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THENEURON

Reporter: ARETH A. ARANA Date of Report: October 24, 2019

NEURON
 nerve cell that is the basic building block and functional unit of the nervous system
 is responsible for communicating information in both chemical and electrical forms

Similarities between neurons and other body cells


1. Nucleus
 neurons and other body cells both contain a nucleus that holds genetic information
 nucleus is present in neurons because it contains materials needed for protein synthesis in
which case these proteins are needed in order for the cell to perform and sustain its functions
and serve its purpose in the system
2. Membrane
 neurons and other body cells are surrounded by a membrane that protects the cell
3. Cell Body
 the cell bodies of both cell types contain organelles that support the life of the cell, including
the mitochondria, Golgi bodies, and cytoplasm

Differences that make neurons unique


1. Neurogenesis
 neurons stop reproducing shortly after birth; they don’t reproduce or regenerate
 recent researches, however, show that there is a certain region in the brain (specifically the
hippocampus) that produces new nerve cells during adulthood
2. Specialized
 neurons have a membrane featuring an axon and dendrites, specialized structures designed
to transmit and receive information
3. Neurotransmitter
 neurons release chemicals known as neurotransmitters into synapses, or the connection
between the cells, to communicate with other neurons

ESSENTIAL PARTS OF A NEURON

1. Dendrite
 are fibrous roots that branch out from the cell body
 receive and process signals from the axons of the
other neurons
2. Cell body
 also known as soma, it is the neuron’s core
 carries the genetic information, maintains the neuron’s
structure, and provides energy to drive activities
3. Axon
 is a long, tail-like structure which joins the cell body at
a specialized junction called the axon hillock
4. Myelin sheath
 wraps around the fibers that are the long threadlike
part of a nerve cell

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THENEURON
 the sheath protects these fibers, a lot like the insulation around an electrical wire
5. Synapse
 the point of communication between
two neurons or between a neuron and
a target cell, like a muscle or a gland
 neuromuscular junction –
synapse between a neuron
and a muscle cell
 neuroglandular junction –
synapse between a neuron
and a secretory (gland) cell

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS

1. Sensory neuron

 also called afferent neuron, form the afferent division of the PNS
 they deliver information from
sensory receptors onto the CNS
 your brain is entirely isolated,
floating in fluid in your skull, and it
relies on connections to special
neurons, called sensory neurons,
throughout the body to understand
what’s occurring in the environment
2. Motor neuron
 also called efferent neuron, they
form the efferent division of the PNS
 these neurons carry instructions from
the CNS to peripheral effectors in a
peripheral tissue, organ, or organ
system
 they carry instructions from the
brain along the long cables (axons)
that stretch from your spinal cord to
the muscles
3. Interneuron
 also called association neuron
 located within the brain and spinal cord (CNS)
 responsible for the distribution of sensory information and the coordination of motor activity
 they are able to stimulate tissues through the use of neurotransmitters, or chemical messengers

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