Sunteți pe pagina 1din 8

02-05-1 pg31-38 2/11/09 9:57 AM Page 31

EDUCATIONAL FOCUS: HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS

HYDRAULIC ELEVATOR CONTROL


VALVES AND POWER UNITS
by R. Kirk Muller, Production Manager, Maxton Manufacturing Co.

Elevator control valves and power units have come a cleaning of the inside of the pipe following machining, will
long way in a relatively short period of time. Environ- cause control valves to malfunction and will do irreparable
mental factors and technological issues have mandated damage to the pump.
rapidly evolving design of hydraulic elevators, which, in turn, Not all contaminants, however, are a direct result of
has necessitated the development of superior hydraulic the elevator installation. Often, during the storage of a
control valves. unit and/or the installation process, other trades working
Most companies are renewing efforts toward improved in the vicinity of the elevator equipment contaminate
quality assurance and preventative maintenance of their open pipes and tanks with debris that can cause early
manufacturing equipment, which will pay dividends for system failure. Another frequent source of contamination,
us all if we develop rigorous industry-wide standards from allowing components to run-to-failure, is the elastomer
and procedures to improve maintenance and service to noise-dampening bladders or inserts degrading and coming
customers, and by promoting thorough understanding of out of the silencers (mufflers).
various issues. Whether it is a new installation, modernization or normal
Contamination maintenance, contaminated systems must be addressed.
The first step toward eliminating elevator failure due to Purging the system is not always as easy as prevention
contaminants in the system is to accept and understand might be. Sealed tanks with operable tank breathers –
that the hydraulic oil in the system is a vital component, and filtering the oil from the pit can or oil return line – are
requiring maintenance no less than any other key part of a major step toward preventative maintenance. To facilitate
the system. Some contaminants frequently found in valves this procedure and help determine what lies at the bottom of
are a direct result of the elevator installation. Contamination the tank, Maxton has developed the MaxView™ Oil Viewing
can appear in many forms; the most common sources Device. Simply pull a sample of oil from the bottom of the
including welding slag, lint from rags, plastic stripped from tank, analyze the sample and thoroughly clean the system if
wire and electrical tape. Teflon tape, improperly installed on necessary. Upon cleaning the tank, it is important to filter
pipe threads, will find its way like a magnet to the strainers the oil, wipe out the tank and ensure that other contaminants
of the control valve. Pipe turnings from threading and groov- are not present before refilling the unit with oil.
ing field pipe, entering the system due to inadequate Toward that end, spraying the inside of cleaned-out
tank with oil, and using a small squeegee to push all the
oil to an accessible corner for removal, will ensure that
lint from the cleaning rags will not cause an embarrassing
failure. Another service aid for assuring the quality of the
oil in the system is a tank discharge filter – an inexpensive
means for continually filtering the oil and helping to pre-
vent contaminants from recycling through the pump, valve
Hydraulic Elevators
and jack.
Modernization
There are too many units running with obsolete equip-
ment, which, upon failure, could prove costly in either
downtime or the resultant liability from injury. In 1995,
the Massachusetts Department of Public Safety published
a letter regarding a problem with Esco valves. To date, we
still get frequent calls for parts availability for these valves.
Jobs with other obsolete valves should be modernized
with new and serviceable components. We declared the
UC3 control valve obsolete in 1988, yet many of them are
Maxview™ Oil Viewing Device Tank Discharge Filter still installed and running. UC3 valves have had a long and

