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1 He was bored, so he left the cinema.

2 He was so bored that he fell asleep.


3 He was so bonng that she fell asleep.
4 The fllrn was boring, so he fell asleep.
5 The students weren't interesting so the teacher was bored.
6 The teacher was boring, so the students weren't interested.

Ask the students when we use adjectives with -ed (to describe how people/animals, etcir,l
feel) and when we use adjectives with -ing (to describe the characteristics of the person:lli
animal or thing).
' Cet the students to make sentences about when they were bored, tnterested,
excited, etc. and when they experienced someone or something- that was boring, '.',,:
interesting, exciting, elc. ,.1i

år$""ff Fl"aetisinm grffirnmffir

lixampie 7
Where am l?
Aim: the students will be able to talk about what is going on around them
Activity: creativesentence-making
Language: present continuous (past simple and past continuous)
Age: young learners
Level: elementary ICEFR A1] fficse zz-zg
This activity is designedto getthe students making sentences using the present continuous'
It has a slight game element because the other students have to guess what the speaker is
talking about. lt gains power because it relies on the students'imagination for its success'

248
Teachìng grammar

" Tellthe students to think of a place they'd really like to be (e.9. a beach, a park, on the
sports field). They should keep thelr choìce to themselves.
. Now tell them to imagine they are in this place and ask them to look around them,
They should write down three things that they can see people doing, using the present
continuous (e.9. at a football game.' A lot of people are shouting.A man is blowing a
whistle. Someone is kicking a ball.).
' While they are doing this, go round the class monitoring their progress and suggesting
alternatives or prompting students who can't think what to write.
. Ask a studentto come to the front of the class to read out their sentences and ask Where
am l? fhe other students try to guess.
One of the advantages of this activity is that the students are given time to think up their
present continuous sentences, ratherthan having to produce them spontaneously. But, of
course, it can be done as a quick-fire game, too, if this is appropriate.
We don't have to limit ourselves to the present continuous forthis activity. The students could
talk about a place they went to (either in reality or an imagined place) and make sentences in the
past simple and the past continuous about what they saw there and what people were doing.

cxarnpl* I
Drill chains
Aim: the students will be able to make up stories using specific language items
Activity: sentence-making to tell a story
Language: first conditional
Age: any ôH

Level: elementary and above ICEFR A2] li$cse 30-35


Almost any language item can be turned into a story or drill chain. These work well because the
students repeat the same grammar pattern again and again, And because they have to use their
imaginations to do this, they create their own meanings, in the kind of iteration'that Diane
Larsen-Freeman mentioned (see 3. 1,3).
. Tellthe students that a man is sitting in a café. He really, reallywants another coffee, but his
train leaves in five minutes. Coffee or train?
. Check that the students understand the situation
. Elicit a first conditional sentence from the students by saying lf he has another coffee ... and
accepting any reasonable sentence ending from them. Correct the suggestion, if necessary,
' When you have a correct sentence, nominate a student to use the end of that sentence as
the beginning of the next. Then do the same with the next student (see Figure 10).

Student 1: lf he has another coffee, he'll miss the train.


(Teacher nominates student 2)
Student 2: lf he misses the train, he'll be late for work.
(Teacher nominates student 3)
Student 3: lf he's late forwork, his boss will fire him.
(Teacher nominates student 4)
Student 4: lf his boss fires him, he will be verLunhappy
(eLL.J

Figrrre 10 First conditional chain drill

249t¡:
clìtPtrr L4

" Continue the story until it becomes too absurd to go on with' Start a new situatiorr
for a new storY.
Chain drills of this kind do not have to be stories, of course.
we can get our students to
in a circle and talk, one after another, about outdoor activities
they have never done, e.g.
mountain' My name's Rafi and I have never
My name's Evalina, and I have never climbed a
get repetition of the ta¡t
swum in a lake,etc. The main thing is to ensure that the students
creative way (3'1'3)'
language, but that they do it in a deliberate, mindful and hopefully

