

Solution. Given y =
asy
x 4 x2 + 1
(3x + 2)5
Taking log on both sides we get
 
En
p
log y = log x3/4 + log x2 + 1 − log(3x + 2)5

=
3
4
1
gin
log x + log(x2 + 1) − 5 log(3x + 2).
2

1 dy 3 1 1
= × + × 2
y dx 4 x 2 x + 1
1 ee
Differentiating w.r.to x we get
2x − 5
1
3x + 2√
×3=
3
+ 2
x

15
4x x + 1 3x + 2
rin
g.n
" # 3 " #
dy 3 x 15 2
x x +1 3
4 x 15
∴ =y + 2 − = + − .
dx 4x x + 1 3x + 2 (3x + 2)5 4x x2 + 1 3x + 2

Example 1.55. If y = x
Solution. Given y = x x .

x
find
dy
dx
.
et
log y = x log x.
Differentiating w.r.t x
1 dy √ 1 1
= x + log x √
y dx x 2 x
1 1
= √ + √ log x
x 2 x

50 Engineering Mathematics - I

!
1 1
= √ 1 + log x
x 2
1 
= √ 2 + log x
2 x

dy 1 x x
=y √ = √ .
dx 2 x 2 + log x 2 x 2 + log x
d
Example 1.56. Find (sin x)cos x .

[A.U. Jan. 2015]
dx
Solution. Let y = (sin x)cos x .

## ww Taking logarithms on both sides we get

log y = log (sin x)cos x = cos x log (sin x).

## w.E Differentiating w.r.to x.

1 dy 1

asy
= cos x cos x + log(sin x)(− sin x)
y dx sin x
cos2 x
= − sin x log(sin x)
dy
=y
sin
" x2
cos x
En #
− sin x log(sin x) = (sin x)
" 2
cos x cos x
#
− sin x log(sin x) .
dx sin x
gin dy
sin x

## Example 1.57. If y = (sin x) x , find

Solution. Let y = (sin x) x .
Taking log both sides we get
ee dx
.

rin
log y = log (sin x) x = x log sin x.
Differentiating w.r.t. x. g.n
1 dy
y dx
=x
1
sin x
cos x + log sin x.1 et
= x cot x + log sin x.
dy
= y x cot x + log sin x = (sin x) x x cot x + log sin x .
   
dx

x··· dy
xx
Example 1.58. If y = x , find .
dx
···∞
xx
Solution. Let y = x x ⇒ y = xy .

Differential calculus 51

## Taking log both sides we get

log y = log xy = y log x.
Differentiating w.r.t. x.
1 dy 1 dy
= y + log x .
y dx x dx
1 dy dy y
− log x = .
y dx dx
! x
dy 1 y
− log x = .
dx y ! x
dy 1 − y log x y
= .

ww dx
dy
=
y
y2

dx x(1 − y log x)
x
.

w.E
Hyperbolic functions

e x − e−x
We define sinh x =
2
asy
e x + e−x
cosh x =
2
sinh x En
gin
tanh x =
cosh x
1
cosechx =

sechx =

coth x =
sinh x
1
cosh x
cosh x
ee rin
Hyperbolic identities
sinh x
g.n
1. sinh(−x) = − sinh x. et
2. cosh(−x) = cosh x.

3. cosh2 x − sinh2 x = 1.

4. 1 − tanh2 x = sech2 x.

## 5. sinh(x + y) = sinh x cosh y + cosh x sinh y.

52 Engineering Mathematics - I

## Derivatives of hyperbolic functions.

d
1. Prove that (sinh x) = cosh x.
dx
d e x − e−x e x + e−x
! !
d 1 x −x
Proof. (sinh x) = = (e − e (−1)) = = cosh x.
dx dx 2 2 2
In the same way we can establish the following.
d
2. (cosh x) = sinh x.
dx

ww 3.
d
dx
(tanh x) = sech2 x.

w.E 4.
d
dx
d
(cosechx) = −cosechx coth x.

asy
5. (sechx) = sechx tanh x.
dx
d
6. (coth x) = −cosech2 x.
dx
Inverse hyperbolic functions. En
−1
 p
2

1. Prove that sinh x = log x + x + 1 . gin
Proof. Let y = sinh−1 x.
∴ x = sinh y =
i.e., ey − e−y = 2x.
2
ee
ey − e−y
.
rin
1
ey − y − 2x = 0.
e g.n
e2y − 2xey − 1 = 0.
ey =

2
=
in ey .√Solving for ey we get
2x ± 4x2 + 4 x ± x2 + 1
1
p
= (x ± x2 + 1).
et
We have ey > 0 always.

But x − x2 − 1 < 0.

∴ ey = x − x2 + 1 is not possible.
√ √
∴ ey = x + x2 + 1 y = log(x + x2 + 1).
In a similar way we can prove the following.

Differential calculus 53

 p 
2. cosh−1 x) = log x + x2 − 1 .
!
−1 1 1+x
3. tanh x) = log .
2 1−x
Differentiation of Inverse hyperbolic functions.
d 1
1. Prove that (sinh−1 x) = √ .
dx x2 + 1
Proof. y = sinh−1 x.
∴ sinh y = x.

## ww Differentiating w.r.t. x we get

cosh y
dy
= 1.

w.E dy
=
dx

dx cosh y
1
= q
1
cosh2 y
= q
1
1 + sinh2 y
= √
1
1 + x2
.

d 1 asy
In a similar way we can prove the following.

2.
dx
(cosh−1 x) = √
x2 − 1
.

En
3.
d
dx
(tanh−1 x) =
1
1 − x2
.
gin
4.

5.
d
dx

d
(cosech−1 x) = √

(sech−1 x) = √
−1
|x| 1 + x2
−1
.
.
ee rin
dx
d
(coth−1 x) =
x 1 − x2
1 g.n
6.
dx
Exercise 1 (E)
1 − x2
.

et
1. Find the derivatives of the following functions.

## (i) x2 − 4xy + y2 = 4 (iv) y cos x = x2 + y2

(ii) x4 + x2 y2 + y3 = 5 (v) x + y = x4 + y4
x
x2
(iii) x+y = y2 + 1 (vi) e y = x − y

54 Engineering Mathematics - I

## (ix) cos(xy) = 1 + sin y

(vii) tan−1 (x2 y) = x + xy2

## (viii) sin(xy) = cos(x + y) (x) x sin y + y sin x = 1

dy
2. If (sin x)cos y = (sin y)cos x , find .
dx

sin x··· dy
3. If y = (sin x)sin x , find .
dx

dy
dx
.

## w.E 5. Find the derivatives of the following using logarithmic differentiation.

(iv) xsin x
(i) (x2 + 2)2 (x4 + 4)4

(ii)
q
(x−1) asy (v) (cos x) x

En
(x4 +1)
1
(iii) x x (vi) (tan x) x

gin
6. Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve y sin 2x = x cos 2y at ( π2 , π4 ).

## point (2, 1).

ee
7. Find the equation of the tangent line to the hyperbola x2 − xy − y2 = 1 at the

rin
8. Find the equation to the tangent line to the Cardioid x2 + y2 = (2x2 + 2y2 − x)2
  g.n
at 0, 21 .

## 9. Find the derivative of the following functions.

et
√ (v) cosh−1 ( x).
(i) tanh x.   √
(vi) x sinh−1 x
3 − 9 + x2 .
(ii) sinh(log(x)).

## (iii) ecosh 3x . (vii) coth−1 (sec x).

(iv) x coth 1 + x2 . (viii) tanh−1 (sin x).

Differential calculus 55

10. At what point of the curve y = cosh x does the tangent have slope 1.

## Definition. Let c be a number in the domain D of a function f . Then f (c) is the

absolute maximum value of f on D if f (c) ≥ f (x) for all x in D. f (c) is the absolute
minimum value of f on D if f (c) ≤ x for all x in D.
Maximum and minimum values of f are called extreme values of f .
Definition. The number f (c) is a local maximum value of f if f (c) ≥ f (x) when x
is near c. f (c) is the local minimum value of f if f (c) ≤ f (x) when x is near c.

## (i) If f ′ (x) > 0, on an interval, then f is increasing on that interval.

w.E
(ii) If f ′ (x) < 0, on an interval, then f is decreasing on that interval.

asy
Fermat’s theorem. If f has a local maximum or minimum at c, and f ′ (c) exits,
then f ′ (c) = 0.

En
Critical number. A critical number of a function f is a number c in the domain

gin
of f such that either f ′ (c) = 0 or f ′ (c) does not exist.
Result. If f has a local maximum or minimum at c, then c is a Critical number
of f .

## First derivative test.

ee rin
Suppose that c is a critical number of a continuous
function f .
g.n
et
(i) If f ′ changes from positive to negative at c, then f has a local maximum at c.

## (ii) If f ′ changes from negative to positive at c, then f has a local minimum at c.

(iii) If f ′ is positive to the left and right of c or negative to the left and right of c,
then f has no local maximum or minimum at c.

## (i) If f ′ (c) = 0 and f ′′ (c) > 0, then f has a local minimum at c.

56 Engineering Mathematics - I

## (ii) If f ′ (c) = 0 and f ′′ (c) < 0, then f has a local maximum at c.

Concavity. If the graph of f lies above all of its tangents on an interval I, then it
is called concave upward on I. If the graph of f lies below all of its tangents on I,
it is called concave downward on I.
Concavity test

(i) If f ′′ (x) > 0, for all x in I, then the graph of f is concave upward on I.

ww(ii) If f ′′ (x) < 0, for all x in I, then the graph of f is concave downward on I.

w.E
Point of inflexion. A point P on a curve y = f (x) is called a point of inflexion

asy
if f is continuous there and the curve changes from concave upward to concave
downward or from concave downward to concave upward at P.

En
Note. Points of inflection occurs at points where f ′′ (x) = 0.
✎ ☞

## gin Worked Examples

✍ ✌

increasing or decreasing.
downwards.
ee
Example 1.59. Find the intervals on which the function f (x) = sin x + cos x is

rin
Also find the curve is concave upwards or concave
[A.U.Jan.2015]
Solution. f (x) = sin x + cos x.
g.n
f ′ (x) = cos x − sin x.
f ′′ (x) = − sin x − cos x.
At critical points f ′ (x) = 0
et
i.e., cos x − sin x = 0.
i.e., sin x = cos x.
i.e., tan x = 1.
π 5π
∴x= , .
4 4
Let us evaluate the intervals at which f decrease or increases.

Differential calculus 57

Interval f ′ (x) f
π π
0<x< + increases in (0, )
4 4
π 5π π 5π
<x< - decreases in ( , )
4 4 4 4
5π 5π
< x < 2π + increases in ( , 2π)
4 4
π
Since f ′ changes from positive to negative at x = ,
4
π
f has a maximum at x = .
4
π π π 1 1 √
Maximum value of f = f ( ) = sin + cos = √ + √ = 2.
4 4 4

ww
2 2
′ 5π
Also f changes from negative to positive at x = .
4
5π 5π 5π 1 1 √

## w.E Minimum value of f = f ( ) = sin

4 4
+ cos
4
= − √ − √ = − 2.
2 2
Let us evaluate the intervals at which the curve is concave upwards or
concave downwards.

asy
Making f ′′ = 0 we get

En
− sin x − cos x = 0.
i.e., sin x + cos x = 0.

gin
π !
 3π
cos x = − sin x = cos +x (or) cos x = cos −x
 π2  2
Taking cos x = cos
π
2
i.e., = 0 which is absurd.
2

ee !
π
+ x implies x = + x
2

3π rin
Taking cos x = cos

i.e., 2x =

⇒x=
2
− x implies x =

2
−x
g.n
2 4
The interval to be considered are 0,

4
!
,

4
, 2π
!
et
Interval f ′ (x) f

0<x< - concave downwards
4

< x < 2π + concave upwards
4
3π 3π
Since f ′′ changes sign from negative to positive at x = ,x= is a
4 4
point of inflexion.

58 Engineering Mathematics - I

Example 1.60. Find the intervals on which the function f (x) = x4 − 2x2 + 3 is
increasing or decreasing. Also find the local maximum and minimum values of f
by using first derivative test. [A.U.Nov.2016]
Solution. f (x) = x4 − 2x2 + 3.
f ′ (x) = 4x3 − 4x = 4x(x2 − 1) = 4x(x − 1)(x + 1).
Critical numbers occur at points where f ′ (x) = 0
i.e., 4x(x − 1)(x + 1) = 0.
x = −1, x = 0, x = 1.

## ww The critical numbers are x = −1, x = 0, x = 1.

Let us evaluate the intervals at which f decreases or increases.

w.E Interval 4x
-
x−1
-
x+1
-
f ′ (x)
-
f
decreases in (−∞, −1)

asy
x < −1
−1 < x < 0 - - + + increases in (−1, 0)

En
0<x<1 + - + - decreases in (0, 1)
x>1 + + + + increases in (1, ∞)

gin
Since f ′ changes from negative to positive at x = −1,

ee
f has a local minimum at x = −1.
Minimum value of f = f (−1) = 1 − 2 + 3 = 1.
Also f ′ changes from positive to negative at x = 0.
rin
∴ f has a maximum at x = 0.
Maximum value of f = f (0) = 3. g.n
Again f ′ changes from negative to positive at x = 1.
∴ f has a local minimum at x = 1.
et
Minimum value of f = 1 − 2 + 3 = 2.

Example 1.61. Find the intervals on which the function f (x) = 3x4 − 4x3 − 12x2 + 5
is increasing and decreasing. Also find the local maximum and minimum values
of f by using first derivative test. [A.U.Nov.2016]
Solution. f (x) = 3x4 − 4x3 − 12x2 + 5.

Differential calculus 59

## f ′ (x) = 12x3 − 12x2 − 24x = 12x(x2 − x − 2) = 12x(x − 2)(x + 1).

Critical numbers occur at points where f ′ (x) = 0
i.e., 12x(x − 2)(x + 1) = 0.
x = −1, x = 0, x = 2.
The critical numbers are x = −1, x = 0, x = 2.
Let us evaluate the intervals at which f decreases or increases.

## Interval 12x x−2 x+1 f ′ (x) f

- - - - decreases in (−∞, −1)

ww
x < −1
−1 < x < 0 - - + + increases in (−1, 0)
0<x<2 + - + - decreases in (0, 2)

## Since f ′ changes from negative to positive at x = −1,

asy
f has a local minimum at x = −1.

En
Minimum value of f = f (−1) = 3 + 4 − 12 + 5 = 20.
Also f ′ changes from positive to negative at x = 0.

gin
∴ f has a local maximum at x = 0.

ee
Maximum value of f = f (0) = 5.
Again f ′ changes from negative to positive at x = 2.
∴ f has a minimum at x = 2.
rin
g.n
Minimum value of f = 3 × 16 − 4 × 8 − 12 × 4 + 5 = 48 − 32 − 48 + 5 = −27.

Example 1.62. Find the local maximum and minimum values of the function
f (x) = x + 2 sin x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.
Solution. f (x) = x + 2 sin x.
et
f ′ (x) = 1 + 2 cos x.
f ′′ (x) = −2 sin x.
Local maximum and minimum occur at points where f ′ (x) = 0.
i.e., 1 + 2 cos x = 0.
2 cos x = −1.

60 Engineering Mathematics - I

−1
cos x = 2 .
cos x is negative in the II and III quadrants.
2π 4π
x= 3 and x = 3 .
First derivative test
2π 2π 4π 4π
The intervals to be considered are 0 < x < , <x< , < x < 2π.
3 3 3 3
Let us evaluate the intervals at which f decreases and increases.

## Interval f ′ (x) = 1 + 2 cos x f

ww
0<x< + increasing
3
2π 4π
<x< - decreasing
3 3

w.E

< x < 2π + increasing
3

Since f ′ changes from positive to negative at 3 ,

∴ Maximum value of f =
asy
f has a local maximum at x =

3 .
+ 2 sin 2π
3 =

+2

3
= 2π
3 +

3.

En 3
Since f ′ changes from negative to positive at x =
3 2

3 ,
f has a minimum at x =
∴ Minimum value of f = gin 4π
3 .

3 + 2 sin 4π
3 =

+2
 √ 
− 3
= 4π

3.

ee
3 2 3
Second derivative test

rin
√ √
2π 3
When x = 3 , f ′′ (x) = −2 sin 2π
3 = −2 2 = − 3 < 0.

g.n

∴ f has a maximum at x = 3 .

Maximum value of f = 3 + 3.

et
√ √
4π − 3
When x = f ′′ (x) = −2 sin 4π
3 , 3 = −2 2 = 3 > 0.

∴ f has a minimum at x = .
3
4π √
∴ Minimum value of f = − 3.
3
Example 1.63. Find the local maxima and minima and the points of inflexion for
the function f (x) = x4 − 4x3 .
Solution. f (x) = x4 − 4x3 .
f ′ (x) = 4x3 − 12x2 .

Differential calculus 61

## f ′′ (x) = 12x2 − 24x.

Local maximum and minimum occur at points where f ′ (x) = 0
i.e., 4x3 − 12x2 = 0.
4x2 (x − 3) = 0.
x = 0, x = 3.
When x = 0, f ′′ (x) = 0.
∴ f (x) does not have either mxaimum or minimum.
When x = 3, f ′′ (x) = 12 × 9 − 24 × 3 = 108 − 72 = 36 > 0

## ww ∴ f has a local minimum at x = 3.

Minimum value of f = 81 − 4 × 27 = 81 − 108 = −27.

## w.E At the points of inflexion, f ′′ (x) = 0

12x2 − 24x = 0 ⇒ 12x(x − 2) = 0 ⇒ x = 0, x = 2.

asy
When x = 0, f (0) = 0.
∴ (0, 0) is a point of inflexion.

En
When x = 2, f (2) = 24 − 4 × 23 = 16 − 32 = −16.

gin
Another point of inflexion is (2, −16).

1
ee
Example 1.64. Find the maxima and minima of the function f (x) = x2/3 (6 − x)1/3 .
Solution. f (x) = x2/3 (6 − x)1/3 .
2 rin
f ′ (x) = x2/3 (6 − x)−2/3 (−1) + (6 − x)1/3 x−1/3 .

=
1
"
3
−x 2/3
+
2(6 − x) 1/3
#
.
3
g.n
=
3 (6 − x)2/3
"
1 −x + 2(6 − x)
3 x1/3 (6 − x)2/3
"
#

#
x1/3
et
1 −x + 12 − 2x
=
3 x1/3 (6 − x)2/3
" # " #
1 12 − 3x 4−x
= = 1/3 .
3 x1/3 (6 − x)2/3 x (6 − x)2/3
Now, f ′ (x) = 0 when x = 4 and f ′ (x) does not exist when x = 0 and x = 6.
∴ The critical numbers are 0, 4, 6.

62 Engineering Mathematics - I

## Interval 4−x x1/3 (6 − x)2/3 f ′ (x) f

−∞ < x < 0 + - + - decreases on (−∞, 0)
0<x<4 + + + + increases on (0, 4)
4<x<6 - + + - decreases on (4, 6)
x>6 - + + - decreases on (6, ∞)

## Since f ′ changes from negative to positive at x = 0, f has a local minimum at x = 0.

∴ Minimum value of f = f (0) = 0.

## ww Also f ′ changes from positive to negative at x = 4.

∴ f has a local maximum at x = 0.

w.E
∴ Maximum value of f = f (4) = 42/3 (6 − 4)1/3 = (22 )2/3 (21/3 ) = 24/3 21/3 = 25/3 .
Again f ′ does not changes sign at x = 6.

asy
∴ f has no maximum or minimum at x = 6.

En
Example 1.65. Using first derivative test, examine for maximum and minimum
of the function f (x) = x3 − 3x + 3, x ∈ R.
Solution. f (x) = x3 − 3x + 3.
gin
ee
f ′ (x) = 3x2 − 3 = 3(x2 − 1) = 3(x − 1)(x + 1).
Critical numbers occur at points where f ′ (x) = 0.
i.e., 3(x − 1)(x + 1) = 0. rin
i.e., x = −1, x = 1.
g.n
et
The critical numbers are x = −1, 1.
Let us evaluate the intervals at which f decreases or increases.

## Interval x−1 x+1 f ′ (x) f

x < −1 - - + increases in (−∞, −1)
−1 < x < 1 - + - decreases in (−1, 1)
x>1 + + - increases in (1, ∞)

## Since f ′ changes from positive to negative at x = −1.

f has a local maximum at x = −1.

Differential calculus 63

## ∴ Maximum value of f = f (−1) = (−1)3 − 3(−1) + 3 = −1 + 3 + 3 = 5.

Also f ′ changes from negative to positive at x = 1.
∴ f has a local minimum at x = 1.
∴ Minimum value of f = f (1) = 13 − 1 × 3 + 3 = 1 − 3 + 3 = 1.

Example 1.66. Using first derivative test examine the maximum and minimum
of f (x) = sin2 x, 0 < x < π.
Solution. f (x) = sin2 x.
f ′ (x) = 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x.

## w.E i.e., sin 2x = 0.

∴ 2x = 0, or 2x = π.
∴ x = 0, or x = π2 .

asy
The critical numbers are x = 0, x = π2 .

En
Let us evaluate the intervals at which f decreases or increases.

f ′ (x)

gin
Interval sin 2x f
π
0<x< 2 + + increases in (0, π2 )

ee
π
x> 2 - - decreases in ( π2 , π)

## Since f ′ changes from positive to negative at x = π2 .

∴ f has a maximum at x = π2 .
rin
g.n
 
∴ Maximum value of f = f ( π2 ) = sin2 π2 = 1.

## Example 1.67. Find

f (x) = 2x3 − 3x2 − 36x + 10.
the

## Solution. f (x) = 2x3 − 3x2 − 36x + 10.

maximum and minimum of
et
the function

## f ′ (x) = 6x2 − 6x − 36.

f ′′ (x) = 12x − 6.
Critical pints occur at f ′ (x) = 0.
i.e., 6x2 − 6x − 36 = 0.
∴ x2 − x − 6 = 0.

64 Engineering Mathematics - I

∴ (x − 3)(x + 2) = 0.
∴ x = −2, x = 3.
The critical points are at x = −2, x = 3.
At x = −2, f ′′ (x) = 12 × (−2) − 6 = −24 − 6 = −30 = −ve
∴ f is maximum at x = −2.
Maximum value of
f = 2(−2)3 − 3(−2)2 − 36(−2) + 10 = −16 − 12 + 72 + 10 = 54.
At x = 3, f ′′ (x) = 12 × 3 − 6 = 36 − 6 = 30 = +ve.

ww ∴ f has minimum at x = 3.
∴ Minimum value of

## w.E f = f (3) = 2 × 33 − 3 × 32 − 36 × 3 + 10 = 54 − 27 − 108 + 10 = −71.

asy
Example 1.68. Find the maxima and minima of the function f (x) = sin x(1 + cos x),
0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.

En
Solution. Given f (x) = sin x(1 + cos x)
f ′ (x) = sin x(0−sin x)+(1+cos x)(cos x) = − sin2 x+cos x+cos2 x = cos x+cos 2x.

gin
f ′′ (x) = − sin x − 2 sin 2x.

ee
At critical points f ′ (x) = 0.

cos x + cos 2x = 0

## cos x + 2 cos2 x − 1 = 0 rin

i.e., 2 cos2 x + cos x − 1 = 0 g.n
cos x =

cos x =

2×2
−1 + 3 1
= or cos x =
=

−1 ± 1 − 4 × 2 × (−1) −1 ± 1 + 8 −1 ± 3
4
−1 − 3
= −1.
=
4 et
4 2 4
1 π 5π
cos x = gives x = and .
2 3 3
cos x = −1 gives x = π.
π √ √ √
When x = , f ′′ (x) = − sin π3 − 2 sin 2π
3 = − 23 − 2 23 = − 3 2 3 < 0.
3
π
∴ f has a maximum at x = .
3

Differential calculus 65

√ √
      3
Maximum value of f = f π π π
= sin 3 1 + cos 3 =
3 (1 + 21 ) = 3 4 3 .
5π ′′  √   √  √2 √ √
When x = , f (x) = − sin 3 − 2 sin 3 = − 2 − 2 − 23 = 23 + 2 23 = 3 2 3 > 0.
5π 10π − 3
3

∴ f has a minimum at x = .
3 √
      − 3 √ √
5π 5π
∴ Minimum value of f = f 3 = sin 3 1 + cos 5 3 = π
(1 + 21 ) = − 2 3 × 23 = −34 3 .
2
When x = π, f ′′ (x) = − sin π − 2 sin 2π = 0.
∴ f has neiher maximum nor minimum at x = π.

3 3
∴ Maximum value = 4√ .

ww ∴ Minimum value = −3 3
4 .

w.E
asy
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et

ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et

## 2.1 Limits and Continuity

wwLimit. Let f (x, y) be a function of two independent variables x and y. f (x, y) is said

w.E
to have the limit ℓ as (x, y) tends to (x0 , y0 ), if corresponding to any positive number
ǫ, however small, there is a positive number η such that

## asy| f (x, y) − ℓ| < ǫ where 0 < d < η,

En
where d is the distance between (x, y) and (x0 , y0 ) given by d2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 .

gin
Note. If the limit exists, then it can be written as lim f (x, y) = ℓ.
x→x0
y→y0

ee
Continuity. f (x, y) is said to be continuous at (x0 , y0 ) if, to any positive number ǫ,
however small, there corresponds a positive number η such that
rin
| f (x, y) − f (x0 , y0 )| < ǫ where 0 < d < η,
g.n
where d is the distance between (x, y) and (x0 , y0 ) given above.

## Result 1. The above definition is equivalent to lim f (x, y) = f (x0 , y0 ).

x→x0
y→y0
et
Result 2. Usually the limit is the same irrespective of the path along which
the point (x, y) approaches (x0 , y0 ).
( )  
i.e., lim lim f (x, y) = lim lim f (x, y) .
x→x0 y→y0 y→y0 x→x0

## 2.1 Limits and Continuity

wwLimit. Let f (x, y) be a function of two independent variables x and y. f (x, y) is said

w.E
to have the limit ℓ as (x, y) tends to (x0 , y0 ), if corresponding to any positive number
ǫ, however small, there is a positive number η such that

## asy| f (x, y) − ℓ| < ǫ where 0 < d < η,

En
where d is the distance between (x, y) and (x0 , y0 ) given by d2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 .

gin
Note. If the limit exists, then it can be written as lim f (x, y) = ℓ.
x→x0
y→y0

ee
Continuity. f (x, y) is said to be continuous at (x0 , y0 ) if, to any positive number ǫ,
however small, there corresponds a positive number η such that
rin
| f (x, y) − f (x0 , y0 )| < ǫ where 0 < d < η,
g.n
where d is the distance between (x, y) and (x0 , y0 ) given above.

