INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES
(CODE: AAB 10302)
1. Electron theory states all Matter is comprised of molecules, which in turn are comprised of
atoms, which are again comprised of protons, neutrons and electrons.
2. A molecule is the smallest part of Matter which can exist by itself and contains one or more
atoms.
3. Matter is anything that has weight and occupies space, hence everything that we can see and
feel.
7. Element is a substance that contains the same kind of atom such as copper, gold, oxygen and
etc.
8. Compound is a substance that contains different kind of atom e.g. water consist of element
hydrogen and oxygen i.e. H2O.
9. The smallest particle of an Element which contains the characteristic of an element is called
Atom.
10. The smallest particle of a Compound is called Molecule which does retain the characteristic
of a compound.
Solid Line
MATTER K shell
Electron
_ ()
ELEMENT COMPOUND
P N
A A A A A A
Atom of the Atom of
same kind different kind Proton Neutron
(+) (no charge)
Central Dense
Region or
ATOM MOLECULE
Nucleus
13. Electron carries a negative charges () and rotating along a track called Orbit or Shell.
14. The number of Shells or Orbits that surround the nucleus are 7, determine by the Physical
Law.
15. Electron travel at a speed of light (186,000 mile/sec or 299,000 km/sec) and is indicated by a
Solid Line.
16. The maximum number of electron orbiting on the outermost shell is 8 electrons as determine
by the Law of Quantum Mechanics.
18. Valence Shell contains at least one electron at the outermost shell.
19. Valence Electrons are electrons that orbit on the outermost shell (i.e. Valence Shell) of an
atom.
20. The result of unbalanced electrostatic condition, the atom will be electrically charged.
Charged atoms are called Ions.
21. Ionization is a term indicating the state of charge of an atom i.e. positive charge or negative
charge based on Adding and Subtracting a valence electrons or free electrons.
22. A Conductor is a material that allows electrons to flow. It has 1 to 3 valence electrons. All
metals are conductor. Four excellent conductors are gold, silver, copper and aluminum.
23. An Insulator is a material that restricts current flow e.g. wood, plastic and etc. It has 5 to 8
valence electrons.
24. A Semiconductor is a material that has a very high resistance to current flow in their pure
state and very low resistance to current flow when electrons are added or removed. It consist of
4 valence electron i.e. germanium or silicon to make a semiconductor devices.
25. The central dense region or nucleus of an atom contains Protons and Neutrons.
26. Protons carry positive charge (+ve) and neutron carries No Charge or Neutral.
27. The purpose of the Neutron is to provide a Newton Shield to the proton, e.g. a substance of
the same charges i.e. positive and positive will repel.
28. The chemical characteristic or charge of an atom is based on the numbers of electrons and
protons i.e. a positive charge atom consist more protons and a negative charges atom consist
more electron then protons.
29. The physical property of an atom or the weight factor depends on the number of protons and
neutrons in an atom i.e. the atom is very heavy when it is has more proton and neutron.
1. Static electricity is called electrostatics. The word static means stationary or at rest, and
electric charges that are at rest are called static electricity.
2. Rubbing certain materials together can cause the buildup of electrical charges on the surfaces.
Opposite charges attract and same charges repel. Either charge will be attracted to something of
neutral charge. Sparks are an extreme case of electrons being attracted to an object that has a
positive charge.
3. An excess of electrons creates a negatively charged body and deficiency of electrons creates a
positively charged body. This excess or deficiency of electrons can be used by friction between
two dissimilar substances. See figure below.
4. The force that created between two charged bodies is called the electrostatic force. This force
can be either attractive or repulsive, depend on the object’s charge. Like charges repel each
other, and unlike charges attract each other.
5. The strength of an electrostatic field between two bodies is directly proportional to the strength
of the charge on those two bodies.
6. The strength of electrostatic force either repelling or attracting is also affected by the distance
between the two charged bodies. If the distance between the two charged substances increases,
the electrostatic force decreases; conversely, if the distance decreases, the force increases.
k (Q1) (Q2)
F (Force) = 
d2
where, Q1 represents the quantity of charge on object 1 (in Coulombs), Q2 represents the quantity
of charge on object 2 (in Coulombs), and d represents the distance between the centers of charge
of separation between the two objects/charges (in meters). The symbol k is a proportionality
constant known as the Coulomb's law constant. The value of this constant is dependent upon the
medium that the charged objects are immersed in. In the case of air, the value is approximately
8. If the distance between two objects with dissimilar charges is doubled, the force of attraction is
reduced to onefourth its original value.
9. If the distance between two electrical charged objects is cut in half, the force of attraction
between them increases by a factor of four.
10. For examples, as an aircraft flies, friction between air and the aircraft surface builds up a static
charge. When aircraft land, these charges must be grounded to neutralize the static charge before
refueling the aircraft. A spark can ignite the explosive fumes and cause a serious fire.
11. During flight, to prevent an excessive charge from building up, many aircraft utilize static
discharge wicks, and then discharge into the air.
12. Several aircraft utilize bonding strap which provides a conductive path between the two
structures. The maximum permissible resistance of a bonding strap is 0.003 ohms (3 milliohms).
c) Gasses  example if the potential across the gas is high enough it will spontaneously
ionize a path and a current will flow, if only for a short time till the
potential difference drops below ionization levels and this phenomena is
what causes a lightning,
1. The purpose to generate electricity is to provide electrical pressure or force in order to drive
the electrons along the conductor or wire in the circuit. This also creates a potential different
between two points or terminal so that the electrical current can flow.
e) Chemical  two different plate carbon rods and zinc immersed in a chemical and
reaction take place thus produces voltage known as battery.
 application on aircraft is battery for engine starting and emergency.
g) Motion  wind is a simple air in motion to produce electricity. The motion of wind
is collected by converting the rotation of turbine blades into electrical
current by means of an electrical generator (the magnetism principle is
used)
 application on aircraft is a Ram Air Turbine Generator in aircraft
mainly for standby power if all power inclusive battery failed.
1. Potential Difference is difference in the electrical potential of two points, being equal to the
electrical energy converted by a unit electric charge moving from one point to the other. The SI
unit of potential difference is the Volts (V). The potential difference between two points in a
circuit is commonly referred to as voltage (and can be measured with a voltmeter).
3. Voltage (V) is also called electromotive force or potential difference. Voltage is produced by
the power source e.g. battery, generator, solar cell, etc. It is also measured in Volts (V) and
represent by symbol E or V.
4. The main factor affecting all the above is the power source. Certain power source can
maintain its electrical force or voltage e.g. generator and some the power source will be degraded
its voltage e.g. battery.
5. One volt is the EMF required to cause current to flow at the rate of 1 ampere through a
resistance of 1 ohm.
7. Current is defined as a flow of electrons forced into motion by voltage in the electrical
circuit. The amount of current in a circuit is measured in amperes (Amps). The letter “I” is used
to represent the amount of current in a circuit.
9. When one coulomb of electron flow passed a point in one second it is termed as one coulomb
second and this also equal to one ampere of current flow.
10. The greater the number of electrons passing a given point in a circuit, the greater the intensity
of the current. The intensity of current depends on the size or the cross sectional area of the
conductor/wire (as shown below), power source and resistance in the circuit.
CONDUCTOR
a) Conventional Current Flow: Current flow from high potential ( + ) to low potential
(  ) or positive terminal to negative terminal. Refer Figure below.
LP HP HP – High Potential
 + LP – Low Potential
b) Electron Flow: Current flow from a region (area) of more electrons to a region of
less electrons or from negative () to positive (+) terminal. Refer figure below.
ME LE
LE – Less Electron
 + ME – More Electron
12. When a current flow through a conductor it causes the following effect;
a) Heating effect – toaster, rice cooker etc
b) Light effect – lamp
c) Magnetic effect – generator, motor etc
d) Chemical effect – refreshing chemical in battery
0
TIME
Peak Value
0
TIME
CURRENT
0
TIME
14. Resistance is a property of materials that oppose or restrict the movement of electrons or
reduce the current flow. All materials have some resistance. Resistance is measured in Ohms.
The symbol for Ohms is the Greek letter Omega, Ω and the letter “R”, representing resistance,
are used in formulas.
16. There are few factors affecting resistance and there are;
a) Materials used: Example mica, glass, carbon, copper, aluminum.
d) Temperature
i) positive coefficient – increase in temperature, increase in resistance
decrease in temperature, decrease in resistance
ii) negative coefficient – increase in temperature, decrease in resistance
(e.g. ceramic) decrease in temperature, increase in resistance
iii) zero coefficient – increase or decrease temperature, no change in
17. Conductance is a term that opposites of resistance. It has the ability of a material to pass
electrons. The factors that affect the magnitude of conductance are the opposite manner of
resistance. Therefore, conductance is directly proportional to area, and inversely proportional to
the length of the material. The temperature of the material is also a factor. The unit of
conductance is the MHO (G), which is ohm spelled backwards. Recently, the term mho has been
redesignated SIEMENS (S). The symbol used to represent conductance (G) is (S). The
relationship that exists between resistance (R) and conductance (G) or (S) is a reciprocal one.
1 1
R =  , G = 
G R
18. Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which
determines their electromagnetic interactions. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and
produces, electromagnetic fields. The interaction between a moving charge and the
electromagnetic field is the source of the electromagnetic force, which is one of the four
fundamental forces. In general, samesign charged particles repel one another, while different
sign charged particles attract.
