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PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-1

OPTICS

Our eye is receptive to some of the electromagnetic waves which spread in a narrow range of wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm. Radiations of these wavelengths produce sensation of vision on eyes. We called them light. Eye is most sensitive to the wavelength of 550 nm. 1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Relative sensitivity

4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 Wavelength in A°

Figure – 1

Figure - 1 describes the relative sensitivity of the average human eye as a function of wavelength.

To represent the direction of wave motion a directed line segment is used which is called a ray.

A beam of light is represented by a bunch of rays. In a homogeneous medium light travels along

a straight line in a fixed direction unless it encounters an obstacle in its path. The rectilinear

propagation of light well explains the formation of shadow of an opaque object that comes in its path. The scope of application of geometric optics is limited by the general condition that the sizes of the objects that interact with light are substantially larger than its mean wavelength.

When waves travel from one medium to the other, at the interface of two media a part of wave returns in the previous medium and a part transmits into the next medium. Returning of waves into previous medium is called reflection and transmitting into the next medium

is called refraction. Figure – 2 shows the reflection and

refraction of a light beam travelling from air to glass.

LAWS OF REFLECTION

Air Incident
Reflected
wave
wave
i
i
r
Refracted
wave
Glass - slab

Figure - 2

1. Incident ray, reflected ray and normal to the point of incidence all lie in same plane.

2. Angle of incidence (angle between incident ray and normal to the surface) is equal to the angle of reflection (angle between reflected ray and normal to the surface).

FERMAT PRINCIPLE

To travel from one point to another wave follows a path that takes either minimum time or maximum time or same time, in compression to the time taken by other near by paths. CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-2

Proof of Laws of Reflection In the figure 3, A is a fixed source of light and B is a fixed detector. B
A
r
i
r
i
P
Q
M
x
L

Figure - 3

Let light follows a path AMC to travel from A to B after reflection at a point M on a plane mirror. Time taken by the light ‘t’ depends on the position of M. 2
2
2
2
AP
 x
(L
x)
BQ
t 
C
C
dt 1
x
(L
x)
dx C
2
2
2
2
AP
 x
(L
x)
BQ
 
 
dt
For t to be the minimum,
 0
dx
x L
 x
2
2
2
2
AP
 x
(L
x)
BQ

sin i = sin r

As both i and r are less than

i = r

2

REGULAR AND IRREGULAR REFLECTION

Roughness or smoothness of a reflecting surface depends on the wavelength of the incident wave. If dimensions of surface irregularities are much smaller than the wavelength of the incident wave then surface behaves like a smooth reflecting surface or otherwise it behaves like a rough surface. Reflected beam
Incident beam

Figure – 4a

In the figure-4a a parallel beam of light falls on a rough surface and the reflected rays do not form a beam. After reflection light scatters unevenly in all directions. This type of reflection is called irregular or diffuse reflection. Non luminous objects are visible to us because of diffuse reflection. CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-3 Incident beam
Reflected beam
Incident wave front
Reflected wave front

Figure – 4b Incident beam
Reflected beam

Figure – 4c

In figures 4b and 4c, a parallel beam of light falls on a smooth surface, reflected rays do form a beam. The reflected beam may be parallel, convergent or divergent. Such reflection is called regular reflection. Image of an object is formed only when regular reflection takes place.

PRINCIPLE OF REVERSIBILITY OF THE PATH OF LIGHT

One of the characteristics of light is that, if its direction of propagation is reversed at a point, then in its path it exactly retraces the same path backward to return to the starting point.

This principle is very useful in dealing with geometrical optics.

MIRROR

Mirror is a well-polished surface at which regular reflection takes place. An ideal mirror reflects hundred percent of the light falling on it.

As per our needs, we design & fabricate different types of mirrors e.g; plane mirror, spherical (concave and convex) mirror and paraboloidal mirror.

ANGULAR DEVIATION BY PLANE MIRRORS

When light is reflected from a mirror, its direction of propagation changes. The angular deviation is defined as the angle between the directions of the incident ray and the reflected ray. In other words, angular deviation is the angle through which the incident ray rotates due to reflection and is converted into a reflected ray. Figure – 5a

In the figure 5a, a ray falls on a plane mirror at an angle of incidence. The deviation produced by the mirror is = – 2. CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-4  2
2

Figure – 5 b

The graph in the figure- 5b shows the variation of angular deviation with angle of incidence .