## Result 1. The above definition is equivalent to lim f (x, y) = f (x0 , y0 ).

x→x0
y→y0
et
Result 2. Usually the limit is the same irrespective of the path along which
the point (x, y) approaches (x0 , y0 ).
( )  
i.e., lim lim f (x, y) = lim lim f (x, y) .
x→x0 y→y0 y→y0 x→x0

## But this is not true always.

68 Engineering Mathematics - I

## Consider the following example.

x − 2y
Let f (x, y) = .
x + 2y
As (x, y) → (0, 0) along the line y = mx, we have

x − 2y
lim f (x, y) = lim
(x,y)→(0,0) (x,y)→(0,0) x + 2y
x − 2mx
= lim
x→0 x + 2mx
x(1 − 2m)
= lim
x→0 x(1 + 2m)

ww =
1 − 2m
1 + 2m
,

w.E
which is (different for
Also lim lim
x − 2y
x→0 y→0 x + 2y
) lineswith
= lim
) x→0 x !
x
different slopes.
=1

asy
(
x − 2y −2y
and lim lim = lim = −1.
y→0 x→0 x + 2y y→0 2y
Hence, as (x, y) approaches (0, 0) along different paths, f (x, y) approaches different
limits.
En
Hence, the two repeated limits are not equal and hence f (x, y) is
discontinuous at the origin.
gin
ee
Note. If a function is continuous at every point of the domain a ≤ x ≤ a′ ,
b ≤ y ≤ b′ , it is said to be continuous in that domain.
✎ ☞
rin
2x2 y

Worked Examples

g.n
Example 2.1. Find lim

Solution.
x→1
y→2
x2 + y2 + 1

lim
.

2x2 y
=
2×1×2 4 2
= = .
et
x→1 x2 + y2 + 1 1 + 4 + 1 6 3
y→2

xy + 1
Example 2.2. Find lim .
x→∞
y→2
x2 + 2y2
x y + 1x y + 1x

xy + 1 2
Solution. lim 2 2
= lim  y 2
 = lim  y 2
 = = 0.
x→∞ x + 2y
y→2
x→∞ 2
y→2 x 1 + 2 x
 x→∞
y→2 x 1 + 2 x
 ∞

## Function of Several Variables 69

( )
x−y  
Example 2.3. If f (x, y) = , show that lim lim f (x, y) , lim lim f (x, y) .
2x + y x→0 y→0 y→0 x→0
Solution.
( ) ( )
x−y
lim lim f (x, y) = lim lim
x→0 y→0 x→0 y→0 2x + y
 x 1
= lim = .
x→0 2x 2
( )
  x−y
lim lim f (x, y) = lim lim
y→0 x→0 y→0 x→0 2x + y
!
−y

## ww∴ The two limits are not equal.

= lim
y→0 y
= −1.

w.E
Example 2.4. If f (x, y) =
x3 y2 + x2 y3 − 3
2 − xy
, show that lim f (x, y) = lim f (x, y).
x→0
y→0
y→0

asy
! x→0

## Solution. lim f (x, y) = lim lim f (x, y)

x→0 x→0 y→0
y→0

= lim lim
x→0 y→0 En
x3 y2 + x2 y3 − 3
2 − xy
!

= lim
−3
x→0 2
!
=
gin
−3
2
.

ee

lim f (x, y) = lim lim f (x, y)
y→0 y→0 x→0
x→0

= lim lim
x3 y2 + x2 y3 − 3
!
rin
y→0 x→0

= lim
−3
!
=
−3
2 − xy

. g.n
y→0 2

## ∴ lim f (x, y) = lim f (x, y) =

x→0
y→0
y→0
x→0
−3
2
.
2
et
2.2 Partial Derivatives

## We know that, if y is a continuous function of the independent variable x, and

∆y
∆y the increment in y corresponding to an increment ∆x in x, then lim if
∆x→0 ∆x
exists, is called the differential coefficient or the derivative of y with respect to x.

70 Engineering Mathematics - I

## Now let us consider a function of several independent variables.

Let u be a function of two independent variables x and y and let ∆u be the
increment in u corresponding to an increment in x, y remaining constant. If u is a
∆u
continuous function of x, the limit lim if exists is called the partial derivative
∆x→0 ∆x
∂u
of u with respect to x, and is represented by or u x .
∂x
∂u u(x + ∆x, y) − u(x, y)
Hence, = lim .
∂x ∆x→0 ∆x
In the same way, if u is a continuous function of y, the increment ∆u in u,

## wwcorresponding to an increment ∆y in y, x remaining constant, then the limit

lim
∆y→0
u(x, y + ∆y) − u(x, y)
∆y
if exists is called the partial derivative of u with respect to

w.E
y and is represented by
∂u
∂y
or uy .
It can be easily seen that the change in the value of u corresponding to a

asy
change in the value of x will not in general be the same as the change in the value
of u corresponding to an equal change in the value of y. For example, the area A of

En
a rectangular box is a function of the length x and the breadth y, being given by

gin
the relation A = xy. When x alone changes,

ee
∆A = (x + ∆x)y − xy = y∆x.

## When y alone changes, ∆A = x(y + ∆y) − xy = x∆y. rin

g.n
Though ∆x = ∆y, the values of ∆A will not be equal unless x = y. i.e., unless the
∂A ∂A

et
box is in the form of a square. Hence, we can see that, in general , .
∂x ∂y
Likewise, if u is a continuous function of several independent variables
x, y, z, . . . , we can define the partial derivatives of u with respect to each of these
independent variables. As an example, let us consider a function with three
independent variables x, y and z.
∂u ∂u ∂u
Let u = f (x, y, z). The first partial derivative of u denoted by , and
∂x ∂y ∂z
treating x, y and z respectively alone as variables can be obtained. We can also
∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u
find the higher order derivatives 2 , 2 , 2 , , , , . . ..
∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x∂y ∂y∂x ∂x∂z

## They are evaluated as follows.

∂2 u ∂  ∂u  ∂2 u ∂  ∂u  ∂2 u ∂  ∂u 
= , = and = .
∂x2 ∂x ∂x ∂y2 ∂y ∂y ∂z2 ∂z ∂z

∂2 u ∂  ∂u 
Also, =
∂x∂y ∂x ∂y

∂2 u ∂  ∂u 
and = .
∂y∂x ∂y ∂x

wwGenerally,
∂2 u
=
∂2 u
∂x∂y ∂y∂x
.

w.E
The third and higher orders of the partial derivatives can be obtained similarly.

Worked Examples

asy
Example 2.5. If V = πr2 h where r and h are independent variables, find
∂V
∂r
and
∂V
∂h
.
En
Solution. Given: V = πr2 h.
gin
Differentiating partially w.r.t. r,
∂V
∂r
= πh × 2r = 2πrh.
ee
Differentiating partially w.r.t. h,
∂V
= πr2 × 1 = πr2 . rin
∂h

∂u ∂u g.n
Example 2.6. If u = log(e x + ey ), show that
Solution. Given: u = log(e x + ey ).
∂u
= x
ex
.
+
∂x ∂y
= 1.
et
∂x e +y ey
∂u e
= .
∂y e x + ey
∂u ∂u e + eyx
+ = = 1.
∂x ∂y e x + ey

 x ∂z ∂z
Example 2.7. If z = tan−1 , prove that x + y = 0.
y ∂x ∂y

72 Engineering Mathematics - I

 x
Solution. Given: z = tan−1 .
y

∂z 1 1 y2 1 y
= = = 2 .
∂x 1 + x2 y x + y y x + y2
2 2 2
y
∂z xy
x= 2 .
∂x x + y2
∂z 1  x xy2 x
= 2
− 2
= − 2 2 2
=− 2
∂y x y y (x + y ) x + y2
1+ 2
y

ww ∂z
∂z
y =− 2
∂y
∂z
xy
x + y2
xy xy

w.E x +y = 2
∂x ∂y x + y 2
− 2
x + y2
= 0.

∂u ∂u ∂u

asy
Example 2.8. If u = (x − y)4 + (y − z)4 + (z − x)4 , find the value of
Solution. u = (x − y)4 + (y − z)4 + (z − x)4 .
+ + .
∂x ∂y ∂z

∂u
∂x En
= 4(x − y)3 + 4(z − x)3 (−1) = 4(x − y)3 − 4(z − x)3 .

∂u
gin
= 4(y − z)3 − 4(x − y)3 .

ee
∂y
∂u
∂z
= 4(z − x)3 − 4(y − z)3 .

∂u ∂u ∂u rin
+
∂x ∂y ∂z
+ = 0.
g.n
Example 2.9. If u = log(x3 + y3 + z3 − 3xyz), prove that
Solution. u = log(x3 + y3 + z3 − 3xyz).
∂u ∂u ∂u
+ +
∂x ∂y ∂z
=
3

et
x+y+z
.

∂u 3x2 − 3yz
= 3 .
∂x x + y3 + z3 − 3xyz

∂u 3y2 − 3xz
= 3 .
∂y x + y3 + z3 − 3xyz
∂u 3z2 − 3yx
= 3 .
∂z x + y3 + z3 − 3xyz

## ∂u ∂u ∂u 3x2 + 3y2 + 3z2 − 3xy − 3yz − 3zx

+ + =
∂x ∂y ∂z x3 + y3 + z3 − 3xyz

3(x2 + y2 + z2 − xy − yz − zx) 3
= 2 2 2
= .
(x + y + z)(x + y + z − xy − yz − zx) x + y + z

∂u ∂u ∂u
Example 2.10. If u = (x − y)(y − z)(z − x), show that + + = 0.
∂x ∂y ∂z
Solution. Given, u = (x − y)(y − z)(z − x).
∂u
= (y − z){(x − y)(−1) + (z − x) · 1}
∂x

ww = (y − z)(−x + y + z − x)

## = (y − z)(y + z − 2x) = y2 − z2 − 2x(y − z).

w.E ∂u
∂y
= (z − x){(x − y) · 1 + (y − z)(−1)}

asy
= (z − x){x − y − y + z}

= (z − x)(z + x − 2y)

En
= z2 − x2 − 2y(z − x).
∂u
∂z
gin
= (x − y){(y − z) · 1 + (z − x) · (−1)}

= (x − y)(y − z − z + x)

= (x − y)(x + y − 2z)

= x2 − y2 − 2z(x − y).
ee rin
∂u ∂u ∂u
+ +
∂x ∂y ∂z g.n
= y2 − z2 − 2x(y − z) + z2 − x2 − 2y(z − x) + x2 − y2 − 2z(x − y)

= −2{xy − xz + yz − xy + zx − yz} = −2 × 0 = 0.

p ∂2 u ∂2 u
et
Example 2.11. If u = log x2 + y2 , show that 2 + 2 = 0.
p ∂x ∂y
2 2 1 2 2
Solution. u = log x + y = 2 log(x + y ).
Differentiating partially w.r.t. x we get

∂u 1 1 x
= · 2 2
· 2x = 2 .
∂x 2 x + y x + y2

74 Engineering Mathematics - I

## Again differentiating partially w.r.t. x we get

∂2 u (x2 + y2 ) · 1 − x · 2x y2 − x2
= = .
∂x2 (x2 + y2 )2 (x2 + y2 )2

## Differentiating u partially w.r.t. y we get

∂u 1 1 y
= · 2 2
· 2y = 2 .
∂y 2 x + y x + y2

## ww Again differentiating partially w.r.t. y we get

w.E ∂2 u (x2 + y2 ) · 1 − y · 2y
= =
x2 − y2
.

asy
∂y2 (x2 + y2 )2 (x2 + y2 )2

En
∂2 u ∂2 u y2 − x2 + x2 − y2
+

gin
∂x2 ∂y2
=
(x2 + y2 )2
= 0.

## Example 2.12. If u = log(x2 ee

+ y2
Solution. Given, u = log(x2 + y2 + z2 )
+ z2 ), 2 2 2
prove that (x + y + z )
∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u

rin
+ +
∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2
!
= 2.

∂u 2x g.n
= 2
∂x x + y2 + z2
.

∂2 u (x2 + y2 + z2 ) · 2 − 2x · 2x
∂x2
=
(x2 + y2 + z2 )2
et
2x + 2y2 + 2z2 − 4x2
2
=
(x2 + y2 + z2 )2
2y2 + 2z2 − 2x2
= 2
(x + y2 + z2 )2
2(y2 + z2 − x2 )
= 2 .
(x + y2 + z2 )2

## Function of Several Variables 75

Similarly, we have

∂2 u 2(x2 + z2 − y2 )
= 2
∂y2 (x + y2 + z2 )2
2
∂ u 2(x2 + y2 − z2 )
and 2 = 2 .
∂z (x + y2 + z2 )2
∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u 2[y2 + z2 − x2 + x2 + z2 − y2 + x2 + y2 − z2 ]
Now, + + =
∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 (x2 + y2 + z2 )2
2(x2 + y2 + z2 )
= 2
(x + y2 + z2 )2

ww 2 ∂ u
2 ∂2 u ∂2 u
!
= 2
2
x + y2 + z2
.

w.E 2 2
∴ (x + y + z ) +
∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2
+ =2

∂ 2u ∂ 2u 1  ∂u 2
 !
∂u
!2 

asy

Example 2.13. If u = e xy , show that 2 + 2 =  + . [Jan 2013]
∂x ∂y u ∂x ∂y 
Solution. u = e xy
∂u
∂x
= e xy · y = uy.
En
∂2 u
∂x
∂u
2
=y·
∂u
∂x
= yuy = uy2 .
gin
∂y
∂2 u
∂y 2
= e xy · x = ux.

= x·
∂u
∂y
= x · ux = ux2 .
ee rin
g.n
!2 !2
∂u ∂u
+ = u2 y2 + u2 x2
∂x ∂y
= u[uy2 + ux2 ]

=u
∂ u ∂2 u
" 2
+
∂x2  ∂y2
# et
!2 !2 
1  ∂u ∂u  ∂2 u ∂2 u
+ = + .
∂y  ∂x2 ∂y2

u  ∂x
!
x y ∂u ∂u
Example 2.14. If u = y f +g find the value of x + y . [Dec 2012]
! y x ∂x ∂y
x y
Solution. u = y f +g
y x

76 Engineering Mathematics - I

!
∂u ′ x 1  y   −y 
= yf · + g′
∂x y y x x2

!
∂u x y y
x = xf′ − g′ . (1)
∂x y x x

! ! !
∂u ′ x −x x ′ y
  1
= yf · 2 +f ·1+g · .
∂y y y y x x

ww y
∂u
∂y
= −x f ′ x
y
!
+ yf
x
y
!
y y
+ g′
x x
(2)

w.E ∂u
(1) + (2) ⇒ x + y
∂x
∂u
∂y
= yf
x
y
!
.

asy
Example 2.15. If r2 = x2 + y2 + z2 , prove that
∂2 r ∂2 r ∂2 r 2
+ + = .

En
Solution. Given: r2 = x2 + y2 + z2 .
∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 r

gin
Differentiating w.r.t. x partially we get,

∂r
2r
∂x
2
∂ r
ee
= 2x ⇒

r − x
∂r
∂x r
∂r
= .
x

x 2
∂x = r − x r = r − x .
2
rin
∂x2
2
=
∂ r r −y
Similarly, 2 =
2
r2
2
r2 r3
g.n
∂y
∂ r r − z2
2
and 2 =
∂z
2
r3

r3
. et
∂2 r ∂2 r ∂2 r 3r2 − (x2 + y2 + z2 )
+ + =
∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 r3
2
3r − r 2 2r2 2
= = = .
r3 r3 r

y  x ∂2 u x2 − y2
Example 2.16. If u = x2 tan−1 − y2 tan−1 , prove that = 2 .
x y ∂x∂y x + y2

## Solution. Differentiating u partially w.r.t. y, we get

∂u 1 1 h 2 1  −x  y i
= x2 − y + tan−1 2y
∂y y2 x x2 y2 x
1+ 1+
x2 y2
x3 xy2 −1 y
 
= + − 2y tan
x2 + y2 x2 + y2 x
2 2
x(x + y ) −1 x −1 x
   
= 2 − 2y tan = x − 2y tan
x + y2 y y

∂2 u
= 1 − 2y
11
= 1 −
2y2

w.E ∂x∂y
1+ 2

x + y − 2y2
2 2
x2 y
y
x2 + y2

x2 − y2

asy =
x2 + y2

=
x2 + y2
.

## Solution. Given: u = ey log x

En [Jan 2012, Jun 2008]

gin
uy = ey log x log x = xy log x

ee
u xy = yxy−1 log x + xy
1
x
= yxy−1 log x + xy−1 = xy−1 (y log x + 1)
rin
u xxy
y
= xy−1 + (y log x + 1)(y − 1)xy−2
x
g.n
= xy−2 y + xy−2 (y log x + 1)(y − 1)

## = xy−2 (2y − 1 + y log x(y − 1))

et
= xy−2 (y(y − 1) log x + 2y − 1) (1)

u = xy

## uyx = ye(y−1) log x log x + e(y−1) log x .1

78 Engineering Mathematics - I

## = yxy−1 log x + xy−1 = xy−1 (y log x + 1)

y
u xyx = xy−1 + (y log x + 1)(y − 1)xy−2
x
= xy−2 y + xy−2 (y − 1)(y log x + 1)

## From (1) and (2) we have u xxy = u xyx .

ww y ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u

w.E
Example 2.18. If u = (x − y) f

y
x
, find the value of x2 2 + 2xy
∂x ∂x∂y
+ y2 2 .
∂y
[May 2001]
Solution. u = (x − y) f
x
asy
∂u
∂x
= (x − y) f ′
En
 y   −y 
x x2
+ f
y
x
.
∂2 u
∂x2
= −(x − y)
y
gin
x2 
· f ′′ y
   −y 
x x2   
− (x − y) f ′ y
 
x
· y(−2)x−3
y
− 2 · f′
x
y2 ′′  y 
= (x − y) 4 f
x
ee
y
x

x
· 1 + f′
y
y −y
x x2
+ 2 3 (x − y) f
x
′ y
.
  y y y y
x
− 2 f′
x rin
x
− 2 f′
x x
2
∂ u y 2
x2 2 = 2 (x − y) f ′′
∂x x
 y
x
 2y
+ (x − y) f ′
x
 y
x

− 2y f ′
 y
x

.
g.n (1)
∂u
∂y
= (x − y) f ′

= 1−
y ′ y
x
f
 y 1

x x

x
· +f

−f
y
x
 y
x
.

(−1)
et
∂2 u  y  ′′  y  1 ′ y
  −1 !   1
′ y
= 1 − f · + f − f · .
∂y2 x x x x x x x
(x − y) ′′  y  2 ′  y 
= f − f
x2 x x x
2 2 2
2∂ u y ′′ y 2y ′  y 
 
y = 2 (x − y) f − f . (2)
∂y2 x x x x

## Function of Several Variables 79

∂u
Differentiating w.r.t. x partially we get
∂y
∂2 u
!
 y  ′′  y   −y  ′ y
  −1 ′ y
   −y 
= 1− f + f (−y) − f
∂x∂y x x x2 x x2 x x2
(x − y)y ′′ y   y  y  y  y 
=− 3
f + 2 f′ + 2 f′
x x x x x x
(x − y) · y ′′  y  2y ′  y 
=− f + 2f .
x3 x x x
∂2 u −2y2   4y2  y 
′′ y
2xy = 2 (x − y) f + f′ . (3)
∂x∂y x x x x

ww ∂2 u
(1) + (2) + (3) ⇒ x2 2 + 2xy
∂x
∂2 u
∂x∂y
∂2 u
+ y2 2 = 0.
∂y

w.E
Homogeneous function. A function f (x, y) is said to be a homogeneous function
in x and y of degree n if f (tx, ty) = tn f (x, y) for any positive t.
Example

asy
(i) f (x, y) = x2 + y2 + 2xy is a homogeneous function of degree 3 in x and y.

En
 
(ii) If tan−1 yx = u then tan u is a homogeneous function of degree 0.
Note. If u = f (x, y) is a homogeneous function of degree n in x and y, then u can
be written as u = xn F .
y
x gin
ee
3
x +y 3
Example. Let u = .
x+y

u(tx, ty) =
t3 x3 + t3 y3 t3 (x3 + y3 )
= = t2
x3 + y3
= t2 u. rin
tx + ty
u is a homogeneous function of degree 2.
t(x + y) x+y

g.n
Now u = 

x3 1 + 3

x 1+
y3 
x
y
x
et
 y 3
1 + x 
2
=x y
1+
x
 y 3
y y 1+
= x2 F where F x
= y .
x x 1+
x

80 Engineering Mathematics - I

## Statement. If f (x, y) is a homogeneous function of degree n in x and y having

∂f ∂f
continuous partial derivatives, then x +y = nf.
∂x ∂y
Proof.
Given that f (x, y) is a homogeneous function of degree n in x and y.

## wwHence f (x, y) can be written as

w.E
y
f (x, y) = xn F .
x
∂f y  y  −y 
= nxn−1 F + xn F ′

asy∂x
= nxn−1 F
x
y
x
x x2
− xn−2 yF ′ .
y
x
∂f
∂y En n ′ y 1
=x F
  
x x
=x Fn−1 ′ y
 
x
.

x
∂f
∂x
+y
∂f
∂y gin
= nxn F
y
x
− xn−1 yF ′
y
x
+ xn−1 yF ′
y
x

x
∂f
∂x
+y
∂f
∂y
ee
= nxn F
y

= n f (x, y).
x

rin
Extension.
g.n
If f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) is a homogeneous function of degree n in

et
∂f ∂f ∂f
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , then x1 + x2 + · · · + xn = nf.
∂x1 ∂x2 ∂xn
Euler’s theorem on higher partial derivatives
Statement. If f (x, y) is a homogeneous function of degree n in x and y then,
∂2 f ∂2 f ∂2 f
x2 2 + 2xy + y2 2 = n(n − 1) f .
∂x ∂x∂y ∂y
Proof. Given, f (x, y) is a homogeneous function of degree n in x and y.
∴ By Euler’s theorem we have

∂f ∂f
x +y = n f. (1)
∂x ∂y

## Differentiating this partially w.r.t. x we obtain

∂2 f ∂ f ∂2 f ∂f
x + + y =n .
∂x2 ∂x ∂x∂y ∂x

∂2 f ∂2 f ∂f ∂f ∂f
=⇒ x + y =n − = (n − 1) .
∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x ∂x ∂x
Multiplying both sides by x we get

∂2 f ∂2 f ∂f
x2 + xy = (n − 1)x . (2)

ww ∂x 2

## Differentiating (1) partially w.r.t. y we get

∂x∂y ∂x

w.E x
∂2 f
∂y∂x
∂2 f ∂ f
+y 2 +
∂y ∂y
=n
∂f
∂y

x
asy∂2 f ∂2 f
+y 2 =n
∂f ∂f

∂f
= (n − 1) .

En
∂y∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y

∂2 f ∂2 f

gin
Since the partial derivatives of f are continuous we have =
∂x∂y ∂y∂x
.

## Multiplying both sides by y we get

∴x
ee
∂2 f
∂x∂y
∂2 f
∂y
∂f
+ y 2 = (n − 1) .
∂y

rin
∂2 f ∂2 f ∂f
+ y2 2 = (n − 1)y .
g.n
et
xy (2)
∂x∂y ∂y ∂y

∂2 f ∂2 f 2
2∂ f
 ∂f ∂f 
(1) + (2) =⇒ x2 + 2xy + y = (n − 1) x + y
∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y2 ∂x ∂y
= (n − 1)n f [By Euler’s theorem]

= n(n − 1) f.
✎ ☞
Worked Examples
✍ ✌

82 Engineering Mathematics - I

∂u ∂u ∂u
Example 2.19. If u = (x − y)(y − z)(z − x) prove that + + = 0 and
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂u ∂u ∂u
x +y +z = 3u.
∂x ∂y ∂z
Solution. u = (x − y)(y − z)(z − x).

∂u 
= (y − z) (x − y)(−1) + z − x
∂x
= (y − z)(−x + y + z − x)

= (y − z)(y + z − 2x).

ww ∂u
Similarly,
∂y
= (z − x)(z + x − 2y) and
∂u
∂z
= (x − y)(x + y − 2z).

w.E ∂u ∂u ∂u
+ +
∂x ∂y ∂z
= y2 − z2 − 2x(y − z) + z2 − x2 − 2y(z − x) + x2 − y2 − 2z(x − y).

asy
= −2xy + 2xz − 2yz + 2xy − 2xz + 2yz = 0

## Also, u(tx, ty, tz) = (tx − ty)(ty − tz)(tz − tx)

En
= t (x − y)(y − z)(z − x) = t3 u.
3

gin
∴ u is a homogeneous function of degree 3 in x, y, z.

ee
∂u ∂u ∂u
∴ By Euler’s theorem, x + y + z = 3u.
∂x ∂y ∂z

 x3 + y3  ∂u ∂u rin
Example 2.20. If u = log
x+y
 x3 + y3 
, prove that x + y
x3 + y3
∂x ∂y
= 2.
g.n
Solution. Given: u = log
x+y
⇒ eu =

eu(tx,ty) =
x+y

t3 x3 + t3 y3 t3 (x3 + y3 )
=
et
tx + ty t(x + y)
3
x +y 3
= t2 = t2 eu .
x+y

Here n = 2.

## Function of Several Variables 83

∴ By Euler’s theorem,
∂ u ∂
(e ) + y (eu ) = 2eu .
x
∂x ∂y
∂u ∂u
=⇒ xeu + yeu = 2eu
∂x ∂y
 ∂u ∂u 
eu x + y = 2eu .
∂x ∂y
∂u ∂u
x +y = 2.
∂x ∂y
y z ∂u ∂u ∂u

## wwExample 2.21. If u = + , find the value of x + y + z .

x x
y z
Solution. Given: u = + .
x x
∂x ∂y ∂z

## w.E u(tx, ty, tz) =

ty tz
+
tx tx
y z
= t0 +
x x
= t0 u.

asy
=⇒ u is a homogeneous function in x, y, z of degree 0.
By Euler’s theorem,
∂u ∂u ∂u
∂x
x y z
x
En
+y +z
∂y ∂z
= nu = 0.u = 0.