íxornPle ä
Simon's adventure
past tenses
Aim: the students will be able to tell a story using a variety of
Activity: retelling a story about a lucky escape (a discover and practise sequence)
Language: past simple, past continuous, past perfect
Age: teenage Plus .-&
Level: intermediate plus [CEFR 82] T#csr 5S-66

The following activity is designed to get the students to look again at various past tense

for, had become)'

One day, when he was on holiday with a gtoup of


fiÍends, Simon went down to the beach at six thifiy
because he had woken up vely early and he hadn't
been able to get back to sleeP.
It was a beautiful morning. The sun was rising in the
sky, and the waves were breaking on the shore A few
joégers were running up and down the beach, and
some fishermen were just coming back from a night's

all morning, and at about


They found him in the afternoon. His friends had looked for him
very anxious. They called the air-sea rescue service' and a
Iunchtime, they had neðome
helicopter pilot saw him about two hours later'
you ale going - and don't fall
And the moral of the story? Always tell youl ftiends where
asieep on surfboardsl
-l -l
l'iclLrre Simon's surfboard story

?s0
Teaching grammar

Put the students in pairs, and get them to check that they have underlined the same verbs
(and categorised them in the right way) before you go through the anstnrers with the class.
Cet the students to close their books and tell each other the story of Simon and the
surfboard. When they have done this, they can look at the original story again before, once
again, telling Simon's story. Each time they do thìs, theìr fluency with the story and how to
tell it increases, Repetition of this kind is extremely helpful (3.1.3).
Finally, ask the students if they know any similar stories of lucky escapes. They can talk
about this in small groups and then tell the rest of the cìass about the most interesting story
in their group.

{:xample 'T 0
Act green
Aim: the students will be able to talk about their life in general and their life now
Activity: reading, analysing, writing and speaking sentences
Language: present continuous and present simple
Age: young adultsiadults *ft
Level: elementary ICEFR A2] csE 30-35 då

The following sequence reminds the students of language that they have met before (present
simple and present continuous). After you have checked that they are comfortable with
the language, the students practise using it by writing sentences and doing an extremely
useful 'true or false'game-like activity. This activity can be adapted for almost any aspect of
language that the students are practising.
" Ask the students to read the text in Figure 12 and to identify what Adam wants
his parents to do.

A I-ANË{JÂGffi lnü çÛruTËKT Read this extract from a newsletter.


What does Adam want his parents to do?

&ffiä,,.ffi ffi ffi ffi w', ffi ffi:wwLffi =flYffi ffi


This month we'r* asking our readers to help their friends ancl family to
'act green', Here is what one readel says:

My parenls dûn'i hûvü a very green lifestyle! They l¡vf, in Arizona' and they iln¡ a lot
of electricity for air conditioning. My dad always forlJoi:j to tllrn off his computer aÎ :'1" l -.. " i

night, ancl that us*s a lot of electricity, too. They also '*-i:ìtììr their garden a lot' BLIì Look back ôt the text.
they know the environment is important, and they're tryinU to change some things dirììèthe verbs in
green that ale ln the
Now they'rÉ turning Õtl the air conditioning and o¡rcning w¡ndows in the
present simple and
mornings wlren it'l cool. Tlrey'ro tilrilinçì oll lights and computers when they'ro underline the verbs
not r.ñing them. l'ftr helpin[i lhem plant cactl¡s and other plants thal cj+n'i il$*tj that are in the present
much water in their garden, so they'rf *sing less water now. continuous.
Adam Hunter

l-igure 'l 2 From Open Mind Elementary Student's Book Pack by M Rogers, J Taylor-Knowles and
S Taylor-Knowles (Macmillan)

25t
. green in the text' Ask them to
Have tlre students look at the verbs highlighted ìn
circle the ones which are ìn the present simple and to PUt a line underthose in the
present continuous'
. Ask the students to choose the correct options in the following
sentences'

1 What are you doing I doyoudoatthemoment?


2 Pete is ltstening I Istenslo his lMP3 player at the moment'
3 I usuatly fi ave / am hauinglunch around 1 p m'
4]viycousinwants/iswantinglobeaDJwhenheleavesschool.
5 The food is dehcious. I am Lking / IikelT"
6 At the moment, Mum is havinq / has Spanish lessons'

general, and another ..,r


" Now get the students to write four statements about their life in
three should
four sentences about their lives at this moment. ln each group of sentences,
be true and one should be false. .:i
, students are writing their sentences, make yourself available in case they needl
While the
help with grammar or vocabularY. :l
read out their sentences.
" The students take turns to come to the front of the class and '

The rest of the class guess whether the sentences are true or false.

