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Results and Discussion

These are the following questions with regards to the Saponification of Esters, Fats, and
Oils together with its corresponding results dependent on the experiment that was done:

1. Write a detailed observation for every procedure.

For the Part A of the experiment, the mixture ended up with a paste-like
mixture before adding 150 mL of NaCl. Moreover, the soap also formed
precipitates. This circumstance was able to create the crude soap needed for the
next procedure. According to Food Laboratory Science, the production of soap
starts with an understanding of esters. All fats & oils share a common molecular
functional group. Whether it’s an animal fat or a vegetable oil, all of these
substances can be classified as triglycerides. Triglycerides are composed of three
esters linked together through a common backbone and just as esters, it can be made
by the combination of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid, the reverse reaction can
also occur. In a process known as saponification, triglycerides can be cleaved along
the ester functional groups to produce glycerol (a molecule containing three alcohol
functional groups) and the basic form of fatty acids (long chain carboxylic acids
which have been deprotonated). This is the fundamental reaction behind the
production of soap. Starting with a fat or oil, a basic reagent (like sodium hydroxide,
NaOH) is added to fragment the triglyceride into its components.

For the Part B of the experiment, the fatty acids present in soap are already
produced and it was visible to the naked eye. After dissolving the soap, a layer of
fatty acids were formed on top of the mixture.

2. – (not included in the experiment)

3. Discuss the result on the test for fatty acid (IV).

After finishing all the procedures with regards to dissolving soap and the
addition of 8 mL of 6 N Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4). Due to this, the layer of fatty acids
was formed. Moreover, the mixture was cooled for 15 minutes to solidification of
the layer. In addition, the Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) served as the the catalyst in the
experiment. Similarly, the resulting fatty acid exists as a salt—what we call soap.

4. Discuss the result on the test for unsaturated fatty acid (V).

In this procedure, there is utilization of 0.5 g. solidified fatty acid layer.

Then, it was transferred to a watch glass. Next, 3 mL of CCl4 was added and drops
of 0.5 percent Br were added until it reached brownish color. This particular test
determines the level of saturation of the mixture (FoodLab, n.d.). If your sample
contains double bonds, it will react with the added bromine, and the brownish color
will disappear which indicates unsaturation The more double bonds present in the
sample, the more bromine will be needed to react with the sample. The brownish
color of bromine remains in the solution when all of the double bonds have reacted
which indicates saturation.


1. Free Fatty Acids test in Oils and Fats. (n.d.). Retrieved from