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Material de studiu pentru învățământul la distanță

IAȘI, 2018


TEMA I: Foreign Contacts

UNITATEA 1: Foreign Contacts 1:
Social Interaction in Business (greetings, forms of address, business
The Personal Profile of a Business Person
UNITATEA 2: Foreign Contacts 2:
Telephoning and E-mail Writing

TEMA II: Management

UNITATEA 3: Management

TEMA III: Employment

UNITATEA 4: Human Resources
Job Advertisements;
Writing Successful Job Application Documents
UNITATEA 5: In-Company Documents
The Memorandum
UNITATEA 6: Employment
Employment and Wages
UNITATEA 7: Industrial Relations
Industrial Relations and Social Issues





Durata (în ore de pregătire) 2
Total, din care: - instruire teoretică 1 oră
- instruire practică 1 oră
Obiectiv general: însușirea vocabularului și structurilor specifice comunicării scrise
și orale în context internațional de afaceri în limba engleză.


1 2 3 4 5
Să asimileze Social Metoda - videoproiector Capacitatea
vocabular de Interaction comunicativă - laptop de a utiliza
specialitate și in Business : Prezentare - CD –player vocabular și
structuri (greetings, interactivă - CD-uri și DVD- structuri
specifice forms of Conversație uri specifice
comunicării address, euristică comunicării
scrise și orale business Exerciții scrise și
în context manners) individuale/ orale în
internațional și în grupuri context
multicultural The mici (4-6 internațional
de afaceri. studenți) de afaceri în
Personal Jocuri de rol limba
Să fie capabili engleză.
să se prezinte Profile of a
și să se Business Capacitatea
exprime în de a se
mod fluent, în Person exprima
scris și oral, în fluent în
limba engleză, limba
în diverse engleză, în
situații de diverse
afaceri. situații de


 Butzphal, Gerlinde, Maier-Fairclough, Jane. Career Express Business English 2.
Cornelsen Verlag. Berlin, 2010.
 Capel, Will et al. Collins Business Vocabulary in Practice. (3rd ed.). Collins, 2012.
 Emmerson, Paul. Business English Handbook. Advanced. Macmillan, 2007.
 Emmerson, Paul. Business Vocabulary Builder. Macmillan, 2009.
 Handford, Michael Business Advantage. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
 *** Oxford Business Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2008.



a. Are differences in culture important when we refer to foreign contacts? Explain
your point of view.
b. Thinking of your own country, can you make a list of typical customs and habits
that sometimes might even seem strange to foreigners?
c. What do you know about other nations and their stereotypes?
d. What should business people know before coming into contact with their potential
partners overseas?


1. Comment on the following article, comparing the information you get from it
with what you know about your own country. Consider the issues bellow:

a. greeting forms
b. habits
c. people’s titles
d. language

When doing business, one has to take into consideration the cultural challenges that
exist in an international context. There are many things that can make or break a deal.
Surprisingly enough, they are not strictly connected with business, but also with good
manners and the way in which one uses the language of communication, as it is very
easy to get it wrong.

There may be a single European market, but it does not mean that people behave the
same way in Portugal as they do in Germany. Handshaking, for example, is popular in
many countries like France, Italy, Belgium, Germany and others. But Northern
Europeans, such as the British and Scandinavians, are not quite so fond of physical
demonstrations of friendliness.

In Europe, the most common challenge is not the content of the food, but the way you
behave as you eat. Some things are not just done. In France it is not good manners to
raise tricky questions of business over the main course. Business has its place: after
the cheese course. Unless you are prepared to eat in silence, you have to talk about
something- something, that is, other than the business deal which you are continually
chewing over in your head.

Italians give similar importance to the whole process of business entertaining. In fact,
in Italy, the biggest fear, as course after course appears, is that you entirely forget you
are there on business. If you have the energy, you can always do the polite thing when
the meal ends, and offer to pay. Then, after a lively discussion, you must remember
the next polite thing to do - let your host pick up the bill.

In Germany, you may wonder why your apparently friendly hosts have not invited
you out for the evening. Don’t worry, it is probably nothing personal. Germans do nor
entertain business people with quite the same enthusiasm as some of their European
counterparts. They are also notable for the amount of formality they bring to business.

As an outsider, it is often difficult to know whether colleagues have been working

together for 30 years or have just met in the lift. If you are used to calling people after
their first names, this can be a little strange. To the Germans, titles are important.
Forgetting that someone should be called Herr Doktor or Frau Direktorin might cause
serious offence. It is equally offensive to call them by a title they do not possess.

In Italy, the question of the title is further confused by the fact that everyone with a
university degree can be called Dottore- and engineers, lawyers and architects may
also expect to be called by their professional titles. All these go side by side with the
problems of doing business in a foreign language. Language, of course, is full of
difficulties-disaster may be only a syllable away. But the more you know of the
culture of the country you are dealing with, the less likely you are to get into

difficulties. It is worth the effort. It might be rather hard to explain that the reason you
lost the contract was not the product or the price, but the fact that you offended your
hosts in a comment over an aperitif.
(Adapted after an article by Richard Bryan in “Business Life”)


1. How do you call the people coming from the following countries: Hungary,
Holland, Turkey, Portugal, Germany, Brazil, Pakistan, Ireland, Norway. What about
the language they speak? Write a few things about their specific habits and customs
and then, discuss them in groups of four.

2. In the following sentences the modal verbs/modal paraphrases are misplaced.

Put them into their right place and explain your choice.

a. There must be a single market, but it does not mean that people behave the same
way in Portugal as they do in Germany.
b. Unless one is prepared to eat in silence one might talk about something.
c. Then, after a lively discussion, you may remember the next polite thing to do-let
your host pick up the bill.
d. Forgetting that someone should be called Herr Doktor or Frau Direktorin has to
cause serious offense.

3. Read through the text again to find all the modal verbs and fill in the table:
Modal verb/modal paraphrase Used to express
In the text own example


habitual state of affairs
If you have not found at least one modal verb/modal paraphrase for each type of
use, complete the empty spaces with examples of your own.

4. Rephrase each of the following statements, using the appropriate modal:

a. It is advisable for our team to attend a Business English course
b. John has permission to leave his office earlier today.
c. The personnel manager has the obligation to organize training courses for the
d. The representative of the host institution asked the guest:” Do you want me to
come at 9 o’clock to take you to the office?”

5. The following answers were given by people talking to each other during the
break of an international symposium. What questions do you think people
a. I am working in an advertising agency, as a PA.1
b. We produce and sell computers
c. My responsibilities include taking care of the operating system and of the software
d. Our turnover is approximately $10m and we employ about 80 people full time.
e. Oh, I am glad to meet you, I am Norma Allen.
f. Our head office is in Bucharest.
g. I have been with this company for 5 years.
h. Yes, our company has some branches in Spain and Italy.

6. Match the words on the left with the definitions on the right:
a. turnover 1. Subsidiary of a company in another
town/country than the headquarters
b. employ 2. The total sales figure of an
organization for a stated period

PA= Personal assistant

c. discount 3. Hire/recruit new people for the
d. branch 4. A reduction in the price of goods
below list price

7. Here is a list of sentences used when introducing oneself, when responding to

introductions and when giving information about companies or one’s
responsibility in the company. Match the sentences with the headings from a to e.

1. Hello, let me introduce myself, I am Valentin Popescu a. Responsibilities within a company
2. I am a sales manager. b. Introducing oneself.
3. I work for the Samira Group, a British private c. Position in a company
4. I work at the London head office d. Information about the company
5. We employ 100 workers. e. Responding to introductions.
6. The number of employees is around 600.
7. The turnover is of $70m.
8. We have branches/subsidiaries in Iasi and Cluj.
9. The company’s activities are devised into two business
areas: industries and trading.
10. I am Romanian, I live in Iasi.

Work in pairs. You are two passengers sitting next to each other on a long flight.
Using the information from the cards below, perform a conversation of about 5

You are flying home to your own country. Invent some details about yourself (name, age,
nationality, job, company/institution you work for, family, interests, etc) Student B is
someone who has never visited your country before. Tell him about yourself and ask
him/her questions about himself/herself. Also, recommend places to visit and things to do
during his/her visit to your country.