∂u ∂u ∂u
y z x
x y z
Solution. u(x, y, z) = + + . gin
Example 2.22. If u = + + , then show that x + y + z
∂x ∂y ∂z
= 0. [Jun 2012]

y z x
ee
u(tx, ty, tz) =
tx ty tz
+ +
ty tz tx
tx y z rin
= + +
t y z x
= t0 u(x, y, z). g.n
u is a homogeneous function of degree 0 in x, y, z.
∂u ∂u
∴ By Euler’s theorem, x + y + z
∂x ∂y
∂u
∂z
= 0.u = 0.
et
x2 y2 ∂u ∂u
Example 2.23. If sin u = , show that x + y = 3 tan u.
x+y ∂x ∂y
x2 y2
Solution. sin u(x, y) = .
x+y
t2 x2 t2 y2 t4 (x2 y2 )
sin u(tx, ty) = = = t3 sin u.
tx + ty t(x + y)

84 Engineering Mathematics - I

## sin u is a homogeneous function of degree 3 in x and y.

By Euler’s theorem,
∂ ∂
x(sin u) + y (sin u) = 3 sin u.
∂x ∂y
∂u ∂u
x cos u + y cos u = 3 sin u
∂x ∂y
 ∂u ∂u 
cos u x + y = 3 sin u
∂x ∂y
∂u ∂u 3 sin u 3 sin u
x +y = = = 3 tan u.

ww
∂x ∂y cos u cos u
x y z ∂u ∂u ∂u
Example 2.24. If u = f , , , prove that x + y + z = 0.
y z x ∂x ∂y ∂z

w.E
Solution.

u(x, y, z) = f
x y z
, ,

asy
u(tx, ty, tz) = f
y z x
 tx ty tz 
, ,
ty tz tx

En x y z
= f , ,
y z x

## gin = u(x, y, z) = t0 u(x, y, z)

∂u ∂u
∴ By Euler’s theorem, x + y + z
∂x ∂y
∂u
∂z
ee
u is a homogeneous function of degree 0 in x, y, z.
= 0.u = 0.
rin
Example 2.25. If u = tan−1
x−y
 x3 + y3  ∂u
show that x + y
∂x
∂u
∂y
= sin 2u.
g.n
Solution. tan u =
x3 + y3
x−y
.
tan u is a homogeneous function of degree 2 in x and y.
By Euler’s theorem
et
∂ ∂
x (tan u) + y (tan u) = 2 tan u
∂x ∂y
∂u ∂u
sec2 ux + sec2 uy = 2 tan u
∂x ∂y
∂u ∂u 2 tan u 2 sin u
x +y = = cos2 u
∂x ∂y sec2 u cos u

## Function of Several Variables 85

= sin 2u.
 x+y  ∂u ∂u 1
Example 2.26. If u = sin−1 √ √ prove that x + y = tan u. [Jun 2009]
x+ y ∂x ∂y 2
 x+y  x+y
Solution. u = sin−1 √ √ ⇒ sin u = √ √ .
x+ y x+ y
sin u is a homogeneous function of degree 21 in x and y.
By Euler’s theorem,
∂ ∂ 1
x (sin u) + y (sin u) = sin u.

ww
∂x ∂y 2
∂u ∂u 1
cos ux + cos uy = sin u
∂x ∂y 2

w.E ∂u
x +y
∂x
∂u 1
∂y 2
= tan u.

asy
 
 x + y 
−1  ∂u ∂u −1
Example 2.27. If u = cos  √ √ , prove that x + y = cot u. [Dec 2011]
∂x ∂y 2
 x+ y

En
 x + y 
Solution. u = cos−1  √ √ .
x + y

gin

 x + y 
cos u =  √ √ .
x+ y
cos u is a homogeneous function of degree 21 in x and y.
∴ By Euler’s theorem

x

ee∂
(cos u) + y (cos u) =
1
· cos u. rin
∂x
∂u
∂y
x(− sin u) + y(− sin u)
∂u
=
2
1
cos u. g.n
∂x
∂u
− sin u x + y
∂x
∂u
∂y

∂y

!
=
2
1
2
cos u.

−1 cos u −1
et
∴ x +y = = cot u.
∂x ∂y 2 sin u 2
 x y
Example 2.28. Verify Euler’s theorem for the function u = sin−1 + tan−1 .
 x y y x
Solution. Given: u = sin−1 + tan−1 .
y x
 tx   ty 
u(tx, ty) = sin−1 + tan−1
ty tx

86 Engineering Mathematics - I

  x  y 
= t0 sin−1 + tan−1
y x
= t0 u(x, y).
=⇒ u is a homogeneous function of degree 0 in x and y.
∂u ∂u
∴ By Euler’s theorem, x + y = 0.
∂x ∂y
Verification.

∂u 1 1 1  −y 
= s +
∂x
x2
y y2 x2
1 +

ww 1− 2

= p
y
y 1
x2

− 2 2
x2 y

w.E = p
y2 − x2 y x (x + y )
1
− 2
y
x + y2
.
2

asy
2
y −x 2

∂u x xy
x = p − 2 (1)
∂x 2
y −x 2 x + y2

En ∂u
= s
1  −x 
2
+
1 1
y2 x

gin
∂y
x2 y 1 +
1− 2 x2
y

ee= p

=− p
−xy
y2 y2 − x2 x + y
x
+ 2

+ 2
x
x

+
x
2

y2 rin
g.n
2
y y −x 2

∂u x xy
y =−p + 2 (2)
∂y x + y2

et
2
y −x 2

∂u ∂u
(1) + (2) =⇒ = x +y = 0.
∂x ∂y

## Hence, Euler’s theorem is verified.

1 1
Example 2.29. Verify Euler’s theorem for the function u = x 2 + y 2 (xn + yn ).
 
Solution. It is easy to verify that u is a homogeneous function of degree n + 21 in
x and y.

## Hence, by Euler’s theorem we have

∂u ∂u  1
x +y = n + u. (1)
∂x ∂y 2
Verification
∂u 1 1 1 1 
= x 2 + y 2 nxn−1 + (xn + yn ) x− 2
∂x 2
∂u 1 1 1 1
x = n x 2 + y 2 xn + (xn + yn )x 2 .
∂x 2

## wwSince the function is symmetric in x and y we have

∂u 1 1 1 1
= n x 2 + y 2 yn + (xn + yn )y 2 .
y

w.E ∂u
x +y
∂x
∂y
∂u
∂y
1 1
2
1
2
1 1
= n x 2 + y 2 (xn + yn ) + (xn + yn ) x 2 + y 2

= n+
asy1 1
2
1
x 2 + y 2 (xn + yn )

En
1
= n + u,
2
which verifies Euler’s theorem.
ygin  x
Example 2.30. If u = x2 tan−1
∂2 u
x2
∂x2
+ 2xy
∂2 u
∂x∂y
+ y
2
2∂ u
∂y2
.
x
ee
− y2 tan−1
y
, find the value of

rin
g.n
Solution. u is a homogeneous function of degree 2 in x and y.
∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u
By Euler’s theorem, x2 2 + 2xy + y2 2 = 2(2 − 1)u = 2u [n = 2].
∂x ∂x∂y ∂y

Example 2.31. If z = x f

Solution. Let u = x f
y
y
x
y
x
y
and v = g .
∂2 z
+ g , show that x2 2 + 2xy
∂x
∂2 z
∂x∂y
∂2 z
+ y2 2 = 0.
∂y
et
x x
∴ z = u + v.
u is a homogeneous function of degree 1 in x and y.
∴ By Euler’s theorem,
∂2 u ∂2 u 2
2∂ u
x2 + 2xy + y = n(n − 1)u = 1(1 − 1)u = 0. (1)
∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y2

88 Engineering Mathematics - I

## v is a homogeneous function of degree 0 in x and y.

By Euler’s theorem,
∂2 v ∂2 v 2
2∂ v
x2 + 2xy + y = 0(0 − 1)v = 0. (2)
∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y2
∂2 (u + v) ∂2 (u + v) 2
2 ∂ (u + v)
(1) + (2) ⇒ x2 + 2xy + y =0
∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y2
∂2 z ∂2 z 2
2∂ z
x2 + 2xy + y = 0.
∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y2

ww
3 3
!
−1 x + y
Example 2.32. If u = tan , prove that
x−y
∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u
x2 2 + 2xy + y2 2 = 2 sin u cos 3u.

w.E ∂x
Solution. u = tan−1
∂x∂y
x 3 + y3

x−y
!∂y
.

tan u =
x3 + y3
x−y
!

asy
En
tan u is an homogeneous function of degree 2 in x and y.
By Euler’s theorem,
∂ ∂

gin
x (tan u) + y (tan u) = 2 tan u.
∂x ∂y

ee
∂u ∂u
x · sec2 u + y · sec2 u = 2 tan u.
∂x ∂y

rin
!
2 ∂u ∂u
sec u x + y = 2 tan u.
∂x ∂y
∂u
x +y
∂x
∂u 2 tan u
∂y
= 2
sec u
=2·
sin u
cos u
· cos2 u
g.n
x
∂u
∂x
+y
∂u
∂y
= 2 sin u cos u

= sin 2u.
et (1)

## Differentiating (1) partially w.r.t. x we get

∂2 u ∂u ∂2 u ∂u
x· 2 + +y = 2 cos 2u .
∂x ∂x ∂x∂y ∂x
Multiplying by x we get
∂2 u ∂u ∂2 u ∂u
x2 2
+ x + xy = 2 cos 2u · x . (2)
∂x ∂x ∂x∂y ∂x

## Differentiating (1) partially w.r.t. y we get

∂2 u ∂2 u ∂u ∂u
x +y 2 + = 2 cos 2u .
∂y∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y
Multiplying w.r.t. y we get
∂2 u ∂2 u ∂u ∂u
xy + y2 2 + y = 2 cos 2u · y . (3)
∂y∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y
(2) + (3) ⇒
2 ∂2 u 2
!
2∂ u 2∂ u ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u
x + 2xy +y +x +y = 2 cos 2u x + y
∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

ww 2
∂ u
x2 2 + 2xy
∂x
2
∂ u
∂x∂y
2
∂ u
∂y
∂u
+ y2 2 = (2 cos 2u − 1) x + y
∂x
∂u
∂y
!

## 2.4 Total Derivative - Implicit functions

ee rin
We know that if y = f (u) and u = φ(x), then
dy dy du
=
dx du dx g.n
. We shall now extend this
result to function of several variables.
Let z = f (x, y) possess continuous partial derivatives and let x, y be differentiable
functions of an independent variable t. Let ∆x, ∆y and ∆z be increments in x, y and
et
z respectively, corresponding to an increment ∆t in t. Then the total increment in z
is given by

## = f (x + ∆x, y + ∆y) − f (x, y + ∆y) + f (x, y + ∆y) − f (x, y).

90 Engineering Mathematics - I

## By mean value theorem, f (x + ∆x, y + ∆y) − f (x, y + ∆y) = f x (x + θ1 x, y + ∆y)∆x and

f (x, y + ∆y) − f (x, y) = fy (x, y + θ2 ∆y)∆y, 0 < θ1 , θ2 < 1.

## where θ1 and θ2 are positive proper fractions.

∆z ∆x ∆y
∴ = f x (x + θ1 x, y + ∆y) + fy (x, y + θ2 ∆y) .
∆t ∆t ∆t

## Taking limits as ∆t → 0, we get the total derivative

ww dz
dt
dx dy
= f x (x, y) + fy (x, y) .
dt dt

w.E i.e.,
dz ∂z dx ∂z dy
= +
dt ∂x dt ∂y dt
. (2)

asy
In the same way if u = f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) possesses continuous partial derivatives
with respect to each of the independent variables and if x1 , x2 , . . . , xn are

En
differentiable functions of an independent variable t, then the total derivative of u
with respect to t is given by

du gin
∂u dx1 ∂u dx2 ∂u dxn
dt
=
∂x1 dt
+

ee
∂x2 dt
+ ··· +
∂xn dt
.

Note. (2) expresses the rate of change of z w.r.t. t along the curve rin
(3)

x = x(t), y = y(t).
g.n
Composite functions. Let z = f (u, v) and u and v are themselves functions of the
independent variables x, y so that u = φ(x, y) and v = ψ(x, y).
To find
∂z
, we consider y as a constant so that u and v may be supposed to be
et
∂x
functions of x only. Hence, by the above result we have
∂z ∂z ∂u ∂z ∂v ∂z ∂z ∂u ∂z ∂v
= + . Similarly = + .
∂x ∂u ∂x ∂v ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂y ∂v ∂y
Now, in (2), if we replace t by x then y is a function of x we get

dz ∂z ∂z dy
= + .
dx ∂x ∂y dx

dz ∂z dx ∂z
Similarly = + .
dy ∂x dy ∂y

## Implicit Functions. Let f (x, y) = c, where c is a constant, define y as an implicit

function of x.
If u = f (x, y), then we have
du ∂ f ∂ f dy
= + .
dx ∂x ∂y dx
du
But = 0, since u = f (x, y) = c
dx

ww i.e.,
∂ f ∂ f dy
+
∂x ∂y dx
=0

w.E ∴
dy
dx
∂f
fx
= − ∂x = − .
∂f fy

Similarly
dx fy
=− .
asy ∂y

dy fx
En
Total differential. The total differential dz of z is defined as the principal part of
the increment ∆z which is given by
gin ∂z ∂z

ee

dz =
∂x
dx + dy.

Worked Examples

∂y

dz rin
Example 2.33. If z = xn ym where x = cos at, y = sin bt, find .

Solution. We have
dz ∂z dx ∂z dy
= + .
dt
g.n
Now
dx
∂z
∂x
= nxn−1 ym ,

= −a sin at,
dy
∂z
∂y
dt ∂x dt ∂y dt
= mxn ym−1

= b cos bt.
et
dt dt
dz
∴ = −anxn−1 ym sin at + bmxn ym−1 cos bt
dt
 an bm 
= −xn ym sin at − cos bt
x y
= − cosn at sinm bt(an tan at − bm cot bt).

92 Engineering Mathematics - I

du
Example 2.34. If u = x2 y3 , x = log t, y = et , find . [Jan 2000]
dt
du ∂u dx ∂u dy
Solution. We have = + .
dt ∂x dt ∂y dt
∂u
= y3 2x = 2xy3
∂x
∂u
= x2 3y2 = 3x2 y2
∂y
dx 1 dy
= = et
dt t dt

ww du 1
= 2xy3 + 3x2 y2 et

w.E
dt t
2 log te3t
= + 3(log t)2 e2t et
t

asy
2 
= e3t log t + 3 log t
t
e3t log t

En =
t
(2 + 3t log t).

## Example 2.35. Find

Solution.
du
dt
gin
when u = x2 y, x = t2 , y = et .

ee
∂u
∂x
dx
= 2xy,

= 2t
∂u
∂y
dy
= x2

= et rin
dt

du ∂u dx ∂u dy
dt

g.n
we have
dt
= +
∂x dt ∂y dt
= 2xy.2t + x2 et

## = 4t2 et t + t4 et = 4t3 et + t4 et = t3 et (4 + t).

et
1 du
Example 2.36. If u = xy + yz + zx where x = , y = et and z = e−t find . [Jun 2013]
t dt
Solution.
∂u ∂u ∂u
= y + z, = x + z, = x+y
∂x ∂y ∂z
dx −1 dy dz
= 2, = et , = −e−t
dt t dt dt

## Function of Several Variables 93

du ∂u dx ∂u dy ∂u dz
we have = + +
dt ∂x dt ∂y dt ∂z dt
 −1 
= (y + z) 2 + (x + z)et + (x + y)(−e−t )
t
et + e−t 1 1 
=− 2
+ (e−t + )et − + et e−t
t t t
−2 et e−t
= 2 cos ht + 1 + − −1
t t t
−2 2 sin ht
= 2 cos ht +
t t
2

## ww = 2 (2t sin ht − cos ht).

t

w.E
Example 2.37. Find
Solution.
du
dt
 
when u = sin yx , x = et , y = t2 .

asy
∂u
∂x
= cos
 x1
y y
,
∂u
∂y
x
= − 2 cos
y
 x
y

En
gindx
dt
= et
dy
dt
= 2t

du ∂u dx ∂u dy 1
dt
= +
∂x dt ∂y dt y
ee
= cos
 x
y
et −
x
y2
cos
 x
y
2t
rin
= cos
 x  et 2tet !
y t 2
− 4 = cos
t
 x
y
et
1 2t

t2 t4
!
=
et (t − 2)
t3
cos
g.n
 et 
t2
.

## Example 2.38. If u = sin−1 (x − y) where x = 3t, y = 4t3 , show that

du
dt
et
= √
3
1 − t2
.
Solution.
∂u 1 ∂u −1
= p , = p
∂x 1 − (x − y)2 ∂y 1 − (x − y)2

dx dy
=3 = 12t2
dt dt

94 Engineering Mathematics - I

du ∂u dx ∂u dy
= +
dt ∂x dt ∂y dt
1 1
= p 3− p 12t2
1 − (x − y) 2 1 − (x − y) 2

3 − 12t 2 3 − 12t2
= p = p
1 − (3t − 4t3 )2 1 − (9t2 + 16t6 − 24t4 )
3 − 12t 2 3 − 12t2
= √ = p
1 − 9t2 − 16t6 + 24t4 −(16t6 − 24t4 + 9t2 − 1)
3(1 − 4t2 ) 3(1 − 4t2 )
= p = p

ww =
−(t2 − 1)(16t4 − 8t2 + 1)
3(1 − 4t2 )
p = √
3
.
−(t2 − 1)(1 − 4t2 )2

w.E du
(1 − 4t2 ) (1 − t2 ) 1 − t2

## Example 2.39. Find

dx
Solution. We have du =
∂u
∂x
asy
if u = cos(x2 + y2 ) and a2 x2 + b2 y2 = c2 .
∂u
dx + dy
∂y
[Jan 2001]

En
du ∂u ∂u dy
= +
dx ∂x ∂y dx
gin
= − sin(x2 + y2 )2x − sin(x2 + y2 )2y
dy
dx

Given that a2 x2 + b2 y2 = c2 .
Diff. w.r.t. x we get
ee rin
dy
2a2 x + 2b2 y
dx
= 0 ⇒ b2 y
dy
dx
= −a2 x ⇒
dy
dx
=− 2
a2 x
b y g.n

du
dx

= −2 sin(x2 + y2 ) x + y
dy 
dx

= −2 sin(x2 + y2 ) x + y 2
 a2 − b2  2(a2 − b2 )x
et
 −a2 x 
b y

= 2 sin(x2 + y2 ) xy = sin(x2 + y2 ).
b2 y b2

dz
q
Example 2.40. If z = x2 + y2 and x3 + y3 + 3axy = 5a2 , find the value of when
dx
x = y = a.
p
Solution. Given z = x2 + y2 .

## Function of Several Variables 95

We have

∂z ∂z
dz =dx + dy
∂x ∂y
∂z 2x x
Now = p = p
∂x 2 x2 + y2 x2 + y2
∂z y
= p .
∂y x2 + y2

## Also x3 + y3 + 3axy = 5a2

wwDiff.w.r.t. x we get
3x2 + 3y2
dy
dx
h dy i
+ 3a x + y = 0
dx

w.E x2 + y2
dy
dx
dy
+ ax + ay = 0
dx

asy dy 2
dx
(y + ax) = −ay − x2

En dy −(x2 + ay)
dx
= 2
y + ax
.

dz
= + gin
∂z ∂z dy
= p
x
+ p
y −(x2 + ay)
!

ee
∴ 2
dx ∂x ∂y dx x2 + y2 x2 + y2 y + ax
a  −2a2 

rin
 dz  a a a
= √ + √ = √ − √ = 0.
dx x=y=a a 2 a 2 2a2 a 2 a 2

∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z
−v

g.n
Example 2.41. If z is a function of x and y and x = e + e , y = e−u − ev , show that
u

∂u ∂v
= x −y .
∂x ∂y
Solution. z is a composite function of u and v.
We have
et
[Jun 2001]

∂z ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂z u ∂z ∂z u ∂z −u
= + = e + (−e−u ) = e − (e ).
∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y
∂z ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z
= + = (−e−v ) + (−ev ) = − e−v − (ev ).
∂v ∂x ∂v ∂y ∂v ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y
∂z ∂z ∂z u ∂z ∂z ∂z
− = (e + e−v ) − (e−u − ev ) = x − y .
∂u ∂v ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

96 Engineering Mathematics - I

## Example 2.42. If z = f (x, y) where x = eu cos v, y = eu sin v, show that

∂z ∂z ∂z
y + x = e2u . [Jan 2000]
∂u ∂v ∂y
Solution. z is a composite function of u and v.
∂z ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂z u ∂z
= + = e cos v + eu sin v.
∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂x ∂y
∂z ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂z
= + = (−eu sin v) + eu cos v.
∂v ∂x ∂v ∂y ∂v ∂x ∂y
∂z ∂z u ∂z u ∂z ∂z
y = y e cos v + y e sin v = eu sin veu cos v + eu sin veu sin v
∂u ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

ww ∂z
∂z
= e2u sin v cos v + e2u sin2 v .
∂x
∂z
∂z
∂y
∂z

## w.E x = −eu sin veu cos v + eu cos veu cos v

∂v
∂z
∂x
= −e2u sin v cos v + e2u cos2 v
∂z
∂y

∂x
∂z
+ x = e2u .
∂z
∂y

En
∂u
y − x z − x
∂v ∂y
∂u ∂u ∂u
Example 2.43. If u = f

Solution. Given: u = f
xy
,gin
,
zx
y − x z − x
prove that x2 + y2 + z2
∂x ∂y ∂z
= 0.

Let r =
y−x
xy
∴ u = f (r, s).
,s=
z−x
zx
xy
1 1
ee
zx
,r = − , s = − .
x y
1 1
x z
rin
∴ u is a function of r and s and r and s are functions of x, y and z.
Now g.n
∴ x2
∂u
∂x
∂u
=
∂u ∂r ∂u ∂s ∂u  −1  ∂u  −1 
+ =
∂r ∂x ∂s ∂x ∂r x2
∂u ∂u
=− − .
+
∂s x2 et (1)
∂x ∂r ∂s
∂u ∂u ∂r ∂u ∂s ∂u  −1  ∂u
= + = + (0)
∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂y ∂r y2 ∂s
∂u ∂u
y2 = . (2)
∂y ∂r
∂u ∂u ∂r ∂u ∂s ∂u ∂u  1 
= + = (0) +
∂z ∂r ∂z ∂s ∂z ∂r ∂s z2

## Function of Several Variables 97

∂u ∂u
z2 = . (3)
∂z ∂s

∂u ∂u ∂u
(1) + (2) + (3) =⇒ x2 + y2 + z2 = 0.
∂x ∂y ∂z

∂u ∂v
Example 2.44. If u2 + 2v2 = 1 − x2 + y2 and u2 + v2 = x2 + y2 − 2, find and .
∂x ∂x
Solution. Consider u and v as functions of x and y.

u2 + 2v2 = 1 − x2 + y2 .

## wwDifferentiating partially w.r.t. x

w.E 2u
∂u
∂x
+ 4v
∂v
∂x
= −2x

asy
∂u ∂v
u + 2v = −x. (1)
∂x ∂x
u2 + v2 = x2 + y2 − 2

En
Differentiating partially w.r.t. x

gin ∂u ∂v

ee 2u
∂x
∂u
u +v
∂x
+ 2v
∂x
∂v
∂x
∂v
= 2x

= x.
rin (2)

(1) − (2) ⇒ v
∂x
∂v
= −2x
−2x g.n
et
⇒ =
∂x v
∂u (−2x)
(1) ⇒ u + 2v = −x.
∂x v
∂u
u = 3x
∂x
∂u 3x
⇒ = .
∂x u

## Example 2.45. If z is a function of x and y and

∂2 z ∂2 z ∂2 z ∂2 u
x = u cos α − v sin α, y = u sin α + v cos α, show that + = + . [Jun 2000]
∂x2 ∂y2 ∂u2 ∂v2

98 Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution.
∂z ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂z
= + = cos α + sin α.
∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂x ∂y
∂2 z ∂  ∂z  ∂x ∂  ∂z  ∂y
= +
∂u2 ∂x ∂u ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂u
∂  ∂z ∂z  ∂  ∂z ∂z 
= cos α + sin α cos α + cos α + sin α sin α
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y
2
∂ z 2
∂ z 2
∂ z ∂2 z
= 2 cos2 α + sin α cos α + cos α sin α + 2 sin2 α. (1)
∂x ∂x∂y ∂y∂x ∂y

ww
∂z ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂z
= + = (− sin α) + cos α.
∂v ∂x ∂v ∂y ∂v ∂x ∂y
∂2 z ∂  ∂z  ∂x ∂  ∂z  ∂y

w.E =

=
∂x

∂x
+
∂v2 ∂x ∂v ∂v ∂y ∂v ∂v
∂  ∂z
sin α +
∂z
∂y

cos α (− sin α) +
∂  ∂z
∂y

∂x
sin α +
∂z
∂y

cos α cos α.
2
∂ z
= 2 sin2 α −
∂x asy
2
∂ z
∂x∂y
sin α cos α −
2
∂ z
∂y∂x
2
∂ z
cos α sin α + 2 cos2 α.
∂y
(2)

(1) + (2) ⇒ + En
∂2 z ∂2 z ∂2 z
= (sin2
α + cos 2
α) +
∂2 z
(sin2 α + cos2 α)

gin
∂u2 ∂v2 ∂x2

=
∂2 z ∂2 z
+ .
∂y2

Example 2.46. If F is
2
∂ F ∂ F
that 2 + 2 = e−2u
2 ∂ F ∂ F
+ 2
ee
" 2a function2
∂x2 ∂y2
u

rin
u
# of x and y and if x = e sin v, y = e cos v, prove
[Jan 2013]

g.n
∂x ∂y ∂u2 ∂v
∂F ∂F ∂x ∂F ∂y
Solution. = · + ·
∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u

∂2 F
∂u 2
=
∂ ∂F ∂x
=
!
∂F u
∂x
· e sin v +

+
∂x ∂u ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂u
∂ ∂F ∂y
!
∂F u
∂y
· e cos v.
et
" # " #
∂ ∂F u ∂F u ∂x ∂ ∂F u ∂F u ∂y
= · e sin v + · e cos v + · e sin v + · e cos v
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂u
" 2
∂2 F u
" 2
∂2 F u
# #
∂ F u u ∂ F u
= · e sin v + · e cos v · e sin v + · e cos v + · e sin v · eu cos v
∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y2 ∂y∂x
∂2 F ∂2 F 2u ∂2 F 2u ∂2 F
= 2 · e2u sin2 v + · e sin v cos v + · e sin v cos v + 2 · e2u cos2 v (1)
∂x ∂x∂y ∂y∂x ∂y

## Function of Several Variables 99

∂F ∂F ∂x ∂F ∂y
= · + · .
∂v ∂x ∂v ∂y ∂v
∂F u ∂F u
= · e cos v − · e sin v.
∂x ∂y
∂2 F
! !
∂ ∂F ∂x ∂ ∂F ∂y
= +
∂v2 ∂x ∂v ∂v ∂y ∂v ∂v
" # " #
∂ ∂F u ∂F u u ∂ ∂F u ∂F u
= · e cos v − · e sin v e cos v + · e cos v − · e sin v (−eu sin v)
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y
∂2 F ∂2 F 2u ∂2 F 2u ∂2 F
= 2 · e2u cos2 v − · e sin v cos v − · e sin v cos v + 2 · e2u sin2 v. (2)
∂x ∂x∂y ∂y∂x ∂y

ww ∂2 F ∂2 F ∂2 F 2u ∂2 F 2u
(1) + (2) ⇒ 2 + 2 = 2 e + 2 · e
∂u ∂v ∂x
" 2
∂y
∂2 F
#

w.E e−2u
" 2
∂ F ∂ F 2
#
=e

+ 2 = 2 + 2.
2u ∂ F

2
∂x2
∂ F ∂ F 2
+ 2
∂y

∂u 2 ∂v
asy ∂x ∂y

En
Example 2.47. Transform the equation z xx + 2z xy + zyy = 0 by changing the

gin
independent variables using u = x − y and v = x + y.
Solution. Consider z as a function of u and v and u and v are functions of x and y.
[Jun 2012]

∂z
=
∂z ∂u ∂z ∂v
·
∂x ∂u ∂x ∂v ∂x
=
∂z
·1+
+
∂z
·1
·ee rin
=
∂u
∂z ∂z
+ .
∂v
g.n
∂2 z
=
∂u ∂v!
∂ ∂z ∂u
·
∂x2 ∂u ∂x ∂x ∂v ∂x ∂x
∂ ∂z ∂z
!
+
!
∂ ∂z ∂v
·

∂ ∂z ∂z
!
et
= + ·1+ + ·1
∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u ∂v
∂2 z ∂2 z ∂2 z ∂2 z
= 2+ + + 2
∂u ∂u∂v ∂v∂u ∂v
i.e.,z xx = zuu + zuv + zvu + zvv (1)
∂z ∂z ∂u ∂z ∂v
= · + ·
∂y ∂u ∂y ∂v ∂y

## 100 Engineering Mathematics - I

∂z ∂z
= (−1) + ·1
∂u ∂v
∂z ∂z
=− + .
∂u !∂v
∂2 z
!
∂ ∂z ∂u ∂ ∂z ∂v
= +
∂y2 ∂u ∂y ∂y ∂v ∂y ∂y
! !
∂ ∂z ∂z ∂ ∂z ∂z
= − + (−1) + − + ·1
∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u ∂v
∂2 z ∂2 z ∂2 z ∂2 z
= 2− − + 2.
∂u ∂u∂v ∂v∂u ∂v

## ww i.e., zyy = zuu − zuv − zvu + zvv

∂2 z
=
∂ ∂z
!
(2)

w.E ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y

=
∂ ∂z ∂u
!
+
∂u ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂y ∂x
∂ ∂z ∂v
!