Educational Focus Compilation 31


02-05-1 pg31-38 2/11/09 9:57 AM Page 32

EDUCATIONAL FOCUS: HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS

useful service life but should now certainly be replaced. s UC4 Valve

The cost of a direct-piping replacement UC4 and the


time for installation are minimal. Getting away from the
run-to-failure mode will provide better service and per-
formance and limit the exposure from liability. This
current period in the business cycle – as the economy
squeezes the profit margin from new construction –
presents significant opportunities for companies in the
modernization market.
Other considerations when performing modernizations
should be in the serviceability and safety of the installa-
tion. When replacing an obsolete under-tank control valve
▼ UC4M
that requires some degree of re-piping, consider re-positioning
the valve above the tank, thereby eliminating the need for
tank shut-off valves to perform control valve mainte-
nance. This also provides a much safer condition for the
should be evaluated
mechanic, away from turning belts and sheaves, during
to determine if it is
valve adjustment. Another safety concern of modernizing
adequately sized.
a unit is the elimination of pump-loop connections. Many
Maxton recommends
elevators are operating with the discharge line from the
that fluid velocities
valve tied into the pump suction line. This type of
not exceed 20fps.
arrangement lends itself to the potentially dangerous
Using 20fps as a
situation of super-heating the oil and should be re-piped
for direct valve to tank discharge. The advent of the rule, the following
submersible pump/motor has reduced the size and cost maximum flows can
of power units, creating as a viable option the complete be determined.
change-outs of older tank units with new, submersible Maintenance
power units. The maintenance
Different piping configurations are often necessary to of a Maxton hydraulic control valve should be one
facilitate installation, however, often the wrong valve is of the easier tasks for the experienced mechanic. If
initially ordered and must later be exchanged, resulting in constant re-adjustment is required, something is amiss
job delays and unnecessary additional costs. When surveying – because this shouldn’t be! This is a symptom of a sys-
a job for valve replacement, it is therefore important to tem problem that needs to be evaluated and corrected.
be aware at this beginning stage what options are Rebuilding control valves is a task best accomplished
available. (For example, the UC4 valve has the jack by the manufacturer. The valve should be completely
connection to the right with the tank to the left and the stripped, re-assembled with current production compo-
UC4M is a mirror of that with the jack to the left and the nents and properly tested. Trying to do this in the
tank to the right.) machine room, re-using fatigued or worn components
and testing and/or troubleshooting due to assembly
MAXIMUM FLOW errors, on your customer’s elevator, is not a very good
Hydraulic Elevators

use of time and money.


SCH 80 PIPE GPM
Maxton Online
2" 185 We encourage all elevator professionals to visit our
2-1/2" 265 newly-upgraded website at www.maxtonvalve.com
3" 412 and use the many useful tools we have added. These
4" 717 include Engineering Data, a Valve Calculator to assist
in valve sizing, detailed Product Information, as well
Pipe size is another important consideration during as complete downloads of the Maxton catalog. Once
modernization. Older valve systems sometimes required registered on the site, you can easily order online the
back pressure on the discharge line, while newer valves proper valves and support products for your jobs,
perform better with little or no back pressure on the dis- including re-conditioned valves through the Valve
charge line. The discharge line, and all of the field piping, Exchange Program. c
32 Educational Focus Compilation
02-05-1 pg31-38 2/11/09 9:57 AM Page 33

EDUCATIONAL FOCUS: HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS

UNITIZED HYDRAULIC
CONTROL VALVES
by Abe Salehpour and William Lawrence, Elevator Equipment Corp.

Throughout the elevator industry, the name Elevator


Equipment Corp. (EECO) has meant elevator control valves
since 1946. Most independent elevator contractors cut
their “eye” teeth on EECO brass valves during the days of
the 1950s and 1960s until the advent of the unitized UV-5
combination control valve. The basic design of this valve
has contributed to its acceptance by the industry and to
its longevity, having completed over 30 years of performance
with little exterior changes.