You are a tourist visiting student A’s country for the first time. Invent details about
yourself (name, age, nationality, job, company/institution you work for, family, interests,
reasons for visiting that country, etc). Tell student A about yourself and ask him/her
questions about himself/herself. Also, ask about places to visit and things to do, in his/her


◘ Hello, I’m…
◘ Hello, my name is…
◘ Hello, let me introduce myself. I’m …
◘ Hello, Paul (first name) Johnson (last name/surname)
◘ Hi, I’m…

◘ I’ve got an appointment with ... at (hour).
◘ I’m … from (company).
◘ I work for…
◘ I’m responsible for…/I’m in charge of…

◘ How do you do?
◘ It’s nice to meet you.
◘ I’m delighted/very pleased to meet you.
◘ I’m very pleased to be here.
◘ How are you?
◘ Hello.
◘ Hi. (N.B. very informal. Possible especially in American English!)
◘ Nice to meet you.
◘ Pleased to meet you.
◘ Pleased to be here.


◘ How do you do?
◘ It’s very nice to meet you too.
◘ It’s a pleasure having you here.
◘ Hello.
◘ Hi.
◘ Pleased to meet you too.
◘ Nice to have you with us.


◘ Mr Smith, I’d like you to meet/ may I introduce/ I’d like to introduce Jerome
Richter, a colleague from Switzerland/ our Finance Manager

◘ James, can I introduce/ this is/ I want you to meet Julian, a friend of mine. He is
here on business. / He’s with BBDO.

9. a. Interact with the following people and introduce yourself and other
people. Perform the usual five-minute ‘small talk’.


Jean – Marie Bordeaux Cegetel Groupe Sales Manager Formal business
S.A. context
Tom de Amsterdam Orange (Dutch Marketing Informal social context
Fontejne subsidiary) Director
Lluis Ruido Vigo Vodafone Head of Informal business
(Spanish Marketing context
subsidiary) Department
Heinrich Köln Vodafone Customer Rather formal business
Reitmann (German services context
subsidiary) Manager
Ali Őzcan Izmir Turkcell Vice president Rather formal social
Marketing context
Zsolt Szabo Budapest Westel Marketing Informal business
Director context
Paul Popescu Bucureşti Zapp Sales Manager Informal business
Mr Yamamoto Osaka SBC Head of Sales Formal business
Communications Department context

b. All these people above are to participate in an international meeting in
Brussels and there are 15 minutes left before its beginning. Participants are
socializing. Below there is a list of possible topics to be tackled. First, assess
whether they are probable, possible or unsuitable. Then, in groups, discuss on
the topics you found suitable.

◘ accommodation
◘ cultural matters
◘ details about one’s company (turnover, workforce, types of products)
◘ family
◘ personal hobbies and interests
◘ personal information
◘ politics
◘ previous trips to Brussels
◘ related social events
◘ religious beliefs
◘ sports
◘ superstitions and taboos
◘ the company’s winning strategies
◘ travel(s)

10. Turn the following dialogue into indirect speech. Remember to vary the
use of reporting verbs!
Good morning, Miss Shepherd!
Good morning to you all!
Glad to see you again! How are you?
Oh, I’m fine, thanks.
Have you arrived early this morning?
Yes, by plane from Lausanne.
Did you enjoy the flight?
Well, not really. The plane was delayed because of heavy rain and I felt quite insecure
when we were over the Alps.
Oh, I’m sorry to hear that. Were you there on business?
Yes, I was at a conference.



1. You are James Braines and you are trying to phone Jeremy Robertson who
works in a multinational company. Put the following conversation in the
logical order:

George Robertson: No, this is George Robertson in Sales. I think you’ve got the
wrong extension. I’ll try to transfer you back to the switchboard.

J.B.: Is this Jeremy Robertson?

J.B.: Yes. Can you put me through to extension 476, please?

J.B.: Hello, Jeremy, this is James Braines from HVB in Frankfurt. I tried to get hold
of you several times but it seems that it’s pretty difficult. Especially because your
switchboard operator put me through to the wrong extension and then I was cut off.
I’d like to speak with you, though, about the deal we have to close next Tuesday in
London. I’ll try to reach you later this morning or perhaps you could phone me in
Frankfurt on 00 49 58 432. Goodbye for now. Keep in touch.

J.B.: I’ll hold. … Oh no, I hate this answering machine… well, I’d better leave a

J.B.: Thanks. Hello… Hello… Oh no, I think I’ve been cut off. I’ll try again. (After
a couple of minutes) Hello, I’ve phoned a moment ago, but I got the wrong extension
and then I was cut off. I would like to speak to Mr Jeremy Robertson in the Financial

James Braines: Good morning. Could I speak to Jeremy Robertson in the

Financial Department?

Switchboard operator (S.O.): One moment, please. I’m afraid there’s no reply. Do
you want to hold or would you call back later?

S.O.: One moment, please. I’m putting you through… Sorry to keep you waiting.
The extension line is ringing for you.

Smb. in Sales Dpt.: Robertson speaking.

S.O: Good morning. Do you know the extension?

Voicemail: You’re through to the voicemail of Jeremy Robertson. I’m afraid I’m
not available right now but if you leave a message and a phone number I’ll return
your call as soon as possible.

2. Change the two conversations so that they become grammatically correct and
more polite.


A: Hi there. I want to speak to Elijah Spoon. Are you him?

B: No. Who are you?

A: Gilbert talking. If Elijah Spoon is there can I speak with him?

B: Give me a message ‘cause he won’t speak to you. He said he’s in a meeting.

A: OK. He must call me a.s.a.p (as soon as possible).

B: Fine by me. Consider it done. Bye.


A: Are you Paul Johnson?

B: The man himself but I’m busy.

A: Ben Stirling. I want to talk about your account.

B: Not now. Give me a ring some other time. I’ve got to hang up. Bye.

A: Sure. Bye. Are you still with me? Hello? He hang up.


3. Match the following terms and abbreviations with their corresponding


1. attach a. get rid of an unwanted e-mail

2. bcc b. send a copy to…

3. cc c. send a blind copy to… (the other people ignore you are sending
this copy)

4. delete d. send an answer to the person who sent an e-mail

5. forward e. send a document, e.g. a picture, with an e-mail

6. reply f. send an answer to the person who sent an e-mail and everyone
who received a copy of a it

7. reply to all g. send an e-mail you have received to someone else

4. Which of the operations above would you use in these situations?

a. You receive a reply from the Sales Manager and you intend to make the General
Manager see it.

b. You receive an e-mail from one of the major shareholders who also sent it to the
other members of the Board. You want to send them the same answer.

c. You received a number of e-mails from different advertising companies but you
don’t want them.

d. You have to send by e-mail a copy of a contract to your agent in Bristol.

e. You want to e-mail a business partner and you are sending a copy to your
colleague without informing the partner.

5. Re-write this e-mail and correct it, replacing the underlined expressions with
more appropriate ones.




Bob, Thanks for your proposals to increase sales during the shopping season. It would be interesting

if George Wilkinson from the Sales Department could see them, That is why I will send to him a
copy of your e-mail (1). In addition, you will receive with this e-mail (2) a Word document with our
observations. Inform me, if you want (3), if you can’t open or read the document coming along with
the e-mail (4). I’m delivering a copy of this e-mail (5) to Sarah Johnson, my secretary. If you
consider that the Board should be familiar with our observation before the meeting, feel free to re-
send my e-mail to them (6).

I’m looking forward to seeing you at the meeting,

Salutations (7) from John

6. Rewrite the following sentences using modal verbs:

1. It is necessary that you produce a valid identity card when you enter and leave the
2. It is vital that you arrive on time.
3. It is not that important when you take your lunch break, as long as it does not
exceed half an hour.
4. It is essential to wear protective clothing all the time you are on the premises.
5. It is forbidden to bring pets to work.
6. It is not necessary to buy a pair of protective glasses.
7. You are forbidden to disclose the content of the material to anyone.
8. Is it necessary for me to explain this again?

7. Identify and correct the errors in the following sentences:

1. I would of arrived on time if I hadn’t been stooped by the police.

2. What is the set of principals that guide your management philosophy?
3. I’m always annoyed when my secretary opens my personnel letters!
4. I wish he stopped eluding to his former position in the IT department!
5. He has fewer money since he has lost his job.
6. There are less unemployed woman in our town now.
7. The turnout is much larger this year then it was last year.
8. The project manager congratulated the team for her success in completing the
tasks assigned.