å:-xam¡:ic ì "l l.
Find someone who ... and other surveys
Aim: the students will have a chance to use the target language in a meaningful
communicative exchange .l.
Activity: taking part in asking and answering a questionnaire .i
questions)
Language: any (mostlyyes/no j
Age: older children and above *w ,a

Level: beginner/elementary and above [GEFR A1/2] l$csr zz-zg/¡s 1,

activity designed to
Find someone who... is the name given to an ever-popular mini-survey
l.

are given a chart' which


elicit practic e of yesf no questions. ln its simplest form, the students
questions in order to find out
asks them to go around the class asking the other students
you like chocolate? and
certaìn facts about them (see Figure 13). lf they ask a classm ale Do
says Yes' they
the classmate says /Vo, they do not write down a name, but if the classmate
I

move to the next question.


write down that person's name and then on

Find someone who ...


1 liK¿s cl¡ocoLøÌe '

2 oPre+,
Voes
to lhe ciøewa'
3 l¿as lhree brott"ers'
4 we+tl lo beò lale Last tiVlnt '
5 p!.ays ttne Vuilar '

Ëigure 13 A simple Find someone who ... charl

?52
Teaching grammar

Find someone who... can be adapted to suit any structure or structures. For example, if we
want the students to practise using the present perfect, we could make a chart asking them
to find someone who has never been to lndia, has always liked music, has never eaten raw
fish, has always had coffee for breakfast, etc. We can also get them to write the questions
themselves to make it more interesting for them or, at the beginning of a course, we can find
out one interesting fact about each individual student and putthese facts into the chart (e.9.
Find someone who is a keen swimmer, Find someone who plays in an orchestra, etc.). The
activity thus becomes an excellent way for them to get to know each other.
There are many mini-surveys that we can use for grammar practice in this way, which
ìnvolve wh- and other question forms. For example, we can construct (or have our students
construct) any number of lifestyle questions asking such things asWhattime do you normally
get up? What do you have for breakfast? How many cups of coffee do you dilnk in a day? Or'
if we wantthe students to practise pasttenses, they can design a questionnaire in orderto
ask When did you last go to the cinema? Who dÌd you go with? What was the name of the
film? What did you think of the film? etc.

& $ t r.n rn rn n å"' gffi å."1ì *$


Many games from television and radio (and games that people play at home in their everyday
lives) can be adapted for classroom use (see 21.4.2). The following three examples, however,
show how we can design games especially for our learners, The idea is that they (and
games like them) will engage the students and encourage them to use the target structures
with enthusiasm.

fixample 12
Ask the right question
Aim: the students will be able to think of questions to elicit particular answers (and so
practise a variety of question forms)
Activity: grammar activation game
Language: questions (especially wh- questions)
Age: older children and above .&ã

Level: elementary plus ICEFR A2+] :$csr ¡o-+Z


This game, which is suitable for all levels, forces the students to think carefully about the
exact construction of the questions they are asking. lt can be done in pairs, as a team game'
or by individual students standing in front of the whole class.
. Prepare a set of cards with words or phrases on them (see Figure 14).
, Have the students sit in two teams: Team A and Team B. Put the pile of cards face down
between the teams.
Ask a member of Team A to pick up the first card, but not to show it to anyone else,
This student has to ask the members of their own team questions until one of the team
members gives the exact answer that is writien on the card,
Count the number of questions that are asked. That is Team As score (so far).
Repeat the procedure, but this time with a student from Team B. Once again, count the
number of questions. That is Team B's score so far'