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P09

P09 A Lot of Hot Air E371 Turbine Engine Systems

A Lot of Hot Air

E371 Turbine Engine Systems

P09 A Lot of Hot Air E371 Turbine Engine Systems
P09 A Lot of Hot Air E371 Turbine Engine Systems

Engine Air Distribution

Engine Air Distribution

The engine air system is defined as those airflows which do not directly contribute to the engine thrust. The system has several important functions to perform for the safe and efficient operation of

the engine.

These functions include:

Internal engine cooling Accessory unit cooling Bearing chamber sealing Prevention of hot gas ingestion Control of bearing axial loads Engine Anti-Icing Supply of Aircraft Services

• Engine Anti-Icing • Supply of Aircraft Services An increasing amount of work is done on

An increasing amount of work is

done on the air, as it progresses through the compressor to raise its pressure and temperature. Therefore to reduce engine performance losses, the air is taken as early as possible from the compressor.

Turbine Section Cooling

Turbine Section Cooling
Turbine Section Cooling Cooling An important consideration at the design stage of a gas turbine engine

Cooling

An important consideration at the design stage of a gas turbine

engine is the need to ensure

that certain parts of the engine, and in some instances certain accessories, do not absorb heat

to the extent that is detrimental

to their safe operation. The principal areas which require air cooling are the combustion chamber and turbine. Typical

cooling and sealing airflow is

shown in the illustration for the turbine section. The cooling and sealing airflow for the combustion chamber was covered in a previous section.

Turbine Blade Cooling

Turbine Blade Cooling

The most limiting factor in running a gas turbine engine is the temperature of the turbine section. However the higher an engine raises the temperature of the incoming air, the more power, or

thrust an engine can produce.

the higher an engine raises the temperature of the incoming air, the more power, or thrust
the higher an engine raises the temperature of the incoming air, the more power, or thrust
the higher an engine raises the temperature of the incoming air, the more power, or thrust

Turbine Blade Cooling

Turbine Blade Cooling

Cooling

The effectiveness of a turbine engine cooling system plays a big role in

engine performance. In fact, many

cooling systems allow the turbine vane and blade components to operate in a thermal environment

600 to 800 degrees Fahrenheit

above the temperature limits of their metal alloys. One of the most common ways of cooling the components in the turbine section is to use engine bleed

air. Compressor bleed air is typically directed in through the hollow

blades and out through the holes in the tip, leading edge and trailing edge. This type of cooling is known as convection cooling or film cooling.

holes in the tip, leading edge and trailing edge. This type of cooling is known as

Turbine Blade Cooling

Turbine Blade Cooling

Since the nozzle vanes and turbine blades in a gas turbine engine are subjected to

extremely high temperatures, some type of

special cooling must be provided. Also,

since the temperature of the burning gases decreases substantially as the gases pass through each turbine stage, it is usually necessary to provide special cooling for the first stage only.

to provide special cooling for the first stage only. However it must be noted that some

However it must be noted that some engines cool the

subsequent stages as well. The

that some engines cool the subsequent stages as well. The 6 illustration shows a cross section

6

illustration shows a cross section of a typical turbine blade. The entry

and exit of cooler

compressor air is shown.

Accessory Cooling

Accessory Cooling

Most Engine mounted accessories are cooled by taking in outside ram air and passing it through various channels and zones and around the components to be cooled. Engine bay temperatures are

maintained at acceptable levels by providing airflow to both cool and

ventilate the hot areas around the engine. In addition to the cooling setup mentioned above, certain accessories have their own cooling circuit. Atmospheric air is used to provide the cooling using induced

compressor air.

accessories have their own cooling circuit. Atmospheric air is used to provide the cooling using induced

Accessory Cooling

Accessory Cooling
Accessory Cooling This is achieved by allowing compressor delivery air to pass through nozzles situated in

This is achieved by allowing compressor delivery air to pass through nozzles situated in the

cooling air outlet duct of the

accessory. The air velocity through the nozzles create a low pressure area which forms an ejector, so inducing a flow of

atmospheric air through the intake louvers . To ensure that the ejector system only operates during the ground run,

the flow of air from the

compressor is controlled by a valve.

Seals

Seals

Seals are used to prevent oil leakage from the engine bearing chambers, to

control cooling airflows and

to prevent ingress of the mainstream gas into the turbine disc.