Installation into an existing pump unit as a retrofit is


straight forward, either under the tank or in the tank. The
only consideration is the number of operating solenoids
(coils) used on the older unit versus the four required for
the UV-5. Generally, an upgraded controller is supplied in
a modernization with the necessary upgrading of the hoist-
way signal equipment. Considering that two-way leveling
has been in use for more than 30 years, there should be
very few one-way leveling systems in existence.
An important consideration to address when installing
a new system is where to place the pressure gauge so as
Since its introduction in 1970, the UV-5 unitized hydraulic to read the maximum pressure “seen” by the motor. The
control valve has been the mainstay of EECO’s product line. required horsepower is a direct function of the maximum
Over the years, a number of modifications have been made hydraulic pressure sensed by the motor. Two things affect
to this valve with replaceable sleeves (UV-5A), temperature/ this pressure, the gross load on the elevator platform and
viscosity compensation (UV-5AT) and both temperature and the internal resistance of the hydraulic system itself.
Hydraulic Elevators
pressure compensation (UV-5ATC). Internal improvements The gross load is easily calculated having known
have also kept pace with seals and O-rings upgrading to Viton parameters. However, the system resistance is an unknown.
as standard for improved high temperature performance. While many factors enter into the picture, an accurate
An innovative feature of the UV-5 is its pump inlet pressure gauge is a most valuable tool. Starting with the
mount consisting of a “clamp” ring bolted to the body with cylinder and piston assembly, we encounter packing friction,
high tensile socket head cap screws, which ring captures and in the case of slipper guides, rail/car friction. Next,
the pipe fitting itself. This arrangement serves a dual purpose. there is the piping system itself with elbows and valves
First, it allows for a variety of steel fittings to suit what- causing restrictions and internal friction from fluid viscosity.
ever type of fitting the pump unit manufacturer requires, The control valve itself demands a loss so as to effectively
and second, the cap screws allow for swiveling the valve use the differential pressures therein to operate.
in any direction to accommodate alignment without the Let’s take for example a system having a 2in. schedule
necessity of a pipe wrench. 80 pipe as the main line to and from the cylinder. At approxi-

Educational Focus Compilation 33


02-05-1 pg31-38 2/11/09 9:57 AM Page 34

EDUCATIONAL FOCUS: HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS

mately 180gpm, the frictional loss is a little more than pressure gages from
0.5psi/ft at a line velocity of 20fps. Fifty feet of pipe would the cylinder port to the
have a loss of approximately 25psi. Add to that the 90° elbows, pump port without the
say five, each of which have an equivalent loss of five use of tools. This is im-
feet, (approximately another 12psi) for a total of 37psi. portant when setting
Now, the loss through the check valve, which has a spring the relief pressure be-
load on it, may be as high as 50 to 100psi, let’s say 50 on cause when the system
the low side, so now there is a total “loss” in the hydraulic “dead ends,” that is,
system of 87psi that adds to the pressure provided by the when the main line
gross load. For example, if the pressure measured at the hand valve is closed, or
cylinder (down in the pit), while the car is traveling up, when the piston bumps
near the top landing, is shown to be, 300psi, the pump against the stop ring, the check valve closes, and effec-
pressure would be approximately 387psi. These calculations tively “traps” the pressure in the cylinder port. If the re-
are done at the engineering stage. lief valve is set too high, and the adjuster for the relief
Knowing what is required of the motor, we can now set valve is “backed off” to lower the pressure, the cylinder
the relief valve. American Society of Mechanical Engineers port gauge will not register the lower pressure, how-
(ASME) A17.1 Rule 303 states ever, the pump port gauge will. To lower the cylinder
that the pressure relief valve pressure, the manual lowering hand valve must be
may be set up to 150% of the opened slightly and then, if two gages are in place on
working pressure measured the valve, both will follow the movement of the relief
at the valve. Today’s unit valve adjuster.
valves have pilot-operated When the cylinder is stopped, either by bumping against
relief valves, instead of di- the stop ring or by the action of closing the main line
rect-operated types. The dif- hand valve, the flow through the check valve stops also, and
ference between these two the differential pressure across it drops to zero. Pump pres-
types is this: Direct-operating sure and cylinder pressure are then effectively the same.
relief valves consisted of a spring-loaded valve seated EECO recommends that all pressure gauges be liquid
against the pump pressure and held closed by the action filled and calibrated to 1000psi.
of a very strong spring. When the “cracking” pressure was One of the most important adjustments to set is the by-pass
reached, the valve began to open. However, since the strong size adjustment. The by-pass piston must be open far
spring had to compress more and more as the valve enough to by-pass 100% of the pump output at minimum
opened to relieve the total discharge from the pump, the system pressure. This is done with the empty elevator at
force against the valve increased resulting in a pressure the lowest landing. Preset the UD adjuster to the open
rise also. The code authorities recognized this and position by turning the adjuster screw out (CCW), and
allowed for a 20% rise from the cracking pressure to disconnect the UDS solenoid elec-
compensate for this action. trically. Put in an UP call and start
Pilot-operated relief valves do not require this rise, as turning the BP adjuster in (CW)
they open at the set pressure and either hold that pressure until the car moves, then back
or drop the pressure slightly as the by-pass valve unloads it out until the car stalls, then
(opens), allowing full pump output to discharge back to back out 1/2 turn more and
Hydraulic Elevators

the reservoir. lock it.