19. The SI unit for quantity of electricity or electric charge is the coulomb, which represents
approximately 6.24 × 1018 elementary charges (the charge on a single electron or proton). The
coulomb is defined as the quantity of charge that has passed through the crosssection of an
Electrical conductor carrying one ampere within one second. The symbol Q is often used to
denote a quantity of electricity or charge.
a) Used to protect the circuit or wiring from overheating and burn off the insulation.
b) Made of low melting point alloy enclosed in a glass tube and made of lead, lead and
tin and tin and bismuth.
c) When current flow becomes excessive, the metal alloy melts and open the circuit.
d) The fuse wire has a very low resistance and connected in series with the load.
e) Replace fuse only when the defect has been rectified and with a correct rating.
g) Slow blow fuse is used in power surge area and accept a momentary surge by a spring
also known as current limiter. There is a short delay before the metal link melts. The
metal link is made of copper which has high melting point.
ii) Aircraft use is of the High Rupture Capacity (HRC) type. Aircraft spare fuse
requirement are based on 3 of each or 10% of each type.
i) Fuses are not resettable and are rated based on Maximum current rating.
c) Symbol for CB
e) The type of CB used on the aircraft is of the Trip Free Type and classified as;
i) Toggle
ii) Push to Reset
iii) Push Pull type
f) The type of CB used on the aircraft is of the Trip Free Type and classified as;
i) Toggle
ii) Push to Reset
iii) Push Pull type
i) The Push Pull type is widely used in the aircraft because it can behave as a switch.
b) Consists of one or more pairs of contacts made of metal alloy which allow current to
flow when contact is closed.
a) The purpose is to control the amount of current flow by converting some of the electrical energy
that flows through the circuit into heat.
c) Wire wound resistor  used when there is a great deal of power to be dissipated
(high current).
 highly resistive wire wound over hollow ceramic tube.

b) Potentiometer  to control voltage in a circuit
 used all three terminals
 the load connected across the variable resistor
 application; radio volume control, voltage divider
1
+
 2
Electrical Fundamental 1 Rev 1 Page 12
(Code: AAB 10902) by Faizal Sharif
e) The value of resistor can be determined by
a) using an ohmmeter.
b) color band.
c) body, tip ,spot (BOTS).
If the ohmic value is less than 10, then silver or gold for third band.
5%  Gold
10%  Silver
BLACK BROWN RED ORANGE YELLOW GREEN BLUE PURPLE SILVER WHITE
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
b) Variable resistor :
Example: R33 – 0.33 ohm , 2R2 – 2.2 ohms , 1K2 – 1.2k ohms , 4M7 – 4.7M ohms ,
5K6G – 5.6K ohms 2%
Power
MILR11 MILR39008
rating
Style Style
(Watts)
1/8 RC05 RCR05
¼ RC07 RCR07
½ RC20 RCR20
1 RC32 RCR32
2 RC42 RCR42
3  
4  
TOLERENCE CODE
Industrial
MIL
type Tolerance
Designation
designation
5 ±5% J
2 ±20% 
1 ±10% K
 ±2% G
 ±1% F
 ±0.5% D
 ±0.25% C
 ±0.1% B
m) If we assume that the relationship between resistance and temperature is linear (i.e. we make a
firstorder approximation), then we can say that:
ΔR = kΔT
where , ΔR = change in resistance
ΔT = change in temperature
k = firstorder temperature coefficient of resistance
Thermistors can be classified into two types depending on the sign of k. If k is positive, the
resistance increases with increasing temperature, and the device is called a positive temperature
coefficient (PTC) thermistor, Posistor. If k is negative, the resistance decreases with increasing
temperature, and the device is called a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor.
n) Thermistors are commonly used in modern digital thermostats and to monitor the temperature of
battery packs while charging.
1. The purpose is to store electrical energy in the electrostatic field that exists between two
conductors that are separated by an insulation or dielectric. Sometimes called a Condenser.
2. Capacitor is constructed as
a) Two plates negative () and positive (+)
b) Dielectric is an insulator.
3. When two plates of a capacitor are initially attached to a battery, electrons are drawn from the
plate attached to the positive terminal and flow to the plate attach to the negative terminal.
.
4. This process continues until the plates become fully charged.
5. Once its charged, the voltage across the capacitor will match the voltage of the battery.
6. Then, once the voltage match the current flow stops, if the switch is off, the capacitor will
immediately discharge.
Material Constant
Vacuum 1.0000
Air 1.0006
Paraffin paper 3.5
Glass 5 to 10
Mica 3 to 6
Rubber 2.5 to 35
Wood 2.5 to 8
Glycerine (15°C) 56
Petroleum 2
Pure Water 81
9. Unit of capacitor is Farad and denote by the letter C and its symbol are
+ 
10. One Farad is the capacity required to hold one coulomb of electricity under a force of one
volt.
C (capacitance in Farad) = Q (charge in coulomb), Q = I x t (Amp . sec)
V (Voltage in Volt)
11. Each capacitor has a voltage rating (a working voltage) that should not be exceeded.
b) Nonelectrolytic capacitor.
i) Paper Capacitor
 low value of capacitance;
 used paper type where two strips of very thin metal foil separated by a strip of
waxed paper
 usually range in value from about 300 picofarads to about 4 microfarads.
 working voltage rarely exceeds 600 volts.
 are sealed with wax to prevent the harmful effects of moisture and to prevent
corrosion and leakage.
c) It consists of two sets of metal plates arranged so that the rotor plates move between
the stator plates. Air is the dielectric. As the position of the rotor is changed, the
d) use as fuel quantity sensing probe by changing the dielectric constant. Two
concentric tubes fit across the tank from top to bottom and each tube act as one plate
of capacitor. When tank is empty air is dielectric (1).When tank is full fuel is
dielectric (2). Fuel indicator measures the capacitance of the probes and converts it
into number that reflects the amount of fuel in the tank.
B 100
R 100KOhm 80
60 x 63.2%
100V
+
C 100µF 40
20
 t sec.
50
30
20
40
10
a) When switch at A, the capacitor will charge at 63.2% of it full supply voltage
(63.2volt).
b) This is known as Time Constant (TC) and can be determined by the formula
c) For the capacitor becomes fully charge, it required 5 x TC (100% of its supply
voltage) that is 50 sec and voltage across C is 100volt. This means the voltage rises to
63.2 volt in 10 second.
d) Once the voltage equal to the source voltage, the current stop to flow.
A % of V
SW
100
B
R 100KOhm 80
60
100V
+
C 100µF 40 x36.8%
20
 t sec.
50
30
10
20
40
e) When switch at B, the capacitor will discharge to 36.8volt in 10 sec from 100volt
(power source voltage).
f) For the capacitor becomes fully discharge (zero volt), it required 5 x TC thus 50 sec.
g) Application used as timing circuit (often made using capacitor and resistor in series).
a) When more than one capacitor connected in series, the capacitance total (C T) will be
decreased due to increase in distance plate area.
C1 C2 C3
C
b) CT =  for multiple capacitor if all value are the same
n C – value of one capacitor
n – number of capacitor in series
C1xC2 (Product)
c) CT =  use when two capacitor of difference value
C1+C2 (Sum)
1
d) CT =  use when more than two of difference value
1 + 1 + 1 + ……
a) When adding more capacitor in parallel, the capacitance total will increase due to
increased in plate area. It can be determined by
CT = C1+C2+C3 +.….
C1 C2 C3
19. Capacitor values are indicated on the body of the capacitor either by typographical label or by
color codes.
20. This label indicates various parameters such as capacitance, voltage rating and tolerance.
21. Example by typographical is in 3–digit designation label, the first two digit are the first two
digit of the capacitance value. The third digit is the number of zeros after the second digit.
Example: 103 means 10,000 pF (pico Farad) or 10,000 x 1012 F
22. For colorcoded type, the color code used for capacitor is basically the same as that used for
resistors. Some variation occurs in tolerance designation. Example of the color code for mica
and molded paper capacitors.
24. The above failure can be measured by removing the capacitor from the circuit and checked
with ohmmeter.
26. If the suspected capacitor is internally shorted, the meter will go to zero and stay at zero.
27. If it is leaky, the final meter reading will be much less than normal.
28. Most capacitor have a resistance of several hundred megohms except electrolytic capacitor,
which is normally have < 1MOhm of leakage resistance
29. If the capacitor is open, no charging action will be observed, and the meter will indicate an
infinite resistance.
30. Value of the capacitor can be measured using digital or analog multimeter with the setting to
capacitor.
Current through the coil produces an electromagnetic field surrounding the coil in all directions.
The magnetic lines of force around adjacent loops are each deflected into a single outer path
when the loops are brought close together. This effect occurs because the magnetic lines of force
are in opposing direction between adjacent loops and therefore cancel out when the loops are
close together.
2) Anytime current flows in a conductor, it produces an electromagnetic field that surrounds the
conductor or sometimes called lines of flux.
7) The changing electromagnetic field causes an induced voltage across the coil in a direction to
oppose the change of current. This property called selfinductance.
8) Inductance is typified by the behavior of a coil of wire in resisting/oppose any change of electric
current through the coil.
9) This induced voltage referred to as a counterelectromotive force (back emf) since it opposes the
applied voltage.
ELECTRON FLOW
The amount of voltage induced in a coil is directly proportional to the rate of change of the
magnetic field with respect to the coil (dΦ/dt) and to the number of turns of wire in the coil (N)
12) The inductance of a coil is one henry when current through the coil, changing at the rate of one
ampere per second, induces one volt across the coil.
13) Unit of Inductance is Henry and denote by the letter ‘L’. In practical applications, milihenries
(mH) and microhenries (μH) are the most common units.
14) Symbol –
16) Core material. Inductor is basically a coil of wire that surrounds a magnetic or nonmagnetic
material called core.
Examples of magnetic materials are iron, nickel, steel, cobalt, or alloy. These materials have
permeability that is hundred or thousand of times greater than vacuum and provides a better path
for magnetic lines of force which permits stronger magnetic field.
Examples of nonmagnetic materials are air, copper, plastic and glass. The permeability is the
same as in vacuum
The magnetic materials will give more inductance compare with nonmagnetic materials. Below
is the example of the inductance strength.