If mirror is fixed and the incident ray is rotated by an angle the reflected ray also rotates through same angle but in opposite sense. If the incident ray is fixed and the mirror rotated by an angle in the plane of incidences the reflected ray rotates by an angle 2in same sense.

In the figure-6a, initial angle of incidence is i, and value of deviation is 1 = – 2i. When incident ray is rotated anti-clockwise by an angle , angle of incidence increases to i + , therefore angle of reflection also increases to i + . The reflected ray has rotated by an angle in clockwise sense. Now the deviation is 2 = – 2i – 2.

In the figure-6b, angle of incidence is i when mirror is in the position 1 and deviation 1 = – 2i. Due to rotation of the mirror by an angle β in clockwise sense normal to the mirror also rotates by the same angle β in same sense. As a result, angle of incidence increases to i + so does the angle of reflection. The final deviation of the ray 2 = – 2i – 2is less than initial deviation by 2. Therefore the reflected ray has rotated clockwise by an angle 2. i
i
2
1
Figure - 6a N
1
N
2
i
i
1
2
1
2
Figure - 6b

In both figures-6a and 6b change in deviation is 2. Whether angle of deviation will increase or decrease it depends on sense of rotation of the incident ray or of the mirror. CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-5

q.

q.

In the figure-7a, angle between two plane mirrors M 1 and M 2 is 30°. A ray of light falls on M 1 at angle of incidence 60°. Find the overall deviation produced by the combination. When the ray emerges from the system. M
1
60°
30°
M
2 Figure - 7a
M 1
A
60°
C
30°
60°
30°
M
B
2

Figure - 7b

See the figure – 7b. The analysis is simply based on. (i) Laws of reflection and (ii) principle of reversibility.

At the point A, angle of incidence is 60° therefore angle of reflection is also 60°. At point B, angle of incidence and angle of reflection are both equal to 30°. At point C ray falls on the mirror M 1 at 90° with its surface, therefore it retraces its path backwards. Due to reversibility, the emergent ray coincides with the incident ray but travel in the opposite direction. Therefore the angle of deviation produced by the combination is 180°.

There is a vertical wall along the circumference of a circular field of radius 50m. A small plane mirror is placed at the centre of the field with its plane vertical. A stationary point source of light near the circumference of the field sends a fine pencil of light along radius on the mirror. If mirror rotates with the angular speed w = 2 rad/s. What is the speed of the bright spot formed on the wall due to reflection?

FORMATION OF IMAGE OF A POINT OBJECT

When light rays coming from an object fall on

a mirror, they undergo regular reflection.

Depending on the position and shape of the

mirror, the reflected rays may converge or diverge. If reflected rays converge, as shown

in the figure 8a, the intensity of light at the

point of convergence is very high. This bright point is the real image. If we move a piece of

paper in front of the mirror and when this paper reaches the point of convergence a bright spot is obtained on the paper. A real image can appear on the screen. Object
real image

Figure – 8 a: Real image is formed in-front of the mirror CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-6

If the reflected rays were to diverge, no such bright spot can be obtained on the paper. But to the observer’s eyes, rays appear to come from a point behind the mirror. That point is the virtual image. Although the image is ‘behind’ the mirror, no actual light rays are present behind the mirror; however, the image is still visible from the front of the mirror.

In the figure 8b and 8c, a point object O is placed in front of a plane mirror. The reflected rays appear to come from a point Obehind the mirror but no light is present at O. The point Ois the virtual image of O.

Real object

O O'
Virtual image

Figure – 8 b

O Real Object
Virtual Image
O'

Figure – 8 c: Virtual image is formed behind the mirror

The real image is always formed in front of the mirror whereas the virtual image is always formed behind the mirror.

Whether image is real or virtual, our eyes recognise both. Virtual image can even be photographed by a camera.

