Sunteți pe pagina 1din 14

SPEAKING IN PUBLIC

\ Sharing ideas

\ Influencing other people

- business, advertising, politics, professional life…

\ Tradition of public speaking

- orator : one who is an expert at speaking in public

- Aristotle’s “Rhetoric” : art of speaking, influence others’ opinion & thought)

= can be useful but also dangerous if used for evil purpose

= determine whether they sound reasoning and/or good intention

CONVERSATION vs. PUBLIC SPEAKING

\ Similarities

- organize your thought logically

- tailoring your message to the audience

- telling story for maximum impact

- adapting to lister feedback

\ Di erences

- public speaking is more highly structured (limited time)

- public speaking requires more formal language

- public speaking requires a di method of delivery (“like”, ‘um”, “you know”)

NERVOUSNESS

\ What cause nervousness or “stage fright” in general?

- fear of being the only one talking

- fear of being the center of attention

- fear of not being accepted or being looked down upon or sounding ignorant or unfunny

NERVOUSNESS

\ Physically ; hormone ; symptoms

- adrenaline : released when you feel nervous or scared

- symptoms : increased heart rate, sweating, tense muscles, sweaty palms, twitching & shaking

\ How can nervousness be positive?

- force you to overcome your fear & give you energy to act

DEALING WITH NERVOUSNESS

\ Negative thoughts

- I wish I didn’t have to give this speech

- Im not good at speaking in public

- No one cares about what I have to say

\ Positive thoughts

- I get to practice sharing my ideas & presenting in public

- No one’s perfect. I’ll get better by practicing

- I have great topic that I’ve prepared & researched

DEALING WITH NERVOUSNESS

\ Be at your best : physically & mentally

\ Flex/tighten then release your muscle to reduce tension & relax

\ Take a deep breath before you begin speaking

\ Work especially on your introduction

\ Make eye contact with members of audience

\ Concentrate on communicating rather than worrying about stage fright

\ Use visual aids to create interest

\ (read TB pg15 / 7 more ways deal with nervousness)

CRITICAL THINKING

- focused, organized, thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the

truth of evidence, and the di between fact & opinion

\ Critical thinking is important

- b/c you want to seen as trustworthy & taken seriously

- if you are not logical, or provide evidence to support your topic, you’ll not be listen to

SPEECH COMMUNICATION PROCESS: 7 ELEMENTS

\ Speaker

\ Message

\ Channel (media)

\ Listener

\ Feedback

\ Interference

\ Situation

1: SPEAKER

- What makes a successful speaker

\ personal credibility : you are trustworthy

\ knowledge of the subject : you are an expert

\ preparation of the speed : you have good notes

\ manner of speaking : proper softness/loudness, varying tones… etc

\ sensitivity to the audience & occasion : using appropriate language given the people & event

\ enthusiasm/excitement : be passionate

2 : MESSAGE

- Whatever the speaker communicates to someone else

- A message could be a moral lesson, it could be teaching a skill, politician may be telling you

what they will do if elected

\ Di erences (verbal & non verbal message)

- verbal : a message in words used

- non verbal : a message that does not use words, a message can still be given by one’s action/

gesture/pose

3: CHANNEL (media)

- means by which a message is communicated

- ex: through speech, through microphone, email, text message, social media, TV, print, radio etc

4: LISTNER / AUDIENCE

- the person or people who receives the message

\ Audience’s “frame of reference”

- the total of his/her knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes

- no two people have the same frame of reference

- it determines how a message is received and interpreted

4B : The Key = KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE

\ Importance to know your audience and their frame of reference

- so that you can customize your message so that they clearly understand what you mean and are trying to say

- an order person vs. a younger person, a female vs. male, a person from di country or culture,

5

: FEEDBACK

-

message sent by the audience to the speaker

-

can be results or comments but often non-verbal (not in words)

-

if the audience is laughing : unfocused unless they are laughing with the speaker

\

EX of good feedback

-

audience is looking at you

-

aud. is leaning in to listen

-

aud. is clapping, cheering, smiling

\

EX of bad feedback

-

aud. is sleeping/falling asleep

-

resting aud. heads on their hands

-

throwing stu at the speaker

-

whispering

-

texting on their phone

6

: INTERFERENCE

-

anything that impedes/stops or distract from the communication of a message

-

can be external & internal

\

External : outside the listener

-

other people talking when you are trying to listen

-

noise from cars, fans…

-

other people nagging, poking, fighting…

-

anything outside that distract him/her

\

Internal : inside the listener (nervousness, stress, forgetfulness)

7: SITUATION

- the time & place or event or occasion in which the speech occurs

\ EX of diss situ. for public speaking that would require di methods of delivery

- funerals, wedding, school presentations, job interviews, school interviews, assemblies, teaching

- at demonstration/protests, in front of sports team, political events…

- All OF THESE REQUIRE DIFF METHODS OF DELIVERY (delivery of speech)

VERBAL MESSAGE

\ How can you ensure that your verbal message is right?