8. PROJECT WORK: You are the PA of a famous executive from your native
country. You are very efficient. Your boss gave you a last assignment before
going on holiday. Here is what you have to do:
1. Look for a wonderful holiday place where your boss could go for ten days with his

2. Make all the arrangements for the trip and accommodation, taking into account the
fact that the executive’s family contains two vegetarians and one disabled kid.

3. Provide a brief file with information about the place, the facilities it offers, the
people from the area and their customs and traditions.

9. a. Read the following text and fill in the blanks with the terms underlined
in the first paragraph:

Paragraph 1
When dealing in multicultural contexts, businesspeople must demonstrate cultural
awareness and sensitivity but also solid knowledge of three important issues
defined below – etiquette, manners and customs:

Paragraph 2

_____________ are appropriate patterns of social behaviour displayed daily by

members of a society. Those patterns are very much part of an individual’s
characters while ________________ are what society collectively expects its
members to do in given circumstances.

Paragraph 3

When we define business _______________, we refer to the way we present

ourselves in order to be taken seriously. It also means being comfortable around
people and making the others enjoy your presence. Understanding all this is
particularly important during business meetings and negotiations when parties
should be courteous and consider other people’s feelings.

Paragraph 4

Having this in view, international business activities should focus on being aware
of the host culture and adjust your behaviour according to its requirements.

b. After having read the text, answer the following questions:

1. What is the significant difference between business manners and customs?

2. What is business etiquette? Give a personal definition provided with examples.

3. Why business people must demonstrate cultural awareness and sensitivity? Try to
define this phrase relying both on the text and your knowledge.

10. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate prepositions and other connectors:

Whether you are doing business ____ (1) the telephone, _____ (2) e-mail, ____ (3)
lunch or _____ (4) a conference, you project an image that reflects your entire
corporation, and the wrong image and attitude can be costly. Technical skills and
knowledge account ______ (5) 15 percent of the reason you get a job, keep a job
and advance ______(6) a job. 85 percent of your job success is based ______ (7)
your ‘soft skills’ or people skills, according ______ (8) research conducted _____
(9) Harvard University, The Carnegie Foundation, and the Stanford Research

_______ (10) highly competitive markets where many companies offer similar
services and products ______ (11) similar costs, how you treat your customers may
be ______ (12) important to your company’s success ______ (13) the quality or
price of your product. When you possess good manners, it puts your clients and
customers _____ (14) ease and increases customer satisfaction.

11. In an article published in The Tampa Tribune, there are some suggestions for
social behaviour in business. Read the text and find the right subtitle for each

__________________ (1)

At social events, place your name tag on the right side of your chest so that the people
you meet will have a clear view of it when they shake your hand. Don’t stand around
waiting for introductions to be made. Introduce yourself. Offer your business or
calling card. Address both married and single women as ‘Ms’ /miz/ When you
introduce two people, name the person of higher standing first.

___________________ (2)

Shake the hand of a woman the same way you would shake the hand of a man. Avoid
the extremes – ‘bone-crushing’ shakes and ‘wimpy fingertip’ shakes.

___________________ (3)

If you’re a vegetarian, tell the server before you sit down so that special arrangements

can be made for you. Don’t blow on your soup. Don’t use a toothpick or put up
makeup at the table (do it in the restroom). Don’t answer pages or cell phone calls.
Turn your pager off, and leave your cell phone at home. Don’t ask for a doggie bag.
___________________ (4)

Pick up your clients at the airport personally. Carry their bags and open doors for
them. Assist them at the check-in desk. Stand by in the hotel lobby while your clients
examine their rooms. Do everything you can to make them feel comfortable and

___________________ (5)

Don’t light up unless your host or client does. If you don’t smoke and your client
does, say nothing. Suffer in silence.
Suggest a title for this article.


Durata (în ore de pregătire) 1

Total, din care: - instruire teoretică 30 minute
- instruire practică 30 minute
Obiectiv general: însușirea vocabularului specific domeniului Management în limba

1 2 3 4 5
Să asimileze - managerial Metoda - videoproiector Capacitatea de
vocabular, skills and comunicativă: - laptop a utiliza
structuri responsibilities; Prezentare - CD –player vocabular și
lingvistice interactivă - CD-uri și DVD- structuri
specifice și Conversație uri specifice . în
informații - management euristică limba engleză,
despre abilități functions and Exerciții despre abilități
și organization; individuale/ în și
responsabilități grupuri mici responsabilități
manageriale, - specific (4-6 studenți) manageriale,
funcții de language used Jocuri de rol funcții de
management management
in descriptions/
într-o într-o
organizație. analyses. organizație.

Să fie capabili Capacitatea de

să descrie și să a descrie și
analizeze în analiza în mod
mod fluent, în fluent, în
limba engleză, limba engleză,
în scris și oral, în scris și oral,
grafice și tabele. grafice și


 Butzphal, Gerlinde, Maier-Fairclough, Jane. Career Express Business English 2.
Cornelsen Verlag. Berlin, 2010.
 Capel, Will et al. Collins Business Vocabulary in Practice. (3rd ed.). Collins, 2012.
 Emmerson, Paul. Business English Handbook. Advanced. Macmillan, 2007.
 Emmerson, Paul. Business Vocabulary Builder. Macmillan, 2009.
 Handford, Michael Business Advantage. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
 *** Oxford Business Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2008.
 Walker, Caroline, Harvey, Paul. English for Business Studies in Higher Education.
Garnet Publishing, 2008.



MANAGEMENT is either the group of managers who together run a business or the
art of so doing. Effective management requires a number of particular abilities:
 to lead by example
 to give clear instructions when required
 to select competent people
 to know how to motivate people
 to delegate

Henri Fayol’s Definition:

To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and to

CONTROL - The management process of ensuring that actual activities match

planned activities. Performance must therefore be monitored and correction action
must be taken if necessary.

LEADERSHIP - is about coping with change. [...] setting a direction - developing a

vision of the future (often the distant future) along with strategies for producing the
changes needed to achieve that vision. [...] achieving a vision requires motivating and
inspiring - keeping people moving in the right direction, despite major obstacles to
change, by appealing to basic but often untapped human needs, values and emotions.
Kotter, J.P.

ORGANISING - Process of creating a structure of relationships between employees

by setting up departments and job descriptions.


 self-management
 global awareness
 teamwork
 networking

a. What do you think would be the main duty of the head of any organization?
b. Which is the role of management?

c. Is management training important? Why?
d. What qualities and skills would be the most important for a manager?

1. Are the following true or false?

a. Doing whatever needs to be done to achieve objectives is efficiency. (F)

b. Management is a term which should be used to refer only to individuals, not to a
discipline or a process.
c. Planning, organizing, staffing and coordinating are the key management functions.
d. Flexibility, efficiency, competitiveness and profitability are examples of an
organization’s objectives.
e. Delegation is giving another person the right to use part of one’s authority.
f. Staffing can be defined as the process of recruiting, selecting, training and
developing the organization’s people.

2. a. Fill in the text with words or group of words extracted from the box below.
competitive quality of increase managerial challenge
advantage management
longer term implement strategy bottom-line results demand and expectation

Training can be used to directly influence company results, through effecting a change
which has a fairly immediate impact. It can be used to indirectly influence results
through an improved overall (1)…………. Historically, much of the emphasis of
training has been on the latter. Nevertheless, there are authors that state the fact that a
new philosophy for management training should put more emphasis on the former;
that is, the directly influential uses of training. Reasons for this are many, not least
because it can be a most effective way of making things happen in the company.
Many of the deficiencies of planning can be corrected by this philosophy, which can
lead to the design of courses to develop strategy, to (2) , or to deal with a
major problem or opportunity.

