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A Physics

Investigatory
Project
On

“Simple DC Motor”
Submitted to

DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL,SITAPUR


[ Affiliated to CBSE,New Delhi, CBSE affiliation
code:2132229]
(Session:2019-20)
Guided By:
Mr. Lal Bahadur Verma
Submitted By:
Anu Bajpai
Class:
12th
CBSE Roll No.

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Certificate

This is to certify that Anu Bajpai of class 12th Delhi Public School Sitapur has

successfully completed the following project file on the topic “Simple D.C Motor”

under supervision of Mr.Lal Bahadur Verma based on syllabus and meant for CBSE

Delhi 2019-20 Examination and has given excellent account of it.

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Acknowledgement

I would like to express my heartiest gratitude to my physics teacher Mr. Lal Bahadur

Verma who gave me wonderful opportunity to this investigatory project on Simple DC

motor.for He spared his valuable time of guidance throughout the project and helped

to overcome the difficulties faced in completion of this project.

I am grateful to my Principal Mr. Rakesh Singh for providing best facilities in the

school.I am equally grateful to my friends and classmates for their support.I am

grateful to all of those helped me directly or indirectly in completion of my project

work.

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Introduction

A DC motor is any of a class of rotary electrical machines that converts direct

current electrical energy into mechanical energy. The most common types rely on

the forces produced by magnetic fields. Nearly all types of DC motors have some

internal mechanism, either electromechanical or electronic, to periodically change

the direction of current flow in part of the motor.

DC motors were the first form of motor widely used, as they could be powered from

existing direct-current lighting power distribution systems. A DC motor's speed can

be controlled over a wide range, using either a variable supply voltage or by

changing the strength of current in its field windings. Small DC motors are used in

tools, toys, and appliances. The universal motor can operate on direct current but is

a lightweight brushed motor used for portable power tools and appliances. Larger DC

motors are currently used in propulsion of electric vehicles, elevator and hoists, and

in drives for steel rolling mills. The advent of power electronics has made

replacement of DC motors with AC motors possible in many applications.

Following are the types of dc motors-

1. Permanent magnet (Permanent magnet stator),

2. Electromagnets connected in series (Wound stator),

3. Shunt (Wound stator),

4. Compound (Wound stator).

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1. Permanent Magnet Motors:-

The permanent magnet motor uses a magnet to supply field flux.

Permanent magnet DC motors have excellent starting torque capability with

good speed regulation. A disadvantage of permanent magnet DC motors is

they are limited to the amount of load they can drive.These motors can be

found on low horsepower applications.

Its disadvantage is that torque is usually limited to 150% of rated torque to

prevent demagnetization of the permanent magnets.

2. Series Motors:-

In a series DC motor the field is connected in series with the armature.The field is

wound with a few turns of large wire because it must carry the full armature current.

A characteristic of series motors is the motor develops a large amount of starting

torque. However, speed varies widely between no load and full load. Series motors

cannot be used where a constant speed is required under varying loads.

Series-connected motors generally are not suitable for use on most variable speed

drive applications.

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3. Shunt DC Motors

In shunt DC motors the field is connected in parallel (shunt) with the armature

windings. These motors offer great speed regulation due to the fact that the shunt

field can be excited separately from the armature windings, which also offers

simplified reversing controls.

4. Compound DC Motors

Compound DC motors, like shunt DC motors, have a separately excited shunt field.

Compound DC motors have good starting torque but may experience control

problems in variable speed drive applications.

Between the 4 types of DC motors, the potential applications are numerous. Each

type of DC motor has its strengths and weaknesses. Understanding these can help

you understand which types may be good for your application.

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Principle of a DC Motor

An electric motor is an electrical machine which converts electrical energy into

mechanical energy. The basic working principle of a DC motor is: "whenever a

current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical

force". The direction of this force is given by Fleming's left-hand rule and its

magnitude is given by F = BIL. Where, B = magnetic flux density, I = current and L =

length of the conductor within the magnetic field.

Fleming's left hand rule: If we stretch the first finger, second finger and thumb

of our left hand to be perpendicular to each other, and the direction of magnetic field

is represented by the first finger, direction of the current is represented by the second

finger, then the thumb represents direction of the force experienced by the current

carrying conductor.

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Diagram

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Required material for simple DC motor

1. A battery

2. Copper wire

3. Magnet

4. A base

5. Scissors

6. Two safety pins

7. Tape

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Construction

1. Take copper wire and wrap it around the battery. Be sure to leave around 2 inches

on each end of the copper wire unwrapped.

2. Slide the copper wire of the battery keeping it in a circle.

3. Wrap the ends of the wire around the loop several times to hold the structure of the

loop and to keep the wire wound together.