REAL OBJECT AND VIRTUAL OBJECT FOR THE MIRROR

Now we will discuss about real and virtual objects. Needless to mention, objects which you place in front of the mirror, they all are real. Now consider an incident beam of convergent rays. If rays converge before falling on the mirror as shown in the figure 9b, the point of convergence is the real object for the mirror. If rays fall on the mirror before converging as shown in the figure 9c, the point behind the mirror where rays would have converged is considered as a virtual object. Real Object
Figure - 9a Real Object
Figure - 9b Virtual object
Figure - 9c CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-7

CHARACTERISTICS OF A PLANE MIRROR

1. A plane mirror forms virtual image of a real object (figure 10a) and a real image of a virtual object figure (figure 10b) Real Object
Virtual Image
Figure - 10a Virtual Object
Figure - 10b

Real Image

2. Distance of the image from the mirror is equal to the distance of the object from it.

In the figure, 11a triangles OAB and OAB are congruent. Therefore, object distance OA is equal to the image distance OA. A
O
O'
i
B
r

Figure – 11 a

3. Except lateral inversion, shape and size of the image is exactly equal to that of the object.  Figure – 11 b CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-8

FORMATION OF IMAGE OF AN EXTENDED OBJECT

An extended object is a combination of many point objects. The mirror forms an image of each part of the object and finally complete image of an extended object is obtained.

Using the properties of the plane mirror, image of an extended object can easily be located.

In

extended object. Corresponding to each point object on CO, the mirror forms virtual image behind it at a distance

linear

the

figure

11c,

CO

is

a O
C 
O'

equal to that of the object. Thus an extended linear image COis obtained.

Figure – 11 c The mirror is the plane of symmetry for OCO. A point on the line CO and its image on COare equidistant from the mirror.

FIELD OF VISION OF A POINT IMAGE IN A PLANE MIRROR

Field of vision is the space in front of the mirror in which image can be viewed from any where. Reflected rays are present everywhere in the field of vision.

In each of the figures 12a & 12b, mirror forms virtual image Oof real object O. The reflected rays form a divergent beam which appears to come from the image point O.

The extreme reflected rays form the boundary of the field of vision. The farther we go from the mirror, the wider the field of vision is. O
field of vision

Figure – 12 a

O' CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-9 Virtual Image
O
Field of vision
Field of vision

Figure – 12 b

Diameter of the pupil of the eye is very small and therefore a beam of very small cross-section enters into the eye. Indeed only a very small portion of the mirror is utilised to view the image.

FIELD OF VISION OF EXTENDED OBJECT

In the figure 12c, a plane mirror forms the image ABof a linear object AB.

From any point between rays NR and NS, only A, the image of the point A is visible, and from any

point between rays MP and MQ, only B, the image of the point B is visible. But in the space between rays MQ and NR, images of both A and B are

visible. Therefore, space between rays MQ and NR

is the field of vision of the extended object AB.

All reflected rays appear to come from image. Therefore to identify the field of vision, consider reflected rays at the extreme edges of the mirror. With the help of characteristics of the plane mirror, position of image can be located easily.

Q. Patch of light on the ceiling. Field of vision
Q
R
A B
P
M
N
A'
B'

Figure – 12c

S

Floor to ceiling height of a room is 3m. A point source of light is fixed to the ceiling and a disc shaped plane mirror of radius 5cm is placed at the floor with its centre directly below the source of light. Calculate the radius of the bright patch formed on the ceiling due to reflection by the mirror. What happens with the radius of the bright patch if

 (a) mirror is moved up parallel to its axis (b) if mirror is moved parallel to the floor (c) if the light source is moved towards the centre of the mirror? CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-10

FORMATION OF IMAGE BY A COMBINATION OF PLANE MIRRORS

In the figure 13a, M 1 and M 2 are two plane mirrors at right angles. A point object ‘O’ is placed infront of them. Due to multiple reflections more than two images are formed.

Analysis:- Image formed by one mirror is the object for the other, provided that image should not be in the shaded region. Because reflected rays from a mirror if appear to come from shaded region will not fall on the other mirror.

M

2 O Figure – 13a

M

1

The ray diagram in the figure 13b, explains the multiple reflection. O 1 is the primary image due to direct

reflection at M 1 . For M 2 , O 1 is the object, because reflected rays,

fall on M 2 appear

from M 1 which

to come from O 1 . After second reflection at M 2 , rays appear to come from O 12 . O 12 is the

M 2 . But

secondary image of O 1 by

now O 12 further can not be the object for the mirror M 1 . M
2
O
O
12
O
1

Figure 13b: First reflection at M 1

M

1

In the figure 13c, O 2 is the primary image due to direct reflection at M 2 . O 21 is the secondary image of O 2 by M 1 . M
2
O
2
M
1
O
21
Figure 13c: describes formation of images if first reflection
occurs at mirror M 2 . CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-11

Now we explore some other method to calculate the total number of images formed and their locations.

Remember, in every analysis the fundamental principles are in the centre.