=

asy
∂z ∂z
− +
∂u ∂u ∂v
!
·1+

− +
∂z ∂z
∂v ∂u ∂v
!
·1

∂2 z
=− 2 +
∂u En∂2 z

∂2 z
∂u∂v ∂v∂u ∂v
∂2 z
+ 2.

gin
i.e., z xy = −zuu + zuv − zvu + zvv (3)

## (1) + (2) + 2 × (3) ⇒

ee
z xx + 2z xy + zyy = 2zuv − 2zvu + 4zvv

## 0 = 2zuv − 2zvu + 4zvv . rin

∴ zuv − zvu + 2zvv = 0
g.n
which is the required equation.

## Example 2.48. If z = f (x, y)! where x = u2 − v2 and y = 2uv, prove that

et
∂2 z ∂2 z 2
2
2 ∂ z ∂2 z
+ = 4(u + v ) + . [Jan 2012, Jan 2010]
∂u2 ∂v2 ∂x2 ∂y2
Solution. z is a function of x and y and x and y are functions of u and v.
∴ z is a composite function of u and v.

∂z ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y
= · + ·
∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u

## Function of Several Variables 101

∂z ∂z
= · 2u + · 2v.
∂x ∂y
∂2 z
!
∂ ∂z
=
∂u2 ∂u ∂u
! !
∂ ∂z ∂x ∂ ∂z ∂y
= · + · .
∂x ∂u ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂u
" # " #
∂ ∂z ∂z ∂ ∂z ∂z
= · 2u + · 2v 2u + · 2u + · 2v 2v
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y
∂2 z ∂2 z ∂2 z ∂2 z
= 2 · 4u2 + 4uv + 4uv + 2 · 4v2 .
∂x ∂x∂y ∂y∂x ∂y

ww ∂z
∂v
=
∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y
·
∂x ∂v ∂y ∂v
+ ·

w.E =
∂z
∂x
· (−2v) +
∂z
= −2v + 2u .
∂z
∂y
∂z
· 2u

∂2 z
= asy
∂ ∂z
∂x
!
∂y

∂v2

=
∂v ∂v

En
∂ ∂z ∂x
!
+
∂ ∂z ∂y
!
.

=

"
gin
∂x ∂v ∂v ∂y ∂v ∂v
∂z
−2v + 2u
∂z
#
(−2v) +

"
−2v ·
∂z
+ 2u ·
∂z
#
2u

∂2 z ∂2 z
∂x
∂2 z
= 4v2 2 − 4uv
2
∂x
ee
∂x

∂x∂y
∂y
∂2 z
− 4uv
2
∂2 z
∂y∂x
∂y

+ 4v2 2
∂y
∂x
∂2 z

rin
∂y

g.n
∂ z ∂ z
+ = 2 (4u2 + 4v2 ) + 2 (4u2 + 4v2 )
∂u2 ∂v2 ∂x ∂y
" 2
∂2 z
#
∂ z

2
∂ g ∂ g2 2 2
∂ χ ∂ χ
2
= 4(u + v ) 2
+
∂x2 ∂y2
2 2
.

## ! v) where u = x − y , v = 2xy, prove that

et
2
+ 2 = 4(x2 + y2 ) + .
∂x ∂y ∂u2 ∂v2
Solution.
Similar to the previous problem.

## 102 Engineering Mathematics - I

du
Example 2.50. If u = x2 + y2 + z2 and x = e2t , y = e2t cos 3t, z = e2t sin 3t, find .
dt
[Dec 2011]
Solution.

du ∂u dx ∂u dy ∂u dz
= · + · + ·
dt ∂x dt ∂y dt ∂z dt
h i
= 2x · 2e2t + 2y −3e2t sin 3t + 2e2t cos 3t
h i
+ 2z 3e2t cos 3t + 2e2t sin 3t

ww
h i
= 2e2t · 2e2t + 2e2t cos 3t −3e2t sin 3t + 2e2t cos 3t
h i
+ 2e2t sin 3t 3e2t cos 3t + 2e2t sin 3t

w.E = 4e4t − 6e4t cos 3t sin 3t + 4e4t cos2 3t + 6e4t sin 3t cos 3t + 4e4t sin2 3t

## Example 2.51. Find

dy
asy 2 2 2
if x and y are connected by the relation x 3 + y 3 = a 3 .

En
dx 2 2 2
Solution. Let f (x, y) = x 3 + y 3 − a 3

gin ∂f
fx =
∂x 3
2 1
= x− 3 .

Now
fy =
dy
dx
ee
∂f
∂y 3
fx
=− =−
fy
2 1
= y− 3 .
 x − 13
y
=−
 y  31
x
.
rin
Example 2.52. Find
dy
if f (x, y) = log(x2 + y2 ) + tan−1
y
. g.n
et
dx x
Solution.

∂f 2x 1  y 2x y 2x − y
fx = = 2 + − = 2 − 2 = 2 .
∂x x + y2 y2 x 2 x +y 2 x +y 2 x + y2
1+
x2
∂f 2y 1 1 2y x 2y + x
fy = = 2 + = + 2 = 2 .
∂y x + y2 y2 x x2 +y 2 x +y 2 x + y2
1+
x2
dy fx 2x − y y − 2x
Now =− =− = .
dx fy 2y + x x + 2y

## Definition. If u and v are continuous functions of two independent variables x

and y having first order partial derivatives, then the Jacobian determinant or
the Jacobian of u and v is defined by

∂(u, v)  u, v  ∂u ∂u
or J or J = ∂x ∂y
.
∂(x, y) x, y ∂v ∂v
∂x ∂y

## wwIf u, v, w are continuous functions of three independent variables x, y, z having first

order partial derivatives, then the Jacobian of u, v, w w.r.t. x, y, z is defined as

w.E
∂u
∂(u, v, w) ∂v
∂x
∂u
∂y
∂v
∂u
∂z

∂v .

asy
=
∂(x, y, z) ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂w ∂w ∂w
∂x ∂y ∂z

Properties of Jacobians
En
gin
Property I. If u and v are functions of r and s where r and s are functions of x, y
then

ee
∂(u, v) ∂(u, v) ∂(r, s)
=
∂(x, y) ∂(r, s) ∂(x, y)
.

rin
g.n
Proof. Since u and v are functions of x and y, we have

∂u ∂u ∂r ∂u ∂s
ux =

uy =
= +
∂x ∂r ∂x ∂s ∂x

∂u ∂u ∂r ∂u ∂s
= +
= ur r x + u s s x .

= ur ry + u s sy .
et
∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂y

∂v ∂v ∂r ∂v ∂s
vx = = + = vr r x + v s s x .
∂x ∂r ∂x ∂s ∂x

∂v ∂v ∂r ∂v ∂s
vy = = + = vr ry + v s sy .
∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂y

## 104 Engineering Mathematics - I

∂(u, v) ∂(r, s) ur u s r x ry
Now =
∂(r, s) ∂(x, y) vr v s s x

sy

ur u s r x s x
=
v v r s
r s y y

ur r x + u s s x ur ry + u s sy
=
v r + v s v r + v s
r x s x r y s y

u x uy
=

ww

v v
x y
∂(u, v)
= .

w.E ∂(x, y)

## Property II. If J1 is the Jacobian of u, v with respect to x, y and J2 is the Jacobian

asy
of x, y w.r.t. u, v then J1 J2 = 1. i.e.,
∂(u, v) ∂(x, y)

∂(x, y) ∂(u, v)
= 1.

En
Proof. u is a function of x and y.
Differentiating partially with respect to u and v we get

gin
∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y
1=

ee +
∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u
= u x xu + uy yu .

rin
0=
∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y
+
∂x ∂v ∂y ∂v
= u x xv + uy yv .
g.n
v is a function of x and y.
Differentiating with respect to u and v partially we get
et
∂v ∂x ∂v ∂y
0= + = v x xu + vy yv .
∂x ∂u ∂y ∂v

∂v ∂x ∂v ∂y
1= + = v x xv + vy yv .
∂x ∂v ∂y ∂v

## Function of Several Variables 105

∂(u, v) ∂(x, y) u x uy xu xv
Now =
∂(x, y) ∂(u, v) v x vy yu

yv

u x uy xu yu
=
v v x y
x y v v

u x xu + uy yv u x xv + uy yv
=
v x + v y v x + v y
x u y u x v y v

1 0
=

ww

0 1

J1 J2 = 1.

w.E
Property III. If the functions u, v, w of three independent variables x, y, z are not

asy
independent, then the Jacobian of u, v, w with respect to x, y, z vanishes.
Solution. Given: u, v and w are not independent variables.

En
=⇒ There exists a relation F(u, v, w) = 0.

gin
Differentiating this w.r.t x, y and z we get

∂F ∂u ∂F ∂v ∂F ∂w

ee
+ + =0
∂u ∂x ∂v ∂x ∂w ∂x

∂F ∂u ∂F ∂v ∂F ∂w
+ +
∂u ∂y ∂v ∂y ∂w ∂y
=0
rin
∂F ∂u ∂F ∂v ∂F ∂w
+ + = 0. g.n
et
∂u ∂z ∂v ∂z ∂w ∂z
∂F ∂F ∂F
Eliminating , and from the above three equations we get
∂u ∂v ∂w

∂u ∂v ∂w
∂x ∂x ∂x
∂u ∂v ∂w = 0.
∂y ∂y ∂y
∂u ∂v ∂w
∂z ∂z ∂z

∂(u, v, w)
=⇒ = 0.
∂(x, y, z)

## Functional relationship. Let u1 , u2 , . . . , un be functions of x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . , xn . Then,

a necessary and sufficient condition that u1 , u2 , . . . , un are not independent is that
∂(u1 , u2 , . . . , un )
the Jacobian = 0.
∂(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) ✎ ☞
Worked Examples
✍ ✌

Example 2.53. If x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ, find the Jacobian of x and y w.r.t r and θ.
[Jan 2001]
Solution.

ww x = r cos θ =⇒
∂x
∂r
∂u
= cos θ,
∂x
∂θ
∂u
= −r sin θ.

w.E
y = r sin θ =⇒ = sin θ, = r cos θ.
∂r ∂θ
∂(x, y) ∂x
∂r
∂x
∂θ
cos θ −r sin θ
= r cos2 θ + r sin2 θ = r.
Now, = =

asy
∂(r, θ) ∂y ∂y sin θ r cos θ
∂r ∂θ

En
Example 2.54. The transformation equations in spherical polar coordinates is
x = r sin θ cos ϕ, y = r sin θ sin ϕ, z = r cos θ. Compute the Jacobian of x, y, z w.r.t. r, θ, ϕ.

## Solution. gin [May 2011, Jan 2009]

∂x
∂(x, y, z) ∂y
= ∂r
∂r
∂x
∂θ
∂y

∂x
∂ϕ
∂y
ee

= sin θ sin ϕ r sin ϕ cos θ r sin θ cos ϕ

rin
sin θ cos ϕ r cos θ cos ϕ −r sin θ sin ϕ

g.n
∂(r, θ, ϕ) ∂θ ∂ϕ
∂z ∂z ∂z
cos θ
∂r ∂θ ∂ϕ −r sin θ 0

et

sin θ cos ϕ cos θ cos ϕ − sin ϕ

= r2 sin θ sin θ sin ϕ sin ϕ cos θ cos ϕ

cos θ − sin θ 0

= r2 sin θ sin θ cos ϕ(0 + sin θ cos ϕ) − cos θ cos ϕ(0 − cos θ cos ϕ)





## Example 2.55. In cylindrical polar coordinates, x = ρ cos φ, y = ρ sin φ, z = z. Show

∂(x, y, z)
that = ρ.
∂(ρ, φ, z)
Solution.

∂x ∂x ∂x cos φ −ρ sin φ 0
∂ρ ∂φ ∂z
∂(x, y, z) ∂y ∂y ∂y
= ∂ρ ∂φ ∂z = sin φ ρ cos φ 0
∂(ρ, φ, z)
∂z ∂z ∂z 0 0 1
∂ρ ∂φ ∂z

## wwExample 2.56. If u = 2xy, v = x2 − y2 , x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ, evaluate

∂(u, v)
∂(r, θ)
without

w.E
actual substitution.
Solution. Given that u and v are functions of x and y. x and y are functions of r
[Jan 2009]

asy
and θ.
∴ By property (1) of the Jacobians we have

En
∂(u, v) ∂(u, v) ∂(x, y)
=
∂(r, θ) ∂(x, y) ∂(r, θ)
.

gin

∂u

∂u
∂(u, v) ∂x ∂y
=

=
2y 2x

ee
∂(x, y) ∂v ∂v 2x −2y

∂x ∂y

## = −4y2 − 4x2 = −4(x2 + y2 ) = −4r2 .

∂x

∂x

∂(x, y) ∂r ∂θ cos θ −r sin θ rin
g.n

= =
∂(r, θ) ∂y ∂y sin θ r cos θ

∂r ∂θ

∂(u, v)
∂(r, θ)
= r cos2 θ + r sin2 θ = r

= −4(r2 )r = −4r3 .
et
u+v ∂(u, v)
Example 2.57. If x = uv, y = , find .
u−v ∂(x, y)
∂(u, v) ∂(x, y) ∂(u, v) 1
Solution. We know that =1⇒ = .
∂(x, y) ∂(u, v) ∂(x, y) ∂(x, y)
∂(u, v)
x = uv.

## 108 Engineering Mathematics - I

∂x ∂x
= v, = u.
∂u ∂v
u+v
y= .
u−v
∂y u − v − (u + v) u − v − u − v −2v
= 2
= 2
= .
∂u (u − v) (u − v) (u − v)2
∂y (u − v).1 − (u + v)(−1) 2u
= 2
= .
∂v (u − v) (u − v)2

ww

∂x ∂x v u
∂(x, y) ∂u ∂v
= = −2v 2u

∂(u, v) ∂y ∂y
∂u ∂v (u − v)2
(u − v)2

w.E =
2uv
(u − v)
∂(u, v) (u − v)2
2
+
2uv
(u − v) 2
=
4uv
(u − v)2

asy
∂(x, y)
=
4uv
.

En
Example 2.58. If x = u(1 − v), y = uv then compute J1 and J2 and prove that
J1 J2 = 1.
Solution. We have
gin ∂(x, y) ∂(u, v)

ee
J1 = , J2 =
∂(u, v) ∂(x, y)

∂x
∂x

x = u − uv, y = uv.
rin
g.n
1 − v −u
J1 = ∂u
∂v
= = u − uv + uv = u.
∂y
∂y v u
∂u ∂v
We shall express u and v interms of x and y.

x = u − uv = u − y ⇒ x + y = u.
et
y y
y = uv ⇒ v = = .
u x+y
1
we get J2 = .
u
1
Now J1 J2 = u = 1.
u

## Function of Several Variables 109

x2 x3 x3 x1 x1 x2 ∂(y1 , y2 , y3 )
Example 2.59. If y1 = , y2 = , y3 = , prove that = 4.
x1 x2 x3 ∂(x1 , x2 , x3 )
[Jan 2014]
∂y1 ∂y1 ∂y1
∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3
∂(y1 , y2 , y3 ) ∂y2 ∂y2 ∂y2
Solution. = ∂x ∂x ∂x
∂(x1 , x2 , x3 ) 1 2 3
∂y3 ∂y3 ∂y3
∂x1 ∂x2
∂x3
2 −x2 x3 x3 x2
x1 x1 x1

= xx32 −x3 x1 x1

x22 x2

x2 x1 −x1 x2

ww =
x3
 2
x3

−x2 x3  x1 x2 x3
 2 2 −
2
x3

## x12  x3  x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 

 −

− −

 + x2

+ 2

 x1 x3 x1 x2 x3 

w.E
 
x12 x2 x3 x2 x3  x1  x2 x32 x2 x3  x1 x2 x3 x2 x3
= −1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 4.

asy
Example 2.60. If u = x + y + z, uv = y + z, uvw = z, find
∂(x, y, z)
∂(u, v, w)
.

En
Solution. Given u = x + y + z ⇒ u = x + uv ⇒ x = u − uv = u(1 − v).
[Jan 2012, Jan 2010]

gin
uv = y + z ⇒ uv = y + uvw ⇒ y = uv − uvw = uv(1 − w), uvw = z.

∂x
∂(x, y, z) ∂y
= ∂u
∂(u, v, w)
∂u
ee∂x
∂v
∂y
∂v

∂x
∂w
∂y

1 − v

−u 0
= v(1 − w) u(1 − w) −uv
∂w

rin
g.n
∂z ∂z ∂z
vw
∂u ∂v ∂w uw uv

1 − v −1 0

et

= u(uv) v(1 − w) 1 − w −1

vw w 1

## = u2 v {(1 − v)(1 − w + w) + 1(v(1 − w) + vw)}

= u2 v {(1 − v) + (v − vw + vw)}

= u2 v {1 − v + v} = u2 v.

∂(x, y, z)
Example 2.61. If u = xyz, v = x2 + y2 + z2 , w = x + y + z, find .
∂(u, v, w)

## ∂(x, y, z) ∂(u, v, w) ∂(x, y, z) 1

Solution. We have =1⇒ = .
∂(u, v, w) ∂(x, y, z) ∂(u, v, w) ∂(u, v, w)
∂(x, y, z)

∂u ∂u ∂u yz xz xy
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂(u, v, w) ∂v ∂v

∂v =

= ∂x ∂y ∂z 2x 2y 2z
∂(x, y, z)
∂w ∂w ∂w
1 1 1
∂x ∂y ∂z

## = 2(z2 (x − y) + xy(x − y) − z(x − y)(x + y))

asy
= 2(x − y)(z2 + xy − xz − yz)

## = 2(x − y)(z(z − x) − y(z − x))

En
= 2(x − y)(z − x)(z − y)

gin
= −2(x − y)(y − z)(z − x).

Now, ⇒
∂(x, y, z)
∂(u, v, w)
=
1
∂(u, v, w)
∂(x, y, z)
=
ee 1
−2(x − y)(y − z)(z − x)
.

rin
g.n
Example 2.62. If u = x + 2y + z, v = x − 2y + 3z and w = 2xy − xz + 4yz − 2z2 , show that
they are not independent. Find the relation between u, v and w.
Solution. Given: u = x + 2y + z.

∂u
= 1,
∂u
= 2,
∂u
= 1.
et
∂x ∂y ∂z

v = x − 2y + 3z.
∂v ∂v ∂v
= 1, = −2, = 3.
∂x ∂y ∂z

## Function of Several Variables 111

∂w ∂w ∂w
= 2y − z, = 2x + 4z, = −x + 4y − 4z.
∂x ∂y ∂z

∂u ∂u ∂u 1 2 1
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂(u, v, w) ∂v ∂v ∂v

= ∂x ∂y ∂z
= 1 −2 3
∂(x, y, z)
∂w ∂w ∂w 2y − z 2x + 4z −x + 4y − 4z
∂x ∂y ∂z

## ww + 1(2x + 4z + 2(2y − z))

= 2x − 8y + 8z − 6x − 12z + 2x − 8y + 8z + 12y − 6z + 2x + 4z + 4y − 2z = 0.

w.E
asy
Hence, u, v, w are not independent.
Now u + v = 2x + 4z, u − v = 4y − 2z.

En
(u + v)(u − v) = 2(x + 2z).2(2y − z)

## gin u2 − v2 = 4(2xy − xz + 4yz − 2z2 )

ee
u2 − v2 = 4w.

rin
2.6 Taylor’s expansion for functions of two variables g.n
is
We know that for a function f (x) of one single variable x, the Taylor’s expansion
et
h2 ′′ h3 ′′′
f (x + h) = f (x) + h f ′ (x) + f (x) + f (x) + · · ·
2! 3!

## Now let f (x, y) be a function of two independent variables x, y defined in a region

R of the xy−plane and let (a, b) be a point in R. Suppose f (x, y) has all its partial

## derivatives in a neighbourhood of (a, b) then

 ∂ ∂
f (a + h, b + k) = f (a, b) + h + k f (a, b)
∂x ∂y
1 ∂ ∂ 2 1 ∂ ∂ 3
+ h +k f (a, b) + h +k f (a, b) + · · · +
2! ∂x ∂y 3! ∂x ∂y
 
= f (a, b) + h f x (a, b) + k fy (a, b)
1 2 
+ h f xx (a, b) + 2hk f xy (a, b) + k2 fyy (a, b)
2!
1 3
h f xxx (a, b) + 3h2 k f xxy (a, b) + 3hk2 f xyy (a, b)

ww
+
3!

+ k3 fyyy (a, b) + · · · .

w.E
Put x = a + h, y = b + k then h = x − a, k = y − b.

asy
∴ The Taylor’s series can be written as

 
f (x, y) = f (a, b) + (x − a) f x (a, b) + (y − b) fy (a, b)

+
1
En
(x − a)2 f xx (a, b) + 2(x − a)(y − b) f xy (a, b) + (y − b)2 fyy (a, b)


+
2!
1
3! gin
(x − a)3 f xxx (a, b) + 3(x − a)2 (y − b) f xxy (a, b)

ee 
+ 3(x − a)(y − b)2 f xyy (a, b) + (y − b)3 fyyy (a, b) + · · · .

This is known as the Taylor’s expansion of f (x, y) in the neighbourhood of (a, b) or rin
g.n
Put a = 0, b = 0. we get


f (x, y) = f (0, 0) + x f x (0, 0) + y fy (0, 0)
 et
1 2 
+ x f xx (0, 0) + 2xy f xy (0, 0) + y2 fyy (0, 0)
2!
1 3 
+ x f xxx (0, 0) + 3x2 y f xxy (0, 0) + 3xy2 f xyy (0, 0) + y3 fyyy (0, 0) + · · · .
3!

✎ ☞
Worked Examples
✍ ✌

## Function of Several Variables 113

Example 2.63. Expand e x sin y in powers of x and y as far as the terms of third
degree. [Jun 2013]
Solution. f (x, y) = e x sin y f (0, 0) = 0

## f xx (x, y) = e x sin y f xx (0, 0) = 0

ww f xy (x, y) = e x cos y

f xy (0, 0) = 1

fyy (0, 0) = 0

## w.E f xxx (x, y) = e x sin y f xxx (0, 0) = 0

asy
f xxy (x, y) = e x cos y

f xxy (0, 0) = 1

f xyy (0, 0) = 0

## fyyy (x, y) = −e x cos y En fyyy (0, 0) = −1.

gin
ee rin
Now f (x, y) = f (0, 0) + x f x (0, 0) + y fy (0, 0) +
1 2
2! g.n
x f xx (0, 0) + 2xy f xy (0, 0) + y2 fyy (0, 0)


1 3

et

+ x f xxx (0, 0) + 3x2 y f xxy (0, 0) + 3xy2 f xyy (0, 0) + y3 fyyy (0, 0) + · · ·
3!
1 
= 0 + x.0 + y.1 + x2 .0 + 2xy.1 + y2 .0
2
1 3 
x .0 + 3x y.1 + 3xy2 .0 + y3 (−1) + · · ·
2
6
x2 y y3
= y + xy + − + ··· .
2 6

## Example 2.64. Expand e x loge (1 + y) in powers of x and y upto terms of third

degree. [Jan 2014, Dec 2011, Jan 2003]
Solution.