Inductance strength of IRON > Inductance strength of AIR > Inductance strength of COPPER
Inductance is
a) inversely proportional to the length of the core.
b) directly proportional to the crosssectional area.
c) directly proportional to the number of turns squared.
LT = L1 + L2 + L3 +……….
L1 L2 L3
L1 L2 L3
i) if all inductance value are equal, divide inductance by no. of parallel path (n):
L
LT = 
n
ii) if two unlike inductance, to find total inductance the formula will be :
L1 X L2
LT = 
L1 + L2
B 100
R 100Ohm 80
20V 60 x 63.2%
+
L 50mH 40
20

t µsec.
3TC
4TC
5TC
1TC
2TC
b) The final current should be 200 mA from (I = V/R).
d) The current flow through the inductor causes a magnetic field to build up and cut its
own field back thus create back voltage (emf).
e) This back voltage opposes the current flow. Therefore current does not begin to flow
at its maximum rate instantly.
f) The time required for the current to rise to 63.2% of its maximum value (peak) is
known as time constant.
= 500μs
h) For the current to reach maximum peak it’s required 5 X TC.
3TC
5TC
1TC
2TC
4TC
At 1TC = 500 μs : i = 0.368 (200 mA) = 74 mA
At 2TC = 1 ms : i = 0.135 (200 mA) = 27 mA
At 3TC = 1.5 ms : i = 0.050 (200 mA) = 10 mA
At 4TC = 2 ms : i = 0.020 (200 mA) = 4 mA
At 5TC = 2.5 ms : i = 0.000 (200 mA) = 0 mA
b) RF Choke. To prevent radio frequencies from getting into part of the system. This is
to minimize interference signals on the power supply line.
23) If an inductor is overheated with excessive current, the wire insulation will melt, and two or more
turns will short together. This problem should be tested using LCR meter because ohmmeter will
show the coil is perfectly good.
3. When a loadstone is freely suspended the end of the loadstone will move to align itself with
Magnetic North.
4. The earth magnetic field is generated by a large magnet buried under the earth surface
stretches from Newfoundland in US to Australia.
5. The Earth Magnetic Field travels from the North Pole (MN) to the South Pole (MS)
externally and internally from the South Pole (MS) to the North Pole (MN).
6. The area where the magnetic field felt is called the Field.
8. Magnetism is a force that acts at a distance due to a magnetic field. This field is caused by
moving electrically charged particles or is inherent in magnetic objects such as a magnet.
9. A magnet is an object that exhibits a strong magnetic field and will attract materials like iron
to it. Magnets have two poles, called the north (N) and south (S) poles.
10. The area of the magnetism where there are maximum concentration of lines of force and
attraction is called the Polar Region.
c) All ferrous material contains many microscopic domains, which tends to align
themselves when in the area of the earth field.
15. Electromagnet.
a) By wrapping a wire around an iron or steel core and running an electrical current
through the wire, it can magnetize the metal and make an electromagnet. If the core is
soft iron, the magnetism will diminish as soon as the current is turned off. This feature
makes electromagnets good for picking up and dropping objects. Typically DC
electricity is used, but AC current will also result in an electromagnet.
b) It is used in crane for hoisting metal particles, in generators and electrical equipments.
a) A piece of iron is supposed to be made of millions of small magnets. When the bar is
unmagnetized, these small magnets have a "helterskelter" arrangement as illustrated
below. The magnetic forces of one molecule cancel the field of its neighbor.
b) When the bar is magnetized as shown below, the small magnets are arranged so that
all the north poles point in one direction, and all the south poles in the opposite
direction. This systematic "lineup" of the individual magnets causes the whole bar to
act as a single magnet. All the magnetism seems to be concentrated at the two ends of
the bar, with one end designated as North and the other South.
Unmagnetized Magnetized
iv) Placing a steel bar in a magnetic field, then heating it to a high temperature and
then finally hammering it as it cools. This can be done by laying the magnet in a
NorthSouth direction in the Earth's magnetic field. In this case, the magnet is
not very strong but the effect is permanent.
b) In an electromagnet which uses a soft iron core, ceasing the flow of current will
eliminate the magnetic field. However, a slight field may remain in the core material
as a result of hysteresis.
19. Almost all magnets, regardless of their retentivity, lose some of their magnetic strength when
their lines of flux pass through the air.
22. To shield an object from lines of magnetic flux is to enclose it in a shield made of a highly
permeability material. The lines of flux flow through the shield and bypass its center.
25. Electromotive force is a difference of potential or voltage which exists between two points in
an electrical circuit. In generators and inductors the emf is developed by the action between the
magnetic field and the electrons in a conductor.
26. When a magnetic field moves through a stationary metallic conductor, electrons are
dislodged from their orbits. The electrons move in a direction determined by the movement of
the magnetic lines of flux. This is shown below:
27. The electrons move from one area of the conductor into another area. The area that the
electrons moved from has fewer negative charges (electrons) and becomes positively charged.
The area the electrons move into becomes negatively charged. This is shown below:
28. The area from which electrons are moved becomes positively charged, while the area into
which electrons are moved becomes negatively charged. The difference between the charges in
the conductor is equal to a difference of potential (or voltage). This voltage caused by the moving
magnetic field which is called electromotive force (emf).
29. The strength of the magnetic field can be increased by: Iron core
30. Lenz's Law gives the direction of the induced electromotive force (emf) resulting from
electromagnetic induction, thus:
“The emf induced in an electric circuit always acts in such a direction that the current it drives
around a closed circuit produces a magnetic field which opposes the change in magnetic flux.”
When an emf is generated by a change in magnetic flux according to Faraday's Law, the polarity
of the induced emf is such that it produces a current whose magnetic field opposes the change
which produces it. The induced magnetic field inside any loop of wire always acts to keep the
magnetic flux in the loop constant
32. It is important to note that the induced current will always flow in a direction which opposes
any change of magnetic flux, but it does not oppose the magnetic flux itself.
33. Lenz's law can be derived from Faraday's law of induction, simply by noting the minus sign
on the right side of the equation.
35. Applications.
There are numerous applications of magnets such as,.
a) Relay.
b) Solenoid.
c) Electrical Motor.
d) Loudspeaker.
e) Compass.
f) Circuit breaker
g) NDT using Magnetic Particles Inspection (MPI) for crack inspection.
Electron Flow
1. Battery is one of power source that generate direct current (DC) electricity by chemical
reaction.
2. A battery is defined as a device composed of two or more cell that convert chemical energy into
electrical energy. Its symbol is;
+  + 
4. The purpose of battery on the aircraft is for starting small engine and for emergency use. In
emergency the battery is required to supply power only to the essential load e.g. radio
communication in order for the pilot to communicate with the ground tower, gyros (e.g. HSI,
AH), escape light, etc. As a requirement in DCA Airworthiness Notice No. 72, the battery should
last to supply electrical power to the essential load until safe landing for 30 minutes.
Electrolyte
6. The cells of a battery are classified as Primary Cell and Secondary Cell.
7. Primary cells.
The primary cells are to provide small/low power output. The good example is the dry cell also
known as “Leclanche Cell”. They are called dry cell because the electrolyte is a paste rather than
a liquid.
They are not rechargeable. The cell will not function once their chemicals are used up and the
cells have to be thrown away. Examples are zinccarbon cell, alkaline manganese cell and silver
oxide cell.
ZincCarbon cells
a) The construction of ZincCarbon cell consist of;
i) +ve plate (anode) used carbon rod.
ii) –ve plate (cathode) used zinc casing.
iii) Electrolyte is ammonium chloride with
manganese dioxide in a paste form.
iv) A manganese dioxide use as a depolarizer to
ensure a chemical reaction involving the
constituents of both terminals; this reaction
causes a current to flow through a conductor
that connects the positive and negative
terminals.
b) The output of the dry cell is 1.5 V per cell regardless of their size.
Mercury cells
a) These cells have nearly constant voltage at low
discharge currents making them ideal for hearing
aids, calculators, photographic cameras and
electronic watches.
d) Due to the content of mercury, and the resulting environmental concerns, the sale of
mercury batteries is banned in many countries.
8. Secondary Cells.
A secondary cell (also known as storage cell) is any kind of electrolytic cell in which the
electrochemical reaction that releases energy is reversible. Secondary cells must be charged
before use. Once used, the batteries can be recharged by using an external electric source that
reverses the cell reaction and creates a nonequilibrium mixture of reactants and it can be
recharged over and over again. Widespread examples are rechargeable batteries found in
portable consumer electronics such as notebook computers and cell phones, and car and aircraft
batteries.
Two types of secondary cells;
i) Lead acid cells
ii) Nickel Cadmium cells (NiCad)
a) The purpose is to provide power supply to aircraft during emergency, starting etc.
e) Capacity  ability to produce a given amount of current for specific time e.g.
1A for 1 Hour which is known as 1 Ampere/Hour (A/H) .
 more than 80% efficiency fit for aircraft use
Efficiency (%) = Output capacity X 100
Rated capacity
ii) Constant voltage charging  when battery connected in an aircraft, car, or aother
vehicles.
Generating sys 28V Generating sys 28V  generating voltage system slightly higher than
+  + 
battery voltage.
 the amount of current flow into a battery being
2A
4A charge is determined by the state charge of battery.
+  + 
24V 20V
l) Safety Precaution  lead acid and NiCad battery room must be separated.
 during battery on charged, gaseous hydrogen and oxygen are
released by battery cell therefore battery room must be well
ventilated.
 servicing, test equipments, tools, protective clothing to be
identified being used as lead acid battery servicing only.
 in handling batteries/acid use rubber apron and gloves, and wear
goggles.
a) The purpose is to provide high current or capacity output within a short period main
used for turbine engine starting.
d) The advantage for NiCad cell is the internal resistance is very low therefore voltage
constant until it is almost totally discharge.
h) Neutralizing agent or cleaning agent for alkaline spillage is dilute boric acid, vinegar,
lemon juice.
