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by

Edward Kwon

An Engineering Project Submitted to the Graduate

Faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

in Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF ENGINEERING

Major Subject: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Approved:

_________________________________________

Ernesto Gutierrez-Miravete, Thesis Adviser

Hartford, CT

December, 2013

© Copyright 2013

by

Edward Kwon

All Rights Reserved

ii

CONTENTS

Pin Failure in Shear vs. Bending for a Double Shear Joint ................................................ i

LIST OF EQUATIONS .................................................................................................... iv

LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................... v

ACKNOWLEDGMENT .................................................................................................. vi

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................... vii

INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND ................................................................................ 1

THEORY/METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................... 2

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........................................................................................ 8

CONCLUSION................................................................................................................ 15

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................ 17

APPENDICES ................................................................................................................. 18

iii

LIST OF EQUATIONS

Equation 1 .......................................................................................................................... 3

Equation 2 .......................................................................................................................... 4

Equation 3 .......................................................................................................................... 4

Equation 4 .......................................................................................................................... 4

Equation 5 .......................................................................................................................... 5

Equation 6 .......................................................................................................................... 5

Equation 7 .......................................................................................................................... 5

Equation 8 .......................................................................................................................... 5

Equation 9 .......................................................................................................................... 6

Equation 10 ........................................................................................................................ 6

Equation 11 ........................................................................................................................ 6

Equation 12 ........................................................................................................................ 7

Equation 13 ...................................................................................................................... 11

Equation 14 ...................................................................................................................... 11

iv

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 .............................................................................................................................. 2

Figure 2 .............................................................................................................................. 3

Figure 3 .............................................................................................................................. 5

Figure 4 .............................................................................................................................. 8

Figure 5 .............................................................................................................................. 9

Figure 6 ............................................................................................................................ 10

Figure 7 ............................................................................................................................ 11

Figure 8 ............................................................................................................................ 12

Figure 9 ............................................................................................................................ 13

v

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Type the text of your acknowledgment here.

vi

ABSTRACT

The most common failure method for pins is through shear failure. However,

there have been cases of pins failing despite being adequately sized for shear. Many

people fail to take into account pin bending as a legitimate failure mode. There have

been some studies done in the past to try to come up with a theoretical equation for the

maximum bending stress in a pin in double shear. In order to come up with this equation,

the pin was assumed to see a uniform load distribution.

In this project, a new equation for the maximum pin bending stress is developed

based on assuming a triangular load distribution across the pin. This triangular load

distribution assumption is validated by studying finite element analysis contact stress

plots. By comparing the calculated maximum bending stresses using the old equation

and this new equation against finite element analysis results, this new equation is

determined to be more accurate. Based on this new maximum pin bending stress

equation, a critical pin diameter is developed and validated through finite element

analysis. For pin sizes smaller than this critical pin diameter, pin failure is expected to

occur due to bending. For pin sizes larger than this critical pin diameter, shear failure is

expected to occur.

vii

INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND

The purpose of this project will be to develop an equation for the maximum pin

bending stress for a double shear joint and then to validate this equation through an

ABAQUS finite element model. A relationship between the pin diameter and the failure

method will also be developed and validated through the finite element model. This

relationship will help engineers to better understand when pin bending should be

considered over shear failure.

1

THEORY/METHODOLOGY

An ABAQUS model was created of a clevis connection with a pin in double

shear. The model consists of three parts—the clevis, the clevis pin, and the tang. The

parts were meshed with hex elements and were assembled as shown in Figure 1.

Tang

Clevis Pin

Clevis

Figure 1

An initial step was created to initialize contact. In this initial step, a downward

displacement was applied to the clevis and an upward displacement was applied to the

tang in order to establish contact with the pin. A second step was then created to apply a

1000 pound load to the tang in the upward direction with the base of the clevis fixed.

The displacements from the initial step were deactivated for this step since contact had

already been established. Two additional boundary conditions were created at the pin

and the tang. The pin boundary condition was created to prevent axial displacement and

rotation of the pin. The tang boundary condition was created to prevent displacement

along the pin axis and to prevent twisting of the tang.