## 114 Engineering Mathematics - I

2e x
fyyy =
(1 + y)3

f (x, y) = e x loge (1 + y)
f (0, 0) = 0
f x (x, y) = e x loge (1 + y)
ex f x (0, 0) = 0
fy (x, y) =
1+y fy (0, 0) = 1

ww
x
f xx = e log(1 + y)
f xx (0, 0) = 0
ex
f xy = f xy (0, 0) = 1

w.E
1+y
−e x fyy (0, 0) = −1
fyy =
(1 + y)2

asy
f xxx (0, 0) = 0
f xxx = e x log(1 + y)
ex f xxy (0, 0) = 1

En
f xxy =
1+y f xyy (0, 0) = −1
−e x

gin
f xyy = fyyy (0, 0) = 2
(1 + y)2
By Maclaurin’s series we have,

+
2!
ee
f (x, y) = f (0, 0) + x f x (0, 0) + y fy (0, 0)
1 2
rin
x f xx (0, 0) + 2xy f xy (0, 0) + y2 fyy (0, 0)


+
1 3
3!
x f xxx (0, 0) + 3x2 y f xxy (0, 0)
g.n
et

+ 3xy2 f xyy (0, 0) + y3 fyyy (0, 0) + · · · .
1
e x loge (1 + y) = 0 + x.0 + y.1 + (x2 .0 + 2xy.1 + y2 (−1))+
2
1 3
[x · 0 + 3x2 y · 1 + 3xy2 (−1) + y3 (2)] + . . . .
6
y2 x2 y xy2 y3
= y + xy − + − + − ···
2 2 2 3

## Example 2.65. Expand x2 y + 3y − 2 in powers of x − 1 and y + 2 upto third degree

terms. [Jun 2012]

## Solution. f (x, y) = x2 y + 3y − 2. f (1, −2) = 1 × (−2) + 3(−2) − 2

= −2 − 6 − 2 = −10.
f x (x, y) = 2xy.
f x (1, −2) = −4.
2
fy (x, y) = x + 3.
fy (1, −2) = 4.
f xx (x, y) = 2y.
f xx (1, −2) = −4.
f xy (x, y) = 2x.
f xy (1, −2) = 2.

ww fyy (x, y) = 0.

f xxx (x, y) = 0.
fyy (1, −2) = 0.

w.E
f xxx (1, −2) = 0.
f xxy (x, y) = 2.
f xxy (1, −2) = 2.
f xyy (x, y) = 0.

## fyyy (1, −2) = 0.

En
gin
By Taylor’s theorem we have,
ee
f (x, y) = f (a, b) + (x − a) f x (a, b) + (y − b) fy (a, b) rin
+
1 h
2! g.n
(x − a)2 f xx (a, b) + 2(x − a)(y − b) f xy (a, b) + (y − b)2 fyy (a, b)
i

+
1 h
3!
(x − a)3 f xxx (a, b) + 3(x − a)2 (y − b) f xxy (a, b)

## +3(x − a)(y − b)2 f xyy (a, b) + (y − b)3 fyyy (a, b) + · · ·

i et
x2 y + 3y − 2 = f (1, −2) + (x − 1) f x (1, −2) + (y + 2) fy (1, −2)
1 h i
+ (x − 1)2 f xx (1, −2) + 2(x − 1)(y + 2) f xy (1, −2) + (y + 2)2 fyy (1, −2)
2!
1 h
+ (x − 1)3 f xxx (1, −2) + 3(x − 1)2 (y + 2) f xxy (1, −2)
3!
i
+3(x − 1)(y + 2)2 f xyy (1, −2) + (y + 2)3 fyyy (1, −2) + · · ·

## 116 Engineering Mathematics - I

1h i
= −10 − 4(x − 1) + 4(y + 2) + −4(x − 1)2 + 2(x − 1)(y + 2)
2
1h i
+ 6(x − 1)2 (y + 2) + · · ·
6
= −10 − 4(x − 1) + 4(y + 2) − 2(x − 1)2 + (x − 1)(y + 2) + (x − 1)2 (y + 2) + · · ·

Example 2.66. Find the Taylor’s series expansion of x2 y2 + 2x2 y + 3y2 in powers of
(x + 2) and y − 1 upto third degree terms. [Jan 2012, Jun 2010, Jan 2010]
Solution.

## f x (x, y) = 2xy2 + 4xy.

f (−2, 1) = 4 + 8 + 3 = 15.

f x (−2, 1) = −4 − 8 = −12.

## w.E fy (x, y) = 2x2 y + 2x2 + 6y. fy (−2, 1) = 8 + 8 + 6 = 22.

asy
f xx (x, y) = 2y2 + 4y.

## f xy (x, y) = 4xy + 4x.

f xx (−2, 1) = 2 + 4 = 6.

f xy (−2, 1) = −8 − 8 = −16.

## fyy (x, y) = 2x2 + 6.

En fyy (−2, 1) = 8 + 6 = 14.

f xxx (x, y) = 0.

## f xxy (x, y) = 4y + 4. gin f xxx (−2, 1) = 0.

f xxy (−2, 1) = 4 + 4 = 8.

## f xyy (x, y) = 4x.

fyyy (x, y) = 0.
ee f xyy (−2, 1) = −8.

fyyy (−2, 1) = 0.
rin
g.n
By Taylor’s theorem we have,
et
f (x, y) = f (a, b) + (x − a) f x (a, b) + (y − b) fy (a, b)
1 h i
+ (x − a)2 f xx (a, b) + 2(x − a)(y − b) f xy (a, b) + (y − b)2 fyy (a, b)
2!
1 h
+ (x − a)3 f xxx (a, b) + 3(x − a)2 (y − b) f xxy (a, b)
3!
i
+3(x − a)(y − b)2 f xyy (a, b) + (y − b)3 fyyy (a, b) + · · ·

## x2 y2 + 2x2 y + 3y2 = 15 − 12(x + 2) + 22(y − 1)

1h i
+ 6(x + 2)2 − 2 × 16(x + 2)(y − 1) + 14(y − 1)2
2
1h i
+ 24(x + 2)2 (y − 1) − 24(x + 2)(y − 1)2 + · · ·
6
= 15 − 12(x + 2) + 22(y − 1) + 3(x + 2)2 − 16(x + 2)(y − 1) + 7(y − 1)2

## + 4(x + 2)2 (y − 1) − 4(x + 2)(y − 1)2 + · · ·

Example 2.67. Use Taylor’s formula to expand the function defined by f (x, y) =

Solution.
[May 2011]

## w.E f (x, y) = x3 + y3 + xy2 . f (1, 2) = 1 + 8 + 4 = 13.

asy
f x (x, y) = 3x2 + y2 .

## fy (x, y) = 3y2 + 2xy.

f x (1, 2) = 3 + 4 = 7.

fy (1, 2) = 12 + 4 = 16.

f xx (x, y) = 6x.
En f xx (1, 2) = 6.

f xy (x, y) = 2y.
gin f xy (1, 2) = 4.

ee
fyy (x, y) = 6y + 2x. fyy (1, 2) = 12 + 2 = 14.

rin
f xxx (x, y) = 6. f xxx (1, 2) = 6.

## f xyy (x, y) = 2. f xyy (1, 2) = 2.

g.n
fyyy (x, y) = 6. fyyy (1, 2) = 6.
et
By Taylor’s theorem we have,

## f (x, y) = f (a, b) + (x − a) f x (a, b) + (y − b) fy (a, b)

1 h i
+ (x − a)2 f xx (a, b) + 2(x − a)(y − b) f xy (a, b) + (y − b)2 fyy (a, b)
2!

## 118 Engineering Mathematics - I

1 h
+ (x − a)3 f xxx (a, b) + 3(x − a)2 (y − b) f xxy (a, b)
3!
i
+3(x − a)(y − b)2 f xyy (a, b) + (y − b)3 fyyy (a, b) + · · ·
1h i
x3 + y3 + xy2 = 13 + 7(x − 1) + 16(y − 2) + 6(x − 1)2 + 8(x − 1)(y − 2) + 14(y − 2)2
2
1h i
+ 6(x − 1)3 + 6(x − 1)(y − 2)2 + 6(y − 2)3 + · · ·
6
= 13 + 7(x − 1) + 16(y − 2) + 3(x − 1)2 + 4(x − 1)(y − 2) + 7(y − 2)2

## + (x − 1)3 + (x − 1)(y − 2)2 + (y − 2)3 + · · ·

wwExample 2.68. Expand e−x log y as a Taylor’s series in powers of x and y − 1 upto

w.E
third degree terms. [Jun 2011]
Solution.

## f (x, y) = e−x log y.

asy f (0, 1) = 0.

## f x (x, y) = −e−x log y.

e−x En f x (0, 1) = 0.

fy (x, y) =
y
.

## f xx (x, y) = e−x log y. gin

fy (0, 1) = 1.

f xx (0, 1) = 0.

f xy (x, y) = −
e−x
y
. ee
f xy (0, 1) = −1.

rin
fyy (x, y) = −
e−x
y2
. fyy (0, 1) = −1.
g.n
f xxx (x, y) = −e−x log y.

f xxy (x, y) =
e−x
y
.
f xxx (0, 1) = 0.

f xxy (0, 1) = 1. et
e−x
f xyy (x, y) = . f xyy (0, 1) = 1.
y2
2e−x
fyyy (x, y) = . fyyy (0, 1) = 2.
y3

## f (x, y) = f (a, b) + (x − a) f x (a, b) + (y − b) fy (a, b)

1 h i
+ (x − a)2 f xx (a, b) + 2(x − a)(y − b) f xy (a, b) + (y − b)2 fyy (a, b)
2!
1 h
+ (x − a)3 f xxx (a, b) + 3(x − a)2 (y − b) f xxy (a, b)
3!
i
+3(x − a)(y − b)2 f xyy (a, b) + (y − b)3 fyyy (a, b) + · · ·
1 1
e−x log y = y − 1 + [−2x(y − 1) − (y − 1)2 ] + [3x2 (y − 1) + 3x(y − 1)2 + 2(y − 1)3 ] + · · ·
2! 3!

## wwExample 2.69. Expand f (x, y) = tan−1

Hence compute f (1.1, 0.9) approximately.
y
x
about (1, 1) upto the second degree terms.
[Jan 2005]

w.E
Solution. Given, f (x, y) = tan−1
(a, b) = (1, 1)
y
x
a = 1, b = 1
f (1, 1) = tan−1
asy
1 π
1
=
4

fx =
1  −y 
y
1 + x2
2
x 2
= −
En
(x
x2 y
2 + y2 )x2
= 2
x
−y
+ y2
f x (1, 1) =
−1
2

fy =
1 1
2
= 2 gin
x2
2 )x
= 2
x
2
fy (1, 1) =
1

ee
y x (x + y x + y 2
1 + x2
2xy 2 1
f xx = −y(−1)(x2 + y2 )−2 2x = 2
2 2 2
(x + y )
2
2 2

rin
f xx (1, 1) = =
4 2

g.n
x + y − x2x y −x
f xy = 2 2 2
= 2 f xy (1, 1) = 0
(x + y ) (x + y2 )2
−2xy −1
fyy = x(−1)(x2 + y2 )−2 2y = 2
(x + y ) 2 2
fyy (1, 1) =
2
et
By Taylor’s theorem we have

## f (x, y) = f (a, b) + (x − a) f x (a, b) + (y − b) fy (a, b)

1 
+ (x − a)2 f xx (a, b) + 2(x − a)(y − b) f xy (a, b) + (y − b)2 fyy (a, b) + · · ·
2!

## 120 Engineering Mathematics - I

y
tan−1 = f (1, 1) + (x − 1) f x (1, 1) + (y − 1) fy (1, 1)
x
1 
+ (x − 1)2 f xx (1, 1) + 2(x − 1)(y − 1) f xy (1, 1) + (y − 1)2 fyy (1, 1)
2!
π  −1  1 1 1
= + (x − 1) + (y − 1) + (x − 1)2 + 2(x − 1)(y − 1)0
4 2 2 2 2
2 (−1)

+ (y − 1) + ···
2
π 1 11 1 
= − (x − 1 − y + 1) + (x − 1)2 − (y − 1)2 + · · ·
4 2 2 2 2
π 1 1 2 2
= − (x − y) + (x − y − 2x + 2y) + · · ·

ww tan−1
x
4 2
y π 1
4
1 1 1
= − (x − 1) + (y − 1) + (x − 1)2 − (y − 1)2 + · · · .
4 2 2 4 4

w.E π 1 1 1 1
f (1.1, 0.9) = − (0.1) + (−0.1) + (0.1)2 − (−0.1)2 approximately
π
4 2 2 4 4

asy
= − 0.1 = 0.685 approximately.
4
 π
Example 2.70. Find the Taylor’s series expansion of e x sin y at the point − 1,
upto third degree terms.
En 4
[Jan 2009]
Solution.
gin
ee
π 1
f (x, y) = e x sin y f − 1, = √
4 e 2
f x (x, y) = e x sin y f x − 1,
π
4
= √
1
e 2 rin
fy (x, y) = e x cos y fy − 1,
π
4
= √
1
e 2 g.n
f xx = e x sin y

f xy = e x cos y
f xx − 1,

f xy − 1,
π
4
π
= √

= √
1
e 2
1
et
4 e 2
π 1
fyx = e x cos y fyx − 1, = √
4 e 2
π −1
fyy = −e x sin y fyy − 1, = √
4 e 2
π 1
f xxx = e x sin y f xxx − 1, = √
4 e 2

## Function of Several Variables 121

π 1
f xxy = e x cos y f xxy − 1, = √
4 e 2
π −1
f xyy = −e x sin y f xyy − 1, = √
4 e 2
π −1
fyyx = −e x sin y fyyx − 1, = √
4 e 2
π −1
fyyy = −e x sin y

fyyy − 1, = √
4 e 2

ww
w.E
By Taylor’s theorem we have

asy
f (x, y) = f (a, b) + (x − a) f x (a, b) + (y − b) fy (a, b)
1

En

+ (x − a)2 f xx (a, b) + 2(x − a)(y − b) f xy (a, b) + (y − b)2 fyy (a, b)
2!
1
+
3!
gin
(x − a)3 f xxx (a, b) + 3(x − a)2 (y − b) f xxy (a, b)

+ 3(x − a)(y − b)2 f xyy (a, b) + (y − b)3 fyyy (a, b) + · · · .


+
1
π

2
ee π
π
e x sin y = f − 1, + (x + 1) f x − 1, + (y − ) fy − 1,
4 4
π
4
(x + 1) f xx − 1, + 2(x + 1)(y − ) f xy − 1,
π
π
4

rin
π
2!
π 2
+ (y − ) fyy − 1,
4
π 
4
4 4 4

g.n
1
6
3

π 2
π
+ (x + 1) f xxx − 1, + 3(x + 1)2 (y − ) f xxy − 1,
4
π
+ 3(x + 1)(y − ) f xyy − 1, + (y − ) fyyy − 1,
4 4
π 3
4
π
4
π 
4
π
4 et
+ ··· .
1 1 1 π 1
= √ + √ (x + 1) + √ y − + √ (x + 1)2
e 2 e 2 e 2 4 2 2e
1 π 1 π 1
+ √ (x + 1) y − − √ y − 2 + √ (x + 1)3
2e 4 2 2e 4 6 2e
√ √
2 π 2 π 1 π
+ (x + 1)2 y − − (x + 1) y − 2 − √ y − 3 + · · · .
e 4 e 4 6 2e 4

## 122 Engineering Mathematics - I

 π
Example 2.71. Expand e x cos y near the point 1, by Taylor’s series as far as
4
Solution.

π e
f (x, y) = e x cos y f 1, = √
4 2
π π e
f x (x, y) = e x cos y f x 1, = e cos = √
4 4 2
π e
fy (x, y) = −e x sin y fy 1, =−√
4 2

ww f xx = e x cos y f xx 1,
π
4
= √
π  −e
e
2

w.E f xy = −e x sin y

fyy = −e x cos y
f xy 1,

fyy 1,
4
= √
π  −e
= √
2

asy 4 2

En
By Taylor’s theorem we have gin
+
1
ee
f (x, y) = f (a, b) + (x − a) f x (a, b) + (y − b) fy (a, b)

rin
(x − a)2 f xx (a, b) + 2(x − a)(y − b) f xy (a, b) + (y − b)2 fyy (a, b)


x
2!
π π
e cos y = f 1, + (x − 1) f x 1, + (y − ) fy 1,
4 4
π
4
π
4 g.n
+
1
2!
π 2
+ (y − ) fyy 1,
4
π 
4
π
4
+ ···
π
(x − 1)2 f xx 1, + 2(x − 1)(y − ) f xy 1,

4
π
4 et
e e π  (−e)
= √ + (x − 1) √ + y − √
2 2 4 2
1 e π  (−e) π 2 (−e) 
+ (x − 1)2 √ + 2(x − 1) y − √ + y− √ + ···
2 2 4 2 4 2
!
e π 1 π 1 π
= √ 1 + (x − 1) − y − + (x − 1)2 − y − (x − 1) − y − 2 + · · · .
2 4 2 4 2 4

## 2.7 Maxima and Minima for functions of two variables

Definition. Let f (x, y) be a continuous function defined in a closed and bounded
domain D of the xy plane and let (a, b) be an interior point of D.
(i) f (a, b) is said to be a local maximum value of f (x, y) at the point (a, b) if there
exists a neighborhood N of (a, b) such that f (x, y) < f (a, b) for all points (x, y) in
N.
(ii) f (a, b) is said to be a local minimum if f (x, y) > f (a, b) for all points (x, y) in N

ww
other than (a, b).

f (x, y) f (x, y)

w.E f (a, b)
f (a, b)

## asy (x, y) (a, b) (x, y)

X
(x, y) (a, b) (x, y)
X

Y En Y

gin
Local maximum or local minimum values are called extreme values.
Stationary point of f (x, y)
ee
A point (a, b) satisfying f x = 0 and fy = 0 is called a stationary point of f (x, y).
Necessary conditions for Maximum or minimum rin
If f (a, b) is an extreme value of f (x, y) at (a, b), then (a, b) is a stationary point of
g.n
f (x, y) if f x and fy exist at (a, b) and f x (a, b) = 0, fy (a, b) = 0.
Sufficient conditions for extreme values of f (x, y)
Let (a, b) be a stationary point of the differentiable function f (x, y).
et
i.e., f x (a, b) = 0, fy = (a, b) = 0.
Let us define f xx (a, b) = r, f xy (a, b) = s, fyy (a, b) = t.
(i) If rt − s2 > 0 and r < 0, then f (a, b) is a maximum value.
(ii) If rt − s2 > 0 and r > 0 then f (a, b) is a minimum value.
(iii) If rt − s2 < 0, then f (a, b) is not an extreme value but (a, b) is a saddle point of

## 124 Engineering Mathematics - I

f (x, y).
(iv) If rt − s2 = 0, then no conclusion is possible and further investigation is
required.
Working rule to find maxima and minima of f (x, y)
∂f ∂f
step (1). Find f x = and fy = and solve for f x = 0 and fy = 0 as simultaneous
∂x ∂y
equations in x and y.
Let (a, b), (a1 , b1 ), . . . be the solutions which are stationary points of f (x, y).
∂2 f ∂2 f ∂2 f
step (2). Find r = 2 , s = ,t = 2 .

ww ∂x ∂x∂y ∂y
step (3). Evaluate r, s, t at each stationary point.
At the point (a, b) if

w.E
(i) rt − s2 > 0 and r < 0 then f (a, b) is a maximum value of f (x, y).
(ii) rt − s2 > 0 and r > 0 then f (a, b) is a minimum value of f (x, y).

asy
(iii) rt − s2 < 0 then (a, b) is called a saddle point.
(iv) rt − s2 = 0, no conclusion can be made, further investigation is required.
Critical Point
En
gin
A point (a, b) is a critical point of f (x, y) if f x = 0 and fy = 0 at (a, b) or f x and fy do
not exist at (a, b).

✎ ee
Maxima or Minima occur at a critical point.
Worked Examples

rin
3 3
Example 2.72. Examine f (x, y) = x + y − 12x − 3y + 20 for its extreme values.
g.n
Solution. Given f (x, y) = x3 + y3 − 12x − 3y + 20.

f x = 3x2 − 12 fy = 3y2 − 3
et
[ Jun 2013, Jan 2012, May 2011, Jun 2010]

r = f xx = 6x s = f xy = 0 t = fyy = 6y

## For stationary points, solve f x = 0 and fy = 0.

f x = 0 ⇒ 3x2 − 12 = 0 ⇒ x2 − 4 = 0 ⇒ x2 = 4 ⇒ x = ±2.
fy = 0 ⇒ 3y2 − 3 = 0 ⇒ y2 = 1 ⇒ y = ±1.

## Function of Several Variables 125

Stationary points are (2, 1), (2, −1), (−2, 1) and (−2, −1).
rt − s2 = 6x6y − 0 = 36xy.
At (2, 1), rt − s2 = 36 × 2 × 1 = 72 > 0.
At (2, 1), r = 6(2) = 12 > 0.
∴ (2, 1) is a minimum point.
Minimum value is f (2, 1) = 8 + 1 − 24 − 3 + 20 = 29 − 27 = 2.
At (2, −1), rt − s2 = 36 × 2 × −1 = −72 < 0.
∴ (2, −1) is a saddle point.

## wwAt (−2, 1), rt − s2 = 36 × (−2) × 1 = −72 < 0.

∴ (−2, 1) is a saddle point.

w.E
At (−2, −1), rt − s2 = 36 × −2 × −1 = 72 > 0.
r = 6(−2) = −12 < 0.

asy
∴ (−2, −1) is a maximum point.
Maximum value f (−2, −1) = −8 − 1 + 24 + 3 + 20 = 47 − 9 = 38.

En
Example 2.73. Examine f (x, y) = x3 + y3 − 3axy for maximum and minimum
values.
gin [Jan 1999]
Solution.

ee
Given f (x, y) = x3 + y3 − 3axy.

f x = 3x2 − 3ay
rin
fy = 3y2 − 3ax

r = f xx = 6x g.n
s = f xy = −3a t = fyy = 6y.

## For stationary points, solve f x = 0 and fy = 0.

et
x2
f x = 0 ⇒ 3x2 − 3ay = 0 ⇒ ay = x2 ⇒ y = .
a
2 x4
fy = 0 ⇒ 3y − 3ax = 0 ⇒ 2 − ax = 0.
a
 x3 
3 3
x 2 − a = 0 ⇒ x(x − a ) = 0 ⇒ x = 0 or x = a.
a
x=0⇒y=0

## 126 Engineering Mathematics - I

a2
x=a⇒y= a = a.
Stationary points are (0, 0) and (a, a).
At (0, 0), rt − s2 = 6x6y − 9a2 = 36xy − 9a2 = −9a2 < 0.
r = 6x = 0.
∴ No maximum or minimum at (0, 0).
∴ (0, 0) is a saddle point.
At (a, a), rt − s2 = 36a2 − 9a2 = 27a2 > 0 if a , 0.
r = 6x = 6a.

## wwIf a < 0, r < 0.

∴ (a, a) is a maximum point if a < 0.

w.E
If a > 0, r > 0.
∴ (a, a) is a minimum point if a > 0.

asy
Maximum value = a3 + a3 − 3a3 = −a3 if a < 0
Minimum value = −a3 if a > 0.

En
Example 2.74. Discuss the maxima and minima of f (x, y) = x3 y2 (1 − x − y).

## gin [Jan 2014]

ee
Solution. Given: f (x, y) = x3 y2 (1 − x − y) = x3 y2 − x4 y2 − x3 y3 .

rin
f x = y2 [x3 (−1) + (1 − x − y)3x2 ] = x2 y2 [−x + 3 − 3x − 3y]
2 2
= x y [−4x − 3y + 3].
g.n
fy = 2x3 y − 2x4 y − 3x3 y2 .

## s = f xy = 6x2 y − 8x3 y − 9x2 y2 .

et
t = fyy = 2x3 − 2x4 − 6x3 y.

## For stationary points, solve f x = 0 and fy = 0.

f x = 0 ⇒ x2 y2 [−4x − 3y + 3] = 0.
⇒ x = 0, y = 0, 4x + 3y = 3.

## Function of Several Variables 127

fy = 0 ⇒ x3 y(2 − 2x − 3y) = 0.
x = 0, y = 0, 2x + 3y = 2.

Solving 4x + 3y = 3 (1)

2x + 3y = 2 (2)

1
we get 2x = 1 ⇒ x = .
2
1 1
When x = , (1) ⇒ 2 + 3y = 3 ⇒ 3y = 1 ⇒ y = .
2 3

ww
1 1
∴ The stationary points are (0, 0), , .
2 3
At (0, 0), rt − s2 = 0.0 − 0 = 0.

w.E
We can not say maximum or minimum. Further investigation is required.
1 1
At , ,
2 3

r=
1
9 asy 1 1 1
− 12 × − 6 × × + 6 ×
4 2 3
1
2
=
1
9 En  1
− 3 − 1 + 3 = (−1) − .
9
1
9
1
t =2 −2 −6
8
1
16 gin
11 1 1 1
= − − =− .
83 4 8 4
1
8

ee
 11 11 1 1 2  1 1 1 2
2
s = 6 −8 −9 = − −
43 83 49 2 3 4
=
 1 1 2  1 2

4 3
= −
12
=
1
144
.
rin
 1  1 
rt − s2 = −
1
9

1
8

1
144
2−1 g.n
1 1
∴ ,
2 3
= −
72 144

is a maximum point.
=
144
> 0 and r < 0.
et
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 − 3 − 2 1 1
Maximum value is f , = 1− − = = = .
2 3 89 2 3 72 6 72 × 6 432
Example 2.75. Find the extreme values of the function f (x, y) = x4 + y2 + x2 y.
Solution. Given: f (x, y) = x4 + y2 + x2 y.

## 128 Engineering Mathematics - I

fy = 2y + x2 . s = f xy = 2x. t = fyy = 2.

## For stationary points, solve f x = 0 and fy = 0.

f x = 0 ⇒ 4x3 + 2xy = 0 ⇒ 2x(y + 2x2 ) = 0 ⇒ x = 0, y + 2x2 = 0 ⇒ y = −2x2 .
fy = 0 ⇒ 2y + x2 = 0 ⇒ −4x2 + x2 = 0 ⇒ −3x2 = 0 ⇒ x = 0.
When x = 0, y = 0.
∴ The only stationary point is (0, 0).