9. Specific Gravity
i) Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a certain amount of a given substance
compared to the weight of the same amount of pure water.
iii) Any substance that floats has a specific gravity less than 1.0.
iv) Any substance that sinks has a specific gravity greater than 1.0.
vi) The float is a hollow glass tube sealed at both ends and
weighted at the bottom end, with a scale calibrated in specific
gravity marked on its side.
viii) The float will rise to a point determined by the specific gravity
of the electrolyte.
i) If the electrolyte contains a large amount of active ingredient, its specific
gravity will be relatively high.
ii) The float will rise higher than it would if the electrolyte contained only a small
amount of active ingredient.
ix) To read the hydrometer, hold it in a vertical position and read the scale at the point
that surface of the electrolyte touches the float.
x) Refer to the manufacturer's technical manual to determine whether or not the battery's
specific gravity is within specifications
NOTE: Hydrometers should be flushed with fresh water after each use to prevent
inaccurate readings. Storage battery hydrometers must not be used for any
other purpose.
10. When cells connected in series, there is an increase in the voltage and current (ampere) remains
constant.
+  +  +  Voltage = 1.5 V x 3 = 4.5 V
Current = 0.5 A
1.5V 1.5V 1.5V
0.5A 0.5A 0.5A
11. When cells connected in parallel, the voltage will be constant and the current (ampere)
increase.
Voltage = 1.5 V



0.5A
1.5V
1.5V
0.5A
0.5A
1.5V
+
+
14. Metal pairs most commonly used are Chromel / Alumel and Iron / Constantan. This principal
is used for aircraft Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) and Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)
Instrumentation.
Advantages Disadvantages
 Low cost.  Sensitivity is low, usually 50 µV/°C
 No moving parts, less likely to be broken. (28 µV/°F) or less. Its low voltage output
 Wide temperature range. may be masked by noise. This problem can
be improved, but not eliminated, by better
 Reasonably short response time.
signal filtering, shielding, and analogto
 Reasonable repeatability and accuracy. digital (A/V) conversion.
 Accuracy, usually no better than 0.5 °C
(0.9°F), may not be high enough for some
applications.
 Requires a known temperature reference,
usually 0°C (32°F) ice water. Modern
thermocouples, on the other hand, rely on an
electrically generated reference.
 Nonlinearity could be bothersome.
Fortunately, detail calibration curves for each
wire material can usually be obtained from
vendors.
16. Photocells act as light sensors. In operation, a photocell acts like a light sensitive resistor with
a high resistance when dark and a low resistance when in the light. When light strikes certain
photoemissive materials such as selenium, light energy is absorbed, then the electrons are
discharged. These electrons can be channeled through conductor to an electrical circuit.
1. Simple DC Circuit
a) Simple electrical close circuit consist of :
i) Power source – a battery or a generator.
ii) A fuse or a circuit breaker – to protect or safeguard the electrical wiring and
components/equipments/load.
iii) A switch – to interrupt current flow (ON/OFF).
iv) A load – equipment which consume electricity.
v) A conductor – to connect the load to the power source.
Load Conductor
+ 
Switch Fuse
24V source
b) Open circuit  any interruption or break in the path i.e. switch open, or fuses blown
or circuit breaker trip.
c) Short circuit  there is a path form one source terminal to the other without passing
through the load.
 a fuse or circuit breaker will blown/trip to protect the wiring.
5. Ohm’s Law is necessary to determine the correct size and length of wires to be used in a circuit,
the proper sizes of fuses and circuit breakers and many other details of a circuit and its
components.
7. If the voltage applied to a given circuit is doubled, the current will be doubled. If the resistance
is doubled and the voltage remains the same, the current will reduced to onehalf.
9. Resistors in Series
a) Current:
The amount of current flow remains the same at all points in the circuit regardless of
the number of components.
I = I 1 = I2 = I 3
To measure current in the circuit, use ammeter and connected it in series with the
component or load.
b) Voltage:
When a current flows through a resistance, a voltage or pressure drop is created. The
voltage drop across each resistor (load unit) is directly proportional to the value of the
resistor and the voltage drop is highest across the highest resistor.
The total voltage equals the sum of the voltages across the different parts of the
circuit.
V = V1 + V2 + V3
To measure voltage, use voltmeter and connected it across the load or power source.
c) Resistance:
The total resistance in series circuit equals the sum of the individual resistances in the
circuit.
R = R 1 + R2 + R 3
To measure resistance in the circuit, use an ohmmeter with power “MUST BE OFF”
or the components must be isolated from the circuit and connected it in across with
component or load.
a) Current:
The total current supplied to the network equals the sum of the currents in the various
branches.
I = I 1 + I2 + I 3
b) Voltage:
The voltage across a parallel combination is the same as the voltage across each
branch.
V = V1 = V2 = V3
c) Resistance:
The reciprocal of the equivalent resistance equals the sum of the reciprocals of the
branch resistances.
1 = 1 + 1 + 1
R R1 R2 R3
The parallel property can be represented in equations by two vertical lines "" (as in
geometry) to simplify equations. For two resistors,
IT = I1 + I2 + I3 + …… … or I T  I1  I2  I3 = 0
The amount of current flowing away from a point in a circuit is equal to the amount flowing to
that point.
The voltage across each load must be exactly the same as the voltage supplied by the source.
b) Use zero center scale meter (galvanometer) between point A and B thus current can
flow in either direction.
c) When there is no potential difference between point A and B, no current flow through
the meter. At this condition the Bridge is said to be balanced.
R1 R2
+
A B

RU R3
R1 R2
 = 
Ru R3
i) The pointer is set so that it rest at a balance point, thus no current flow between
point A and B.
ii) At balance point for this circuit is 28°C (82.4°F) and the variable resistance
(temp bulb) has a value of 100 Ω.
iii) If the temperature of variable resistance increases to 60°C (140°F) the resistance
value will change to 112 Ω. Temp bulb has +ve coefficient of temperature.
iv) Point A is more +ve with reference to point B, thus current will flow through the
instrument to indicate temp rises.
c) The real battery shown above within the dotted lines has an internal resistance of 0.2
Ω, which affects its ability to supply current to the load resistance of 1 Ω. The ideal
battery on the left has no internal resistance, and so our Ohm's Law calculations for
current (I=E/R) give us a perfect value of 10 amps for current with the 1 ohm load
and 10 volt supply. The real battery, with its builtin resistance further impeding the
flow of electrons, can only supply 8.333 amps to the same resistance load.
d) The ideal battery, in a short circuit with 0 Ω resistance, would be able to supply an
infinite amount of current. The real battery, on the other hand, can only supply 50
amps (10 volts / 0.2 Ω) to a short circuit of 0 Ω resistance, due to its internal
resistance. The chemical reaction inside the cell may still be providing exactly 10
volts, but voltage is dropped across that internal resistance as electrons flow through
the battery, which reduces the amount of voltage available at the battery terminals to
the load.
1. Work is defined as an activity involving a force and movement in the direction of the
force.
4. The applied voltage in an electric circuit causes to move and when they do energy is
transferred from the sources to the circuit e.g. when a lamp produces heat and light.
One Joule of electrical energy is when one coulomb passes through a component and the voltage
across the component is one volt, i.e.,
As one coulomb is one ampere (I) maintained in a circuit for one second (t) then C = I x t.
Substituting this into the above equation and gives as follows:
Joules = V x I x t
6. Power is the product of Voltage and Current and is measure in Watts using letter W. In circuit
it is indicated by the letter P.
7. 1 Horsepower (HP) is equal to 746 watts (0.746kW) and 1 watt is equal to 0.00134 HP.
8. 1 watt is the power expended when 1 volts move 1 coulomb per sec (1A) through a
conductor; thus 1 volt at 1A produce 1 watt of power.
10. Dissipation of power through resistance can is calculated by multiplying by total current by
the voltage drop across each resistor (as the formula given above).
13. Power Rating is defined as the safe power a device can consumed without breaking or
damaging itself.
14. The power rating for a resistor can be rated from 200 watts to ¼ watts.
15. If three resistors with different rating connected in series, to determine for the safe current
always based on the equipment which has the lowest power rating.
10W 20W 30W
+
R1 R2 R3
16. If three different rating resistors connected in parallel, to determine the safe voltage it will
based on the sum of all resistors.
40W
20W
+ 
30W
17. To achieve Maximum Power Transfer in a circuit, the internal resistance must equal to the
external resistance (e.g. speaker).
Battery R Int.
+
R Ext.

18. A one to one ratio transformer is normally connected to the external resistance (speaker) to
ensure Impedance Matching for maximum power transfers.
2. Types – the common electric measuring instruments are ammeter, voltmeter, ohmmeter and
wattmeter and its comes in;
a) Analog – utilize variable scale and pointer, and
b) Digital – display only a finite number, more accurate without error.
When the switch is closed, causing current through the coil, the coil will have a magnetic field
which will react to the magnetic field of the permanent magnet.
Defecting force – the pointer deflect depend on the amount of current through its within a
reference magnetic field by a horseshoe permanent magnet.
Controlling force – to bring the pointer at rest is by the action of upper and lower hairspring.
Damping force – to minimize the pointer from oscillation is by eddy current
Glass fitted on the scale of the meter is to eliminate parallax error i.e. reading taken from an
angle
Current flow in either direction through the three coils causes a magnetic field to exist between
the field coils. The current in the moving coil causes it to act as a magnet and exert a turning
a) F.S.D. current – full scale deflection; is amount of current that must flow through the
meter coil to cause a full scale deflection (fsd).
i) a meter requires 1000ohm meter resistance to limit 1mA flow to produce fsd and
this meter have a sensitivity of 1000ohm/volt.
ii) meter with higher sensitivity give accurate measurement e.g. sensitivity meter is
20,000 ohm/volt.