- research and focus on the topic (have enough time to state your evidence)

\ How can you ensure that your non verbal message is right?

- research your audience’s customs & practice

- practicing in a mirror

CRITICAL THINKING

- focused, organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the

truth of evidence, and the di between fact & opinion

\ Why is it important

- b/c you want to seen as trustworthy, & taken seriously. If you are not logical, or provide true

evidence to support your topic, you will not be listen too.

CULTURAL DIVERSITY

\ Cultural diversity : a variety of di cultures. More and more, countries & people are becoming

more cultural diverse & knowledgeable about other cultures because…

- more people can move from place to place via planes, trains, etc

- more & more people are immigrating to new lands for new opportunities

- more info. about other cultures has become easier to access b/c of the internet

\ Because more & more people are being exposed to di cultures, and b/c audiences are

becoming more and more diverse, speakers must be more sensitive about their messages

CULTURAL DIVERSITY

\ Provide ex. where you must be sensitive to cultural diversity when speaking in public

- teaching to a diverse group of students

- speaking in front of a diverse group of people

- ultimately, you do NOT want to o end anybody, so must be careful (think politics)

ETHNOCENTRISM

- is the tough that one’s culture or ethnicity is superior or better than everyone else

\ Is it important to avoid eth.

- you want to avoid being eth. when pub. speaking b/s it is o ensive and the audience feel that

you are looking at down them

Alliteration

Allusion

Repetition

Rule of 3

Metaphor

Contrast

Simile

CH2 190225

ETHICS & PUBLIC SPEAKING

THE GOAL OF PUBLIC SPEAKING

\ What is the ultimate goal of public speaking? (pg30)

- to gain a desire response from the listener/audience but NOT at any cost

\ Why is a good public speaker powerful & why does s/he need to be responsible?

- a good public speaker can influence your thoughts and actions

- this is the power of persuasion

- therefore, s/he must be responsible b/c s/h can make o ers

THE IMPORTANCE OF ETHICS

\ Ethics (pg30)

- the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right & wrong, fairness and unfairness, in human a airs

\ In an ideal world, what would all public speakers be?

- they would be good people who speak the truth, all the time

- we would want a good public speaker to care about others, not just their own interests

THE IMPORTANCE OF ETHICS

\ In reality, how can PS be dangerous? (pg30)

- if the speaker does not care about the audience and is only trying to get them to do what s/he

wants (i.e. the salesperson who lies to get a sale)

\ EX: Adolf Hitler in Nazi Germany, had evil intentions

- he persuaded people to kill millions of people based on their religious beliefs

SOUND ETHICAL DECISIONS (pg30~31)

- involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or rules

- ex: should I lie and accuse my political opponent of bad actions, just to win more votes? NO! If I

lie, I lose people’s trust and my own integrity정직

pg 31

\ Golden Rule

- always treat people with respect

\ Greatest good for the greatest number

GUIDELINES FOR ETHICAL SPEAKING : HAVE SOUND ETHNIC GOALS

\ Goals are ethnic sound

- making sure your goals are ethnically sound is making sure that the purpose of your speech is

good, fair, and right.

- what you want the audience to do is good

\ EX of ethical sound goal in a public speech

- to influence people to live healthier, cleaner, more fulfilling and happy lives

\ EX of unethical goal in a public speech

- to influence people to do unethical things (smoke, buy products that are bad for environment, to

be selfish, to harm other people)

GUIDELINES FOR ETHICAL SPEAKING : BE FULLY PREPARED

\ Why is it ethically important to be fully prepared for speeches (pg32)

- don’t waste the aud.’s time with a bad speech that doesn’t achieve goal

\ Bad speech :

- not using visual aids

- not being organized with your thoughts

- not giving correct info. (lying)

- not giving enough info.

- not giving both sides of a story

- not being sensitive to the aud. and their level of understanding

GUIDELINES FOR ETHICAL SPEAKING : BE FULLY PREPARED

- what is the most important thing to do before giving your speech

\ To become INFORMED and EDUCATED about the topic

- you will able to present all sides of story (be completely honest)

\ If not, aud. will not respect you

GUIDELINES FOR ETHICAL SPEAKING : BE HONEST

\ Importance:

- people to trust, respect, and listen to your thoughts and ideas

- you DON NOT want to mislead people into bad actions

\ EXs:

- presenting opinion as facts

- lying about facts and statistics

GUIDELINES FOR ETHICAL SPEAKING : AVOID NAME-CALLING

- use of language to defame, demean, or degrade, or make fun of, or insult individuals/group

\ Importance:

- o ensive (make the audience feel bad)

- reinforces negative stereotypes (bad generation over a group of people)

- encourages prejudice & discrimination (unfair treatment just because they are di .)