## ww rt − s2 = (12x2 + 2y)2 − 4x2 .

w.E
At (0, 0), rt − s2 = 0.
We can not say maximum or minimum.

asy
We shall investigate the nature of the function in a neighbourhood of (0, 0).
We have f (0, 0) = 0. In a neighbourhood of (0, 0) on the x−axis, take the point (h, 0),
f (h, 0) = h4 > 0.
En
gin
On the y−axis take the point (0, k), f (0, k) = k2 > 0.
On y = mx, for any m, take the point (h, mh).

ee
f (h, mh) = h4 + m2 h2 + mh3 = h2 [h2 + m2 + mh].
rin
For the quadratic in m, m2 + mh + h2
g.n
discriminant = B2 − 4AC = h2 − 4.1.h2 = −3h2 < 0 if m , 0.
∴ f (h, mh) > 0 for all m , 0.
∴ In a neigbourhood of (0, 0) for all points (x, y), f (x, y) > 0.
et
∴ f (0, 0) is minimum and the minimum value = 0.

## Example 2.76. Find the maximum and minimum values of x2 − xy + y2 − 2x + y.

[ Jun 2012, Jun 2010]
Solution. f (x, y) = x2 − xy + y2 − 2x + y.

## Function of Several Variables 129

f x = 2x − y − 2.

fy = −x + 2y + 1.

r = f xx = 2.

s = f xy = −1.

t = fyy = 2.
For stationary points, solve f x = 0, fy = 0

2x − y − 2 = 0. (1)

ww −x + 2y + 1 = 0. (2)

w.E (1) ⇒ y = 2x − 2.

## asy (2) ⇒ −x + 2(2x − 2) + 1 = 0

−x + 4x − 4 + 1 = 0

En 3x − 3 = 0

gin 3x = 3

ee x = 1.

∴ y = 2 − 2 = 0. rin
The stationary point is (1, 0). g.n
rt − s2 = 4 + 1 = 5 > 0 and r = 2 > 0. et
∴ (1, 0) is a minimum point.
Minimum value of f = 1 − 2 = −1.

Example 2.77. Find the extreme values of the function f (x, y) = x3 +y3 −3x−12y+20.
[Jan 2012]
Solution. f (x, y) = x3 + y3 − 3x − 12y + 20.

## 130 Engineering Mathematics - I

f x = 3x2 − 3.

fy = 3y2 − 12.

r = f xx = 6x.

s = f xy = 0.

t = fyy = 6y.
For stationary points, solve f x = 0, fy = 0.

3x2 − 3 = 0. 3y2 − 12 = 0.

## ww 3x2 = 3. 3y2 = 12.

w.E x2 = 1. y2 = 4.

## asy x = ±1. y = ±2.

En
The stationary points are (1, 2), (−1, 2), (1, −2), (−1, −2).

gin
At (1, 2), rt − s2 = 36xy = 36 × 1 × 2 = 72 > 0.
r = 6 > 0.
∴ (1, 2) is a minimum point.
ee
Minimum value of f = 1 + 8 − 3 − 24 + 20 = 2.
At (−1, 2), rt − s2 = 36xy = 36 × (−1) × 2 = −72 < 0. rin
∴ (−1, 2) is a saddle point.
g.n
At (1, −2), rt − s2 = 36xy = 36 × 1 × (−2) = −72 < 0.
∴ (1, −2) is a saddle point.
At (−1, −2), rt − s2 = 36xy = 72 > 0.
et
r = 6 × (−1) = −6 < 0.
∴ (−1, −1) is a maximum point.
Maximum value of f = −1 − 8 + 3 + 24 + 20 = 38.
Maxima = 38.
Minima = 2.

## Function of Several Variables 131

Example 2.78. Test for maxima and minima of the function f (x, y) = x3 y2 (6 − x − y).
[Jan 2013]
Solution. f (x, y) = x3 y2 (6 − x − y)
= 6x3 y2 − x4 y2 − x3 y3 .
f x = 18x2 y2 − 4x3 y2 − 3x2 y3 .

## ww t = fyy = 12x3 − 2x4 − 6x3 y.

w.E
For stationary points, f x = 0, fy = 0.

## asy x2 y2 (18 − 4x − 3y) = 0

En
gin i.e., 4x + 3y = 18. (1)

ee
fy = 0 ⇒ 12x3 y − 2x4 y − 3x3 y2 = 0

x3 y(12 − 2x − 3y) = 0
rin
2x + 3y = 12. g.n (2)

(1) − (2) ⇒ 2x = 6
x = 3.
et
(1) ⇒ 12 + 3y = 18
3y = 6
y = 2.
The stationary point is (3, 2)
At (3, 2),

## 132 Engineering Mathematics - I

r = 36 × 3 × 4 − 12 × 9 × 4 − 6 × 3 × 8

## = 432 − 432 − 144

= −144 < 0.

t = 12 × 9 − 2 × 81 − 6 × 27 × 2

## = 108 − 162 − 324

= −378.

s = 34 × 9 × 2 − 8 × 27 × 2 − 9 × 9 × 4

## ww = 612 − 432 − 324

w.E = −144.

rt − s2 = (−144)(−378) − (−144)2

= 54432 − 20736

## = 33696 > 0 asy

Since rt − s2
En
> 0 and r < 0, (3, 2) is a maximum point.

gin
∴ Maximum value of f = 27 × 4(6 − 3 − 2) = 108.

ee
Example 2.79. Examine for minimum and maximum values sin x + sin y + sin(x + y).
Solution. We have f (x, y) = sin x + sin y + sin(x + y).

rin
f x = cos x + cos(x + y) fy = cos y + cos(x + y).

## r = f xx = − sin x − sin(x + y) g.n

s = f xy = − sin(x + y)

## t = fyy = − sin y − sin(x + y).

et
For stationary points, solve f x = 0 and fy = 0.

=⇒x = y

## i.e., cos 2x = − cos x.

cos 2x = cos(π − x)

=⇒2x = π − x.

ww i.e., 3x = π
π

w.E π
When x = , y = .
π
x= .
3

π π 3
∴ ,
3 3 
π π
3
is a stationary point.
asy
At ,
3 3
En √ √
π
gin
r = − sin − sin
3
2π − 3
√3
= −
2 √ 2√
3 √
= − 3 < 0.

ee
2π 3 3 3 √
s = − sin =− ,t = − − = − 3.
3 2 2 2
2 3 9
rt − s = 3 − = > 0.
4 4 rin
Since rt − s2 > 0 and r < 0, f (x, y) has a maximum value at , .

π π
3√ 3 √ √ g.n
∴ Maximum value = f ,

Example 2.80.
π π
3 3
Find
π
3
the
π
= sin + sin + sin
3
maximum

3
=
2
3
+
2
and
3
+
2
3 3 3
=
2
minimum
.
et values of
sin x sin y sin(x + y), 0 < x, y < π. [Jan 1997]
Solution. Given f (x, y) = sin x sin y sin(x + y).

## For stationary points, solve f x = 0 and fy = 0.

f x = 0 ⇒ sin y sin(2x + y) = 0.
fy = 0 ⇒ sin x sin(x + 2y) = 0.
Since, x, y , 0& , π ⇒ sin x , 0, sin y , 0.

## ww∴ sin(2x + y) = 0 and sin(x + 2y) = 0.

Since, 0 < x < π, 0 < 2x < 2π

w.E
0 < y < π ⇒ 0 < 2x + y < 3π.
Similarly 0 < x + 2y < 3π. Since, sin(2x + y) = 0 ⇒ 2x + y = π or 2π.
Similarly x + 2y = π or 2π.
asy
En If 2x + y = π (1)

## gin and x + 2y = π (2)

ee
then x − y = 0 ⇒ x = y.
π
∴ (1) ⇒ 3x = π ⇒ x = .
∴y= .
π
3
3
rin
g.n
π π
∴ one stationary point is , .
3 3
If 2x + y = π and x + 2y = 2π then, x − y = −π ⇒ x = y − π.
∴ 2(y − π) + y = π ⇒ 3y − 2π = π ⇒ 3y = 3π ⇒ y = π,
which is not admissible since y , π.
et
Similarly, 2x + y = 2π and x + 2y = π is also not possible.
Now take 2x + y = 2π and x + 2y = 2π
⇒ x−y=0⇒ x=y

⇒ 3x = 2π ⇒ x =
3

∴y= .
3

## Function of Several Variables 135

 2π 2π 
∴ Another stationary point is , .
π π 3 3
At , .
3 3 √
π 3(−1)
r = 2 sin cos π = 2 < 0.
3 2

4π  π π 3
s = sin = sin π + = − sin = − .
3 3 3 2

π 2 3(−1) √
t = 2 sin cos π = = − 3.
3 2

ww √ √  − 3 2 3 9
rt − s2 = (− 3)(− 3) − = 3 − = > 0.
2 4 4
π π

w.E
∴ ,
3 3
is a maximum point.

Maximum value = f ,
π π
√3 √
π π
= sin . sin sin
3 √ 3 √ 3

3
=

2
3

2
3 
sin π −
π
3

 2π 2π 
=
asy
3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2
=
8
.

At
3 3
,
2π 6π

3 En √
r = 2 sin

t = 2 sin
3

cos

cos
3
6π √
=2

= 3.
2
gin
.1 = 3 > 0.

s = sin

3
rt − s2 = 3 3 −
3

√ √

3
= sin 3π −

π
3
 3 2
=

2
3
ee
.
3 9
= 3 − = > 0. rin

 2π 2π 
3 3
,
2
is a minimum point.
4 4

√ √ √ g.n

Minimum value = f
 2π 2π 
,
3 3
= sin

3
sin

3
sin

3
=
3 3
2 2

2
Example 2.81. In a plane triangle, find the maximum value of cos A cos B cos C.
3  −3 3
=
8 et
.

[Jan 2000]
Solution. The angles of the ∆le ABC satisfy 0 < A, B, C < π and A + B + C = π,
=⇒ C = π − (A + B). Replacing C, we get
f (A, B) = cos A cos B cos(π − (A + B)) = − cos A cos B cos(A + B), 0 < A, B < π.
fA = − cos B[cos A(− sin(A + B)) + cos(A + B)(− sin A)] = cos B sin(2A + B).

## fB = − cos A[− sin(A + 2B)] = cos A sin(A + 2B).

r = fAA = 2 cos B cos(2A + B).
s = fAB = cos A cos(A + 2B) + sin(A + 2B)(− sin A) = cos(2A + 2B).
t = fBB = 2 cos A cos(A + 2B).
For stationary points, solve fA = 0, fB = 0.

## cos B = 0 or sin(2A + B) = 0 and cos A = 0 or sin(A + 2B) = 0

ww =⇒ B =
π
2
or 2A + B = π or 2π

w.E
and
A=
π
or A + 2B = π or 2π.

## Different possibilities asy 2

π π
case (i) Let B = and A = .
2 2
En
⇒ A+B=π
=⇒ C = 0 not possible. gin
π
case (ii) If B = and A + 2B = π.
2
⇒ A + π = π ⇒ A = 0 not possible.
π
case (iii) If B = and A + 2B = 2π.
ee rin
2
⇒ A + π = 2π ⇒ A = π not possible.
π g.n
case (iv) A = , 2A + B = π.
2
⇒ π + B = π ⇒ B = 0 not possible.
π
case (v) A = , 2A + B = 2π ⇒ B = π not possible.
2
et
case (vi) If 2A + B = π, A + 2B = π.
Subtracting A − B = 0 ⇒ A = B.
π
∴ 3A = π ⇒ A = .
3
π π
=⇒ B = , C = .
3 3
case (vii) If 2A + B = π and A + 2B = 2π ⇒ A − B = −π not possible.

## Function of Several Variables 137

Finally 2A + B = 2π and A + 2B = 2π ⇒ A − B = 0 ⇒ A = B.
2π 2π
3A = 2π ⇒ A = ,B = .
3 3
2π 2π π
A+B= + = 4 > π not possible.
3 3 3 π π
∴ The only stationary point is , .
π π 3 3
At , ,
3 3
π 1
r = 2 cos cos π = 2 (−1) < 0.
3 2
π
t = 2 cos cos π = −1.
3

wws = cos
2
 4π 
3

= cos π +
π
3
 −1 2
1
=− .
2
1 3

w.E
rt − s = (−1)(−1) − = 1 − = > 0.
π π 2 4 4
∴ , is a maximum point.
3 3
π π π π π 1
∴ Maximum value of f is f ,

asy 3 3
= cos cos cos = .
3 3 3 8

En
Example 2.82. A flat circular plate is heated so that the temperature at any
point (x, y) is U(x, y) = x2 + 2y2 − x. Find the coldest point on the plate. [Jan 2005]
Solution. Given U = x2 + 2y2 − x.
gin
ee
U x = 2x − 1 Uy = 4y.

rin
r = U xx = 2. s = U xy = 0. t = Uyy = 4.
g.n
rt − s2 = 8 > 0 and r = 2 > 0.
∴ All points are minimum points.
At minimum, U x = 0 and Uy = 0.
et
1
U x = 0 ⇒ 2x − 1 = 0 ⇒ x = .
2
Uy = 0 ⇒ 4y = 0 ⇒ y = 0.
1 
∴ The minimum point is , 0 .
2
1 
∴ The coldest point on the plate is , 0 .
2

## 2.8 Constrained Maxima and Minima - Lagrange’s Method

Lagrange’s Method
Let f (x, y, z) be the function for which the extreme values are to be found subject to
the condition
φ(x, y, z) = 0. (1)

## Construct the auxiliary function F(x, y, z) = f (x, y, z) + λφ(x, y, z), where λ is an

undetermined parameter independent of x, y, z which is called the Lagrange’s

## wwmultiplier. Any relative extremum of f (x, y, z) subject to (1) must occur at a

stationary point of F(x, y, z).

w.E
The stationary points of F are given by
∂F
∂x
= 0,
∂F
∂y
⇒ f x + λφ x = 0, fy + λφy = 0, fz + λφz = 0, φ(x, y, z) = 0.
= 0,
∂F
∂z
= 0,
∂F
∂λ
= 0.

fx
=
fy
φ x φy φz
=
fz

asy
= −λ and φ(x, y, z) = 0.
Solving these equations we can find the values of x, y, z which are stationary

En
points of F and the values of f at these points give the maximum and minimum
values of f (x, y, z).
gin

Worked Examples

ee
Example 2.83. Find the maximum value of xm yn z p subject to x + y + z = a.

## rin [Jan 2009]

Solution. Let f = xm ym z p .
φ = x + y + z − a = 0. g.n (1)

## We have to maximise f subject to (1).

Let F = f + λφ where λ is the Lagrange’s multiplier.
et
F = xm yn z p + λ(x + y + z − a).

## To find the stationary points, solve F x = 0, Fy = 0, Fz = 0, φ = 0.

F x = 0 ⇒ mxm−1 yn z p = −λ.

## mxm−1 yn z p = nxm yn−1 z p = pxm yn z p−1 .

m n p m+n+ p m+n+ p
Dividing by xm yn z p we get, = = = = .
x y z x+y+z a
ma na pa
x= ,y = ,z = .

## wwThe stationary point is

m+n+ p
ma
,
m+n+ p
na
,
pa
m+n+ p
!
.

w.E
∴ Max. value of f =
m+n+ p m+n+ p m+n+ p
am+n+p mm nn p p
(m + n + p)m+n+p
.

asy
Example 2.84. Find the minimum value of x2 yz3 subject to 2x + y + 3z = a.
[Jan 2007]
Solution. Given f = x2 yz3 .
En
gin
φ = 2x + y + 3z − a = 0. (1)

ee
Let F = f + λφ where λ is the Lagrange’s multiplier.

## F = x2 yz3 + λ(2x + y + 3z − a).

rin
F x = 2xyz3 + 2λ, Fy = x2 z3 + λ, Fz = 3x2 yz2 + 3λ.
g.n
To find the stationary points, solve F x = 0, Fy = 0, Fz = 0, φ = 0.

## F x = 0 ⇒ 2xyz3 + 2λ = 0 ⇒ xyz3 = −λ.

et
Fy = 0 ⇒ x2 z3 = −λ.

## Fz = 0 ⇒ 3x2 yz2 + 3λ = 0 ⇒ x2 yz2 = −λ.

Therefore
xyz3 = x2 z3 = x2 yz2

## 140 Engineering Mathematics - I

xyz3 = x2 z3 ⇒ y = x.

x2 z3 = x2 yz2 ⇒ y = z.

x = y = z.
a
(1) ⇒ 2x + x + 3x = a ⇒ 6x = a ⇒ x = = y = z.
6
a a a
∴ The stationary point is , , .
6 6 6
 a 2 a  a 3 a6  a 6
Minimum value = = 6 = .

ww 6 6 6 6 6
Example 2.85. If u = x2 + y2 + z2 where ax + by + cz − p = 0, find the stationary value

w.E
of u.
Solution. Given f = x2 + y2 + z2 .
[Jan 2006]

asy φ = ax + by + cz − p = 0. (1)

En
Let F = f + λφ where λ is the Lagrange’s multiplier.

gin
F = x2 + y2 + z2 + λ(ax + by + cz − p).

ee
F x = 2x + aλ, Fy = 2y + bλ, Fz = 2z + cλ.

## To find the stationary points, solve F x = 0, Fy = 0, Fz = 0, φ = 0.

rin
2x + λa = 0 ⇒ x =
−aλ
2
⇒ ax =
−a2 λ
2
. g.n
Similarly
by =
−b2 λ
2
, cz =
−c2 λ
2
.
et
−a2 λ b2 λ c2 λ
(1) ⇒ − − =p
2 2 2
a2 + b2 + c2 −2p
λ = −p ⇒ λ = 2 .
2 a + b2 + c2
ap bp cp
∴x= 2 2 2
,y = 2 2 2
,z = 2 .
a +b +c a +b +c a + b2 + c2

## Function of Several Variables 141

Stationary value of u is

a2 p2 b2 p2 c2 p2
u= + +
(a2 + b2 + c2 )2 (a2 + b2 + c2 )2 (a2 + b2 + c2 )2

p2 (a2 + b2 + c2 ) p2
= = .
(a2 + b2 + c2 )2 a2 + b2 + c2

## Example 2.86. The temperature T at any point (x, y, z) in space is T = 400xyz2 .

Find the highest temperature on the surface of the unit sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = 1.
[Jan 2005]

## w.E T = 400xyz2 (1)

asy
subject to φ = x2 + y2 + z2 − 1 = 0.

## Consider F = T + λφ, where λ is the Lagrange multiplier.

(2)

En
F = 400xyz2 + λ(x2 + y2 + z2 − 1).

gin
F x = 400yz2 + 2λx, Fy = 400xz2 + 2λy, Fz = 400xyz + 2λz.

F x = 0 ⇒ 400yz2 + 2λx = 0 ⇒ −λ =
ee
To find the stationary points, solve F x = 0, Fy = 0, Fz = 0, φ = 0.
200yz2
x
.
rin
g.n
200xz 2
Fy = 0 ⇒ 400xz2 + 2λy ⇒ −λ = .
y
Fz = 0 ⇒ 800xyz + 2λz = 0 ⇒ −λ = 400xy.

200yz2 200xz2

Taking
x
=

x
y
= 400xy.
200yz2 200xz2
=
y
we get x2 = y2 ⇒ y = ±x.
et
200yz2 z2 √
Taking = 400xy we get = 2x ⇒ z2 = 2x2 ⇒ z = ± 2x.
x x
200xz2 z2 √
Taking = 400xy we get = 2y ⇒ z2 = 2y2 ⇒ z = ± 2y.
y y
Substituting in x2 + y2 + z2 = 1 we get
1 1
x2 + x2 + 2x2 = 1 ⇒ 4x2 = 1 ⇒ x2 = ⇒ x = ±
4 2

## 142 Engineering Mathematics - I

1 √ 1 1
∴ y = ± ,z = ± 2 = ± √ .
2 2 2
1 1 1
The stationary points are given by x = ± , y = ± , z = ± √ .
2 2 2
To have maximum value, we must have xy positive.
 1 1 1   1 1 −1   −1 −1 1   −1 −1 −1 
∴ The points are , , √ , , , √ , , , √ , , , √ .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
111 0
∴ Maximum T = 400 = 50 C.
222
Example 2.87. Find the shortest and longest distance from the point (1, 2, −1) to

## wwthe sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = 24 using Lagrange’s method of constrained maxima and

minima. [Jun 2011, Jan 2002]

w.E
Solution. Let P(x, y, z) be any point on the sphere.
Let A be the point (1, 2, −1).

asy
q
AP = (x − 1)2 + (y − 2)2 + (z + 1)2 .

En
Let f (x, y, z) = (x − 1)2 + (y − 2)2 + (z + 1)2 . (1)

gin
AP is minimum or maximum if f is minimum or maximum.
∴ The problem is now reduced to minimise or maximise f subject to
φ(x, y, z) = x2 + y2 + z2 − 24 = 0.
Consider the auxiliary function ee
F = f + λφ = (x − 1)2 + (y − 2)2 + (z + 1)2 + λ(x2 + y2 + z2 − 24) rin
where λ is the
Lagrange’s multiplier.
g.n
F x = 2(x − 1) + 2λx, Fy = 2(y − 2) + 2λy, Fz = 2(z + 1) + 2λz.
To find the stationary points solve
F x = 0, Fy = 0, Fz = 0, φ = 0.
et
x−1 1
F x = 0 ⇒ 2(x − 1) + 2λx = 0 ⇒ x − 1 = −λx ⇒ −λ = =1− .
x x
y−2 2
Fy = 0 ⇒ 2(y − 2) + 2λy = 0 ⇒ y − 2 = −λy ⇒ −λ = =1− .
y y
z+1 1
Fz = 0 ⇒ 2(z + 1) + 2λz = 0 ⇒ z + 1 = −λz ⇒ −λ = =1+ .
z z
1 2 1
∴1− =1− =1+ .
x y z

## Function of Several Variables 143

1 2 1 2
Taking 1 − = 1 − we get = ⇒ y = 2x.
x y x y
1 1
Taking 1 − = 1 + we get z = −x.
x z
2 1 −y
Taking 1 − = 1 + we get z = = −x.
y z 2
We have x2 + y2 + z2 = 24 ⇒ x2 + 4x2 + x2 = 24 ⇒ 6x2 = 24 ⇒ x2 = 4 ⇒ x = ±2.
When x = 2, y = 4, z = −2, the first point is (2, 4, −2). Let this point be P1 .
When x = −2, y = −4, z = 2, the second point is (−2, −4, 2). Let this point be P2 .
√ √ √ √ √
P1 A = 1 + 4 + 1 = 6, P2 A = 9 + 36 + 9 = 54 = 3 6

## ww∴ Shortest distance = 6

Longest distance = 3 6.

w.E
Example 2.88. A rectangular box open at the top is to have a volume of 32cc.
Find the dimensions of the box which requires least amount of material for its
construction.
asy [Jun 2012, Dec 2011, Jun 2010, Jan 2005]

En
Solution. Let the dimensions of the box be Length = x, Breadth = y, height = z.
Given: Volume = 32cc.

gin
=⇒ xyz = 32, x, y, z > 0. (1)

ee
We have to minimize the amount of material used for the construction of the box.
Let S be the surface area of the box whose top is open

rin
∴ S = xy + 2xz + 2yz

g.n (2)

et
By Lagrange’s method
Let F = s + λφ = xy + 2yz + 2xz + λ(xyz − 32) where λ is the Lagrange’s multiplier.
F x = y + 2z + λyz, Fy = x + 2z + λxz, Fz = 2y + 2x + λxy.
To find the stationary points, solve

F x = 0, Fy = 0, Fz = 0, φ = 0

F x = 0 ⇒ y + 2z + λyz = 0

=⇒ y + 2z = −λyz

## 144 Engineering Mathematics - I

y 2z
⇒ + = −λ
yz yz
1 2
⇒ + = −λ (3)
z y
Fy = 0 ⇒ x + 2z + λxz = 0
=⇒ x + 2z = −λxz

## i.e., xy + 2yz = −λxyz.

xy 2yz
⇒ + = −λ
xyz xyz

ww ⇒
1 2
+ = −λ
z x
(4)

w.E
Fz = 0 ⇒ 2y + 2x + λxy = 0
=⇒ 2x + 2y = −λxy

2xz 2yz

En⇒ +
xyz xyz
= −λ

gin

2 2
+ = −λ
y x
(5)

(3) − (4) ⇒

ee
2 2
− =0
y x
1 1 rin
=
y x
⇒x=y g.n (6)

(3) − (5) ⇒
1 2
− =0
z x
et
1 2
=
z x
⇒ x = 2z (7)

## From (6)and(7) we obtain x = y = 2z.

(1)⇒ 2z.2z.z = 32 ⇒ 4z3 = 32 ⇒ z3 = 8 ⇒ z = 2.

## Function of Several Variables 145

∴ x = 4, y = 4.
The stationary point is (4, 4, 2).
The dimensions are 4cm, 4cm, 2cm.

Example 2.89. Find the dimensions of the rectangular box open at the top of
maximum capacity whose surface area is 432 sq.m. [Jun 2013]
Solution. Let the dimensions of the box be x, y, z.
Given, surface area= 432.

## ww xy + 2xz + 2yz = 432 (1)

w.E
Let V be the volume of the box.
We have to maximize V.

By lagrange’s method
asy V = xyz (2)

En
F = V + λφ, where λ is the lagrange multiplier.

gin
F = xyz + λ(xy + 2xz + 2yz − 432).

ee
F x = yz + λ(y + 2z).

rin
Fy = xz + λ(x + 2z).

Fz = xy + λ(2x + 2y).

## Fλ = xy + 2xz + 2yz − 432.

For stationary points, F x = 0, Fy = 0, Fz = 0, Fλ = 0. g.n
F x = 0 ⇒ yz + λ(y + 2z) = 0 et
⇒ xyz + λ(xy + 2xz) = 0. (1)

Fy = 0 ⇒ xz + λ(x + 2z) = 0

## ⇒ xyz + λ(xy + 2yz) = 0. (2)

Fz = 0 ⇒ xy + λ(2x + 2y) = 0

## (1) + (2) + (3) ⇒

3xyz + λ(2xy + 4xz + 4yz) = 0

## 3xy + 2λ(xy + 2xz + 2yz) = 0

3xyz + 2λ × 432 = 0

3xyz = −864λ
3xyz xyz
λ=− =−

ww 864 288
Substituting the value of λ in F x = 0 we get

w.E yz −
xyz
288
(y + 2z) = 0

asy 1−
x
288
(y + 2z) = 0

En 1=
x
288
(y + 2z)

## gin xy + 2xz = 288 (4)

ee
Fy = 0 ⇒ xz −

y
xyz
288
(x + 2z) = 0

rin
y
1−
288
(x + 2z) = 0

y g.n
1−
288
(x + 2z) = 0, 1 =

xy + 2yz = 288
288
(x + 2z)
et (5)

xyz
Fz = 0 ⇒ xy − (2x + 2y) = 0
288
z z
1− (2x + 2y) = 0, 1 = (2x + 2y)
288 288

∴ x−y=0

⇒ x = y.