Fsd = 1/20,000ohm/volt
= 50 microamp
Therefore a meter required 20,000ohm resistance coil to limit 50microamp to
produce fsd.
c) Meter resistance – total resistance of a meter to include the moving coil, the
hairspring and temperature.
a) Ammeter Reading
Figure (A) shows the initial reading of a circuit. The highest range (250 milliamperes)
has been selected and the meter indication is very small. It would be difficult to
properly interpret this reading with any degree of accuracy.
Figure (B) shows the second reading, with the next largest range (50 milliamperes).
The meter deflection is a little greater. It is possible to Interpret this reading as 5
milliamperes. Since this approximation of the current is less than the next range, the
meter is switched as shown in figure (C).
Figure (C). The range of the meter is now 10 milliamperes and it is possible to read
the meter indication of 5 milliamperes with the greatest degree of accuracy. Since the
current indicated is equal to (or greater than) the next range of the ammeter (5
milliamperes), the meter should NOT be switched to the next range.
An ammeter is always
connected in series with the
circuit you wish to test.
Connecting an ammeter in
parallel would give you not
only an incorrect measurement
but it would also damage the
ammeter, because too much
current would pass through the
meter.
c) Ammeter Sensitivity
a) Sensitivity Of Voltmeter
Voltmeter sensitivity is expressed in ohms per volt (Ω/V). It is the resistance of the
voltmeter at the fullscale reading in volts. Since the voltmeter’s resistance does not
change with the position of the pointer, the total resistance of the meter is the
sensitivity multiplied by the fullscale voltage reading. The higher the sensitivity of a
voltmeter, the higher the voltmeter’s resistance.
To determine the sensitivity of a meter movement, you need only to divide 1 by the
amount of current needed to cause fullscale deflection of the meter movement. The
manufacturer usually marks meter movements with the amount of current needed for
fullscale deflection and the resistance of the meter.
For example, if a meter has a fullscale current of 50µA and a resistance of 960Ω, the
sensitivity could be calculated as:
Figure (A) shows the meter is in the 1000volt range. The pointer is barely above the
0 position. It is not possible to accurately read this voltage.
Figure (B) shows the meter is switched to the 250 volt range. From the pointer
position it is possible to approximate the voltage as 20 volts. Since this is well below
the next range, the meter is switched, as in (C).
Figure (C) shows the meter in the 50volt range, it is possible to read the voltage as
22 volts. Since this is more than the next range of the meter (10 volts), the meter
would not be switched to the next (lower) scale.
7. Ohmmeter
When the test leads of an ohmmeter are separated, the pointer of the meter will return to the left
side of the scale. The interruption of current and the spring tension act on the movable coil
assembly, moving the pointer to the left side infinity (∞) of the scale.
b) Ohmmeter Ranges
When the test lead is selected into the next range, R X 10, the pointer deflects to
indicate 375 ohms. This would indicate that Rx has 375 ohms x 10, or 3,750 ohms
resistance. The change of range caused the deflection because resistor R x 10 has
about 1/10 the resistance of resistor R X 1. Thus, selecting the smaller series
resistance permitted a battery current of sufficient amount to cause a useful pointer
deflection. If the R x 100 range were used to measure the same 3,750ohm resistor,
the pointer would deflect still further, to the 37.5ohm position. This increased
deflection would occur because resistor R x 100 has about 1/10 the resistance of
resistor R x 10.
c) Shunt Ohmmeter
The ohmmeter described to this point is known as a series ohmmeter, because the
resistance to be measured is in series with the internal resistors and the meter
movement of the ohmmeter.
In the shunt ohmmeter, the resistance to be measured shunts (is in parallel with) the
meter movement of the ohmmeter. The most obvious way to tell the difference
between the series and shunt ohmmeters is by the scale of the meter.
The figure below shows the scale of a series ohmmeter and the scale of a shunt
ohmmeter.
Figure (A) is the scale of a series ohmmeter. Notice "0" is on the right and "∞" is on
the left.
Figure (B) is the scale of a shunt ohmmeter. In the shunt ohmmeter "∞" is on the right
and "0" is on the left.
The following safety precautions and operating procedures for ohmmeters are
necessary to prevent injury and damage.
i) Be certain the circuit is deenergized and discharged before connecting an
ohmmeter.
ii) Do not apply power to a circuit while measuring resistance.
iii) When you are finished using an ohmmeter, switch it to the OFF position if one
is provided and remove the leads from the meter.
iv) Always adjust the ohmmeter for 0 (or ∞ in shunt ohmmeter) after you change
ranges before making the resistance measurement.
v) Select the multiplication factor (range) that will result in the pointer coming to
rest as near as possible to the midpoint of the scale.
8. Megaohmmeter
The megaohmmeter or megger is widely used for measuring insulation resistance, such as
between a wire and the outer surface of the insulation, and insulation resistance of cables and
insulators e.g. ignition system and other high voltage circuit. The range of a megger may extend
to more than 1,000 megohms. Two types,
Type A – 500V DC
Type C – 250V DC
The megger, as shown in the figure is a
portable instrument consisting of two
primary elements:
 a handdriven dc generator, G, which
supplies the high voltage for making the
measurement, and
 the instrument portion, which indicates the
value of the resistance being measured.
When a megger is used, the generator voltage is present on the test leads. This voltage could be
hazardous to you or to the equipment you are checking. Therefore, NEVER TOUCH THE
TEST LEADS WHILE THE MEGGER IS BEING USED and isolate the item you are
checking from the equipment before using the megger.
To use a megger to check wiring insulation, connect one test lead to the insulation and
the other test lead to the conductor, after isolating the wiring from the equipment.
9. Electrodynamometer Wattmeter
The vibratingreed frequency meter is one of the simplest devices for indicating the frequency of
an ac source i.e. A.C. alternators frequency. Vibratingreed frequency meters are usually in
circuit meters. They are used on power panels to monitor the frequency of ac. The current whose
frequency is to be measured flows through the coil and exerts maximum attraction on the soft
iron armature TWICE during each cycle (fig (A)).
b) Construction.
i) Low reading true ohm meter.
ii) Nickel iron alkaline cell –
1.2volt.
iii) 60 feet length of two cable
terminate in a single spike
probe.
iv) 6 feet length of similar cable
attached to a double spike
probe i.e. act as a switch
controlling the power supply
from the cell.
v) Plug and socket connections
permit quick and correct
connection of the cables to
the instrument case.
vi) Low resistance coil A.
vii) High resistance coil B.
ii) Coil B (high resistance) is in parallel with the bond, so current through it is
proportional to the potential difference (p.d.) across the bond.
iii) The pointer position is proportional to p.d. across and inversely proportional to
the current i.e. it is proportional to the resistance of the bond.
Notes :  Connect the single probe first, before double spike probe is brought into
contact.
 The reading should less than 0.025 ohms for bonding test.
 The reading should less than 0.0025 ohms for ignition harness.
Most multimeters (and some other meters) have a mirror built into the scale. The figure shows
the arrangement of the scale and mirror. The purpose of the mirror on the scale of a meter is to
aid in reducing PARALLAX ERROR. If there is any parallax, you will be able to see the image
of the pointer in the mirror. If you are looking at the meter correctly (no parallax error) you will
not be able to see the image of the pointer in the mirror because the image will be directly behind
the pointer.
The top portion of the meter contains the digital readout area, which
resembles the digital display of many pocket calculators.
Below the digital readout is a large gray knob, called the FUNCTION
switch. This switch determines which function the multimeter will perform
(voltmeter, ammeter, or ohmmeter).
When first approaching a failed or otherwise misbehaving system, the new troubleshooter often
doesn't know where to begin. The following strategies are not exhaustive by any means, but
provide the troubleshooter with a simple checklist of questions to ask in order to start isolating
the problem.
As tips, these troubleshooting suggestions are not comprehensive procedures: they serve as
starting points only for the troubleshooting process. The followings are some of the suggestions.
1. Aircraft wire/cable
Copper
a) Used on almost all aircraft’s wiring
b) Better conductor than aluminum
c) Coated with tin, silver or nickel to prevent oxidation
d) Sizes 22 – 4/0 (0000) AWG
e) Before 1990’s, use MILW5086
Annealed copper coated with tin
PVC, nylon, glass braided insulator, rated to 600V
f) But PVC emits toxic fumes when burn
g) Today’s use other insulation :  TEFLON®
Called MIL – W – 22759
h) Always install a/c wire according to OEM approved process specification or aircraft
Advisory Circular AC 43.131B or MilW5088.
i) Copper has a higher conductivity and more ductile (can be drawn out) than aluminum.
j) Copper has relatively high tensile strength (the greatest stress a substance can bear
along its length without tearing apart).
k) Copper can also be easily soldered.
l) However, copper is more expensive and heavier than aluminum.
Aluminum
a) MILW7072
b) Used for carrying large amount of current in long distance
c) Can replace copper due to copper’s high cost & scarce (limited) in market.
d) More susceptible than copper – save weight
e) Can carry 2/3 current of the same size copper wire
f) But, has disadvantages:
Greater resistance
 Can carry 2/3 current of the same size copper wire
Easily broken by vibration (crystallize)
h) Limitation:
Wire smaller than 8 gauge is not allowed (easy broken)
Never attached to engine mount
Never used at severe vibration area
2. Wire Size
a) Measured in:
American Wire Gage (AWG)
Standard Wire Gage (SWG)
b) To determine wire size, use Wire Gage Tool  insert
stripped portion.
c) Gauge size related to cross sectional area of wire
d) Cross sectional is expressed in circular mils
e) A circular mils
A standard measurement for round conductor
= square of the diameter of the wire in thousandths in inch (1 mil = 0.001in)
E.g.: diameter = 0.0025 25 thousandth of inch; circular mil = 252 = 625cmil
f) A square mil = measurement for square or rectangular conductor, e.g.: bus bar
g) 1 circular mil = 0.7854 square mil
h) Smaller sized used is 22 AWG ( d=0.025in)
i) Largest sized used is 0000 AWG or 4aught (d=0.52in)
j) The smaller the AWG number, the larger the wire size
E.g.: 20AWG – 15 amp
10AWG  60 amp
To choose the wire size for given length, current, voltage systems, use wire
chart.