2

Maximum pin shear and bending stresses will be obtained from the results of this

ABAQUS finite element analysis. These stresses will be linearized across the cross

section of the pin such that only primary stresses are captured. Once these shear and

bending stresses are linearized, they will be compared to the shear and pin bending

equations developed below (Equation 1, Equation 4, Equation 7, and Equation 9).

Could include more ABAQUS setup/explanation with pictures if necessary (i.e. describe

the stress linearization process / include ABAQUS stress plots in the Appendices, etc.)

The shear stress equation for a pin in double shear is simply:

Equation 1

load as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2

3

Based on this load distribution, the maximum pin bending moment is calculated as:

Equation 2

Further assuming that the load in each lug is uniformly distributed across the lug

thickness (b1 = t1 and 2b2 = t2) results in the following equation:

Equation 3

and the distance from the neutral axis to the outer fiber is

Equation 4

load. However, a triangular load distribution as shown in Figure 3 may be a better

representation of the load profile on the pin. Note that in Figure 3(a), and thus b1

than b2.

4

(a) (b)

Figure 3

Based on this triangular load distribution, the maximum pin bending moment is

calculated as:

Equation 5

Equation 6

and the maximum bending stress of the pin can be calculated as:

Equation 7

Equation 8

5

and the maximum bending stress of the pin can be calculated as:

Equation 9

to shear and bending stresses calculated using Equation 1, Equation 4, Equation 7, and

Equation 9. In addition, the uniform and triangular load distribution assumptions will be

tested by studying the contact stresses of the finite element model. Based on the contact

stress plot, a new equation will be developed if appropriate.

Based on Equation 1, Equation 4, Equation 7, and Equation 9, an equation can be

developed for the critical pin diameter where bending stresses overtake shear stresses.

Since the shear yield strength is 0.577 the tensile yield strength, the critical pin diameter

can be calculated by letting . Assuming a uniform load distribution

across the lug thickness, the critical pin diameter is calculated to be:

Equation 10

Assuming a triangular load distribution, the critical pin diameter is calculated to be:

Equation 11

6

Equation 12

These critical pin diameter equations will be tested by varying the pin diameter in

the finite element model and comparing the resulting bending and shear stresses. Pin

failure due to bending should be more of a concern than shear failure for pin diameters

smaller than the critical pin diameter calculated above.

7

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The finite element analysis contact stress plot was studied to determine if the

uniform load distribution assumed in Reference 1 and shown in Figure 2 or if the

triangular load distribution shown in Figure 3 is more accurate. Reviewing the contact

stress plots shown in Figure 4, it can be seen that the triangular load distribution is a

more accurate assumption. Therefore, it can be predicted that the bending stress

equations derived from this triangular load distribution assumption (Equation 7 and

Equation 9) will be more accurate than the equation derived in Reference 1 (Equation 4).

Figure 4

The assumption was also made that the length of pin reacted by the clevis lug (b1

in Figure 3) was not going to be any greater than the length of pin reacted by half of the

tang lug (b2 in Figure 3) or . This assumption was put to the test by running the

8

finite element analysis with varying clevis lug thicknesses. With the tang lug thickness at

0.750” thick, the finite element analysis was performed for clevis lug thicknesses

ranging from 0.200” to 0.600” thick at every 0.050” increment. See Figure 5 for contact

stress plots on the pins with a clevis lug thickness of 0.200”, 0.400”, and 0.600”.

Figure 5

To accurately assess the load distribution on the pin, the contact stress values

from the contour plots shown in Figure 5 above were plotted as a line along the length of

9

the pin in Figure 6. By doing so, it can be seen that the load distribution is indeed

triangular in nature. Note that unlike in Figure 5, contact stresses for all the different

clevis lug thickness models were plotted for completeness, rather than just for the

0.200”, 0.400”, and 0.600” clevis lug thickness models. It can also be seen that the

maximum length of pin reacted by each clevis lug is roughly 0.45 inch. Compared to the

0.75 inch thick tang lug, the maximum length of pin reacted by each clevis lug is

roughly 1.2 times the length of pin reacted by half of the tang lug ( ). See

Figure 6

10

40000

35000

200

30000

250

25000 300

350

20000

400

15000 450

500

10000

550

5000 600

0

-1.25 -0.75 -0.25 0.25 0.75 1.25

Figure 7

Based on this result, a new maximum bending stress equation was developed.