- makes speaker sound ignorant and ununiformed (speakers loses trust, credibility)

GUIDELINES FOR ETHICAL SPEAKING : PRACTICE ETHICAL PRINCIPALS

\ Being ethical means behaving ethically ALL THE TIME, not just when it is convenient or only

infant of audience

\ When writing speeches, ask yourself :

- is my topic suitable for the audience?

- are my supporting statements clear and convincing, and unbiased (not based on just one side

of a story)

- how can i phrase my ideas to give them more impact without being unethical?

PLAGIARISM

- copying or presenting another person’s ideas or language as one’s won

\ Why is plagiarism unethical?

- b/c it is a form of stealing.

- +, you are disrespecting the author by presenting his hard work, and eort in developing ideas

as your own

PLAGIARISM : GLOBAL PLAGIARISM

- is stealing a speech ENTIRLY from a single source and passing o as one’s own

- copying EVERYTHING from one place

\ How to avoid

- people perform global plagiarism b/c they cannot come up with their own ideas OR they are

lazy OR they have run out time to meet a deadline

- you can avoid being tempted to globally plagiarism by preparing earlier

PLAGAIRISM : PATCHWORK PLAGIARISM

- stealing ideas or language from two or more sources and passing them o as your own

- copying from two or more places

\ Why it is equally unethical as global plagiarism?

- b/c it is still copying other people’s work and taking advantage of the hard work, eorts, ideas

\ How to avoid unintentionally plagiarizing?

- keep track of where you got all your research by footnoting or citing your sources AS YOU

RESEARCH NOT AFTER!

PLAGAIRISM : INCREMENTAL PLAGIARISM

- failing to give credit for a particular part of a speech or essay that is borrowed from others

- when you use quotes, don’t forget “…” and to tell the audience who said it

- you can actually say “quote” blah blah blah “unquote”

\ How/why to avoid unintentionally perform incremental plagiarism?

- should avoid, b/c you do not want to confuse your words in a presentation for someone else’s

HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM : QUOTATIONS

- must ALWAYS make sure you give credit to the author/source of your info./quotations

- even of you rephrase or paraphrase (to restate an author’s ideas into your own words) you

should ALWAYS give credit to the source of the info./quotation

\ Use phrase like these before you quote or communication an idea from another source:

- According to

,

in the book entitled….

- In the book

,

says

….

PLAGIARISM AND THE INTERNET

- keep track of where you got all your research by footnoting or citing your sourced AS YOU

RESEARCH, NOT AFTER!

\ 4 pieces of info. should you keep record when you research on the internet

- the URL website address (www.blahblah.com)

- the AUTHOR’s NAME

- Date of access (Blah month, Blah day, Blah year)

- Date of publishing/update

SELF - CRITIQUE

1/ What course concepts did you apply? (two) / How did you applied these?

2/ strengths (two)

3/ weaknesses (one)

4/ what next steps will you take to improve? (2sentences)

CH 3. 190307 LISTENING

HEARING vs. LISTENING

\ Hearing

- just vibrations of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses on

the brain

- you hear noise, it has no meaning!

\ Listening

- paying close attention, and making sense of, what we hear

- you listen to words that express ideas that is full of meaning!

LISTENING IS IMPORTANT!

\ The better you listen and absorb info. quickly and accurately, the more likely you will:

- be more successful in school

- be more successful at work

- be a more successful speaker

APPRECIATIVE LISTENING 재미를 위해 들음

- listening for pleasure or enjoyment; to appreciate what you are listening

\ EX: listening to music, radio, movies, comedy, entertaining speeches and interviews

EMPATHIC LISTENING 공감해주기 위해 들음

- listening to provide emotional support or care (empathy) for a speaker

\ EX: when your friend/family is depressed or sad, and you just listen to them to provide support

and care. Sometimes people just need someone to talk to and listen

COMPREHENSIVE LISTENING 정보를 얻기 위해 들음

- listening to understand the message of the speaker

- it is to LEARN

\ EX: listening to a teacher, parent, prof, teach!