Join the object O to the intersection of the mirrors C by a straight line and consider CO as an extended object that makes an angle with the mirror M 1 . See figure 14a. CO 1 is the primary image of CO due direct reflection at M 1 . CO 1 behaves like an object for M 2 and makes an angle 90° + with it. CO 12 is the image of CO 1 due to reflection at M 2 . Since CO 12 lies in the shaded region therefore further it cannot be the object for M 1 . M
2
O
90  
90  
C
O
12
O
1

M

1

In the figure 14b CO 2 is the primary image of CO due to direct reflection at M 2 . CO 2 is the object for M 1 and makes an angle 180° - with it. Since 180°- is greater than 90° so CO 21 (image of CO 2 by M 1 ) lies in the shadow region. CO 21 now cannot be the object for M 2 .

In the given situation, we observe that CO 12 coincides with CO 21 . Figure 14a
90  
90  
O
O
2
180  
C
180  
O
21

Figure 14b

For any value of angle between the mirrors we may proceed with the concept of extended object.

Consider the figure 14c. Angle between plane mirrors is and extended object CO makes an

angle

mirror M 2 .

with the mirror M 1 and with M
2

O
C
Figure - 14c

M 1

In the table given below the tips of the arrows in succession indicate the angular position of the successive image with respect to the mirror by which it is formed. With the help of the table we can easily identify the image that will fall in the shaded region. CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-12

Angle between the rear surface of M 1 and the image formed by it

Angle between the rear surface of M 2 and the image formed by it

(2  )

(2  )

(4  )

(4  ) ()

()

(3  )

(3  )

(5  )

Figure 14d

INCIDENT RAY AND REFLECTED RAY IN VECTOR FORM

ˆ

i , and are the unit vectors in the directions of incident ray, reflected ray and the normal to the mirror. ˆ
i
 rˆ

From vector algebra, knˆ  i , where k = constant.

ˆ

 ˆ  knˆ . nˆ   i . nˆ  rˆ . nˆ ˆ  i . nˆ  rˆ . nˆ  cos   k  2cos  ˆ  2cos nˆ   i  rˆ ˆ  rˆ  i  2cosnˆ  rˆ  ˆ i  2( ˆ i . n)ˆ nˆ Q. Reflecting surface of a mirror is parallel to the x-y plane. An incident ray parallel to a vector A ˆ  1 1 3 ˆ i  ˆ j  k ˆ 2 2 2 2 2 , falls on the mirror. Identify the direction of reflected ray.

i, j and

k , where ˆ ˆ

ˆ

i, j and

ˆ

k have their usual meanings. CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-13
ˆ
Sol.
rˆ  A  2(A ˆ . n)ˆ
nˆ .

Here

ˆ

k is the normal vector ˆ
 rˆ  A  2(A ˆ . k) ˆ k ˆ
2
3
A ˆ k ˆ
2
1
3
ˆ i 1
ˆ j
k ˆ
2
2
2
2
2

SPEED OF THE IMAGE IN A PLANE MIRROR

Moving object Moving image Regarding shape, size and position of the image formed by a plane mirror we know the following.

i) From the mirror, image distance is equal to the object distance.

ii) Except lateral inversion, shape and size of the image is identical to the object.

Therefore, if an object moves directly towards a stationary plane mirror, its image also moves directly towards the mirror with same speed. If an object moves parallel to the mirror, its image moves with same velocity and hence appears stationary to it.

If a plane mirror moves along perpendicular to its plane towards a stationary object with speed v, the image will also move towards the mirror with the same speed v in the frame of the mirror.

When a plane mirror moves parallel to its own plane before a stationary object, the image remains at rest.

These explanations are nothing but the consequences of laws of reflection and the characteristics of the plane mirror.

The conclusion is:-

In the frame of the mirror, components of velocities of the object and image perpendicular to the plane of the mirror are equal and opposite. But components of their velocities parallel to the plane of the mirror are equal.

 CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-14

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS — QUESTIONS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

By what angle should M 2 be rotated, so that the light ray (OA) after reflection from both the mirrors become horizontal. M 2
25
40

M 1

A man is sitting in a room at 2m from a wall w wants to see the full height of wall w 2 behind him of

4m height and 6 m away from the facing wall w 1 . What is minimum vertical length of a plane mirror on the facing wall required to fulfill the purpose.