Wire chart (for copper wire only)
3. Types of Wire
Coaxial Cable
Conductor:
Soft annealed tinned copper, stranded as listed.
Insulation:
Irradiation crosslinked extruded Polyalkene meeting the requirements of MilW81044/9
Jacket:
Clear Irradiation crosslinked extruded Polyvinylidene Flouride (PVF) with a wall thickness
of 0.005 +/ .001 inches on MilW81044/9.
Ratings:
150°C conductor temperature, 600 Volts.
b) Shielded Wire
A stranded wire with insulated wire that encased in a braided metal jacket. Then
protected from abrasion with nylon jacket.
Shielded wire is to avoid interference from external or internal signal source.
Shielded wire available as a single wire or twisted pair (2 cores) or twisted 3 or 4
cores.
Twisted cable/wire is to cancel the electromagnetic field produced by the wires
when the current flow into it.
Electromagnetic field produced by AC cause interference to electronic equipments.
To prevent RFI – shielding the wire
e.g. P/N: M27500C26SD4S23, where
Some applications e.g. : magnetic compass; the wires in the shielded wire is twisted
to reduce magnetic fields effect. cancel each other
c) Coaxial Cable
During installations:
 DO NOT crush.
 DO NOT bend the wire with small radius.
 Should be 6 times the diameter
 Routed in straight line as directly & short as possible to minimize its length.
4. Wire Marking
a) To provide:
safety of operation.
safety of maintenance personnel.
ease of maintenance.
b) No standard system
c) Consist of combination of letter & number
d) Should identify:
type of circuit
location in circuit
section of wire from power source
wire size
e.g. : L21A20N
L – lighting
21 – 21st wire in circuit
A – 1st segment of wire
20  Wire gage
N – connect to ground
g) Some use 2 letter identification give detail
location
h) Placed marking at:
12” – 15” interval along a wire for hot
stamping or laser marking
24” to 36” interval along a wire for sleeve
marking.
each end of wire
j) Wire less than 3” long No marking required
Method of marking
a) Direct marking
print on the outer covering
b) Indirect
used on coax cable, bundle.
use printed heatshrinkable sleeve/ tubing/ pressuresensitive tape (in the form of
small flag).
individual wire inside cable marked within 3” from end.
metallic sleeve/band MUST NOT be used.
5. Wire Bundle
a) A compact group of electrical wires held together with special wrapping devices or
waxed string.
b) for neatest, organized and efficient routing.
c) Method:
d) Lacing should not be used for bundle installed around an engine since a break in the
lacing cord, loosens an entire section of the bundle.
e) After tied, some are covered with heatshrinkable tubing, spiral wrap & others.
Open Wiring
b) Wires/bundles route through aircraft without protective covering.
c) quickest & easiest way to install and troubleshoot.
d) at area exposed to outside environment, use good abrasive resistance insulated wire &
low moisture absorption.
Conduit
e) to provides mechanical protection & metal conduit as shielding.
f) enclosed wires in rigid (thin metal tubing) or flexible (braided metal) conduit.
g) used in place where bundles are likely to be chafed or crushed.
 e.g.: engine nacelles, wheel well
h) inside diameter 25% larger than bundle.
i) all edges or holes should be deburred to assure smooth surface that will not damage
cable.
j) MUST have 1/8 in. drain holes at the lowest point in the conduit.
k) Bent in the conduit MUST NOT be kinked, wrinkled and not flattened excessively
(diameter decrease 75%).
l) Before install the cable bundle in conduit, sprinkle the bundle with talc/ blow talc
through the tubing (as lubricant).
m) Support conduit by clamps attached to a/c structure.
n) Use to minimize radio interference – flexible brass conduit, MILC7931.
Note: Chafing occurs when wires vibrate and rub against each other (or the structure of
the aircraft) causing the insulation layer surrounding the wire to be rubbed away
and exposed the internal electrical core. The vibration causing the chafing is
usually the cumulative effect of the highfrequency vibration which naturally
occurs in flight associated with aerodynamic and engine vibrations. The tendency
for wire to chaff is exacerbated by insufficient tensioning, insufficient offset or the
tightening of a wire against an airframe component (especially around corners).
Overtensioning of wires and/or insufficient support intervals can lead to
"strumming" of wires (causing them to contact other surfaces). Scraping caused
by pulling wire through narrow areas during installation can cause a similar effect
to chafing.
8. Shielding
a) Shielding = intercepting the electrical energy and shunting it to ground (the field is
trapped by the braided metal and carry to the ground).
b) protect from electromagnetic interference by wire carrying Alternating current.
c) consist a braid of tinplated or cadmiumplated copper wire.
 connected to ground thru a crimpedon ring terminal.
d) in electrical system – both end grounded.
e) in electronic system – only one end grounded.
f) DO NOT solder the connection since it may overheat and cause to break.
9. Routing Wire
a) Route without interfere with controls or moving components unless mechanical guard
is installed
b) DO NOT route it:
in location likely be used as a handhold
in place that it can be damaged by person entering or leaving the area, or by any
baggage or cargo
closer than 6 inches from the bottom of fuselage(bilge)
below a battery
closer than 3 inches from control cable
c) Overhead routing is preferable
d) If need to be routed parallel to oxygen or fluid lines, wiring MUST be above or same
level, and no closer than 6 inches from lines
e) Use clamp to support wires & center it through a bulkhead hole
install grommet if clearance less than ¼ inch or 3/8 inch as shown below.
a) Secure bundle close enough together with cushioned clamps to avoid wire sagging
and vibrate excessively.
b) Allow slack of ½ inch deflection between 2 supports.
c) Enough slack at last support/each end :
i) For easier removal or installation.
ii) To prevent mechanical strain.
iii) To permit shifting component for maintenance.
d) Spaced with interval not exceed 24 inches.
e) Assure not to pinch the wire by using correct size of clamp.
Permanently installed wires are terminated with crimpedon terminals (solderless terminals).
For frequent connection and disconnection, AN/MS quick disconnect connectors are used.
a) Wire/Cable Terminals
i) Stripping is cutting the insulation & pulling it from the end of wire.
ii) Expose as little conductor as necessary.
iii) Careful not to damage the conductor beyond limit.
iv) Use correct size stripper.
v) FAA specifies limit for allowable nicked or broken strands.
vi) E.g.: copper 20AWG with 19 strands – 2 nicked, no broken.
Larger the number of strands, the greater the acceptable number of
nicked/broken
vii) For aluminum, NO BROKEN or even NICKED is allowed.
Nicked aluminum wore cause it easier to break.
Also reduce current carrying capability of the wire.
c) Crimping
d) Wire Splices
e) Soldering
f) Soldering Iron
g) Terminal Strips
j) In practical, all electric wires in the main electric system of an aircraft are of the
flexible type. Therefore, soldered type terminals (splices, lugs or connectors) are not
recommended to be used in aircraft electric system. The reasons are,
i) When terminal is soldered to such wire, the solder tends to penetrate the wire and
make it rigid in the vicinity of the terminal. This makes the wire and terminal
less resistant to vibration with the result that the wire may become crystallized
by fatigue and break off at the terminal.
ii) Another disadvantage is that the flux used may of a corrosive type that bringing
about failure through corrosion.
iii) More time and difficult in maintenance because of unsoldering and resoldering
processes.
iv) Well skilled in soldering techniques is required. Failure to have this, the wire
might be damaged i.e. the wire insulation burned.
12. Bonding/Grounding
a) Installed on wire that frequently disconnect for easier removal and reinstallation. Ex:
avionic components.
b) 2 types of common connector are:
 AN (Army Navy)
 MS (Military Spec.)
c) Connector consists of 2 part:
 Socket (receptacle) – female
 Pin (plug) – male
d) To reduce accidental short, power connection uses socket while ground side (load
connection) uses pins.
e) To use connector at area exposed to moisture, used special moisture proof connector
or coated connectors with chemically inert waterproof jelly.
f) Wire installed to pin/socket connector by:
i) Crimping
Pin/sockets are first crimped to wire then slipped into connector by insertion
tools, to remove used extraction tools
1/32 to 3/32 wire exposed
ii) Soldering.
Less used
Apply small amount of solder to stripped wire(tinning process)
Fill solder pot with solder
Insert the wire while keeping the solder pot molten.
Hold the wire until solder solidifies
Should leave about 1/32 of an inch stranded wire between the top of solder pot
and the insulation for flexibility.
g) Since more than one of the same type connector may be installed, insert orientation
identification becomes very important.
h) Insertion slot prevent wrong mating part connected together.
The alternating system is one in which a voltage or current periodically reverses in direction in a
regular recurring manner. Figure 1 shows an alternating current (usually abbreviated to AC)
plotted with current on the vertical axes and time along the horizontal axis.
From figure 1 you can see that the AC passes through a definite sequence, it rises from zero to
maximum in one direction and falls back to zero, it then reverses and goes to a maximum in the
other direction and then goes back to zero again. This complete sequence A to B is called a cycle
and is repetitive.