The system pressure measured at the cylinder port of As in all hydraulic sys-
the valve will take into account the pipe and system friction tems, cleanliness is impor-
losses, but not the check valve loss so, using figures from tant. EECO valves are equipped
the preceding example, the system pressure at the valve with fine mesh screens on the
cylinder port should be approximately 337psi. The pump input adjusters, which should be
pressure is 387psi, which is 387 times 125% and equals inspected regularly. However, a clogged
484psi. Allowing the pressure to rise another 20% to 150% of screen will manifest itself with deteriorat-
working pressure allows the relief valve to be set to open ing valve performance.
at a maximum of 580psi. Local codes must be adhered to. For a comprehensive listing of possible valve trouble-
EECO valves may be equipped with fittings of the shooting, please visit EECO’s websites at www.elevator
“quick-disconnect” type that allow for the exchanging of equipment.com or www.eecovalves.com. c
34 Educational Focus Compilation
02-05-1 pg31-38 2/11/09 9:57 AM Page 35

EDUCATIONAL FOCUS: HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS

SAFETY AND SERVICING OF Considering the growing number of residential lifts


being built, it is important that a member of the house-
HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS hold can handle the procedure of manually lowering
by Roy W. Blain the car to the ground floor to release a stranded pas-
Constructional Safety senger in the event of an electrical power failure or
For low-rise buildings, the elevator customer can choose other emergency. The safest such method is through
between the hydraulic elevator with a machine room, the slow-speed, manual-lowering system of the hy-
usually in the basement of the building, or the electric draulic elevator, easily accessible at the ground floor and
(traction) elevator, increasingly without a machine room, simple to operate.
with the machine drive in or directly adjacent to the hoist-
way and normally at the top of the building. In general, the
a. Emergency power coil
hydraulic elevator has dominated the low-rise market because Ball valve
it is cheaper to build, install and service, and because it
has a decidedly better safety record than the electric eleva-
tor. Especially in earthquake endangered areas, the hydraulic d. 100% Duty coils
elevator has proven itself to be clearly the safer option.
Due to the threat presented by swinging counterweights b. Hand pump

and also because the car is suspended from the top of the
hoistway, the traction elevator is particularly vulnerable
to a shaking building compared to the hydraulic elevator
which is installed practically on the building’s foundation.
The July 2002 issue of EW informed us that the Seattle
e. Self-closing
earthquake of February 2001 caused damage to what manual lowering
amounted to only 1% of the hydraulic elevators in the
c. Slack rope valve
vicinity, compared to 11% of the electric elevators.
Emergency Situations
1-1/2 inches – 2 inches EV 100
In the case of fire, rescue personnel have the advan-
tage of working from the ground floor hydraulic machine
room, rather than at the top floor or in the hoistway of an Safety Features of the EV 100 Valve
electric elevator where smoke and heat can prevent any A. An Emergency Power Coil (EN) enables the car to be
lowered by push button in the car should the main elec-
Electric Elevator Hydraulic Elevator trical power fail. Optional.
(Passenger trapped) (Passenger freed) B. An integrated Handpump (HP) for manually raising
Electric Drive the car during installation or in an emergency situation.
Fire! Fire! Optional.
Difficult or Easy access
impossible to hydraulic
C. A Slack Rope Valve (K), used with 1:2 roped hydraulics,
access to drive and prevents the ram from being manually lowered when the
electric drive & emergency
lowering device lowering valve car is suspended by the safeties; otherwise slack ropes
due to heat, at ground
smoke & floor level could become entangled with hoistway equipment. Required
elevation by EN81-2 Code.
Earthquake Hydraulic Elevators
Earthquake Little or no D. 100% Continuous-Duty Coils (M) ensure against coil
Rescue damage to
operation made hydraulic burnout if they are energized for longer periods. Standard.
precarious by drive. No E. The Manual Lowering Valve H, with a self-closing
damage to upper counterweight
floor machinery to create (dead man) function. Standard.
& counterweight extra danger
structure Hydraulic elevator safety products independent of the
Hydraulic Drive control valve are:
◆ Pipe Rupture (overspeed) Valves mounted directly on
attempt at rescuing someone trapped in the car. the cylinder which are becoming standard worldwide.
There is also the risk that with a counterweighted electric ◆ Hydraulic Microdrive, an auxiliary low-power raising
elevator, releasing the brake to lower the car may cause and lowering unit, ideal for quiet, accurate releveling or
the car to go upward instead of down, possibly increasing slow-speed emergency movement of the car should the
danger to the passenger. main power unit be out of operation.