The foundation of the philosophy is a belief that training can be used to achieve a
short to medium term objective, as well as the (3) aim of improved
managerial competence. For example, a training initiative may be the vehicle to
achieve results (4)….. , increase sales, implement a new strategy, or introduce
organizational change. If it is possible to do this, it is possible to use training in a very

pragmatic way to build (5)………., by adopting a philosophy which does not solely
rely on the theory that having well trained managers equates with a high level of
competence, and therefore, no corporate problems. The reality is that the particular
blend of consulting and training skill needed to construct such a training initiative is
likely to find application in all companies, regardless of the overall quality of

One of the best ways to (6) credibility in an organization is to produce a

significant number of training initiatives, which achieve measurable corporate results.
This is not an argument for using all resources in this direction. However, a
significant effort in measurable areas will make it easier to gain resources for the
individual development that is more long term in its results, and less easy to measure.
Furthermore, the argument can be made that a training focus on company objectives,
strategies and results will in fact alter the conclusions about the individual training
that is needed.

Almost all the responsibility for improving the competitive success of British
companies belongs to management. Underlying causes of past failures may have roots
in our cultural heritage, and managers cannot be held accountable for this. Nor can
they change the entire value system of the country. What they can do is bring about
changes in behavior (including ways of thinking about business) and in the attitudes
of employees.

Every business succeeds by satisfying the needs of its customers. Managers have
therefore to refresh continually their understanding of their customers’ requirements
and anticipate shifts in (7) .

One thing does, however, tend to remain constant. Customers want good quality and
low cost. So the (8) is to deliver products and services efficiently,
profitably and to high standards of quality so that the enterprise can prosper.

Of course, all competitive businesses must also seek to raise continually their
standards of customer satisfaction. The market-place continues to widen, and in many
sectors is already global, and the cost of entry to markets tends to decrease.
Businesses must respond by continuously improving themselves.

These simple, even obvious principles can be very difficult to put into practice, but in
Britain people started to learn from the experience of others, such as Germany and
Japan, by improving our managerial processes.

The most vital contributor to continuous improvement is the manager. All managers
have to ensure that their own education and training is sufficient for the business
challenges of both today and tomorrow. Relying solely on learning by experience on
the job will leave too much to chance. The successful manager of the future will
accept responsibility for his or her own development and the development of their
staff. Therefore, the manager should improve his/her personal performance and plan
for long-term success.

2. b. In the author’s opinion, which of the following things would managerial

training help to improve?

 personal performance

 staff development

 company wealth

 service efficiency

 product quality

3. Summarize the text considering the points below:

 management training and its influence
 British companies and their specificities in terms of management
4. Here are some successful managers and their winner’s strategies; note down
their key accomplishments and discuss them in pairs.



Michael O’Hara is the man who made air travel affordable for millions of
Europeans. When the industry deregulated five years ago, the 41-year-old Irishman
was the first to offer discount fares throughout Europe. That has made Ryanair
Holdings PLC Europe’s most profitable player. “We’ve taken the competition from
British Airways to Alitalia and to Lufthansa- and blown them away” says O’Hara.

In the past two years he has more than doubled passenger manifests, to 15 million,
and he plans to do it again by 2005.

O’Hara’s philosophy is simple “Our strategy is like the Wal-Mart: We pile it high
and sell it cheap”. That means using small airports where planes can get back in the
air in just 20 minutes. Free meals? Forget about it: Even a bottle of water sets
customers back $3.



Fujio Nakamura, President of Toyota Motor Corp., is known for his easygoing
personality. But don’t let his style fool you. Nakamura has set an ambitious course
for his company and is delivering. Despite a shrinking home –market and worries
about a slowdown in the U.S in 2003, Fujio, 65, has steered Toyota to record
profits. The world’s third largest auto maker (after General Motors Corp. and Ford
Motor Co.) posted a 90% jump in net profits, to $4.6 billion, in half a year. Sales
rose 15.%, to $65.7 billion.

Nakamura’s greatest legacy may be his commitment to making Toyota a truly

global carmaker. He’s expanding production in the U.S., moving into Eastern
Europe, and making a huge bet on China, where Toyota opened its first factory in
October 2001. All told, Toyota wants 15% of the world’s market up from a current
10%. To get there, Nakamura needs to nurture the Toyota culture of cost
containment and quality. That’s why he set up the Toyota’s Institute, an in house
executive education program. Nakamura even moonlights as a lecturer. A fitting
post for a master of international relations.



For years, Home Depot Inc. has been a Goliath of retailing, driving dozens of rival
hardware chains out of business. But Home Depot may finally have met its David
in the person of Richard L. Pillman, 59, head of fast-growing Lowe’s Cos. In his
six years as CEO2, Pillman has transformed the $22 billion Wilkesboro-based
chain. Lowe’s shares have climbed more than 80% over the past two years, while
Home Depot’s are down 40%.

Analysts credit Pillman, a college dropout, who joined Lowe’s in 1963 and rose up
as a store manager. His blueprint for success? While Home Depot has focused on
male customers, Pillman sized on research, showing that women initiate 80% of
home projects. He redesigned Lowe’s stores to give them a brighter appearance,
began stocking more appliances, and has focused on higher-margin goods-
everything from Laura Ashley paints to high-end bathroom fixtures. And like
another rural retailer, Mal-Mart Stores Inc., Lowe’s has one of the industry’s best
inventory systems. As a result, profits are on track to rise 37% in the fiscal year
ending in January, vs. 21% for Home Depot. That’s some slingshot.

CEO= Chief Executive Officer


Tom W.Johnson doesn’t like to follow the crowd. When he was a young
salesperson at IBM in the early 1970’s, he wore leisure suits and stylish big hair. “I
was determined I wasn’t going to be a slave to IBM fashion” he says.

Thirty years later, Johnson, now a 53-year-old CEO of security software company
Dymatec Corp., is more Brooks Brothers Than Saturday Night Fever. But he is still
his own man. While his competitors have hunkered down during the tech collapse,
Johnson has been buying up companies, including five in 2002 alone, all focused
on corporate computer security.

So far, it looks like Johnson is on to something. In Dymatec’s most recent quarter,

ended September 30, the company earned $52 million, quadruple the year before,
on revenues of $325 million, up 34%. “I firmly believe our strategy is beginning to
play out”, says Johnson.

Here’s the curious part, though: Dymatec’s revenue burst hasn’t come from
Johnson’s acquisitions. It’s due mostly to the company’s original business-
antivirus software. At a time when consumers have become more interested in
protecting their home computers, Johnson has improved retail-sales channels to
make it easier to find his products. Still, when corporations start spending on
software again, his business had better pay off.


5. In groups of four think of famous people in the field of business and describe
them using the table below. Then, report to the class. An example has been
written for you.

Name Company Is known His/her

as/for accomplishments/
Ex. Stephen Persson from H&M is known as the has turned his company
person who into Europe’s largest
clothing retailer

6. Identify the adjectives from the 4 texts above and put them into the table
below, according to their degree of comparison. Then, complete the empty spaces
with examples of your own. You can follow the same pattern for the adverbs in
the text.

Adj. in Adj. in Adj. in Adj. in Adj. in Adj. in

positive comparative comparative comparative superlative superlative
form of of equality of inferiority relative form absolute
superiority form form form

7. Complete the following sentences, using the words in italics to form new words
that fit the text.
a. increase
Their production………… by 15% last year.
b. profit
That has made their company Europe’s most …………player.
c. commit
His greatest legacy may be his………… to making Toyota a truly global carmaker.
d. retail
This company has been a Goliath of ………… driving many rival hardware chains
out of business.

8. Translate into Romanian:

Debt, Financial Chicanery and Bad Decisions

While trying to transform a French utility into a global media conglomerate, Jean-Marie-
Nessier rarely passed up a chance for self-promotion. Most French chief executives prefer
to lead discreet private lives; Nessier hung out with rock stars and moved his family into a
$17.5 million Park Avenue spread paid for by his company, Vivendi Universal. Now, less
than five months after his forced resignation, he has published a book, My True Diary,
that blames a cabal of French business leaders for plotting against him.

