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Astronomy – The branch of science which deals with the Continental Shelf – An undresea extension of a continent

study of heavenly bodies, their structure and their function. which can stretch for many miles out of the sea.

Asthenosphere – It is a portion of the upper mantle just Continental Slope – The edge of the continental shelf.
below the lithosphere.
Crust – the outer layer of
Atmosphere – it is the layer of gases that may surround a the earth composed of
material body of sufficient mass. igneous, metamorphic CRUST
and sedimentary.
Batholiths – Large Emplacement of igneous intrusive rock
that forms from cooled magma deep in the earth’s crust. Diastrophism – Refers to deformation of the Earth’s crust,
more specially to folding and faulting.
Carbonation – Refers to the process of dissolving carbon
dioxide in an aqueous Divergent – A linear feature that exist between two tectonic
solution. plates that are moving away from each other.

Cell – The basic unit of life. Earth – The third planet from the sun and the densest and
the fifth largest of the 8 planets in solar system.
changing the rock’s
minerals into different Earth Science – a branch of the physical science that deals
substances. CELL with the study of the solid earth, the water on it and the air
that surrounds it.
Chemical Weathering – The process of
Erosion – It is the process of the weathering and transport
Condensation – Means the change in the aggregation phase
of the solids (like sediments, soil, rock and the other
of matter from the gaseous phase (of an element or
particles) in the natural environment.
chemical species) into liquid droplets or solid grains of the
same element or chemicals species. Evaporation – A type of
vaporation of liquid that
Core – The center of the earth.
occurs only on the surface
of the liquid. EVAPORATION
Extrusive Rocks – The mode of the igneous volcanic rock the Earth’s atmosphere, extending to a height of 70 km.
formation in which hot magma form inside the earth flows
Hydrology – is concerned with the circulation of the water
out onto the surfaces as lava or explodes violently into the
in the atmosphere and the other parts of the earth.
atmosphere to fall back as pyroclastics.
Hydrolysis - A chemical reaction during which molecules of
Exosphere - The upper part of the atmosphere where gas
the water.
molecules of are wide apart.
Hydrosphere – Describes the combined mass water found
Feldspar – Group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals
on, under over the surface of the planets.
which make up as much 60% of the earth’s crust.
Igneous rock – One of the types of the rock that is formed
Folding – A stack of originally flat surfaces that are bent or
through the cooling and solidification of the magma and
curved as a result of plastic deformation.
Fracture – The separation of an object or material into two
Intrusive Rock – Formed by the crystallization of the magma
,or more, pieces under action stress.
at the depth within the earth.
Geology – The science that deals with the study physical
Ionosphere – the uppermost part of the atmosphere,
matter that constitute the Earth.
between the thermosphere and the exosphere , can easily
Granite – A common and widely occurring type of intrusive, be distinguished because it is ionzed by solar radiation.
igneous rock.
Jupiter – The fifth planet from the Sun and the largest.
Hardness – The measure of how resistant solid matters to planet within the solar system.
various kinds of permanent
Lava – A molten rock expelled by
shape change when a force
volcano during an eruption.
is applied.
Lithosphere – The rigid part and the
Homosphere – The lower
outermost layer of rocky planet. LITHOSPHERE
part of the two division of
Luster – The description referring to the manner the light Minerals – A naturally occurring solid chemical substances
interacts on the surface of a rock, a crystal or a mineral. that are formed through geological processes which has
characteristic in terms of its chemical composition, with the
Magma – A molten rock containing crystals and gas bubbles
highly ordered atomic.
that is found beneath the surface of the earth.
Milky Way – The galaxy in which the solar system is located.
Marble – A metamorphic rock composed of crystallized
carbonate minerals and the common examples are Neptune – The eight and farthest planet from the Sun in the
calcite/dolomite. solar system and fourth largest planet by diameter and
third in terms its mass.
Mantle – A highly viscous layer between the rust and the
outer core of the earth. Ocean – A major body of saline water and a principal
components of the hydrosphere.
Moho Discontinuity – The boundary between the Earth’s
crust and the mantle called Moho. Orgeny – Refers to the forces and events leading to server
structural deformation of the earth’s crust due to the
Mercury – The innermost and the smallest planet in the
interlocking of tectonic plates.
solar system.
Oxidation – The interaction between oxygen molecules and
Mars – The fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system.
all the different substances they may contact from metal to
Metamorphic Rock – The result of the transformation of the living tissue.
existing rock type.
Precipitation – Rain, sleet ,hail , snow and other forms of
Metamorphism – The process when a rock will change its the water falling from the sky.
form to another types of rocks.
Planet – A celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant
Meteorology – The study of the atmosphere, changes in that is massive enough to be round by its own gravity.
temperature, air pressure, moisture, and wind direction in
Quartz – The second most abundant mineral in earth’s
the troposphere.
continental thrust, after feldspar.
Rain – A liquid precipitation opposite to snow, hail and Stratosphere – The second major layer of the earth’s
sleet. atmosphere just above the troposphere and below the
Rock – A naturally occurring solid aggregate of minerals and
mineraliods. Sedimentary Rock – A type of rock that is formed by
sedimentation of the materials at the earth’s surface and
Sail – The upper layer of the
within bodies of water.
earth’s crust made of rocks
rich in silicate and aluminum Sediments – Solid fragments of inorganic or organic
minerals. materials at the Earth’s surface and within bodies of water.