## (5) − (6) ⇒ xy − 2xz = 0

x(y − 2z) = 0, x , 0

∴ y − 2z = 0

y = 2z.

ww ∴ x = y = 2z

## 4z2 + 4z2 = 288

asy z2 = 36.

z = ±6.

En z = −6 is not possible

gin ∴ z = 6.

ee
∴ y = 2z = 12

x = 2z = 12

rin
The dimensions of the box to have maximum capacity are

g.n
Length = 12m

et
Height = 6m.

ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et

3 Integral Calculus

## ww3.1 The definite integral

w.E
Integration as the limit of a sum

asy y = f (x)

·········En
n rectangles
f (xk )

gin ∆x
x1 = a x2 x3

ee
xn+1 = b

rin
Consider the graph of the positive function y = f (x). Let us find the area
under the curve y = f (x),between the x−axis and the ordinates x = a and x = b. g.n
Divide this area into n rectangles of equal width ∆x =
b−a
n
. Let the x− co ordinates
at the left hand side of the rectangles be x1 = a, x2 , x3 , . . . xn+1 = b. Consider a typical
rectangle, the kth one with height f (xk ). The area of this rectangle is f (xk )∆x. The
et
sum of all the areas of the n rectangles is

## f (x1 )∆x + f (x2 )∆x + · · · + f (xn )∆x.

n
P
In summation convention form, this can be written as f (xk )∆x. This
k=1
gives an estimate of the area under the curve but it is not exact. To improve the

## 150 Engineering Mathematics - I

estimate we must take a large number of very thin rectangles. This can be
achieved by allowing n → ∞ and making ∆x → 0.
n
P
∴ Area under the curve = lim f (xk )∆x.
n=∞ k=1
The lower and upper limits on the sum correspond to the first and the
last rectangle where x = a and x = b respectively. Hence the above limit can be
b
P
written as lim f (x)∆x. Since the number of rectangles increase without bound,
∆x→0 x=a
we drop the subsript k from xk and write f (x) which is the value of f at a typical
value of x. If this can actually be found, it is called the definite integral of f (x)

ww Rb
from x = a and x = b and it is written as f (x)dx.
a

w.E
Rb n
P b
P
∴ f (x)dx = lim f (xk )∆x = lim f (x)∆x.
n=∞ k=1 ∆x→0 x=a
a
Note. If we approximate each strip by a rectangle that has the same base as the

asy
strip and whose height is the same as the right edge of the strip; (i.e., xk is taken
at the right end points of the kth rectangle and f (xk ) as the height ) then also the
above result will be achieved.
En
gin
Definition of a definite integral. If f is a function defined for a ≤ x ≤ b, we
divide the interval [a, b] into n subintervals of equal width ∆x =
b−a
. We let

ee
n
x0 (= a), x1 , x2 , · · · xn (= b) be the end points of these subintervals and if we choose

rin
x1∗ , x2∗ , · · · xn∗ as any sample ponits in these subintervals, so that xi∗ lies in the ith
subinterval [xi−1 , xi ]. Then the definite integral of f from a to b is defined as
Rb
f (x)dx = lim
n
P
g.n
f (xi∗ )∆x, provided that the limit exists and gives the same value
n=∞ i=1

et
a
for all possible choices of sample points. If it does exist, we say that f is
integrable on [a, b].

Rb n
f (xi∗ )∆x can also be written as, for ∈> 0, there is an
P
Result (1). f (x)dx = lim
n=∞ i=1
a
Rb n
f (xi∗ )∆x <∈ for every integer n > N and for
P
integer N such that f (x)dx −
a i=1
every choice of xi∗ in [xi−1 , xi ].

## Integral Calculus 151

n
f (xi∗ )∆x is called the Reimann sum.
P
Result (2). The sum
i=1

Theorem 1. If f is continuos on [a, b], (or) if f has only a finite number of jump
Rb
discontinuities, then f is integrable on [a, b].[i.e., f (x)dx exists].
a
Rb n
P
Theorem 2.If f is integrable on [, b], then f (x)dx = lim f (xi )∆x where ∆x =
n=∞ i=1
a
b−a
and xi = a + i∆x.
n ✎ ☞
Worked Examples

ww ✍

R1

w.E
Example 3.1. Using the area property evaluate

## areas of the upper approximating rectangles approaches .

0
1
3
x2 dx. Show that the sum of the

asy
Solution. Consider the function y = f (x) = x2 . Divide the area under the curve
y = x2 between x = 0 and x = 1 into 4 rectangles of equal width ∆x =
1−0 1
= .

En
The width of each rectangle is .
1
# " 4# "
4 4

gin
" # " #
1 1 1 1 3 3
The subintervals are 0, , , , , and , 1 .
4 4 2 2 4 4

ordinates at x = 0, , & .
4 2 4 ee
The height of the rectangles is approximated to the value of the
1 1 3

rin
g.n
! ! !
1 1 3
∴ Area of the required portion = f (0)∆x + f ∆x + f ∆x + f ∆x.
4 2 4

et
!2 !2 !2
2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1
=0 . + . + . + .
4 4 4 2 4 4 4
" #
1 1 1 9
= 0+ + +
4 16 4 16
" #
1 1+4+9
=
4 16
1 14 7
= × = .
4 16 32

## ordinates at the right edge of each rectangle then,

! ! !
1 1 3
Area = f ∆x + f ∆x + f ∆x + f (1)∆x.
4 2 4
!2 !2 !2
1 1 1 1 3 1 1
= . + . + . + 12 ·
4 4 2 4 4 4 4
" # " #
1 1 1 9 1 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 1 30 15
= + + +1 = = × = .
4 16 4 16 4 16 4 16 32
Now, let us divide the area " into # "n rectangles
# " each of their
# with width
1−0 1 1 1 2 n−1 n

ww∆x =
n
= . The subintervals are 0, , , , · · · ,
n n n n
, =1 .
n n
The heights of the rectangle are the values of the function f (x) = x2 at
1 2 3 n

w.E
the points , , · · · .
n n n n
!2
1 1
!2
2 1
!2
3 1  n 2 1
∴ Area =
n n
. +

1 12 22 32
"
asyn n
. +
n n
. + ··· +

n2
#
n n
.

En
= + + + · · · +
n n2 n2 n2 n2
1 h i
= 3 12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + n2
n "
= 3
1 n(n + 1)(2n + 1)gin #
=
(n + 1)(2n + 1)
n
lim (Area) = lim
n=∞ n=∞
6
(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6n2
ee
n (1 + 1n )(2 + 1n ) 2 1
2
6n2

rin
= lim
n=∞ 6n2
= = .
6 3
g.n
Properties of definite integrals.

Ra
et
The following properties can be easily proved using Riemann sums.
Rb
(i) f (x)dx = − f (x)dx.
b a

Ra
(ii) f (x)dx = 0.
a

Rb
(iii) cdx = c(b − a),where c is any constant.
a

## Integral Calculus 153

Rb Rb Rb
(iv) [ f (x) + g(x)]dx = f (x)dx + g(x)dx.
a a a

Rb Rb
(v) c f (x)dx = c f (x)dx,where c is any constant.
a a

Rb Rb Rb
(vi) [ f (x) − g(x)]dx = f (x)dx − g(x)dx.
a a a

Rb Rc Rb
(vii) If a < c < b then f (x)dx = f (x)dx + f (x)dx.

ww a

a c

Rb
a
f (x)dx ≥ 0.

## (ii) If f (x) ≥ g(x) for a ≤ x ≤ b, then

asy Rb
a
f (x)dx ≥
Rb
a
g(x)dx.

En
(iii) If m ≤ f (x) ≤ M for a ≤ x ≤ b, then m(b − a) ≤
Rb
f (x)dx ≤ M(b − a).
Proof. Given m ≤ f (x) ≤ M
gin a

Rb Rb
ee
Integrating between a and b we get
Rb
mdx ≤ f (x)dx ≤ Mdx
a a a
rin
g.n
Rb Rb Rb
m dx ≤ f (x)dx ≤ M dx
a a a
Rb

## The first fundamental theorem of calculus

m(b − a) ≤
a
f (x)dx ≤ M(b − a).
et
Statement. If f is continuous on [a, b], then the function g defined by
Rx
g(x) = f (t)dt, a ≤ x ≤ b
a

## is continuous on [a, b] and is differentiable on (a, b) and g′ (x) = f (x).

Proof.Choose x and x + b ∈ (a, b).

## 154 Engineering Mathematics - I

y
Zx+h Zx
Now, g(x + h) − g(x) = f (t)dt − f (t)dt
a a
Zx Zx+h Zx
= f (t)dt + f (t)dt − f (t)dt m M

a x a
Zx+h
= f (t)dt. 0 x u v x+h x
x

## ww g(x + h) − g(x) 1 x+h

R
Hence, for h , 0, we have = f (t)dt. (1)
h h x
Let us assume that h > 0. Since f is continuous on [x, x + h], by the

w.E
extreme value theorem, there exists numbers u and v in [x, x + h] such that
f (u) = m and f (v) = M, where m and M are the absolute minimum and maximum

asy
values of f on [x, x + h]. By the comparison property of the definite integral we
have

En mh ≤
x+h
R
f (t)dt ≤ Mh.

gin
x
x+h
R
f (u)h ≤ f (t)dt ≤ f (v)h.

ee
x
Since h > 0, dividing throughout by h we get
x+h

rin
R
f (u) ≤ h1 f (t)dt ≤ f (v). (2)
x

g.n
(2) can be proved in a similar way for h < 0.
Now, allowing h → 0 and since u and v lie in [x, x + h], we have u → x
and v → x. Since f is continuous at x,we have

## ∴ lim f (u) = lim f (u) = f (x)

h→0 u→x
et
and lim f (v) = lim f (v) = f (x).
h→0 v→x

By (2) we have
Zx+h
1
lim f (u) ≤ lim f (t)dt ≤ lim f (v)
h→0 h→0 h h→0
x

ww
w.E
a syE
ngi
nee
rin
g.n
et

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## Integral Calculus 155

g(x + h) − g(x)
f (x) ≤ lim ≤ f (x) [by (1)]
h→0 h
i.e., f (x) ≤ g′ (x) ≤ f (x).

## Since every differentiable function is continuous,

we obtain g is also continuous on (a, b).

## ww If x = a or x = b, from (3) we get the one sided limits at a and b.

This shows that g is continuous on [a, b].

w.E
Rx √
Example 3.2. Find the derivative of the function g(x) = 1 + t2 dt.
√ 0
Solution. Since f (t) = 1 + t2 is continuous on [0, x], by part 1 of the Fundamental

asy
theorem of calculus we get g′ (x) = 1 + x2

En
 4 
d Rx 
Example 3.3. Find  sec tdt.
dx 1
Solution. Let u = x 4

 x4 gin  u 

ee
Z  Z
d  d 


∴  sec tdt =  sec tdt
dx   dx 

rin

1 1
 u 
Z
d   du

=
1
du
 sec tdt ·
dx
g.n
[By Chain rule]

= sec u · 4x3

= sec x4 · 4x3 .
[by FTC 1]
et
Second Fundamental theorem of calculus
Rb
Statement.If f is continuous on [a, b], then f (x)dx = F(b) − F(a) where F is any
a
antiderivative of f . [i.e, a function such that F ′ = f ].
Rx
Proof. Let g(x) = f (t)dt.
a
By the First Fundamental theorem of calculus we have g′ (x) = f (x). i.e,

## 156 Engineering Mathematics - I

g is an antiderivative of f .
If F is any other antiderivative of f on [a, b], we know that F and g differ
by a constant.
∴ F(x) = g(x) + c for a < x < b.
Since both F and g are continuous on [a, b] the above relation holds when x = a and
x = b.
i.e lim F(x) = F(a) & lim F(x) = F(b).
x→a+ x→b−
Also lim g(x) = g(a) & lim g(x) = g(b).

ww
x→a+ x→b−
Hence we obtain F(x) = g(x) + c for all x in [a, b] (1)
Ra
When x = a, we have g(a) = f (t)dt = 0.

## w.E Using (1) for x = b and x = a we get

a

asy
F(b) − F(a) = [g(b) + c] − [g(a) + c]

= g(b) − g(a)

En = g(b) =
Zb
f (t)dt.

gin a
Result. The First and Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus are combined

## Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

ee
together is called the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

rin
Suppose f is continuous on [a, b]
Rx
(i) If g(x) = f (t)dt, then g′ (x) = f (x).
g.n
et
a
Rb
(ii) f (x)dx = F(b) − F(a), where F is any antiderivative of f . (i.e., F ′ = f .)
a
Note (1). The Fundamental theorem of calculus says that differentiation and
integration are inverse processors.
Note (2). By part(ii) of the Fundamental theorem of calculus we have
Rb
f (x)dx = F(b) − F(a) where F ′ = f .
a
Rb
i.e F ′ (x)dx = F(b) − F(a).
a

## The above result is sometimes called as the Net Change Theorem.

Net Change Theorem
Statement. The integral of a rate of change is the net change.
Rb
i.e F ′ (x)dx = F(b) − F(a).

a ☞
Worked Examples
✍ ✌
R3
Example 3.4. Evaluate (x2 − 2x)dx by using Reimann sum by taking right end
0
points as the sample points. Hence verify it by using fundamental theorem of

wwcalculus.
Solution. Let f (x) = x2 − 2x.

w.E Divide the interval [0, 3] into n sub intevals with equal width
∆x =
3−0 3
= .
n n "
asy
3
n
# "
3 6
# "
The intervals are 0, , , , , , · · ·
n n
6 9
n n
# "
3n − 3 3n
n
,
n
#
.

En
The sample points xi∗ are the right end points of the sub intervals.
3 6 9
∴ xi∗ = , , , · · · .
3n

gin
n n n n
The corresponding f (xi∗ ) = xi∗ 2 − 2xi∗ are calculated and tabulated as
follows.

xi∗ 3
n
ee 6
n
9
n ··· 3n
n rin
f (xi∗ )
By Reimann’s sum we have,
9
n2
− 6
n
36
n2
− 12
n
81
n2
− 18
n ··· 9n2
n2
− 6n
n
g.n
Z3

0
(x2 − 2x)dx = lim
n=∞
n
X

i=1
f (xi∗ )∆x
et
9n2 6n 3
" ! ! ! ! #
9 6 3 36 12 3 81 18 3
= lim − + − + − + · · · + −
n=∞ n2 n n n2 n n n2 n n n2 n n
" 3 2
! 3 2
! 3 2
!
3 3 3 3 3 3
= lim 3
· 1 − 2 · 2 + 3 · 22 − 2 · 4 + 3 · 32 − 2 · 6
n=∞ n n n n n n
3 32
!#
3 2
+ · · · + 3 · n − 2 · 2n
n n

## 158 Engineering Mathematics - I

33  2 2 2 2
 32
= lim 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n − lim (2 + 4 + 6 + · · · + 2n)
n=∞ n3 n=∞ n2
27 h n(n + 1)(2n + 1) i 9 h n(n + 1) i
= lim 3 − lim 2 · 2
n=∞ n 6 n=∞ n 2
3 1 1
h n (1 + n )(2 + n ) i h n (1 + 1n ) i 27
2
27
= lim − 9 lim = × 2 − 9 = 0.
6 n=∞ n3 n=∞ n2 6

## By the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus we have

Z3 !3
2 x3 x2 27
(x − 2x)dx = −2· = − 9 = 9 − 9 = 0.
3 2 0 3

ww 0

w.E
Example 3.5. Evaluate the integral

R1 √
R1 √
0
1 − x2 dx interms of areas.

Solution.
0
asy
1 − x2 dx represents the area under the curve y = 1 − x2 between
the x−axis and the lines x = 0 and x = 1.

p
En y

gin
Now, y = 1 − x2

y2 = 1 − x2
0 1x
2 2
x + y = 1.
ee
This is a circle with centre at the origin and radius = 1 unit. Since we rin
need the area between x = 0 and x = 1, the required area is the area of the portion
1 π g.n
of the circle that lies in the first quadrant = · π × 12 = .

R1 √
0
π
1 − x2 dx = .
4
4 4
et
R3
Example 3.6. Evaluate the integral (x − 1)dx interms of areas.
0
R3
Solution. (x − 1)dx represents the area under the curve y = (x − 1) between the
0
x−axis and the lines x = 0 and x = 3.

3 Integral Calculus

## ww3.1 The definite integral

w.E
Integration as the limit of a sum

asy y = f (x)

·········En
n rectangles
f (xk )

gin ∆x
x1 = a x2 x3

ee
xn+1 = b

rin
Consider the graph of the positive function y = f (x). Let us find the area
under the curve y = f (x),between the x−axis and the ordinates x = a and x = b. g.n
Divide this area into n rectangles of equal width ∆x =
b−a
n
. Let the x− co ordinates
at the left hand side of the rectangles be x1 = a, x2 , x3 , . . . xn+1 = b. Consider a typical
rectangle, the kth one with height f (xk ). The area of this rectangle is f (xk )∆x. The
et
sum of all the areas of the n rectangles is

## f (x1 )∆x + f (x2 )∆x + · · · + f (xn )∆x.

n
P
In summation convention form, this can be written as f (xk )∆x. This
k=1
gives an estimate of the area under the curve but it is not exact. To improve the

## 150 Engineering Mathematics - I

estimate we must take a large number of very thin rectangles. This can be
achieved by allowing n → ∞ and making ∆x → 0.
n
P
∴ Area under the curve = lim f (xk )∆x.
n=∞ k=1
The lower and upper limits on the sum correspond to the first and the
last rectangle where x = a and x = b respectively. Hence the above limit can be
b
P
written as lim f (x)∆x. Since the number of rectangles increase without bound,
∆x→0 x=a
we drop the subsript k from xk and write f (x) which is the value of f at a typical
value of x. If this can actually be found, it is called the definite integral of f (x)

ww Rb
from x = a and x = b and it is written as f (x)dx.
a

w.E
Rb n
P b
P
∴ f (x)dx = lim f (xk )∆x = lim f (x)∆x.
n=∞ k=1 ∆x→0 x=a
a
Note. If we approximate each strip by a rectangle that has the same base as the

asy
strip and whose height is the same as the right edge of the strip; (i.e., xk is taken
at the right end points of the kth rectangle and f (xk ) as the height ) then also the
above result will be achieved.
En
gin
Definition of a definite integral. If f is a function defined for a ≤ x ≤ b, we
divide the interval [a, b] into n subintervals of equal width ∆x =
b−a
. We let

ee
n
x0 (= a), x1 , x2 , · · · xn (= b) be the end points of these subintervals and if we choose

rin
x1∗ , x2∗ , · · · xn∗ as any sample ponits in these subintervals, so that xi∗ lies in the ith
subinterval [xi−1 , xi ]. Then the definite integral of f from a to b is defined as
Rb
f (x)dx = lim
n
P
g.n
f (xi∗ )∆x, provided that the limit exists and gives the same value
n=∞ i=1

et
a
for all possible choices of sample points. If it does exist, we say that f is
integrable on [a, b].

Rb n
f (xi∗ )∆x can also be written as, for ∈> 0, there is an
P
Result (1). f (x)dx = lim
n=∞ i=1
a
Rb n
f (xi∗ )∆x <∈ for every integer n > N and for
P
integer N such that f (x)dx −
a i=1
every choice of xi∗ in [xi−1 , xi ].

## Integral Calculus 151

n
f (xi∗ )∆x is called the Reimann sum.
P
Result (2). The sum
i=1

Theorem 1. If f is continuos on [a, b], (or) if f has only a finite number of jump
Rb
discontinuities, then f is integrable on [a, b].[i.e., f (x)dx exists].
a
Rb n
P
Theorem 2.If f is integrable on [, b], then f (x)dx = lim f (xi )∆x where ∆x =
n=∞ i=1
a
b−a
and xi = a + i∆x.
n ✎ ☞
Worked Examples

ww ✍

R1

w.E
Example 3.1. Using the area property evaluate

## areas of the upper approximating rectangles approaches .

0
1
3
x2 dx. Show that the sum of the

asy
Solution. Consider the function y = f (x) = x2 . Divide the area under the curve
y = x2 between x = 0 and x = 1 into 4 rectangles of equal width ∆x =
1−0 1
= .

En
The width of each rectangle is .
1
# " 4# "
4 4

gin
" # " #
1 1 1 1 3 3
The subintervals are 0, , , , , and , 1 .
4 4 2 2 4 4

ordinates at x = 0, , & .
4 2 4 ee
The height of the rectangles is approximated to the value of the
1 1 3

rin
g.n
! ! !
1 1 3
∴ Area of the required portion = f (0)∆x + f ∆x + f ∆x + f ∆x.
4 2 4

et
!2 !2 !2
2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1
=0 . + . + . + .
4 4 4 2 4 4 4
" #
1 1 1 9
= 0+ + +
4 16 4 16
" #
1 1+4+9
=
4 16
1 14 7
= × = .
4 16 32

## ordinates at the right edge of each rectangle then,

! ! !
1 1 3
Area = f ∆x + f ∆x + f ∆x + f (1)∆x.
4 2 4
!2 !2 !2
1 1 1 1 3 1 1
= . + . + . + 12 ·
4 4 2 4 4 4 4
" # " #
1 1 1 9 1 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 1 30 15
= + + +1 = = × = .
4 16 4 16 4 16 4 16 32
Now, let us divide the area " into # "n rectangles
# " each of their
# with width
1−0 1 1 1 2 n−1 n

ww∆x =
n
= . The subintervals are 0, , , , · · · ,
n n n n
, =1 .
n n
The heights of the rectangle are the values of the function f (x) = x2 at
1 2 3 n

w.E
the points , , · · · .
n n n n
!2
1 1
!2
2 1
!2
3 1  n 2 1
∴ Area =
n n
. +

1 12 22 32
"
asyn n
. +
n n
. + ··· +

n2
#
n n
.

En
= + + + · · · +
n n2 n2 n2 n2
1 h i
= 3 12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + n2
n "
= 3
1 n(n + 1)(2n + 1)gin #
=
(n + 1)(2n + 1)
n
lim (Area) = lim
n=∞ n=∞
6
(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6n2
ee
n (1 + 1n )(2 + 1n ) 2 1
2
6n2

rin
= lim
n=∞ 6n2
= = .
6 3
g.n
Properties of definite integrals.

Ra
et
The following properties can be easily proved using Riemann sums.
Rb
(i) f (x)dx = − f (x)dx.
b a

Ra
(ii) f (x)dx = 0.
a

Rb
(iii) cdx = c(b − a),where c is any constant.
a

## Integral Calculus 153

Rb Rb Rb
(iv) [ f (x) + g(x)]dx = f (x)dx + g(x)dx.
a a a

Rb Rb
(v) c f (x)dx = c f (x)dx,where c is any constant.
a a

Rb Rb Rb
(vi) [ f (x) − g(x)]dx = f (x)dx − g(x)dx.
a a a

Rb Rc Rb
(vii) If a < c < b then f (x)dx = f (x)dx + f (x)dx.

ww a

a c

Rb
a
f (x)dx ≥ 0.

## (ii) If f (x) ≥ g(x) for a ≤ x ≤ b, then

asy Rb
a
f (x)dx ≥
Rb
a
g(x)dx.

En
(iii) If m ≤ f (x) ≤ M for a ≤ x ≤ b, then m(b − a) ≤
Rb
f (x)dx ≤ M(b − a).
Proof. Given m ≤ f (x) ≤ M
gin a

Rb Rb
ee
Integrating between a and b we get
Rb
mdx ≤ f (x)dx ≤ Mdx
a a a
rin
g.n
Rb Rb Rb
m dx ≤ f (x)dx ≤ M dx
a a a
Rb

## The first fundamental theorem of calculus

m(b − a) ≤
a
f (x)dx ≤ M(b − a).
et
Statement. If f is continuous on [a, b], then the function g defined by
Rx
g(x) = f (t)dt, a ≤ x ≤ b
a

## is continuous on [a, b] and is differentiable on (a, b) and g′ (x) = f (x).

Proof.Choose x and x + b ∈ (a, b).

## 154 Engineering Mathematics - I

y
Zx+h Zx
Now, g(x + h) − g(x) = f (t)dt − f (t)dt
a a
Zx Zx+h Zx
= f (t)dt + f (t)dt − f (t)dt m M

a x a
Zx+h
= f (t)dt. 0 x u v x+h x
x

## ww g(x + h) − g(x) 1 x+h

R
Hence, for h , 0, we have = f (t)dt. (1)
h h x
Let us assume that h > 0. Since f is continuous on [x, x + h], by the

w.E
extreme value theorem, there exists numbers u and v in [x, x + h] such that
f (u) = m and f (v) = M, where m and M are the absolute minimum and maximum

asy
values of f on [x, x + h]. By the comparison property of the definite integral we
have

En mh ≤
x+h
R
f (t)dt ≤ Mh.

gin
x
x+h
R
f (u)h ≤ f (t)dt ≤ f (v)h.

ee
x
Since h > 0, dividing throughout by h we get
x+h

rin
R
f (u) ≤ h1 f (t)dt ≤ f (v). (2)
x

g.n
(2) can be proved in a similar way for h < 0.
Now, allowing h → 0 and since u and v lie in [x, x + h], we have u → x
and v → x. Since f is continuous at x,we have

## ∴ lim f (u) = lim f (u) = f (x)

h→0 u→x
et
and lim f (v) = lim f (v) = f (x).
h→0 v→x

By (2) we have
Zx+h
1
lim f (u) ≤ lim f (t)dt ≤ lim f (v)
h→0 h→0 h h→0
x

## Integral Calculus 155

g(x + h) − g(x)
f (x) ≤ lim ≤ f (x) [by (1)]
h→0 h
i.e., f (x) ≤ g′ (x) ≤ f (x).

## Since every differentiable function is continuous,

we obtain g is also continuous on (a, b).