9. Using the model of description from the texts above and from your own
knowledge, choose a company (from your country or from abroad) and write
about its profile. Then, present it to the class. Don’t forget about: field of activity,
turnover, main partners, future plans, subsidiaries/branches, weaknesses,

10. The right man for the job

a. Match the following specific abilities with the basic management skill
each represents. The answers may be used more than once.
a. the ability to run a sophisticated machine
b. the ability to understand the organization’s role in a changing environment

c. the knowledge of accounting
d. the ability to communicate effectively with employees
e. the ability to manage a business’s budget
f. the leadership skills

1. administrative skills
2. conceptual skills
3. human relations skills
4. technical skills

11. Match the names and job descriptions with the relevant duties and

Names & Job Titles Duties & Responsibilities

1. Miss Cenci – Receptionist a). Answer enquiries; welcome visitors
2. Miss Lennox and Mr Java – b). Deal with customer service, run office
Computer operators operations
3. Mr Bright – Accountant c). Design promotion slogans and literature
4. Mr Duval – General Manager d). Meet clients; design the overall policy,
appoint lower staff, chair board meetings
e). Monitor cash flow; prepare regular
5. Mr Right – Clerk
financial statements

6. Mr Seaward – Personnel Manager f). Operate the computer, process data

g). Operate the computer; write e-mail
7. Mr Trent – Supervisor messages; welcome visitors; answer
8. Mrs Rowling and Miss Schmidt –
h). Prepare invoices; write reports
9. Mrs Smiley – Office Manager i). Recruit and select staff
10. Ms Best – Copywriter j). Supervise production

12. Describe the following positions using the adjectives from the table:

sales assistant
office manager


Active Diplomatic Methodical

Attentive Disciplined Realistic
Positive Energetic Sincere
Cooperative Extroverted Systematic
Creative Independent Tactful

13. Introduce the newly hired employees to your boss:

- This is our new secretary. Her name is Ms Townsend. She can operate a computer.
Her English is fluent. Earlier she was working for Rugby & Co.
- Nice to meet you
- This is our new Sales Manager. ….
- ……
- This is our new Accountant. ….
- ……
- This is our new Export Manager Assistant. ….
- ……
- This is our new Receptionist. ….
- ……
- This is our new PR Manager. ….
- ……
- This is our new Interpreter. ….
- ……
- This is our new Special Events Executive. ….
- ……
14. A. If you were the CEO of the following companies, how would you have
solved the problems that are mentioned below?
Company: Procter&Gamble
Problem: Constant restructuring and a product line that has expended in many
directions, without a definite focus.

Company: McDonald’s
Problem: Dirty bathrooms, slow service, decreasing sales
Company: Ford
Problem: Quality problems and a big push by the former CEO into other businesses
such as e-business, parts recycling and repair shops.
Company: GAP
Problem: Too many fashion misses, new store openings and low quality garments that
led to a three-year slump.

B. Check the Internet to find out who the CEOs of the above mentioned
companies are. Here are the solutions that they found. Match them with the
companies that they apply to.
a) Ford sold off those acquisitions and committed to rolling out new models of
b) Lafley cast off slow-selling products such as Jif peanut butter and Crisco oil. He
cut prices and focused on building his largest and best-known brands: Tide, Pampers,
Crest and Pringles.
c) Cut costs, focus on basic fashions, hire Miss Elliot and Madonna as pitchwomen.
d) Pay attention to small details, such as offering food with a smile. Possible sale of
partner chains such as Boston Maret, Chipote Mexican Grill and Donatos Pizzeria.

15. Read the following text and fill in the blanks with the words below:
applicants application candidates employers interviews
management qualifications recruiters references selection
The report also suggests that in Britain and in many other parts of the world, the
________ (1) methods used to identify the right person for the job certainly do not
match up to those used to evaluate a piece of new equipment. _________ (2) used
three main selection methods: interviewing, checking curriculum vitae or ________
(3) forms against predecided criteria, and examining references. Most of the recruiters
consulted in this survey stated that these selection methods were used more for
"weeding out" unsuitable _________ (4) rather than for finding suitable ones.

Most _______ (5) say that they wish to employ the right person for the right job. A
recent report by Britain's independent Institute of Manpower Studies, however,
disagrees with this. The report states that most employers wish to avoid employing the
wrong person. Rather than looking for the right person, they are looking for
_________(6) to turn down.
_________(7) were considered to be more reliable than either curriculum checks or
references from past employers. Research, however, proves otherwise. Interviewers'
decisions are often strongly influenced by their previous assessment of the written
application. Also, different recruiters interpret facts differently. One may consider
candidates who have frequently changed jobs as people with broad and useful
experience. Another will view such candidates as unreliable and unlikely to stay for
long in the new job.
The report is more favourable towards trainability tests and those which test
personality and personal and mental skills. The report concludes by suggesting that
interviewing could become more reliable if the questions were more structured and
focused on the needs of the employing organisation.
Some employers place great importance on academic ___________ (8) whereas the
link between this and success in _________ (9) is not necessarily strong. Some
recruiters use handwriting as a criterion. The report states that there is little evidence
to support the validity of the latter for assessing working ability. _________(10), also,
are sometimes unreliable as they are rarely critical, whereas checks on credit and
security records and applicants' political leanings are often the opposite.

16. Put the paragraphs of the text above in the right order. Provide a suitable
title for this article.

17. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Tense Simple or Present Perfect Simple,
as the case may be:

Last week we (open) a new subsidiary in the Balkans. It (take) us a long time but it
(be) worth it. The HR department (do) a good job, we hope, by hiring locals to work

as project managers. They already (work) in the field with British expatriates. Two of
my colleagues who are currently based there (complete) their MBA in International
Management 2 years ago and they (attend) language and culture training sessions over
the last 2 months. I (contact) the local suppliers yesterday and they (confirm) delivery
of the first shipment of raw materials. As you know, I (be) a little worried about the
cultural differences in the perception of time. Now, I think that the locals (change)
and we have enough reason to hope for a fruitful collaboration.

18. Look at the following prompts and use them to write a company profile:
 Field of activity
 Turnover
 Main partners
 Future plans
 Subsidiaries/branches
 Weaknesses
 Strengths


 Established in 1995
 A 100% Romanian company
 Energy service provider
 Employees: 10 people, 8 permanent staff
 Last year’s turnover: ROL 20 billion
 Joint investment: the Romanian American Express Entreprise Fund (RAEF) and
the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) 18 million Euros.

 The project: financing industrial companies in the private sector

 8 year’s experience in energy efficiency works
 Previous work on several refineries and thermal power plans.

19. a. Fill in the blanks with words from the box below:

assets debt interests owing owned

repayment revenues sale sell subsidiary


The __________ (1) follows the July 23 announcement that News Corporation and
Haim Saban had agreed to _________ (2) Fox Family Worldwide to Walt Disney
Company. News Comp., through its majority – owned ________ (3) Fox
Entertainment Group, and Haim Saban each _________ (4) 49.5% of Fox Family
Worldwide; Allen&Company Inc. owned the remaining 1%.

As part of the transaction, News Corporation received aggregate proceeds of

approximately $1.7 billion for its _________ (5) in Fox Family Worldwide, including
the _________ (6) of indebtedness ________ (7) to News Corporation. Disney
assumed or paid all other outstanding _________ (8) of Fox Family Worldwide.
News Corporation had total __________ (9) of approximately US$ 43 billion and
total annual _______ (10) of approximately US$ 14 billion.

b. Answer the following questions related to the text above:

1. Who has a majority interest in Fox Family Worldwide?

2. To whom did the Fox Company owe money?
3. What were the revenues of News Corporation at that moment?
4. What was the part of Disney Company in this transaction?

20. Find and correct the errors from the follow-up of the previous text. Rewrite
the text correctly.
new corporations diversificated global operations in united states, kanada, continental
europa, united kingdom, australy, latino america and the pacific bazin include the
production of motor picthures and televizion programing; television, satelyte and
cable brodcasting; the publication of newpapers, magazins and boocks; the production
and disstribution of prommotional and advertizing products and service; the
developpment of digital broadcasting; the development of conditional acces and
subscriber menegement sistems, and the creation and distribution of popular on-line

21. Fill in the blanks with the adjectives and the adverbs in the box below, at the
degree of comparison requested by the context:
enthusiastic, late, successful, good, bad, big, hard, last, far

Hello, George, it’s been ages since I … saw you.

Hello, Harry, … to see you. Indeed, we haven’t seen much of each other …
Are you still with Orange?
Yes, of course. The company is doing … and I have actually been promoted.
Oh, congratulations. I suppose you also have a … salary, right?
Yes, I got a 5% rise and a bonus!
Not ..., not … at all. Well then, you can call yourself a ... businessman, can’t you?
Pretty soon you could even run the Romanian branch!
Well, I wouldn’t go that …
Why not? I’m sure you would deserve it. If you still are … you were when I met you,
if you still work … than anyone in your team, I’m sure that you’ll soon be at the very

22. Work in pairs, considering the following cards:

Student A

You work in the Marketing Department of one of your local companies. You like
your job very much. As there is a vacancy in your department, try to persuade one of
your friends/ex-colleagues (who is out of work) that he/she should apply for it. Use as
many adjectives and adverbs as possible in your discourse.