Two plane mirrors are placed as shown in the figure. (A) How many images will be formed? (B) Find the position(s) of image(s). (C) Will the ray passing through (1, 1.25) take part in image formation? An object is moving with velocity v 0 parallel to mirror

M 1 . Find speed of the image formed by M 1 w.r.t. the

image formed by M 2 .

v 0  M 1

M 2

A ray PO is incident on the mirror AC at an angle 30as shown in the figure. Ray PO is reflected by mirror AC and AB. The deviation of ray PO after its final reflection from mirror AC

is K. Find the value of K. C
O 30
30

A

P

B

In the adjacent figure AB is horizontal plane mirror, and BC is a vertical screen. A light source ‘S’ directly above the point A and a

, throws a pencil of light on the mirror and a bright

spot is obtained on the screen. Now the source ‘S’ starts rotating

with constant angular speed as shown. Find the speed of the spot on the screen when incident beam hits the mirror at the mid point of AB.

distance

AB

2

d S
d
A

An object is moving with velocity

mirror is moving with velocity velocity of image.

(2i ˆ 3j) ˆ m/s and plane

ˆ

4i m/s as shown. Find

v 2i ˆ
3j ˆ
0 

An opaque object PQ of height h stands erect on a flat horizontal mirror. Sunrays fall on the object at an angle of 30 0 with the horizontal. Find the length of the shadow on a screen placed beyond the shadow perpendicular to the mirror. ˆ
v
m  4i
Q
P

y x

C

B CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-15

9.

10.

11.

12.

A person runs with a speed u towards a bicycle moving away from him with speed v. The person approaches his image in the plane mirror fixed at the rear of the bicycle with a speed of x(u – v). Calculate the value of x.

A ray of light is incident on a plane mirror along a line represented by ˆ

orientation parallel to the plane of the mirror to get the light retraced is

(A)

(C)

i ˆ j k ˆ . The possible vector

ˆ ˆ

2i

2i ˆ

4j 2k ˆ

ˆ j 2k ˆ

(B) ˆ

(D)

ˆ j k ˆ

i ˆ ˆ j k ˆ

i

A ray of light is incident on a plane mirror along a vector ˆ ˆ

along ˆ

i ˆ j k ˆ . The normal on incidence point is

i j . Then unit vector along the reflected ray is 1
(A)
3
(C) (i ˆ

(i ˆ

ˆ

j

k) ˆ

ˆ j k) ˆ

(B)

(D) 1
ˆ
(i
 ˆ 
j
3
1
ˆ
(
 
i
ˆ j
3

k) ˆ

k) ˆ

.

A point object ‘A’ is moving under an inclined plane mirror at constant velocity parallel to positive

x–axis as shown in the figure. If the mirror is inclined at an angle with the horizontal then what is the velocity of the image ?

 (A) v sin  ˆ i  v cos j ˆ (B) v cos i ˆ  v sin j ˆ (C) v sin2i ˆ  v cos2j ˆ (D) v cos2i ˆ  v sin2j ˆ .

13.

A point object O and a mirror M move with velocities of

3 cm/s and 4 cm/s respectively as shown in the figure. OO

is the normal to the mirror. What is the velocity image ?

of the

 (A) 5 cm/s (B) 7 cm/s (C) 8 cm/s (D) 2 19 cm/s.

4 cm/s  60º O

3 cm/s M

O

KEY, HINTS & SOLUTIONS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

5clock wise.

1m

(A) 1; (B) (4, 0); (C) No

2v 0 sin

1

From the diagram it is clear that the ray will retrace its path.

4 d

(10i ˆ 3j) ˆ C
O
30
30
30

A

P

B

The formation of shadow on the mirror and on the screen is shown in figure in compliance with the principle of rectilinear propagation of light and law of reflection. PS is the shadow on the mirror and P’Q’ is the inverted shadow of PQ on the screen. Let = angle of incidence. Then, PS = h tan and QS = h sec . From the property of triangle. P’Q’ = 2(h sec ) cos = 2h.

2

Velocity of approach of man towards the bicycle = (u – v) Hence velocity of approach of image towards bicycle is 2(u – v).

A CBSE Study Package 1718
PH-GEOMETRICAL OPTICS-16

12. C

13. B

Only velocity of mirror along OO(= 2 cm/s) is relevant. Relative to mirror : velocity of object = 5 cm/s

Velocity of image relative to mirror = 5 cm/s towards

left. Relative to laboratory frame: velocity of image = 7 cm/s.

 y
v
A
O x

4 cm/s  60º O

3 cm/s M

O