- listening to someone giving you directions

CRITICAL LISTENING 듣고 판단을 해야함

- listening to evaluate a message for the purpose of accepting or rejecting it

- listen to see if you see if someone is telling the truth or lying/exaggerating

\ EX: listening to professors, politicians, candidates, salespeople…

CAUSE OF POOR LISTENING : NOT LISTENING

\ Spare “brain time” = we talk at a rate of 120 to 150 words per minute BUT our brain can process

400 to 800 words per minute

\ We can process a lot more than what is given to us so in the spare “brain time”, we get easily distracted

\ Think of various forms of interference that can distract us

- internal interference - daydreaming, thinking about …

- external interference - noize from street…

CAUSE OF POOR LISTENING : LISTENING TOO HARD

\ Stimes we pay too much attention to listening to every single word, that we miss the speaker’s

main point/ideas

\ Stimes “we cannot see the forest through the trees”

- we focus too much on the small details that we miss the big picture

CAUSE OF POOR LISTENING : JUMPING TO CONCLUSION

\ Putting words in the speaker’s mouth

- we do this to people we are closet with b/c we think we know what they are going to say, so we

stop listening

\ Rejecting the speaker’s ideas as boring or mistaken, before we give him/her a chance

- prejudging a speaker based on who s/he is, where s/he is from, how s/he looks

CAUSE OF POOR LISTENING : FOCUSING TOO MUCH ON DELIVERY & APPEARANCE

- don’t judge someone based on the way they speak and the way they look

- they may have very important things to say

BE A BETTER LISTENER : TAKE LISTENING SERIOUSLY

\ Try not to daydream or think about anything besides the presentation

\ Try not to pay attention to external noises or interferences

\ Try to recall the speaker’s main points as s/he speaks

\ Fake paying attention

- fake it until you make it

\ Try to see if the speaker is being honest or not

- this will force you to focus

BE A BETTER LISTENER : BE AN ACTIVE LISTNER

\ Give full undivided ATTENTION to the speaker in a real eort to understand the speaker’s point

of view and perspective

BE A BETTER LISTENER : RESIST DISTRACTIONS

\ Try not to attention the noises around you

\ Try not to daydream or think about other things besides what the speaker is saying

\ Try to anticipate what the speaker will say next

- it helps you to focus

\ Try to mentally review and repeat what the speaker has said

- it helps you to focus

BE A BETTER LISTNER : DO NOT FOCUS ON APPEARENCE

\ Don’t be diverted by appearance or delivery

\ Focus on what the speaker is saying, not what s/he looks like or what they are wearing

\ Do not judge a book by its cover

- Stimes brilliant people are unattractive, and Stimes attractive people have nothing important to

say

BE A BETTER LISTNER : SUSPEND JUDGEMENT

/ Suspend Judgment

/ Hear people out BEFORE reaching final judgment

/ Listen to their ideas, examine their evidence, pay attention to see if they are being honest, and unbiased (presenting both sides of a story)

THEN make up your mind

BE A BETTER LISTNER : FOCUS ON YOUR LISTENING

/ Focus Your Listening

/ Do not try to absorb and remember every word, it is impossible!

/ Just listen for

- Main points and ideas, especially in the Introduction

- Key evidence and statistics

- Technique (i.e. what the speaker’s strengths and weaknesses are in terms of the

way they speak and present)

BE A BETTER LISTNER :DEVELOP NOTE-TAKING SKILLS

/ Develop Note-Taking Skills

/ Taking notes is a di cult skill to master

/ Trying to write every word is impossible and you will miss key points; writing too many notes,

and you will forget key points.

/ They key, know WHAT to listen for and HOW to record it.

BE A BETTER LISTENER : KEY WORD NOTE TAKING

Key-Word Outline Note-Taking Technique: Writing an outline that briefly notes a speaker’s main

points (as headings) and supporting evidence (As bullet points under each heading). Use arrows

to connect ideas!

BODY LANGUAGE

- Communicating what you’re feeling/thinking using your body instead of words

- Where your body is in relation to other bodies

- Small movements (facial expression/eye movement)

- Breathing

- Non-verbal communication (facial & body gesture)

- People trust their eyes more than their ears (Watch what he does, not what he says)

- When the speaker’s words don’t match the body language, people tend to believe the body

rather than the words

- Partly nature, partly nurture

- Reading body language is instinctive

CONTEXT

\ Body language depends on context

EX: rubbing eye = itchy, tired, upset, disbelief

crossed arm = cold or defensive

scratching nose = itchy, lying

\ A bunch of signals is more reliable

BODY LANGUAGE & PUBLIC SPEAKING

\Personal appearance

- Listeners see you before they hear you

- Dress appropriately for the occasion

- You don’t get a second chance to make a 1st impression

THE SPEAKER’S BODY

\ Movement

- New speakers are unsure what to do with their bodies

EX: pacing back & forth, side to side

bobbing shoulders, fidgeting with notes, stand still

\ Eye contact

- not just keeping them open but moving the areas around them

- squinting, popping eyes, wide open

- look at the aud. pleasantly

Tips to Improve Body Language

- Don’t cross arms/legs

- Relax shoulders

- Don’t touch face

- Use a mirror

- Don’t stare

- Lean slightly forward

- Head up

- Consider other cultures