Student B
Your friend/ex-colleague convinced you to apply for a job in the Marketing
Department of one of your local companies. Write your Application letter for it.

23. Choose an advertisement and write a cover letter/letter of application for it.

24. Match each activity from the left column with a department from the column
on the right. Then write a paragraph to describe the activity of at least three
1. Checking quality Legal

2. Selling goods Purchasing

3. Buying raw material Sales
4. Advising on legislation Accounting

5. Training Production
6. Delivering goods Human Resources
7. Keeping a record of payments Marketing
8. Researching the market Transport

25. Work in groups of three or four. Read each section. Discuss each point.
Think of three local companies or organizations and identify the organization
culture for each company. Use the following phrases:

Well, personally…

As I see it,…

I don’t know what you think but I …

I don’t know how you feel but I …

I believe this because…

My reason for saying this is…

In support of this, I’d like to add…

On the one hand, this is…, but on the other, …

What I mean is…

To my mind…

In my opinion…

I think that …

Since …, it seems to me that … .

I observed that … .

I am sorry to say that …

Classification of Organization Cultures

(Adapted from C. Handy)

1. PowerCultures

In these cultures self-reliant and highly competitive self-development provides the

basis of relations. A manager’s success is related to their charisma and influence,
rather than to their knowledge and experience. The style of the chief executive is the
model for other managers. In organizations of this type managers need to be tough
minded and aggressive.

2. Role cultures

In these cultures a manager’s role is completely related to the place within a

centralized system. Their success depends on how well they adhere to rules,
procedures, and precedents. Individualism and aggression are not valued in these
cultures. Employees in these organizations should not exceed the limits of their roles.

3. Task cultures
In these organizations they value everything that makes possible ‘to get the work
done’. The main concern in these organizations is with successful completion of their
projects. A manager’s success is related to their knowledge and experience required to
achieve tasks, rather than to meet the requirements of their role.

4. Individual cultures.
In organizations of this type freedom of expression is valued the most. Effectiveness
of any activity in these organizations is rated by how much the activity satisfies the
staff, rather than by how well it conforms to business plans. Independence, creativity,
and experiment are also valued in these organizations.

Using the information from the table below concerning discrimination at the
workplace, complete it, providing an appropriate management solution for each
case. The first one has been done for you.



"Ableism" The building does not cater for people The building and
with disabilities, a person in a facilities are
wheelchair cannot move around redesigned so that
everywhere. people with
disabilities can
access the whole
building and its

"Ageism" An 18-year old employee who joined

the company recently is excluded from
decision-making structures because
the more experienced managers
believe that she does not have the
necessary insight and experience to
provide input.

Classism The tearoom may only be used by

managers and engineers.
Administrative staff, technologists and
labour are not allowed in the tearoom.

Ethnocentrism A Zulu employee avoids contact with

a Venda employee because he believes
that Vendas are inferior.

Heterosexism Heterosexual employees make jokes
about a lesbian colleague.

Racism A black employee does not get the

same training opportunities as white

"Religionism" An important meeting is scheduled for

a Friday afternoon, when Muslim
members will not be able to attend due
to religious commitments.

Sexism A female employee’s application for a

senior position is rejected by an all-
male selection panel because they
believe that she can not handle
managerial stress due to the fact that
she is female.

Durata (în ore de pregătire) 5
Total, din care: - instruire teoretică 2 ore
- instruire practică 3 ore
Obiectiv general: însușirea vocabularului specific domeniului resurselor umane și
cunoașterea și redactarea de documente necesare angajării în limba engleză.

1 2 3 4 5
Să asimileze Human Metoda - videoproiector Capacitatea de a
vocabular, Resources: Job comunicativă: - laptop utiliza vocabular
structuri Advertisements; Prezentare - CD –player și structuri
lingvistice Writing interactivă - CD-uri și specifice în
specifice și Successful Job Conversație DVD-uri limba engleză,
informații Application euristică despre relațiile
despre relațiile Documents. Exerciții de muncă și
de muncă și In-Company
individuale/ în diversele
diversele Documents: the grupuri mici probleme cu
probleme cu Memorandum. (4-6 studenți) caracter social.
caracter social Employment Jocuri de rol
în limba and Wages. Capacitatea de a
engleză. Industrial
- redacta
Relations and
Să fie capabili necesare
Social Issues
să angajării în
- redacteze limba engleză;
documente - comunica
necesare eficient în
angajării , în contextul unui
limba interviu de
engleză; angajare, în
- comunice limba engleză.
eficient în
interviu de
angajare, în


 Ashley, A. Oxford Handbook of Commercial Correspondence. New Edition. Oxford
University Press, 2003.
 Ashley, A. Oxford Handbook of Commercial Correspondence. Workbook. New
Edition. Oxford University Press, 2003.

 Butzphal, Gerlinde, Maier-Fairclough, Jane. Career Express Business English 2.
Cornelsen Verlag. Berlin, 2010.
 Capel, Will et al. Collins Business Vocabulary in Practice. (3rd ed.). Collins, 2012.
 Downes, Colm. Cambridge English for Job Hunting. Cambridge University Press,
 Emmerson, Paul. Business English Handbook. Advanced. Macmillan, 2007.
 Emmerson, Paul. Business Vocabulary Builder. Macmillan, 2009.
 Handford, Michael Business Advantage. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
 *** Oxford Business Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2008.
 Walker, Caroline, Harvey, Paul. English for Business Studies in Higher Education.
Garnet Publishing, 2008.


1. Two candidates are being considered for the position of Senior Economic
Adviser. In groups, study the information from the memo and from the
candidates’ files and decide which of the two would make a better economic
adviser. Begin by making a portrait of the two candidates in your own words,
then, justify your choice.
TO: all members of the staff
FROM: Adam Smith, HR Officer
DATE: 21 May 2013
SUBJECT: Appointment of a Senior Economic Adviser

As you all know, Martin Parson will be retiring in a couple of months, which means we
will have to appoint someone else in the position of Senior Economic Adviser.

We have already advertised the post in the press, so that we could hold our interviews at
the end of June 2003.

Here is the content of the advertisement:

Western European Economist is a leading firm that provides advisory, financing, trading
investments and related services to business enterprises, governments and individuals.

The position The candidate

To contribute to the research in A high-calibre economist with experience
the Euro area, with a particular of analysing the Western European Economy
focus on policy related issues A team player
With strong written and spoken language
skills in English and at least one other
European language.
This challenging position offers substantial career prospects with one of the world’s
leading financial firms. An excellent salary and benefits package is available
commensurate with experience and qualifications.


Name: Andrea Jung
Addresss: 12 Hanover Square
London W 1S
Date of birth: 25.12.1970
Marital status: divorced
Dependants: a 2-year-old child
Nationality: British

Diploma in Finance- London School of Economics - 1990-1994

Work experience
Executive in Research & Development Department –
Royal England Sugar Corporation Limited 1997-2002
Assistant Financial Manager-
RTI-International Development Group 1994-1996

References available on request

Extract from psychologist report

Andrea Jung is quite an intelligent woman. She is very communicative and

hard-working; she is a good colleague and committed to her work. She had a
nervous breakdown in 1998 and received medical help.


Family name: Case
First name: Stephen
Age: 45
Marital status: married with two children
Address: 22 Golden Road
London H2D

MA in Finance from Oxford University 1978-1982

Work history

Financial Manager- Idea International Institute, London 1992-2002

Assistant Project Development Manager - Agroforestry Centre 1983-1992

References available on request

Extract from the psychologist report

Stephen Case has very good analytical skills and works well in research
activities. He is not very communicative-prefers to work individually and
usually sticks to his own ideas.

2. If you were to recommend one of the two candidates mentioned above, what
would you write in the recommendation? There are a few hints below, about
what one could/should write in such a letter.

June 10, 2012


Re: The position of Senior Economic Adviser

To whom it may concern

The purpose of this letter is to recommend Mrs/ Mr/ Ms…………… for the post of
Senior Economic Adviser in your company.