## ww If x = a or x = b, from (3) we get the one sided limits at a and b.

This shows that g is continuous on [a, b].

w.E
Rx √
Example 3.2. Find the derivative of the function g(x) = 1 + t2 dt.
√ 0
Solution. Since f (t) = 1 + t2 is continuous on [0, x], by part 1 of the Fundamental

asy
theorem of calculus we get g′ (x) = 1 + x2

En
 4 
d Rx 
Example 3.3. Find  sec tdt.
dx 1
Solution. Let u = x 4

 x4 gin  u 

ee
Z  Z
d  d 


∴  sec tdt =  sec tdt
dx   dx 

rin

1 1
 u 
Z
d   du

=
1
du
 sec tdt ·
dx
g.n
[By Chain rule]

= sec u · 4x3

= sec x4 · 4x3 .
[by FTC 1]
et
Second Fundamental theorem of calculus
Rb
Statement.If f is continuous on [a, b], then f (x)dx = F(b) − F(a) where F is any
a
antiderivative of f . [i.e, a function such that F ′ = f ].
Rx
Proof. Let g(x) = f (t)dt.
a
By the First Fundamental theorem of calculus we have g′ (x) = f (x). i.e,

## 156 Engineering Mathematics - I

g is an antiderivative of f .
If F is any other antiderivative of f on [a, b], we know that F and g differ
by a constant.
∴ F(x) = g(x) + c for a < x < b.
Since both F and g are continuous on [a, b] the above relation holds when x = a and
x = b.
i.e lim F(x) = F(a) & lim F(x) = F(b).
x→a+ x→b−
Also lim g(x) = g(a) & lim g(x) = g(b).

ww
x→a+ x→b−
Hence we obtain F(x) = g(x) + c for all x in [a, b] (1)
Ra
When x = a, we have g(a) = f (t)dt = 0.

## w.E Using (1) for x = b and x = a we get

a

asy
F(b) − F(a) = [g(b) + c] − [g(a) + c]

= g(b) − g(a)

En = g(b) =
Zb
f (t)dt.

gin a
Result. The First and Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus are combined

## Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

ee
together is called the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

rin
Suppose f is continuous on [a, b]
Rx
(i) If g(x) = f (t)dt, then g′ (x) = f (x).
g.n
et
a
Rb
(ii) f (x)dx = F(b) − F(a), where F is any antiderivative of f . (i.e., F ′ = f .)
a
Note (1). The Fundamental theorem of calculus says that differentiation and
integration are inverse processors.
Note (2). By part(ii) of the Fundamental theorem of calculus we have
Rb
f (x)dx = F(b) − F(a) where F ′ = f .
a
Rb
i.e F ′ (x)dx = F(b) − F(a).
a

## The above result is sometimes called as the Net Change Theorem.

Net Change Theorem
Statement. The integral of a rate of change is the net change.
Rb
i.e F ′ (x)dx = F(b) − F(a).

a ☞
Worked Examples
✍ ✌
R3
Example 3.4. Evaluate (x2 − 2x)dx by using Reimann sum by taking right end
0
points as the sample points. Hence verify it by using fundamental theorem of

wwcalculus.
Solution. Let f (x) = x2 − 2x.

w.E Divide the interval [0, 3] into n sub intevals with equal width
∆x =
3−0 3
= .
n n "
asy
3
n
# "
3 6
# "
The intervals are 0, , , , , , · · ·
n n
6 9
n n
# "
3n − 3 3n
n
,
n
#
.

En
The sample points xi∗ are the right end points of the sub intervals.
3 6 9
∴ xi∗ = , , , · · · .
3n

gin
n n n n
The corresponding f (xi∗ ) = xi∗ 2 − 2xi∗ are calculated and tabulated as
follows.

xi∗ 3
n
ee 6
n
9
n ··· 3n
n rin
f (xi∗ )
By Reimann’s sum we have,
9
n2
− 6
n
36
n2
− 12
n
81
n2
− 18
n ··· 9n2
n2
− 6n
n
g.n
Z3

0
(x2 − 2x)dx = lim
n=∞
n
X

i=1
f (xi∗ )∆x
et
9n2 6n 3
" ! ! ! ! #
9 6 3 36 12 3 81 18 3
= lim − + − + − + · · · + −
n=∞ n2 n n n2 n n n2 n n n2 n n
" 3 2
! 3 2
! 3 2
!
3 3 3 3 3 3
= lim 3
· 1 − 2 · 2 + 3 · 22 − 2 · 4 + 3 · 32 − 2 · 6
n=∞ n n n n n n
3 32
!#
3 2
+ · · · + 3 · n − 2 · 2n
n n

## 158 Engineering Mathematics - I

33  2 2 2 2
 32
= lim 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n − lim (2 + 4 + 6 + · · · + 2n)
n=∞ n3 n=∞ n2
27 h n(n + 1)(2n + 1) i 9 h n(n + 1) i
= lim 3 − lim 2 · 2
n=∞ n 6 n=∞ n 2
3 1 1
h n (1 + n )(2 + n ) i h n (1 + 1n ) i 27
2
27
= lim − 9 lim = × 2 − 9 = 0.
6 n=∞ n3 n=∞ n2 6

## By the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus we have

Z3 !3
2 x3 x2 27
(x − 2x)dx = −2· = − 9 = 9 − 9 = 0.
3 2 0 3

ww 0

w.E
Example 3.5. Evaluate the integral

R1 √
R1 √
0
1 − x2 dx interms of areas.

Solution.
0
asy
1 − x2 dx represents the area under the curve y = 1 − x2 between
the x−axis and the lines x = 0 and x = 1.

p
En y

gin
Now, y = 1 − x2

y2 = 1 − x2
0 1x
2 2
x + y = 1.
ee
This is a circle with centre at the origin and radius = 1 unit. Since we rin
need the area between x = 0 and x = 1, the required area is the area of the portion
1 π g.n
of the circle that lies in the first quadrant = · π × 12 = .

R1 √
0
π
1 − x2 dx = .
4
4 4
et
R3
Example 3.6. Evaluate the integral (x − 1)dx interms of areas.
0
R3
Solution. (x − 1)dx represents the area under the curve y = (x − 1) between the
0
x−axis and the lines x = 0 and x = 3.

## Integral Calculus 159

y
The required area = A1 − A2 .

x=3

## and height = 2units. A2

x
  x=0
Put x = 3 in y = x − 1.

1
∴ Area of A1 = × 2 × 2 = 2.
2

ww
A2 is a triangle with base = 1 unit and height = 1unit.
1 1
∴ Area of A2 = × 1 × 1 = .
2 2

w.E
R3 1 3
(x − 1)dx = 2 − = .
0 2 2

## Example 3.7. Prove that

asy
Rb
a
xdx =
b2 − a2
2
by interpretting interms of areas.

Solution.
Rb
En [A.U Nov 2016]
xdx represents the area under the curve y = x between the x−axis
a
and the lines x = a and x = b.
gin
2
1
= b·b− a·a
1
1
2ee
Required area = Area of ∆OCD− Area of ∆OAB
1
= × OD × CD − × OB × AB
y
rin C

=
2 2
b2 a2 b2 − a2
− = g.n A

a
b

et
2 2 2 b−a
Zb 0 a B Db x
b2 − a2
∴ xdx = .
2
a
n
(xi3 + xi sin xi )∆x as an integral on the interval [0, π].
P
Example 3.8. Express lim
n→∞ i=1
Solution. According to Riemann sum,the limit
n Rπ
lim (xi3 + xi sin xi )∆x = (x3 + x sin x)dx.
P
n→∞ i=1
0

Example 3.9. Evaluate the Riemann sum for f (x) = x3 − 6x, taking the sample

## 160 Engineering Mathematics - I

R3
points to be the right end points and a = 0, b = 3, n = 6. Also Evaluate (x3 − 6x)dx.
0
3−0 1
Solution. Divide the interval [0, 3] into 6 subintervals with equal width = .
h i h i h i h i h i h i 6 2
Hence, the intervals are 0, 21 , 21 , 1 , 1, 23 , 23 , 2 , 2, 52 , 25 , 3
1 3 5
The right end points are , 1, , 2, , 3.
2 2 2
The value of f (x) at these points are as follows.

## x(k) x3 −6x f (xk ) f (xk )∆x

1 1
-3 - 23 - 23

ww 2
1
3
1
8

27
−6 −5
8

- 45
16
- 52
- 45

w.E 2 8 −9 8 16
2 8 -12 -4 -2
5 125 5 5

asy 2 8 −15 8 16
9
3 27 −18 9 2

En
Reimann Sum =
n
X
f (xk )∆xk

gin =−
k=1
23 5 45
− − −2+
5
+
9

ee =
16 2 16

16
−140 + 77 −63
16 2
−23 − 40 − 45 − 32 + 5 + 72

rin
g.n
= = .
16 16
R3
Let us evaluate (x3 − 6x)dx.

∆x =
3−0 3
n
= .
n
0
Divide the interval [0, 3] into n subintervals with equal width et
h i h i h i h i
Hence the intervals are 0, 3n , n3 , n6 , 6n , n9 , · · · 3n−3 3n
n , n
The sample points xi∗ are the right end points of the sub intervals
∴ xi∗ = n3 , 6n , n9 , · · · 3n
n.
The corresponding f (xi∗ ) = xi3 − 6xi are calculated and tabulated as
follows.

## Integral Calculus 161

3 6 9 3n
xi∗ n n n ··· n
33 3 63 6 93 9 33 n3 3n
f (xi∗ ) n3
−6· n n3
−6· n n3
−6· n ··· n3
−6· n

By Reimann sum
Z3 n
X
(x3 − 6x)dx = lim f (xi∗ )∆x
n=∞
0 i=1

33 63 33 n3
" ! ! ! #
3 3 6 3 3n 3
= lim −6· + 3 −6· + ··· + −6·
n=∞ n3 n n n n n n3 n n
" 4 2
#
3 3

ww

3 3 3 3
= lim 4 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n − 6 · 2 (1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n)
n=∞ n n
 34 n(n + 1) 2
 !
2
!
3 n(n + 1) 

w.E
= lim  4 −6· 2 
n=∞ n 2 n 2
" 4 2
3 n (n + 1)2 32 n(n + 1)
#
= lim 4 −6· 2

asy
n=∞ n 4 n 2
 !2 !
 4 1 2 1 
 4 n 1 + n 1 + 
n 32 n 

En
 3
= lim  4 · −6· 2 
n=∞  n
 4 n 2 

gin

 !2 !
 81 1 1 
= lim  · 1 + − 27 · 1 + 

=
n=∞ 4

81
4
− 27 =ee n
81 − 108
4
=− .
27
4
n

rin
g.n
Indefinite Integrals.
The Fundamental theorem of
calculus gives the relation between

et
R
antiderivatives and integrals. The notation f (x)dx is traditionally used for an
Rb
antiderivative of f and is called an indefinite integral. Thus f (x)dx = F(x)
a
means F ′ (x) = f (x).
d R
[F(x)] = f (x) then f (x)dx = F(x)
dx Z
d
In other words if [F(x)] = f (x), then f (x)dx = F(x).
dx
d
Also we have [F(x) + c] = f (x) then
R dx
f (x)dx = F(x) + c,where c is called the constant of integration.

## 162 Engineering Mathematics - I

With this notation, we can derive the basic results in integration, using the
basic results in differentiation.
Basic results.
d n
1. We have (x ) = nxn−1 .
dx
d xn+1
!
(or) = xn .
dx n + 1
R xn+1
∴ xn dx = + c.
n+1

ww 2.
d
dx
(log x) = ⇒
1
x
R 1
x
dx = log x + c.

w.E3.
d x
dx
R
(e ) = e x ⇒ e x dx = e x + c.

bx

asy
R
4. b x dx = + c.
log b

En
R
5. sin xdx = − cos x + c.

gin
R
6. cos xdx = sin x + c.
R
7.

8.
R
sec2 xdx = tan x + c.

## cosec2 xdx = − cot x + c. ee rin

g.n
R
9. sec x tan xdx = sec x + c.

et
R
10. cosecx cot xdx = −cosecx + c.
R 1
11. √ dx = sin−1 x + c.
1 − x2
R 1
12. dx = tan−1 x + c.
1 + x2
R 1
13. √ dx = sec−1 x + c.
x x2 −1
R
14. sinh xdx = cos hx + c.

## Integral Calculus 163

R
15. cosh xdx = sin hx + c.
R 1 √
16. √ dx = cos h−1 x + c or log(x + x2 − 1) + c.
x2 − 1
R 1 √
17. √ dx = sin h−1 x + c or log(x + x2 + 1) + c.
+1 x2
Basic properties of indefinite integrals.
If f (x) and g(x) are functions of x and k is a constant, then the following
properties are true.

ww
R R R
(i) [ f (x) + g(x)]dx = f (x)dx + g(x)dx + c.
R R R
(ii) [ f (x) − g(x)]dx = f (x)dx − g(x)dx + c.

w.E
(iii)
R
k f (x)dx = k
R
f (x)dx + c.
✎ ☞

## Example 3.10. Evaluate (10x4 − 2 sec2 x)dx. asy

Z
Worked Examples
✍ ✌

Solution.
Z Z Z
En
(10x − 2 sec x)dx = 10 x dx − 2 sec2 xdx + c
4 2 4

Z2 gin
= 10√·
x5
−12!tan x + c = 2x5 − 2 tan x + c.

ee
Example 3.11. Evaluate 2 5
x − 3 x + 2 dx.
x

rin
1

Z2 ! Z2 Z2 Z2
2 √1 2 1
x−2 dx
Solution.
1
x − 3 x + 2 dx =
x
x dx − 3 x 2 dx +
1
 3 2
1 1
g.n
3 2

et
!2
x−1
!
x  x 2 
= − 3  3  +
 
3 1 2
−1 1
1
!2
1 3 3 2h 3 i 1
= [2 − 1 ] − 3 × 2 − 1 −
2
3 3 x 1
1 √ 1
= [8 − 1] − 2[2 2 − 1] − [ − 1]
3 2
7 √ 1
= −4 2+2+
3 2
21 + 12 + 3 √ 36 √ √
= −4 2= − 4 2 = 6 − 4 2.
6 6

## 164 Engineering Mathematics - I

Z3
Example 3.12. Evaluate (x3 − 6x)dx.
0
Z3 Z3 Z3 !3 !3
3 3 x4 x2
Solution. (x − 6x)dx = x dx − 6 xdx = −6
4 0 2 0
0 0 0
1
= [34 − 0] − 3[32 − 0]
4
1 81 81 − 108 27
= × 81 − 27 = − 27 = =− .
4 4 4 4

## wwExample 3.13. Evaluate

Z2
3
2x − 6x + 2
3
x +1
!
dx.

w.E
Solution.
Z2
3
2x − 6x + 2
3
0
! Z2
3
Z2
dx = 2 x dx − 6 xdx + 3
Z2
2
1
dx

asy
x +1 x +1
0 0 0 0
!2 !2
x4 x2  2
+ 3 tan−1 x

En
=2· −6
4 0 2 0
0

1  
= [24 − 0] − 3[22 − 0] + 3 tan−1 2 − tan−1 0

gin 2
= 8 − 12 + 3 tan−1 2 = 3 tan−1 2 − 4.

## Example 3.14. Evaluate

Zπ/6
cos 2 x
 
2
ee
dx.
rin
0

g.n
Solution.
Zπ/6

0
cos2 x
 
2
dx =
1
2
Zπ/6

0
 π/6
Z
(1 + cos x)dx

Zπ/6


et
1  
=  dx + cos xdx
2 
0 0
1  π/6
  π/6 
= x dx + sin x
2 0 0
1 π  π  1 "π 1# π 1
= − 0 + sin − sin 0 = + = + .
2 6 6 2 6 2 12 4

## Integral Calculus 165

Z9 √
2x2 + x2 x − 1
Example 3.15. Evaluate dx.
x2
1
Z9 √ Z9 √
2x2 x2 x 2x2 x2 x
!
+ −1 1
Solution. dx = + − 2 dx
x2 x2 x2 x
1 1
Z9  
1
= 2 + x 2 − x−2 dx
1
Z9 Z9 Z9

ww
1
=2 dx + x dx −
2 x−2 dx
1 1 1
 9  x 23 9

w.E
  !9
x−1
= 2 x +  3  −

 

1
2 1
−1 1
!
2 3   1

asy = 2[9 − 1] + 9 2 − 1 +
2
3
8
9
−1

En
= 16 + × 26 −
3 9
52 8 144 + 156 − 8 292
= 16 + − = = .
Z
1 gin 3 9 9 9

ee
Example 3.16. Evaluate 2
dx
sin 2x
Z x cos2
sin x + cos2 x
Z
1
Solution.
sin2 x cos2 x
dx =
sin2 x cos2 x
sin2 x
dx

cos2 x rin
g.n
Z Z
= 2
dx + dx
Z sin x cos Z
2x sin2 x cos2 x
= sec2 xdx + cosec2 xdx

= tan x − cot x + c.
et
3.2 The Substitution Rule
R
Integrals of functions of the form f (ax + b)dx.
This type of integrals can be evaluated by making a substitution ax + b = t.
R
For example consider (2x + 3)2 dx.

## 166 Engineering Mathematics - I

Let t = 2x + 3
dt = 2dx
dt
∴ dx =
2Z
1 t3
Z Z
2 2 dt 1 1
Now, (2x + 3) dx = t · = t2 dt = · + c = · (2x + 3)3 + c.
2 2 2 3 6
Standard results.
Z
1. Evaluate (ax + b)n dx.

ww Solution. Let ax + b = t.
dt
adx = dt ⇒ dx = .

w.E Z
(ax + b)n dx =
Z
tn = ·
a
a
dt 1 tn+1
a n+1
+c=
(ax + b)n+1
a(n + 1)
+ c.

asy
In a similar way, the following results can be easily derived.
Z

En
1 log(ax + b)
2. dx = + c.
ax + b a
eax+b
gin
Z
3. eax+b dx = + c.
a

4.
Z

Z
sin(ax + b)dx = −
a
sin(ax + b)
ee
cos(ax + b)
+ c.

rin
5.
Z
cos(ax + b)dx =
a
tan(ax + b)
+ c.

g.n
6.

7.
Z
sec2 (ax + b)dx =

## cosec2 (ax + b)dx = −

a
+ c.

cosec(ax + b)
a
+ c.
et
Z
sec(ax + b)
8. sec(ax + b) tan(ax + b)dx = + c.
a
Z
cos(ax + b)
9. cosec(ax + b) cot(ax + b)dx = − + c.
a
✎ ☞
Worked Examples
✍ ✌

## Integral Calculus 167

Z
Example 3.17. Evaluate sin2 3xdx.
Z Z
2 1
Solution. sin 3xdx = (1 − cos 6x)dx
2
"Z Z #
1
= dx − cos 6xdx
2
" #
1 sin 6x
= x− +c
2 6
x sin 6x
= − + c.
2 12

## wwExample 3.18. Evaluate

Z
cos mx cos nxdx.

w.E
Solution. case(i) when m , n.
Z Z
1

asy
cos mx cos nxdx =

=
1
2
Z
(cos(m + n)x + cos(m − n)x) dx
Z
cos(m + n)xdx + cos(m − n)x dx
!

En 2
1 sin(m + n)x sin(m − n)x
!

gin
= + + c.
2 m+n m−n
case(ii) If m = n
Z
cos mx cos nxdx =

=
Z

Z
ee cos mx cos mxdx

## cos2 mxdx rin

=
Z
1
(cos 2mx + 1)dx g.n
=
1
2
"Z

"
2
Z
cos 2mxdx + dx

1 sin 2mx
#
#
et
= +x +c
2 2m
sin 2mx x
= + + c.
4m 2

Z
Example 3.19. Evaluate cos3 2xdx.

## 168 Engineering Mathematics - I

Z Z !
3 1 3
Solution. cos 2xdx = cos 6x + cos 2x dx
4 4
Z Z cos 3θ = 4 cos3 θ − 3 cos θ
1 3
= cos 6xdx + cos 2xdx 1 3
4 4 cos3 θ = cos 3θ + cos θ
1 sin 6x 3 sin 2x 4 4
= · + · +c 3 1 3
4 6 4 2 cos 2x = cos 6x + cos 2x.
sin 6x sin 2x 4 4
= +3 + c.
24 8
Z
Example 3.20. Evaluate sin4 xdx.

ww
Z Z  2
Solution. sin4 xdx = sin2 x dx
Z !2
1 − cos 2x

w.E =

=
1
4
Z
2
2
dx.

## (1 + cos 2x − 2 cos 2x)dx

cos2 θ =
1 + cos 2θ

1 +
2
cos 4x

=
1
4asy
Z
1+
1 + cos 4x
2
!
− 2 cos 2x dx
cos2 2x =
2
.

En
Z
1 1 1
= (1 + + cos 4x − 2 cos 2x)dx
4 2 2

=
1
Z
gin
3 1
!
+ cos 4x − 2 cos 2x dx

ee
4 2 2
" Z Z Z #
1 3 1
=
4 2
"
dx +
2
1 3 1 sin 4x
cos 4xdx − 2 cos 2xdx

sin 2x
#
3 rin
sin 4x sin 2x
= +
4 2 2 4
−2
2
+c= x+
8 32

4
g.n
+ c.

et
Z
Example 3.21. Evaluate sin2 4xdx.
Z Z !
2 1 − cos 8x
Solution. sin 4xdx = dx.
2
2 sin2 x = 1 − cos 2x
Z !
1 1
= − cos 8x dx
2 2
"Z Z # 2 sin2 4x = 1 − cos 8x
1
= dx − cos 8xdx 1 − cos 8x
2 sin2 4x =
" # 2
1 sin 8x x sin 8x
= x− +c= − + c.
2 8 2 16

## Integral Calculus 169

x2
Z
Example 3.22. Evaluate dx.
(ax + b)3
t−b
Solution. Let ax + b = t ⇒ ax = t − b ⇒ x =
a
dt
adx = dt ⇒ dx = .
a
Z t − b 2
x2
Z
a dt
dx =
(ax + b)3 t 3 a
2
Z t2 + b − 2b t
1 a2 a dt

ww =

=
a
1
Z
+
t3
1 b2 1 2b 1
· −
!
dt

w.E =
a
1
a
"Z
t a2 t3
1
t
dt + 2
b2
a
Z
a t2

t−3 dt −
2b
a
Z
t−2 dt
#

asy
=
1
a
"
b
log t + 2 ·
2

a (−2)
t −2

2b
a
×
t−1
(−1)
#
+c

=
1
aEn
"
b2 1 2b 1
log t − 2 · 2 +
2a t a t
#
+c

=
1
a
"
gin
log(ax + b) − 2 ·
b2 1
a (ax + b)2
+
2b 1
a (ax + b)
#
+c

1
ee
= log(ax + b) − 3 ·
a
b2 1
+
2b
2a (ax + b)2 a2 (ax + b)
1

rin
+c

g.n
R

3.3 Evaluation of integrals of the form f (g(x))g (x)dx.

= g(x) du = g′ (x)dx.
Method. Let u Z
Now,
Z
f (g(x))g′ (x)dx =
This can be evaluated by earlier methods.
f (u)du. et
✎ ☞
Worked Examples
✍ ✌
Z p
Example 3.23. Evaluate 2x 1 + x2 dx.
Solution. Let 1 + x2 = u.
2xdx = du.

## 170 Engineering Mathematics - I

3

Z Z Z
p 1 u2 2 3
∴ 2
2x 1 + x dx = udu = u 2 du = 3 + c = (1 + x2 ) 2 + c.
2
3

Z p
Example 3.24. Evaluate x2 1 − 4x3 dx.
Solution. Let u = 1 − 4x3 .
du = −4 × 3x2 dx.
du
x2 dx = −

ww ∴
Z
2
p
12
3
x 1 − 4x dx =
Z
√ −du
u
12
!

w.E
Z
1 1
=− u 2 du
12
3
1 u2

asy =−
12 32
1 2
+c

3 1 3
(1 − 4x3 ) 2 + c = − (1 − 4x2 ) 2 + c.

En=−
12 3 18

Z gin 1
Example 3.25. Evaluate

Solution.
Z
x
1
−x
(1 + e ) (1 + e )
(1 +
dx =
e Z
ee
x )(1 + e−x )
dx.
1
1
(1 + e x )(1 + x )
dx
rin
=
Z
ex
e

(1 + e x )(1 + e x )
dx
g.n
ex
et
Z
= x )2
dx 1 + ex = t
Z (1 + e
dt
= e x dx = dt
t 2
t−1
Z
1 1
= t−2 dt = +c=− +c=− + c.
−1 t 1 + ex

Z
Example 3.26. Evaluate x3 cos(x4 + 2)dx.

## Integral Calculus 171

Solution. Let x4 + 2 = t.

4x3 dx = dt
dt
x3 dx =
Z Z4
dt
∴ x3 cos(x4 + 2)dx = cos t
4
sin(x4 + 2)
Z
1 1
= cos tdt = sin t + c = + c.
4 4 4

ww
w.E
Example 3.27. Evaluate
Z

x
1 − 4x2
dx.

asy
En
Solution. Let 1 − 4x2 = t.

−8xdx = dt gin
Z
x
xdx = −

dx =
dt
Z8
1
√ −
dt
ee
!
rin
g.n
∴ √
1 − 4x2 t 8
Z
1 1
=− t− 2 dt
8
1 t2 1
1

=− 1 +c=− ×2 t+c=−
8 2 8
1p
4
1 − 4x2 + c. et
x3
Z
Example 3.28. Evaluate √ dx. [A.U. Dec. 2015]
4 + x2

## 172 Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution. Let 4 + x2 = t.

2xdx = dt
dt
xdx =
2
x3 x2
Z Z
∴ √ dx = √ xdx
4 + x2 Z 4 + x2
t − 4 dt
= √
t 2
Z 
1 1 1

= t 2 − 4t− 2 dt

ww 2
 3
1  t 2
=  3 − 4 1  + c
1 
t 2 

w.E
2 2 2
"  3 #
1 2 p
= 4 + x2 2 − 8 4 + x2 + c.
2 3

## Example 3.29. Evaluate asy

Z p
1 + x2 x5 dx.

Solution. Let 1 + x2 = t.
En
2xdx = dt
dt gin
ee
xdx =
2

rin
Z p Z p
5
∴ 2
1 + x x dx = 1 + x2 x4 · xdx

g.n
Z p
= 1 + x2 (x2 )2 · xdx

et
Z
dt