Assuming , the maximum pin bending moment (Equation 5) for the case

where , becomes:

Equation 13

and the maximum bending stress of the pin can be calculated as:

Equation 14

A plot of maximum bending stresses versus clevis lug thicknesses was created to

compare the actual bending stress results from the finite element analysis with the

calculated bending stresses based on either a uniform load distribution across the entire

11

lug thickness as assumed in Reference 1, a triangular load distribution with , or a

30000

28000

26000 ABAQUS

24000

Triangular -

b1 < t2/2

22000

Triangular -

20000 b1 <

1.2*t2/2

18000 Uniform

16000

14000

0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700

Figure 8

be more conservative but less accurate than the triangular load distribution assumptions.

Between the two triangular load distribution assumptions, the original assumption of

looks to be slightly more accurate while the assumption of based

on the ABAQUS contact stress plots is slightly more conservative at the higher clevis

lug thickness ranges.

Since the triangular load distribution with has been established to be the

most accurate of the three assumptions, the critical pin diameter will be assumed to be

the ones derived in the theory/methodology section (Equation 11 and Equation 12).

12

If the pin diameter is smaller than the critical pin diameter, the bending stress

term outweighs the shear stress term and thus, pin failure due to bending becomes more

of a concern. If the pin diameter is greater than the critical pin diameter, the opposite is

true and shear stress governs. To validate this calculated critical pin diameter, actual

bending and shear stresses from finite element analyses were compared against the

calculated stresses for varying pin diameters (see Figure 9). Five finite element models

were used for this validation with constant clevis lug thicknesses of t1 = 0.400 inch,

constant tang lug thicknesses of t2 = 0.750 inch, constant gaps of g = 0.125 inch, and

varying pin diameters of 0.48 inch, 1 inch, 1.5 inches, 3 inches, and 4 inches. Note that

the 0.48 inch pin diameter model was already previously analyzed as part of the clevis

thickness study.

20000

18000

16000

14000

Shear - ABAQUS

8000

Shear - Calculated

6000

4000

2000

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

Figure 9

It can be seen from Figure 9 that the bending stress is much larger than the shear

stress for very small pin diameters. As the pin diameter increases, the bending stress

decreases exponentially. The fact that the ABAQUS bending and shear stresses are

13

roughly the same as the calculated bending and shear stresses for varying pin diameters

further validates the shear and bending equations. The critical pin diameter equation is

validated by comparing the ABAQUS bending and shear stresses at the calculated

critical pin diameter:

With the pin diameter at 1.731 inches, the ABAQUS bending stress result is roughly 500

psi and the ABAQUS shear stress result is roughly 250 psi. This shear stress is 0.5 or

roughly 0.577 times the bending stress, thus validating the critical pin diameter equation.

Could run an FEA with the pin diameter set to 1.731 to get more accurate results at the

critical pin diameter

14

CONCLUSION

The purpose of this project was to develop an equation for the maximum bending

stress of a pin in double shear and then to validate this equation through finite element

analysis. A secondary purpose was to determine, and validate through finite element

analysis, a relationship between the pin size and the shear and bending stresses in order

to better understand when pin bending should be considered over shear failure.

In order to derive an equation for the maximum pin bending stress, the load

profile on the pin had to be determined. The assumption of a triangular load distribution

on the pin was made and validated through finite element analysis. Based on this load

distribution, maximum pin bending stress equations of

for the case where the clevis lug thickness is less than or equal to half of the tang lug

thickness and

for the case where the clevis lug thickness is greater than half of the tang lug thickness

were derived and validated using ABAQUS finite element analysis software.

A relationship was also determined between the pin size and the shear and

bending stresses. Critical pin diameter equations of

15

for the case where were derived and validated through an ABAQUS finite

element analysis. Failure due to pin bending was shown to be a concern over shear

failure for pin sizes below this critical pin diameter.

Derivation of maximum pin bending stress equation

Validation of maximum pin bending stress equation

Derivation of critical pin diameter equation

Validation of critical pin diameter equation

16

REFERENCES

Maddux, G.E., Leon A. Vorst, F. Joseph Giessler, and Terence Moritz. Stress Analysis

Manual. Dayton: Technology Incorporated, 1969.

17

APPENDICES

Numerous pages of Excel plot data, ABAQUS stress linearization data, and ABAQUS

stress plots will be included

18

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