I have known…….as a colleague at ……….. for at least four years.

He/she is a highly perceptive person. She/he applied for the job, committed to
capitalizing on the opportunity of getting more experience in the Financial field and I
am sure he/she will get the satisfaction of having accomplished that goal.

…………is consistent from the professional point of view, dedicated and passionate,
enthusiastic, cheerful and a pleasure to work with. He/she has enough creative
energies and a kind of refreshing idealism that helps her/him accomplish what needs
to be done.

That is why I highly recommend him/her for the post of…….., knowing that he/she
will not disappoint, and probably will exceed our expectations

Yours faithfully,

3. Considering your own application for a job

a. You want to apply for the job advertised below. You may consider another
identity for this purpose, not necessarily your own.


Senior European Economist in Cologne

In the space provided write your application letter, insisting on your strengths.
To complete your file, also write your Curriculum Vitae and ask one of your
colleagues to write a recommendation for you.


Sender’s Address and Contact Details

Recipient’s Name and Address

15 May 2012

Dear Mr/Ms Last Name,

I am writing to apply for the job of Senior European Economist that you advertised
in the latest “Business Week” of (date).

You will see from my enclosed CV that I have a lot of experience and qualifications
in the field of Economics.

I have developed the following important skills all along my career:




I hope that the information I have offered will respond to your exigencies and will
constitute a basis for discussion if I am selected for the interview.

Yours sincerely,

b. With your complete file, prepare for the interview. Begin by trying to answer
the following questions. Work in pairs and think of some more questions and
their possible answers.

1. Tell us about yourself

2. Why did you leave your previous job?
3. Describe yourself in a couple of words
4. What are your strengths and your weaknesses?
5. What is more important for you, status or money? Why?
6. Where do you see yourself in five years from now on?

Work in groups of 4. Two of you will make the interviewing team and two will
apply for the job. Then, you may exchange roles. Here is the Assessment form
the interviewers should complete on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 being the poorest and 5
being the highest grade). The criteria are as follows:
CRITERION 1 (C1) = work experience and relevance for the post,
CRITERION 2 (C2) = communication and interpersonal skills
CRITERION 3 (C3)= reaction in a situation of crisis
CRITERION 4 (C4) = commitment to the job


Name of Results for Results for Results for Results for Total
candidate C1 C2 C3 C4 points




An inter-office memorandum—or memo for short—is an efficient way to

communicate information to people within an organization, while at the same time
providing a written record of your communication. It is less formal than a letter, and
it takes less time to create. A memo does not have a salutation (Dear__) or a formal
closing (Sincerely yours).

Memoranda (the plural for memorandum) may be sent through inter-office mail or
through email.


A memo has the following parts: (1) the heading, (2) the message or body, (3) the
reference initials, and (4) notations, if appropriate.

The heading includes the name of the person or persons to whom the memo is being
sent, the name of person(s) receiving a copy (if appropriate), the name of the sender,
the date, and the subject of the memo. Persons to whom a copy is being sent may,
alternatively, be indicated at the bottom of the memo after the reference initials.

The message, or body, of the memo should contain these key components of a
business letter: an opening that clarifies why the memo is being sent; details that are
needed for understanding or support of what is being presented or asked; and a
closing that makes clear what action is requested.

The person sending the memo should write his/her initials over or next to his/her
name in the ‘From’ part of the heading to document that it really came from him/her;
or, alternatively, the person may sign the memo at the bottom beneath the message.
Typed initials at the bottom of the page should be used to indicate who typed the
memo if that person is different from the person writing it.

If there is an attachment, it should be noted at the bottom of the page in the notations

1. You are the Head of the Customer Service Department. The Chief Executive
of your company has sent this memo to all the Heads of Department.
Date: 21.11. 20—
From: Alan Watson, CEO
To: All Heads of Department
Subject: New Incentive Scheme

I have decided to introduce a new incentive scheme to improve the atmosphere in our

At the end of each month, you will recommend two members of staff who have been
outstanding in these areas:
 Time-keeping
 Problem solving
 Appearance
 Team work

Each staff member will receive a bonus of £100.

It is the end of the month in a few days. Write a memo to Alan Watson and
recommend two staff members (one male and one female). Explain why you
think they should receive the bonus. Write about 100 words. As this is a memo,
don’t use Dear... or Yours...

2. You are the Personnel Manager at Hamp & Heath Ltd. and have been
approached by your IT Department to recruit a new member of staff. You have
received over 100 applications and have selected 10 candidates for interview.


Write a memo to Miss Kate Bush, the Manager of the IT Department informing her of
what you have done so far. Tell her you will shortly be writing to the candidates
inviting them for interview. Ask her to let you know when the interviews should take
place. Suggest the initial interviews take place in the Personnel Department and ask
how many people form her department will be attending so that you can arrange
rooms and anything else they may require. Now write the memo and add any
information you think necessary.

From: …………….(your name)
To: Miss Kate Bush
Subject: IT Department job interviews



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS: the dealings and relationships between the
management and the workforce over business, particularly one where trade unions
are present and collective bargaining is accepted, also known as labour or employee

WORKFORCE may be viewed as a percentage of the whole population, but can also
mean the total number of employees of a single company, corporation, etc. LABOUR
FORCE includes all persons who are employed, unemployed or seeking employment.

UNEMPLOYMENT is the existence of a section of the labour force able and willing
to work, but unable to find employment. It is measured as the percentage of the total
labour force out of work.

EMPLOYER: A person or firm having control over the employment of workers and
the payment of their wages.

EMPLOYEE: A person working in an industry or enterprise who is entitled to wages

for labour or services performed. People holding managerial positions are not

BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS: Term used to describe manual workers, i.e.

production and maintenance workers. In recent years, the percentage of blue-collar
workers in the labour force has declined considerably.

WHITE-COLLAR WORKERS: Term used to describe non-manual workers, e.g.

office, clerical, sales, supervisory, professional and technical workers.


a. What do you know about the working conditions in your country, in terms of:
- rate of unemployment
- staff promotion system
- decision-making
- relationship between men and women at work

- company organization model
b. What do you know about the working conditions in other countries? Follow the
same pattern as above.

c. How important is career/professional life for you? Explain your point.

There is always a tendency when thinking of employment to be engaged in the

search for the Holy Grail - that perfect model, which if successfully emulated
could resolve all of our economic and social ills.

1. Read about such a model, the Swedish one, and state if the following are true
or false.

a. Sweden is known for the success in maintaining full employment since the war.
b. Among the industrial nations, only Sweden and Japan sustained fast employment
growth, rising labor force participation and keeping high unemployment.
c. The Swedish model was articulated by two economists.
d. The Swedish model has three main objectives:
- to promote equality
- to sustain full employment or work for everyone who doesn’t want it
- to engender growing standards of living.

Sweden has been successful since the war, in maintaining full employment, and that is
why everyone is so interested in the country. However, there have always been strains
in the Swedish model, problems which came more securely into focus in the 1980’s.

Nevertheless, every country’s performance is relative and compared with the other
industrial countries, Sweden’s performance was rather good. Among the industrial
nations, only Sweden and Japan sustained fast employment growth, rising labour
force participation and low unemployment. Sweden has a greater proportion of its
adults in work than in any other country. Sweden’s inflation rate since 1973 has been
somewhat worse than average and its productivity growth has been as poor as in the
United States, but it is not obviously the case that Sweden’s good employment record
has been bought at the expense of making other economic problems significantly

Sweden is one of the few countries in the world where one can actually identify an
explicitly laid out model of economic and social policy. By comparison it would be
difficult to describe with any confidence the outline of a “British model”.

In Sweden, after the war, two economists articulated a model which became the focus
for discussion between the unions, employers and the Social Democratic Government
which has dominated post-war Swedish politics.

A model of economic and social policy can be defined in two ways. The first focuses
on the instruments of policy- the programmes or style of approach which are actually
used to implement a strategy. However, it is more important to focus initially on the
aims of the model- just what principles or objectives is the model trying to promote
and achieve? One can think of the Swedish model as traditionally having three
fundamental aims or objectives.

The three aims of the Swedish model have been to:

1. sustain full employment, or work for everyone who wants it,
2. promote equality and
3. engender growing standards of living.