Educational Focus Compilation 35


02-05-1 pg31-38 2/11/09 9:57 AM Page 36

EDUCATIONAL FOCUS: HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS

tion by briefly (three-to-five seconds) lifting and replacing


the appropriate energized coil by hand, allowing several
adjustment corrections to be made during one car travel
between floors.

R10 Rupture and MD Micro Drive


Overspeed Valve Hydraulic Fine Positioning

Preparation for Servicing


Because the main drive, cylinder and control valve
moving parts of hydraulic elevators all operate in oil, con-
ditions for a long, trouble-free operating life are signifi-
cantly increased. When it is reported that the elevator is
defective, it often turns out that the presumed fault is Manual switching of energized coils
simply a matter of an incorrectly adjusted valve. Friction,
Once removed from the solenoid tube, an energized
in the cylinder head or through misaligned guide rails,
coil will begin to overheat after about 20 seconds. If nec-
can be the reason for an uneven ride. Releveling of the
essary, to slow the rate of heating, place a 14-17 millimeter
car is not always due to leakage in the valve but can be
(1/2-5/8 inch) diameter tool or short steel rod as core
the result of a hot system cooling down. For such reasons,
through the coil. Do not lay an energized coil to one side,
before taking the control valve apart, double check the
it may overheat unnoticed. If the coil becomes too hot to
possible source of the problem and study the manufac-
hold, it must be replaced back over the solenoid tube and
turer’s troubleshooting list. In the case of a Blain EV 100
any further adjustment carried out with the elevator mak-
valve, troubleshoot via the website: www.blain.de.
ing normal floor-to-floor runs.
Once trial runs have been made, or a fault located, servic-
Deceleration Switch, Distance Before Landing
ing begins with the positioning of the car. Unless circum-
Often, not enough attention is paid to slowdown dis-
stances dictate otherwise, sending the car between the
tances. The following chart will take the guesswork out
two upper landings before switching off the electrical mains
of switch installation.
has the advantage of eliminating the possibility of the doors
being left open at floor level during servicing. It also pre-
Metric Imperial
pares the way for an initial down travel when servicing is
completed, forcing air that may have entered through the Elevator Switch Elevator Switch
Speed Speed
valve out of the cylinder system and not into it, as is the
case if the first operation following servicing were to be mps approx. fpm approx.
an up travel. Prior to opening up the main control valve, cm inches
the cylinder line shut-off valve must be closed and the
0.10 5 20 2
Hydraulic Elevators

control valve exhausted of pressure by opening the manual-


lowering valve. 0.20 15 40 6
The mains must remain switched off until the valve is
completely re-assembled, otherwise an uninformed person 0.30 25 60 9
in the building may at any time put in a call for the elevator.
Also, through the hydraulic system cooling, the car may 0.40 40 80 16
shift down and trigger the automatic releveling before the
0.50 50 100 20
control valve is closed up. An oil shower would result.
Solenoid Coils 0.60 70 120 28
During servicing or adjustment of the EV 100 valve, instead
of making a full floor to floor travel to check operation, 0.80 95 160 36
time can be saved by removing the securing nuts on top
1.00 120 200 48
of the coils and switching to deceleration or to accelera-