Various sealing methods

are used on gas turbine engines. The choice of which method is dependent upon the surrounding temperature, pressure, weight etc. Some sealing methods are described in the following sections.

upon the surrounding temperature, pressure, weight etc. Some sealing methods are described in the following sections.

Seals

Seals

Labyrinth Seals

seal is widely

used to retain oil in bearing

chambers and as a metering

device

airflows. It is a non-contact

This type of

to

control

internal

seal that

is

used in areas

such

as

rotor

shaft

where

there

is

high rotational

speeds

and

high

temperatures. When this seal

is used for bearing chamber

oil

leakage by allowing the air to

flow from the outside to the

This

flow also induces a positive pressure which assists the oil

sealing,

it

prevents

inside of the chamber.

return system.

also induces a positive pressure which assists the oil sealing, it prevents inside of the chamber.

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Seals

Seals

Ring Type Oil Seals

Seals Ring Type Oil Seals A ring seal comprises a metal ring which is housed in
Seals Ring Type Oil Seals A ring seal comprises a metal ring which is housed in

A ring seal comprises a metal ring which is housed in a

close fitting groove in the

static housing. The normal running clearance between

the ring and rotating shaft is

smaller than that which can

be obtained with a labyrinth seal. Ring seals are used for bearing chamber sealing.

Seals

Seals

Carbon Seals

Carbon Seals consist of a static ring of carbon which

constantly rubs against a

collar on a rotating shaft. Several springs are used to maintain contact between

the carbon and the collar.

The heat caused by friction is dissipated by the oil system.

to maintain contact between the carbon and the collar. The heat caused by friction is dissipated

Seals

Seals

Brush Seals

Brush seals comprise a static ring of fine wire bristles. They are in continuous contact with a rotating shaft, rubbing against a hard

ceramic coating. This type of seal has the advantage of

withstanding radial rubs without increasing leakage.

of withstanding radial rubs without increasing leakage. Prevention of Hot Gas Ingestion It is important to

Prevention of Hot Gas Ingestion

It is important to prevent the ingestion of hot

mainstream air into the turbine disc cavities

as this would cause overheating and result in unwanted thermal expansion and fatigue. The pressure in the turbine annulus forces the hot gases between the rotating discs and the adjacent static parts, into the turbine disc rim spaces.

Seals

Seals

As can be seen from the previous slide in turbine section cooling, prevention of hot gas ingestion is achieved by continuously supplying the required quantity of air into the disc cavities to oppose the inward flow of hot gases.

Hydraulic Seals

This method of sealing is often used between 2

rotating members to seal a

bearing chamber. Unlike the labyrinth or ring seal, it does not allow a controlled flow of air to traverse across the

seal.

chamber. Unlike the labyrinth or ring seal, it does not allow a controlled flow of air

Bearing Loads

Bearing Loads

Control of Bearing Loads

Engine shafts experience varying axial gas loads which act in the forward direction on the compressor and in a rearward direction on the turbine. The net force is in the

forward direction due to the higher pressure rise across the compressor. The shaft

between them is therefore always under tension and the difference between the loads is carried by the location bearing which is fixed in a static casing. The internal air pressure from the high pressure compressor acts upon a fixed diameter pressure balance seal to ensure the location bearing is adequately loaded throughout the engine thrust range.

Compressor

Forward Load

Turbine Rearward load

bearing is adequately loaded throughout the engine thrust range. Compressor Forward L o a d Turbine
bearing is adequately loaded throughout the engine thrust range. Compressor Forward L o a d Turbine

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Services

Services

Aircraft Services

To provide cabin pressurization, airframe anti-icing and cabin heat, substantial

quantities of air are bled from the

compressor. It is desirable to bleed the air as early as possible from the compressor to minimize the effect on engine performance. However during some phases of the flight cycle it may be necessary to switch the bleed source to a later compressor stage to maintain adequate pressure and temperature.

Bleed air has a number of other uses including:

temperature. Bleed air has a number of other uses including: • Pressurizing of hydraulic reservoirs •

Pressurizing of hydraulic reservoirs Pressurizing of water tanks Driving an air turbine for a hydraulic pump.

A typical Boeing 777 cockpit bleed air system distribution is shown.

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Objectives

Objectives

1. To understand why cooling systems in the engine are important.

2. To understand the limitations to engine efficiency and

its relation to the turbine.

3. To know the different kinds of component cooling performed.

4. The purpose of sealing to prevent oil leakage and the

role air systems play.

5. Be familiar with the other uses of air off-takes from the engine.

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