4. Take both the safety pins and attach them on both the sides of battery with the help

of tape . It will help in holding the coil.

5. For each end of the wound copper wire scraped off the outer coating, if scraped off

at the wrong side the motor will not work. Very important to only scrape of the sides .

The purpose of scraping off the coating is so a complete circuit can be made with the

battery and the copper wire. This complete circuit needs to be made when the

position of the wire is like the one shown to the right. This will create a magnetic pole

through the loops of the copper wire making the bottom portion of the wire want to

push away from the magnet, thus making it spin.

6. Place magnet on top of battery. Rest the ends of the copper wire on the loops of

both the safety pins so the wound of wire is placed above the magnet and battery.

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7. Then, you will see the coil rotating. If coin doesn’t rotate during first time try waving it

by any object.

8. Make sure that turns in the coil and strength of magnet is well balanced.

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Diagram

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Working

The DC motor is a machine that transforms electric energy into mechanical energy in

form of rotation. Its movement is produced by the physical behavior of

electromagnetism. DC motors have inductors inside, which produce the magnetic

field used to generate movement. But how does this magnetic field changes if DC

current is being used?

An electromagnet, which is a piece of iron wrapped with a wire coil that has voltage

applied in its terminals. If two fixed magnets are added in both sides of this

electromagnet, the repulsive and attractive forces will produce a torque.

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Then, there are two problems to solve: feeding the current to the rotating

electromagnet without the wires getting twisted, and changing the direction of the

current at the appropriate time. Both of these problems are solved using two devices:

a split-ring commutator, and a pair of brushes.

As it can be seen, the commutator has two segments which are connected to each

terminal of the electromagnet, besides the two arrows are the brushes which apply

electric current to the rotary electromagnet. In real DC motors it can be found three

slots instead of two and two brushes.

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This way, as the electromagnet is moving its polarity is changing and the shaft may

keep rotating. Even if it is simple and sounds that it will work great there are some

issues which make these motors energy inefficient and mechanically unstable, the

principal problem is due to the timing between each polarity inversion.

Since polarity in the electromagnet is changed mechanically, at some velocities

polarity is changing too soon, which result in reverse impulses and sometimes in

changing too late, generating instantaneous “stops” in rotation. Whatever the case,

these issues produce current peaks and mechanical instability.

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Applications

The applications of electrical motor include the following-

 The applications of electrical motor mainly include blowers, fans, machine

tools, pumps, turbines, power tools, alternators, compressors, rolling mills, ships,

movers, paper mills.

 The electric motor is an essential device in different applications like HVAC- heating

ventilating & cooling equipment, home appliances, and motor vehicles.

 Following are some common types of D.C motors-

Permanent Magnet DC Motors

 PMDC motors are mainly used in automobiles to operate windshield wipers and

washers, to raise the lower windows, to drive blowers for heaters and air conditioners

etc.

 PMDC motors are used in electric toothbrushes, portable vacuum cleaners, food mixers.

 Used in a portable electric tool such as drilling machines, hedge trimmers etc.

Series Motors

The series DC motors are used where high starting torque is required, and variations in

speed are possible. For example – the series motors are used in Traction system, Cranes,

air compressors.

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Shunt Motors

The shunt motors are used where constant speed is required and starting conditions

are not severe. The various applications of DC shunt motor are in Lathe Machines,

Centrifugal Pumps, Fans, Blowers, Conveyors, Lifts, Weaving Machine, Spinning

machines, etc.

Compound Motors

 The compound motors are used where higher starting torque and fairly constant

speed is required. The examples of usage of compound motors are in Presses,

Shears, Conveyors, Elevators, Rolling Mills, Heavy Planners, etc

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Social aspects of DC Motor

The electric motor has changed the framework of human society.

Electric motors are important in a lot of of objects society use everyday such as

fans, fridges, and washing machines.

New jobs are also being made in manufacturing, repair technician, and new

inventions and research.

Society could never be the same without electric motors. Skyscrapers could

never be built with mechanical cranes, robots could exist, and life could not be

the same without all the inventions that use electric motors.

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Future of DC Motors:

1- Most of the electrical machines in service are AC types.


2- DC machine are of considerable industrial importance.
3- DC machine mainly used as DC motors and the DC generators are rarely
used.
4- DC motors provides a fine control of the speed which can not be attained by
AC
motors.
5- DC motors can develop rated torque at all speeds from standstill to rated
speed.
6- Developed torque at standstill is many times greater than the torque developed
by an AC motor of equal power and speed rating.

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Bibliography

1. www.google.com

2. www.slideshare.net

3. www.circuitglobe.com

4. Respected teachers

5. Lab Manual

6. S.L Arora

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