36 Educational Focus Compilation


02-05-1 pg31-38 2/11/09 9:57 AM Page 37

EDUCATIONAL FOCUS: HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS

With no load in the car, the deceleration time should


Main Down Filter
be 2-2.5 seconds from full speed to leveling speed. The
constant speed leveling time should be 1-2 seconds.
Up
Factors Affecting Accurate Landings Pilot
◆ If the leveling speed is fast, i.e., 0.1mps (20fpm), land- Filter
ing will not be as accurate as when the leveling speed is Down
Pilot
slower, i.e., 0.05mps (10fpm). A leveling speed between
Filter
these values should be satisfactory.
◆ Following leveling, if the soft stop adjustment five is
set too soft, stopping will be less accurate than when five
is set for a quicker stop, 0.2-0.3 seconds.
◆ A difference in landing accuracy between the elevator
being loaded and unloaded can be due to the car under-
load leaning to one side by a few millimeters between the
guide rails in the horizontal plane causing an alteration in
the operating of the stop switch by some centimeters in
the vertical plane.
◆ Particularly when the mechanic cannot directly see the
operation of the elevator car, it is possible that the eleva-
tor has not finished deceleration from fast speed before
reaching the floor. In other words, the elevator has not
slowed down to its correct leveling speed before the stop
switch is actuated. In the machine room, the turbulant
noise within the valve during leveling can be heard and
should last 1-2 seconds, following 2-2.5 seconds deceler-
ation time (no load in the car).
Car Not Visible from Machine Room
If the car cannot be seen during adjustment of the
valve, the acceleration and deceleration times can be
heard in the machine room from the change in sound of
the oil flow in the control valve as the speed of the car
BLAIN EV 100 elevator valve
changes. With no load in the car, the duration of the
speed changes should be as follows:
◆ Up acceleration, adjustment 2, 2-3 seconds Fine hair-like fibers in the oil stemming from cleaning
◆ Up decelaration, adjustment 3, 2-3 seconds rag, may on rare occasions settle on a sealing surface of
◆ Up leveling time adjustment 4, 1-2 seconds a valve or solenoid seat causing a minor down leak and
◆ Down accelerate adjustment 6, 2-3 seconds releveling of the car. The EV spare parts list shows the
◆ Down decelerate, adjustment 8, 2-3 seconds valve parts to check in the event of persistent releveling.
◆ Down leveling time, adjustment 9, 1-2 seconds Starting with solenoid D, cleaning the affected part or
turning the solenoid seat over may be sufficient to cure
Hydraulic Elevators
Oil Filtration and Leakage
In the case of the Blain EV 100 elevator control valve, the leak, otherwise its replacement will be necessary. It is not
it is not necessary to install an extra filter into the power- necessary to strive for perfect sealing in every valve in oper-
unit system. Sensitive sections of the EV 100 are protected ation. Because code requirements assure a safe releveling
against foreign substances by three built-in, self-cleaning system whether descent of the car of a few millimeters is
filters: one in the cylinder main pressure line, one in the caused by valve leakage or through the cooling of the oil
cylinder pilot pressure line and one in the pump pilot in the cylinder pressure system, a minor leakage of the
pressure line. Clogging of the filters in EV valves is pre- control valve can be tolerated. The European Code EN81-2
vented by the filters being positioned in flow turbulent requires that the loaded elevator does not leak down-
sections of the valve so that contamination cannot settle ward by more than 10 millimeters (3/8 inch) in 10 minutes.
on the filter’s surface. Inspection of these filters need not This is the standard used to determine if a valve must be
be more frequent than one time per year. serviced for leakage or not.