Figure 2 AC Waveforms
The number of cycles occurring in one second is called the FREQUENCY of the alternating
current. This has the symbol “f” and the unit HERTZ (Hz). The frequency of most aircraft AC
constant frequency systems is 400Hz. In aircraft radio and radar systems many other frequencies
are used ranging from 3 kHz to 30GHz.
The time taken to complete one cycle is known as the periodic time or period denoted by the
symbol T. (see figure 1).
1
T
f
= 2.5 ms
The shape of the alternating voltage or current graph is known as its waveform, Figure 2 shows
some example waveforms each havingthe same frequency.
The square wave or derivatives of it is used in electronic circuits (multi vibrators), digital
systems and radar systems.
If a fundamental sine wave (frequency, say 1Hz) and a number of its odd harmonics (3Hz,
5Hz, 7Hz etc) are added together a waveform is produced which tends to be square in
shape. A perfectly shaped square wave would contain an infinite number of harmonics.
The statement “perfectly shaped” means having a flat top and bottom and vertical leading
and trailing edges. The harmonic content of the waveform controls some important
features of the square wave. These include:
a) As the harmonic content is increased so the waveform becomes squarer in shape.
b) The steepness of the sides is determined by the higher order harmonics, the
steepness increasing as higher harmonics are included in the composite square
wave.
c) The flatness of the top and bottom of the wave is determined by the fundamental
wave and the low order harmonic content of the square wave.
d) If odd harmonics only are used the resultant square wave will be symmetrical.
e) If both even and odd harmonics are present the square wave will be asymmetrical.
To be able to describe the properties of a square wave without the need for reference to a
drawing, various terms have been introduced. These include:
a) Amplitude of a square wave. The difference in voltage between the upper portion
and the lower portion of the wave. Note that it is not the same as the amplitude of a
sinusoidal wave form.
b) Pulse Repetition (recurrence) Frequency (prf). This is the number of complete
repetitions occurring per second as it is usually expressed as pulses per second.
Some textbooks refer to the frequency of the square wave in Hertz (Hz) and call one
repetition one cycle. This demonstrates the similarity between the square wave and
the sinusoid and helps emphasize that the frequency sinusoid present in the square
wave has a frequency equal to the prf of the square wave.
c) Pulse Width. This is the time interval during which the square wave remains at level
during one complete cycle of operation. It is often referred to as the pulse duration
and can refer to either the positive portion or the negative portion depending on the
use being made of the wave.
d) Polarity of a square wave. A square wave may be described as positivegoing with
respect to the lower level, or as negativegoing with respect to the upper level.
With reference to the square wave shown in figure 6. It could be describe as either:
100 volts positive, going with respect to 50 volts, or
—
Faradays Law states that when a conductor cuts a magnetic field an emf (electromotive
force) is induced into the conductor. Figure 10 shows the rotation of the loop through
360°
In position (a) no cutting of the flux lines is taking place as the wire is moving parallel to
the lines of flux so no emf (P) is induced. As the loop rotates from this position it starts to
cut the lines of flux and an emf is generated which reaches a maximum at (Q), the coil is
cutting the maximum number of lines of flux hence maximum emf is induced. As it
rotates further the induced emf reduces to zero at (R).
The direction of the induced emf reverses as side A of the loop cuts the flux lines in an
upwards direction, again being a maximum at (S) and then falling to zero at (T). This
waveform produced is known as a sinusoidal waveform or sine wave (got its name from
the fact that if the sine of the angles is plotted against the angles from 0 to 360° a graph
If we assume the maximum emf in this case to be 100 volts (ie the length of the phasor
represents 100 volts). Then the height AB in figure 11 and the drawing below represents
the voltage at (a) on the sine wave, this point is known as an INSTANTANEOUS VALUE
 a voltage at an instant in time
Instantaneous values are given the symbol e and maximum emf as E max
By trigonometry, e = Emax sin Ø
Therefore at all other points (angles) the instantaneous emf e = Emax sin Ø
hence, the name sine wave as the voltage at any point is the maximum value times the
sine of the angle.
It is common to use the RADIAN as the standard measure of plain angles. A radian is
defined as the angle at the centre of a circle subtended by an arc of the circumference
equal in length to the radius of the circle. As the circumference of a circle is 2π x the
radius, there are 2π radians in a circle (360°). Just over 6 radians in a circle. So 1 radian
= 360° / 2π which is approximately 57.3°.
In one revolution the phasor (loop) passes through 2π radians. If it rotates at “f”
revolutions per second, it passes through 2πf radians per second. This is the angular
velocity of the phasor (loop) denoted by the Greek letter ω (omega). ω = 2πf radians per
second. After an interval of t seconds from the commencement of rotation the loop has
rotated an angle Ø equal to 2πft radians which is ωt radians. The emf at this instant is:
1.2.1 AC Values.
The difference between the peak positive value and the peak negative value is
called the PEAK TO PEAK VALUE and is twice the peak value.
Measuring the value of the current at each point and adding them together and
dividing by the number of values taken, in the drawing:
I1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 I 6
Amps
6
The EFFECTIVE or ROOT MEAN SQUARE VALUE (rms) is the value that is
most commonly used.
The energy dissipated is proportional to the shaded area beneath the (current) 2
curves. However, looking at the graph you will see that crest (a) will fit into
through (a), crest (b) into through (b) and so on. This is the same energy that
2
I max
would be dissipated by a steady value . Therefore the value of alternating
2
2
I
current which gives the same heating effect as the equivalent value dc is max .
2
rms value
Form factor = mean value
0.707 x peak
For a sine wave form factor = 0.637 x peak
The form factor is therefore an indication of the shape of the waveform, the higher its
value the more ‘peaky’ is the waveform.
We can represent these two quantities by phasors (as shown below), the length
of each representing the rms values.
The voltage rises to its positive peak first and is said to be leading the current,
alternatively the current can be said to be lagging the voltage. The phase
difference is the phase angle Ø.
The phasor diagram below shows this more clearly, (remember phasors rotate
anticlockwise).
2. SERIES AC CIRCUITS
We need to look at the effect of AC applied to resistance, inductance and capacitance as the
results are important as we shall see.
There is no such thing as a ‘pure’ resistance, a ‘pure’ inductance or a ‘pure’ capacitance. A wire
wound resistor, for instance, since it is wound in the form of a coil has inductance as well as
resistance, similarly, a capacitor has resistance as well as capacitance.
However, for the purposes of the next few pages we are going to assume ‘pure’ components as it
makes the treatment easier and it is helpful to show the ‘ideal’ conditions.
With reference to the graph in figure 17. It can be seen that the voltage and current are in
phase and the phasor diagram would be as shown below the graph.
Ohms law and the use of rms values apply at all times to a purely resistive circuit, eg:
V V
I = V = IxR R =
R I
2.1.2 Power
The power is the average value of all the instantaneous values of power for a
complete cycle. To find the instantaneous power at any moment, the
instantaneous values of voltage and current at that moment are multiplied
together.
Thus in figure 18 at moment x, the voltage is A volts and the current B is amps.
The power at this moment is therefore AB watts (V x I) and is represented by
point C on the graph.
If this process is carried out over the complete cycle the power curve is
produced as shown in figure 19
The average power over a complete cycle is the average value of the power
curve and this is represented by a line halfway between maximum and minimum
values of the curve, since the shaded areas above and below the line are equal.
The power waveform has twice the frequency of the supply. Therefore in the
diagram the power fluctuates rapidly between zero and 12 watts, but over a
complete cycle, the average power is 6 watts. We are only interested in average
power as the frequency of the supply is usually high and this is what the device
(lamp, electric motor etc) actually consumes.
The average power will from now be referred to as ‘power’, is half the peak
power in a resistive circuit, and this peak value is the maximum voltage
multiplied by the maximum current.
The backemf in the circuit provides the opposition to current flow. It therefore acts in a
similar manner to a resistance in the circuit. It is a form of AC resistance but is called
REACTANCE, it is given in ohms and has the symbol X, to identify it as reactance in an
inductive circuit the symbol is XL is used.
The inductive reactance of a coil depends upon the rate of change of current (which is
dependent on frequency) and the value of the inductance. It is calculated by the formula:
XL = 2πfL ohms
V
As in any circuit the opposition to current flow is always so in the pure inductive
I
circuit.
V
XL = Ohms
I
It is important to determine what happens in a pure inductance circuit when the frequency
to a circuit is increased or decreased.
2.2.1 Power
As the voltage and current are 90° out of phase positive and negative powers
are produced. In the purely inductive circuit, the total power is zero, since
positive and negative powers cancel. Positive power is given to the circuit from
the power supply on one half cycles and negative is returned to the supply
source on the other half cycle of power.
Over a complete cycle the net power is zero. It is important to note that current
flows in the circuit but no work is being done when the current is 90° out of
phase with the voltage.
2.2.2 Summary:
a) I lags V by 90°  or V leads I by 90°.
b) Opposition to current flow is INDUCTIVE REACTANCE (X L) XL = 2πfL
V
ohms, XL = ohms
I
c) No power is produced in a purely inductive circuit.
Voltage exists across the plates of a capacitor only after the current has flowed to charge
the plates. With reference to figure 26 it can be seen that the current leads the voltage and
in a pure capacitive circuit it leads by 90°. Remember, it can also be stated that voltage
lags the current.
V
In any circuit the opposition to current flow is .
I
2.3.1 Power
The power curve is produced as previously illustrated in the pure resistive and
pure inductive circuits. Looking at figure 28 (the shaded areas) it can be seen
there are two positive peaks and two negative peaks of power over one complete
cycle so the net power is zero.
2.3.2 Summary:
a) I leads V by 90°  or V lags I by 90°.
b) Opposition to current flow is CAPACITIVE REACTANCE (XC)
1 V
XC = 2fC 2πfL ohms, XL = ohms
I
c) No power is produced in a purely capacitive circuit.
