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This guide is meant to be a supplemental guide and does not take the place of live training or review of
all First Aid and CPR practices. American CPR™ & American EHS™ encourage everyone to take
instructional courses on Basic First Aid, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), abdominal thrusts (the
Heimlich Maneuver) for choking casualties, and the use of an Automated External Defibrillation (AED).
This manual is not to be used for training or certification, and is not recognized by any agency
mentioned herein as an official Student Handbook. If an Instructor utilizes this first aid guide in an
Instructional course, it should be considered supplemental information, and a student should expect an
official student handbook and authentic certification card to be issued separately.

A dressing is a sterile pad or compress applied to a wound to promote healing and protect the wound
from further harm. A dressing is designed to be in direct contact with the wound, as distinguished from
a bandage, which is most often used to hold a dressing in place. Many modern dressings are self-
adhesive. A dressing can have a number of purposes, depending on the type, severity and position of
the wound, although all purposes are focused towards promoting recovery and protecting from further
harm. Key purposes of a dressing are:

Stem bleeding – to help to seal the wound to expedite the clotting process; Protection from infection
– to defend the wound against germs and mechanical damage; Absorb exudate – to soak up blood,
plasma, and other fluids exuded from the wound, containing it/them in one place and preventing
maceration; Ease pain – either by a medicated analgesic effect, compression or simply preventing pain
from further trauma; Debride the wound – to remove slough and foreign objects from the wound to
expedite healing; Reduce psychological stress – to obscure a healing wound from the view of the
patient and others. Ultimately, the aim of a dressing is to promote healing of the wound by providing a
sterile, breathable and moist environment that facilitates granulation and epithelialization. This will then
reduce the risk of infection, help the wound heal more quickly, and reduce scarring.

Gauze sponges and pads are used to guard and cushion a wound, to absorb blood or other fluids, to
apply ointments, or to rub cleansing fluids, such as rubbing alcohol or iodine, to a wound or site of
incision. Gauze is a light, thin, loosely woven fabric commonly made of cotton or a synthetic fiber.
Sterile pads are used for many medical purposes, especially on open wounds, but non-sterile pads may
be used for cushioning, cleaning, and absorbing areas less at risk of infection. An impregnated gauze
pad is infused with a substance to aid in healing, such as an antiseptic, hydrogels, or a hypertonic saline
solution. Antimicrobial impregnated pads, such as the silver infused pads often used on burn victims, are
used to keep wounds clean and fight infection. Hypertonic saline impregnated dressings are infused with
sodium chloride, which wicks moisture away from wounds with excessive exudate.

An adhesive bandage, also called a sticking plaster, medical plaster, or simply plaster in British English, is
a small medical dressing used for injuries not serious enough to require a full-size bandage. They are
also known by the genericized trademarks Band-Aid (as "band-aid" or "band aid" in the US and Australia)
or Elastoplast (in the UK). The adhesive bandage protects the wound and scab from friction, bacteria,
damage, and dirt. Thus, the healing process of the body is less disturbed. Some of the dressings have
antiseptic properties. An additional function is to hold the two cut ends of the skin together to make the
healing process faster. An adhesive bandage is a small, flexible sheet of material which is sticky on one
side, with a smaller, non-sticky, absorbent pad stuck to the sticky side. The pad is placed against the
wound, and overlapping edges of the sticky material are smoothed down so they stick to the
surrounding skin. Adhesive bandages are generally packaged in a sealed, sterile bag, with a backing
covering the sticky side; the backing is removed as the bandage is applied. They come in a variety of
sizes and shapes.

Roller bandages vary greatly depending on how they are to be used.

A roller bandage is used to: • hold a dressing in place on a wound • maintain pressure over a bulky pad
to control bleeding • support an injured limb or joint • apply pressure to a limb

Roller bandages are made from lightweight cotton, crepe or elasticised crepe, depending on the
pressure to be achieved. A lightweight cotton bandage is used to hold a dressing in place, whereas a
crepe or elasticised crepe bandage is used for applying support or firm pressure to a soft tissue injury.

Roller bandages can be used to immobilize injured body parts (sprains and torn muscles), provide
pressure to control internal or external bleeding, absorb drainage, and secure dressings. Three types of
bandages are the Kerlex bandage, the gauze bandage, and the elastic.
Triangular bandages Triangular bandages are usually made from a metre square of cotton or calico that
is cut in half diagonally. The bandage can be used in various ways as a sling or for immobilization of
broken bones and soft tissue injuries.

Cloth tape is an adhesive tape made with a cloth backing to make it durable and flexible. The tape is
useful for various purposes such as bandages, sealing walls, electrical and plumbing tasks and so on.
Cloth tapes are easily available in specialty and hardware stores. While most cloth tapes come with
adhesives, pressure-sensitive cloth tapes are also available which are used for special purposes without
leaving a trace of any glue residue while holding the things together.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against"and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial
substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or
putrefaction. Antiseptics are generally distinguished from antibiotics by the latter's ability to safely
destroy bacteria within the body, and from disinfectants, which destroy microorganisms found on non-
living objects. Some antiseptics are true germicides, capable of destroying microbes (bacteriocidal),
while others are bacteriostatic and only prevent or inhibit their growth. Antibacterials include
antiseptics that have the proven ability to act against bacteria. Microbicides which destroy virus
particles are called viricides or antivirals.Antifungals, also known as an antimycotics, are pharmaceutical
fungicides used to treat and prevent mycosis (fungal infection).
This medication is used to prevent and treat minor skin infections caused by small cuts, scrapes, or
burns. It is available without a prescription for self-medication.