Educational Focus Compilation 37


02-05-1 pg31-38 2/11/09 9:57 AM Page 38

EDUCATIONAL FOCUS: HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS

For practical reasons, a quicker method for judging Explosion-Proof Elevator Valves MEX-EV
valve leakage is to close the ball valve in the cylinder line The latest safety product to be added to the Blain Hydraulics
and observe the gauge showing pressure in the cylinder control valve program is the explosion-proof solenoid
chamber of the valve. If this pressure falls to zero in less MEX 24VDC, which has been successfully tested and approved
than 20 seconds, it may be necessary to service the valve, by the internationally recognized German Physical and
depending on the diameter of the main ram and the sen- Technical State Institution in Braunschweig, Germany.
sitivity of the customer. The MEX solenoid can be installed wherever the standard
Blain solenoid M is employed for its control valves. The
Overheating of the Oil
construction and performance of the MEX corresponds to
Oil temperatures above 55°C (130°F) should be avoided,
the European standards.
otherwise the efficiency of the pump drops considerably,
and its life is reduced. Aging of the oil is accelerated as well. CENELEC
Overheated oil also results in frequent releveling. Causes DIN EN 50014 and
DIN EN 50028
of overheating are: Ambient temperature
◆ Up leveling being too long due to the leveling speed -20°C to 60°C
Ex II2G EEx m II T4
being slower than necessary or the slow down switch Enamelled wire
being set too low. insulting class H
Housing protection
◆ Machine room ventilation inadequate. class IP 68
◆ The frequency of operation is too high for the rate of heat Electrical apparatus
for potentially
dissipation from the installation. As a temporary measure explosive
to avoid overheating of the oil which would otherwise result atmosphere
Encapsulation m.
in the automatic shut down of the elevator, the down speed Voltage 24 V DC
can be slowed to reduce the frequency of operation, until Current 1.2 amps
Certificate-no.
a permanent solution is installed. PTB 02 ATEX 2193 X EV-MEX explosion-proof solenoid
If the degree of overheating is not excessive, and it
takes, for example, two to three hours for the oil tem- Spare Parts
perature to rise from 20-55°C (70-130°F), it may be suf- Traveling to the site and searching for the cause of a
ficient to improve air circulation around the power unit, problem can be expensive. Having to repeat the journey
because a simple replacement part is not on hand can
for example through the installation of a 0.05-0.10kW
usually be avoided if a complete valve is kept along with
ventilator extracting air out of the machine room or
the service kit in the truck. If during servicing, a flange,
through a fan of similar power, blowing air over the
adjustment, securing bolt or other part is damaged or
tank, or both.
misplaced, a spare valve in the truck can be a blessing,
Coolers are (rarely) necessary in hydraulic elevators. If
since it includes all parts. It may also be used for a com-
extensive overheating nevertheless does occur through
plete renewal, should it be necessary, provided that any
continuous operation of the elevator, the following meas-
so-called borrowed parts have been faithfully replaced.
ure can be taken. Depending on the size of the elevator,
A full set of up-and-down flow guide sizes, a seal kit, two
it will be necessary to install a (between 10 and 50 lpm.
spare solenoid coils, a set of springs and the troubleshoot-
[3-13gpm] pump) to circulate the hot oil through a fan ing list, should take care of any remaining eventuality. If
cooled radiator of about 0.1-0.2 fan kW. It remains essential a problem could not be solved, call the valve supplier
Hydraulic Elevators

that there is sufficient extraction of warm air out of the before leaving the site. His experience can often save an
machine room or that the cooler is outside of the machine extra journey.
room, for example in the elevator hoistway. The effective
cooling power of a cooler need not be more than one- Roy W. Blain, an HNC mechanical engineer
fourth of the main elevator motor drive and should not be from Salford Tech in the U.K., has spent two years
developing hydraulic extrusion presses in
confused with the power of its fan drive which normally
Bournemouth. He worked for five years on syn-
need only be 0.1 or 0.2kW. The cooling system should au- chronized heavy lifting gear at Von Roll in
tomatically switch into operation when the oil reaches Switzerland and six months at True Trace in El
30-35°C (85-95°F). Below these temperatures, the small Monte, California on hydraulic copying valves
before joining Elevator Equipment Co. Since
temperature difference between the air which cools and
1970, Blain has built up an elevator valve com-
the warm oil may find the cooler running continually with pany close to Stuttgart, Germany which exports
Blain

little effect. over 80% of its products.

38 Educational Focus Compilation