The concept of a pure inductor is not a practical one, as an inductor is a length of wire
wound into a coil. This then will have resistance which can be represented by a pure
inductor in series with a resistor. The waveform diagram (figure 30) shows that voltage
and current are out of phase by an angle less than 90° and with current lagging voltage.
To draw a phasor diagram for this circuit everything is drawn from a REFERENCE
PHASOR, which in a series circuit is the current as it is the same throughout the circuit.
To find the supply voltage (V) we cannot just add these voltages together as you would
do in a dc circuit, because they are out of phase with one another, so by completing the
parallelogram (phasor addition) we can find the supply voltage (V).
VL
tan Ø =
VR
VL
as VL = IXL , XL = VR = IR
I
IX L X
then tan Ø = = L
IR R
In other words the ratio of the reactance to the resistance is the tangent of the phase angle.
XL
The phase angle, Ø = tan1
XR
2.4.1 Impedance
The opposition to current flow in this circuit is provided by the resistance of the
resistor and the reactance of the inductor and when there is a combination like
this the opposition to current flow is called IMPEDANCE (Z) in ohms.
V = I
2
R XL
2
XL
This is known as the impedance triangle and once again Tan Ø =
R
2.4.2 Summary:
a) Current lags the voltage or voltage leads the current by some angle
between 0 and 90° which depends on values of L and R.
X
Tan Ø = L
R
b) Opposition to current flow is impedance (Z) Ohms.
2
Z= R 2 X L Ohms
The waveform diagram (figure 33) shows the voltage and current are out of phase by less
than 90° with current leading the voltage.
Once again, to draw the phasor diagram use the current phasor as the reference, V R is in
phase with the current so is drawn on top of I. The voltage across the capacitor Vc is
lagging the current by 90° and is drawn vertically downwards. The actual supply voltage
can again be found by phasor addition.
The opposition to current flow provided by the capacitive reactance (X C) and resistance
(R) is called impedance (Z) Ohms.
V
Once again, Z = Ohms
I
a) Current leads the voltage or voltage lags the current by some angle
between 0 and 90° which depends on values of C and R.
X
Tan Ø = C
R
b) Opposition to current flow is impedance (Z) Ohms.
2
Z= R 2 X C Ohms
The word CIVIL can be used as a convenient way of remembering the relative position of
the phase between current and voltage in capacitive and inductive circuits.
Figure 35 ‘CIVIL’
The circuit is shown in figure 36 where resistance, inductance and capacitance are
connected in series.
Note:
In this circuit, as VL is greater than VC, then current lags the voltage and is therefore more
inductive. The opposition to current flow is again impedance and is:
Z = R 2 ( X L X C )2 Ohms
V
or = Ohms = R 2 ( X L X C )2 Ohms
I
XL XC
and tan Ø =
R
XL = XC and therefore VL = VC
If XL = XC they are 180° apart (antiphase) so they will cancel leaving just the
resistance of the circuit so Z = R. If Z = R then the impedance is at a minimum
and therefore the current must be at a maximum
Also as VL and VC are antiphase they also cancel so the applied voltage will
equal the voltage across the resistor V R = V. Current will be in phase with the
supply voltage and the power factor is 1.
At resonance, as the current is high the voltages across L and C are equal and
opposite so that their resultant is zero. However, when considered alone they
can be very high voltages, much greater than the supply and it is this voltage
magnification which will be discussed later.
The circuit is very often known as an ACCEPTOR CIRCUIT and the frequency
at which resonance occurs can be found by
2.6.2 Selectivity
Figure 41 Selectivity
b) The ratio of L to C
1
As fO = Hz
2 LC
Reactance
QO = at resonance (QO = Q factor of resonance)
Resistance
Considering XL at resonance
2f O L
QO =
R
1
As fO = Hz
2 LC
Series tuned circuits are used in radio to accept inputs at the resonant frequency
and in the immediate neighborhood of resonance.
These points are known as the ‘half power’ points. The relationship between
fO
Bandwidth and Qo is Bandwidth = Hz.
QO
At resonance we know the voltages across the inductor and capacitor can be
very high.
At resonance VL = IXL
V
Current is a maximum and equal to . as Z = R at resonance.
R
V
VL = x XL
R
XL
VL = x V
R
2f O L
VL = xV
R
The ratio of reactance ( 2f O L ) to resistance (R) is the Q factor of the current
QO. Therefore the voltage across the inductor at resonance is:
VL = QO x V
ie the Q factor times the applied voltage. If QO is 100 and the supply voltage is
1V then the voltage drop across L (and C of course) is 100 x 1 = 100V. That is
VOLTAGE MAGNIFICATION has taken place which can be applied to another
circuit. This magnified voltage is usually tapped off across C. It is usual to
2.6.5 Summary:
Series Resonance
a) XL = XC
b) VL = VC
c) VR = V
d) I = Maximum
e) Z = Minimum = R
f) I and V in phase
g) Power factor = 1
1
h) fO =
2 LC
L
i) Q = selectivity of circuit depends on resistance and ration
C
Reactance
j) QO = Resistance
fO
k) Bandwidth .=
QO
3. PARALLEL AC CIRCUITS
The current in the capacitor (IC) leads the voltage by 90˚ and the current in the inductive
circuit lags by some angle less than 90° due to the resistance. The total current from the
supply is the phasor addition of IC and IL. If the frequency to this circuit was varied then
at one particular frequency, XL = XC, this is when the current taken from the supply is in
phase with the voltage. What is happening in the circuit is that the capacitor is charging
up and then discharging through the inductor, the emf induced in the inductor will then
charge up the capacitor in the reverse direction and this will continue to circulate a
current between the two components.
At resonance the current drawn from the supply is very small and therefore the
impedance is high (opposite to the series resonant circuit).
It should be noted that the actual current circulating between the inductor and capacitor is
high.
The phasor diagram (figure 47) shows the conditions at resonance with the supply current
in phase with the supply voltage.
If the resistive losses are small then for all practical purposes the formula is the same as
for a series resonant circuit.
1
fO =
2 LC
At resonance the impedance of the circuit is high to the maximum possible and is called
DYNAMIC IMPEDANCE ZD and can be found by the following formula:
1
ZD = Ohms
CR
Selectivity as we saw for the series resonant circuit is the ability of the circuit to respond
strongly to the required signal at the resonant frequency and gives a poor response to
other signals. The sharpness of the resonance curves for the parallel circuit indicates the
degree of selectivity.
A parallel circuit is often termed a Rejector circuit since it presents maximum impedance
at resonance.
3.1.1 Summary
a) XL = XC
b) VL = VC
c) IL = IC
d) I inphase with V = minimum
L
e) Z = = maximum
CR
f) Power factor = 1
1
g) fO = resistance neglected
2 LC
One of the main factors determining the use of resonant circuits is in radio
circuits as the internal impedance of the supply. Selectivity is best in a series
circuit when the supply source internal impedance is the same or lowers than the
impedance at resonance. Similarly, the parallel circuit has better selectivity
when the supply source is the same or higher than its impedance (Z D) at
resonance.
So if a source has high internal impedance a parallel resonant circuit is used and
if the source has a low internal impedance a series resonant circuit is used.
The first tuned circuit is normally a series tuned circuit because it is fed from a
low impedance source (the aerial). Voltage magnification takes place where it is
fed to an amplifier. The ‘load’ for the amplifier stages would be a parallel tuned
circuit because it is being fed from a high impedance source (transistor).
Resonant circuits are also used for control of rotary inverter outputs and some
older aircraft generator frequency control circuits.
4. POWER IN AC CIRCUITS
a) In purely resistive circuit, all of the current does work and power is
produced.
b) In a purely inductive circuit, the current does not work and no power is produced.
c) In a purely capacitive circuit, the current does not work and no power is produced.
The phasor diagram shows the current lagging the supply voltage by phase angle Ø. From our
previous theory, power is only produced in a AC circuit when current and voltage are in phase.
So we need to split the current I into its two components as shown
The component ‘in phase’ with the voltage is known as the ACTIVE OR REAL component and
the component at 90˚ to the voltage is known as the QUADRATURE or REACTIVE component.
It is important to realize that only one current (I) flows in the circuit and this is the current that is
measured by an ammeter in the circuit.
The power in a purely resistive AC circuit is found by multiplying together the rms voltage and
current. It follows then that in a resistive reactive circuit, power dissipated can be found by
multiplying together the voltage and the component of current in phase with it.
PREAL = V x IREAL
I REAL
As cos Ø =
I
IREAL = I cos Ø
This then gives us the actual power being used by the system.
The component of the current that does not work in the system still flows through the system
cables and produces power which as we know cancels over one cycle so not net power is
produced.
If the supply voltage is multiplied by the current (I) this will give us the APPARENT POWER
being dissipated, we know that this is apparently available but because current and voltage are
not in phase then that is not the true power available from the system.
As we have seen we can work out the apparent power of a system in KVA. What we need
to know is how much of this available power is producing actual work done in a circuit,
i.e. producing True Power. So the ratio of
TRUE POWER
APPARENT POWER
Example
If a 40kVA generator produces a power output of 30kW then the power factor is
30
Pf = = 0.75
40
So in this case the factor of power being used is 0.75, the generator is producing 0.75 of
its output as True Power i.e. producing power in the system. So obviously the higher the
power factor the better. Aircraft generation systems are typically 0.75 to 0.9 power factor.
A power factor of 1 (unity) would mean that all of the power produced is being used as
true power and the circuit must be purely resistive.
TRUE POWER
pf = APPARENT POWER
as T P = V x I x cos Ø
and A P = VxI
V x I x cos
then pf = V xI
pf = cos Ø
So another formula for power factor is that it equals the cosine of the phase not angle.
4.2.1 Summary
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