Do not use this product over large areas of the body. Ask your doctor first before using this product for
serious skin injuries or infections (e.g., deep cuts, puncture wounds, animal bites, serious burns). A
different treatment may be necessary for these types of conditions.

This product contains neomycin, bacitracin, and polymyxin, antibiotics that work by stopping the growth
of bacteria. This medication prevents/treats only bacterial skin infections. It will not work for other types
of skin infections (e.g., infections caused by fungi, viruses). Unnecessary use or misuse of any antibiotic
can lead to its decreased effectiveness.
Aspirin is used to reduce fever and relieve mild to moderate pain from conditions such as muscle aches,
toothaches, common cold, andheadaches. It may also be used to reduce pain and swelling in conditions
such as arthritis. Aspirin is known as a salicylate and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It
works by blocking a certain natural substance in your body to reduce pain and swelling. Consult your
doctor before treating a child younger than 12 years.

Your doctor may direct you to take a low dose of aspirin to prevent blood clots. This effect reduces the
risk of stroke and heart attack. If you have recently had surgery on clogged arteries (such as bypass
surgery, carotid endarterectomy, coronary stent), your doctor may direct you to use aspirin in low doses
as a "blood thinner" to prevent blood clots.
This medication is used to treat a variety of skin conditions (e.g., insect bites, poison oak/ivy, eczema,
dermatitis, allergies, rash, itching of the outer female genitals, anal itching). Hydrocortisone reduces the
swelling, itching, and redness that can occur in these types of conditions. This medication is a mild

How to use Hydrocortisone Cream There are many hydrocortisone products available. Many can be
purchased without a prescription. Some products require a prescription. Consult your doctor or
pharmacist on the choice of the product that is best for you.

Use this medication on the skin only. However, do not use it on the face or underarms unless directed to
do so by your doctor. Some products are meant to be used on the scalp for various conditions. To
correctly use these products, follow the directions on the product package.

Scissors can be used to cut bandages to fit wounds and to help remove dressings so bandages can be
changed to reduce the risk of infection. These kit style scissors should be included in your first aid kit so
you will be prepared to treat cuts and wounds.
Digital thermometers are temperature-sensing instruments that are easily portable, have permanent
probes, and a convenient digital display. The way adigital thermometer works depends upon its type of
sensor. Sensor types include resistance temperature detector (RTD), thermocouple and thermistor. A
digital thermometer is used to take an oral temperature. It is a small hand-held device with a "window"
showing your temperature in numbers. There are many kinds of digital thermometers. Most digital
thermometers are easy to use and measure body temperature within seconds.
Tweezers. Tweezers are an important tool to have in any first aid kit regardless of how basic your kit is.
Tweezers can be used to remove debris such as glass, dirt, or splinters from a wound. They can also be
used to remove stingers left behind by bees.Tweezers are small tools used for picking up objects too
small to be easily handled with the human fingers. The word is most likely derived from tongs, pincers,
or scissors-like pliers used to grab or hold hot objects since the dawn of recorded history.
Alcohol wipes or prep pads are used for cleaning around a wound. They should not be used directly on
an open wound as alcohol can cause damage to the wound bed. Alcohol applied directly on an open
wound can delay or even prevent healing. Alcohol pads can be used to prep unbroken skin.

A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that
legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed. In contrast, over-the-counter drugs can be
obtained without a prescription. The reason for this difference in substance control is the potential
scope of misuse, from drug abuse to practicing medicine without a license and without sufficient
education. Different jurisdictions have different definitions of what constitutes a prescription drug. "Rx"
(℞) is often used as a short form for prescription drug in North America - a contraction of the Latin word
"recipe" (an imperative form of "recipere") meaning "take".[1] Prescription drugs are often dispensed
together with a monograph (in Europe, a Patient Information Leaflet or PIL) that gives detailed
information about the drug. The use of prescription drugs has been increasing since the 1960s.
A safety pin has a number of uses in first aid. It can be used to immobilize an arm by pinning the cuff of a
long sleeve shirt to its chest to fashion a makeshift arm sling. Safety pins: these can be used to fix
bandages. Plasters: these can be used to cover affected areas to prevent bacterial infection and stem
bleeding. Blue plasters: used for covering injuries during food preparation. Triangular bandages: these
can be used to treat larger wounds or as a sling to support the arm.
Calamine, also known as calamine lotion, is a medication used to treat mild itchiness. This includes from
sunburn, insect bites, poison ivy, poison oak, or other mild skin conditions. It may also help dry out skin
irritation.It is applied on the skin as a cream or lotion. Side effects may include skin irritation. It is
considered to be safe in pregnancy. Calamine is a combination of zinc oxide and 0.5% ferric oxide
(Fe2O3). The lotion is produced with additional ingredients such as phenol and calcium hydroxide.
Calamine is used to treat itchiness. This includes from sunburn, insect bite, or other mild skin conditions.
Although it's preferable to have an emergency contact list available in advance of any emergency, it’s
always possible to be caught off guard. The sites in this section list important emergency phone
numbers you’ll want to have handy during first aid emergencies.

The list should include the phone numbers of the police, the nearest fire department, ambulance
services, a poison control center, and your doctors and the contact numbers for work, other locations,
and a nearby relative or friend. You may also wish to include the phone numbers of the gas and electric
companies, your children’s schools, the local pharmacy, or home health aides.