Saturn – The sixth planet Solar System – Consist of a star, which is the sun, the eight
from the Sun and the second known plants, dozens of known satellites and huge number
largest planet in the solar of small object that range from microscopic dust particles
SIMA AND SAIL to the large object such as meteors and asteroids.
system after Jupiter.
Specific Gravity – The ratio of the density (mass of a unit
Sima – The name for the lower layers of the earth’s crust.
volume) of a substance to the density of the given
Shear – The response of a rock to deformation, usually by reference material.
compressive stress and forms particularly textures.
Streak – The color of a mineral when it is powered (streak
Schist – Formed by regional metamorphism, having coarse of the mineral), commonly obtained by rubbing the mineral
mineral grains splitting in the layers. across a hard surface, unglazed porcwelain material called
streak plate.
Slate – A fine grained, foliated, homogenous metamorphic
rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rocks Sun – The star at the center of the solar system.
that is composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade
regional metamorphism.
Syncline – It is the downward Universe – Everything that exists; all the planets, stars, and
curving fold with layer that galaxies are part of the universe.
dip toward the center of the
Uranus – The seventh planets from the sun, third largest,
fourth most massive planet in the solar system.
Thermosphere – The biggest
Uplift - it is a vertical elevation of the earth’s surface in
of all the layers of the earth’s
response to natural causes.
atmosphere and it’s directly
above the mesosphere and
SYNCLINE Volcano – An opening, or
directly below the exosphere, within this layer, ultraviolet rupture in a planet’s
radiation causes ionization. surface or crust, which
allows hot magma, ashes
Transpiration – Evaporation of the water from plants,
and gasses to escape below
occurs chiefly at the leaves while their stomata are open
For the CO2 and O2 during photosynthesis.
Water – A chemical
Transport Fault – Also known as the conservation plate
substance with a chemical
boundary of the a tectonic plate tension – A force related to
formula H2O. VOLCANO
the stretching of an object (opposite of compression).
Water Cycle – The continuous movement of water on above
Trench – A type of depression in the
the surface water of the earth.
ocean floor.
Water Vapor – The gas phase of the water.
Tropopause – The atmospheric
boundary between the troposphere Weathering – The breaking down of earth’s rocks, soils and
and the stratosphere. minerals through direct contact with the planet’s
Troposphere – The lowest portion
of the earth’s atmosphere.



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