2. Fill in the second part of the text about the Swedish model with words/groups
of words extracted from the box below. Then, look up into the dictionary and
write down their definitions.

balanced trade inflation policy

account deficit gross domestic product

Example: inflation = a persistent rise in the level of prices and wages throughout an

Traditionally, few people have argued against the last of those three aims. The only
objectives have been made by those advocates of green politics, who would rightly
argue that our traditional definitions of what constitutes growing living standards have

not allowed sufficient weight for such important aspects of the quality of life, as the
state of the environment, which are not readily included in such measures as the
(1)………... Equality has been a little more difficult to define. In theory, most people
believe in certain types of equality-equality before the law, for example, or equality of
voting rights.

It was believed that you could not sustain full employment in the long run in the face
of accelerating (2)……… or an unsustainable current (3)……., because such
problems would eventually force retrenchment. But achieving a stable inflation rate
and (4)………. were seen as means to an end, not ends in themselves.

What is remarkable is that these three aims of (5)…….. seem to have been accepted
by most of the actors in the Swedish political system, and by mainstream public
opinion. Certainly it has been hard to see any political party gaining power which was
prepared to jettison full employment as a fundamental goal. There has been less
consensus about equality, but far more willingness to talk about it as a legitimate goal
than in any other Western country.

Traditionally, the Swedes have not seen high social ambition and economic progress,
equality and efficiency, as necessarily in contradiction.

3. Go through the whole text again and note down the verbs in Present Perfect
Tense. Use the table below.

Use Examples

Resultative Perfect (the result of a past

event is still felt at the present time)

Continuative Perfect (the action/state

extends over a period lasting up to the
present moment)

The Perfect of Experience (when

something has happened once or more than
once within the speaker’s experience)

4. Change the following sentences from Present Perfect Positive to Present
Perfect Negative and then to Present Perfect Interrogative

a. Sweden has been successful since the war.

b. There have always been strains in the Swedish model.
c. The productivity growth in Sweden has been as poor as in the United States.
d. They have already delivered the merchandise.
e. Our team from the Marketing Department has always finished the projects on
f. The head of the Financial Department has already expressed his opinion on the


5.a. If you were to choose, which of the following kinds of companies would you
work for? Why?

 -transport
 -engineering
 -food processing
 -insurance
 -retailing
 -banking
 -airline
 -telecommunications
 -car manufacturing
 -chemicals
 -computers
 -electronics

b. What department in a car manufacturing company, from the ones listed

below, would you work for? Why?

Production Department

Financial Department

Research & Development (R&D) Department

6.a. Use the words below to draw an organizational chart. Compare it with your
colleagues’ and discuss about different possible models in your country and

Chairman Quality
Managing Director Financial Services
Production Manager Sales
Financial Manager Human Resources
Marketing Manager Packaging
Human Resources Manager Production
After –sales
Maintenance services

b. Which department or division:

- a. checks the quality
- b. advertises products
- c. organizes training courses
- d. recruits new staff
- e packs the products
- f. is responsible for after-sale problems
- g. sells the products
- h. pays the employees

Speak about the jobs of the other departments/divisions mentioned in the

diagram. Take your turns in groups of four.


7. Put the following paragraphs in the right order to form a text about careers
and find an appropriate title for each of them, from the ones listed below:

A better notion

Life styles influencing career perception

An attempt to define “career”

Paragraph 1

Most working lives do not fit these notions. Many of us have changed fields since
receiving our college degrees, and many will change fields several times more. Many
of us don’t want to make a long-term commitment to any employer.

Many of us do not even know if we have a calling. Is career a dead notion? Is all the
college talk about preparation for career obsolete and misleading? They say that two
life-styles are emerging in the wake of career death. Both styles are practical
responses of people in a working world where the traditional notion of career no
longer exists. One style is primarily self-directed and the other primarily community-
directed. There is also the term “wired life” for the first and “entrepreneurial life” for
the second. Unfortunately, these two terms evoke negative connotations. For example,
“wired” sounds like a shallow self-centered fad to some people; “entrepreneur”
suggests greedy, unscrupulous competitor to some.

Paragraph 2

Most of us are concerned about our careers. We want a career that helps to avoid
obsolescence, continually develops towards professional mastery, and retains our
value to customers and clients. But the traditional notion of career-a single job at one
firm held for most of one’s working life –is obsolete. How shall we attend to this

The good news: a better notion of career is emerging. Many professionals have
already found it extremely helpful. The bad news: few of our traditional educational
institutions are able to help. We must design our own ways to make our careers
prosperous and satisfying.

Paragraph 3

Our traditional understandings of “career” are captured well in standard dictionary

definitions. They include one or more of the following notions:

 The particular occupation for which one is trained:

 A general course of conduct in life or a calling in life, visible to others in one’s


 The general progression of one’s working or professional life;

 Time in a profession after receiving one’s last formal degree (BS3, BA, MA,
MS, or Ph.D.); and

 Doing the same thing over a long period of time.

8. In groups, read the text and table below, then go back to the Management
Chapter and analysing the profiles of the people presented there, namely:
Michael O’Hara, Nujio Nakamura, Richard Pillman, Tom Johnson, Jean-Marie
Nessier, Andrea Jung and Stephen Case, find the right place for them in the
ladder of competence table.


Let us examine how a person develops skill and recognition. About 30 years ago,
Hubert Dreyfus proposed a model that, although not originally intended for this
purpose, turns out to be very useful. He examined what capabilities a person must
have to be judged as an expert. He identified several levels of pre-expert
performance, including the beginner, the advanced beginner and the competent
person. He observed beginners and advanced beginners spend most of their time
choosing and applying rules, while experts respond to situations holistically, without
consciously following rules. He concluded that as a person advances in experience
and competence, he or she comes to rely less on rules and more on embodied actions
evoked by situations and their contexts. The expert relies almost completely on
embodied action. Dreyfus’s ladder of competence is summarized in the accompanying

BS= Bachelor of Science, BA= Bachelor of art, MS= Master of Science, MA= Master of Arts, Ph.D=
Doctor in Philosophy

Learning modes
Level Description
(% embodiment)

Just getting started in the domain.

Memorization, drill and simple
All action appears to be governed
practice. Demonstrations of
Novice by rules defining allowable moves
play. Practice in simple
(beginner) and strategies. Common situations
are unfamiliar and are described by
more rules

Recognizes common situations that

help in recalling which rules should Problem solving and practice
be exercised. Most action is with rules and strategies. Play

Advanced deliberate application of rules or in realistic situations with

beginner conscious recall of prior actions in supervision. Repeated practice
the familiar situations. Can perform with common situations.
simple actions for customers; needs (30%)
supervision for more complex tasks.

Advanced problem-solving,
Carries out standard actions without
coaching on problem-solving
causing breakdowns. Can fulfil
and projects. Extensive
standard promises to customers,
practice in both common and
satisfactorily, without supervision.
Professional exceptional situations.
Performs most standard actions
(competent) Apprenticeship to more
without conscious application of
advanced professionals and
rules. When faced with a new
teams. Membership in
situation, works out appropriate
professional networks.
actions, by application of rules.

Deals with complex situations Apprenticeship to experts.

effortlessly. Seldom thinks in terms Coaching. Putting self into
of rules and may have some wide range of situations.
difficulty telling others what rules Memberships and contribution

he or she works with. Appropriate to professional networks.
action appears to come from Teaches others (80%)
experience and intuition, and is
deliberately chosen, individual
performance is a benchmark for
others. Considerable experience and
practice across a wide range of
situations over years of work.

Consistently inspiring and excellent

performances. Appears to solve
difficult, complex problems
effortlessly. Enormous breadth and Apprenticeship to masters.
depth of knowledge. Acts Advanced coaching,
appropriately without thought or development of breadth, focus
Expert conscious choice of actions. on observing and adopting
Routinely forms and leads high- style of the teacher. Teaches
performance teams; admired by others. Years or decades of
others as a benchmark of team practice. (95%)
performance. Performance
standards are well beyond those of
most practitioners.

Capacity for long-range strategic

thinking and action. Sees historical
drifts and shifting clearings. Has
studied with many different teachers Learning continues by
and has developed own distinctive working with other masters or
Master style. Has produced innovation in teachers. Creates and leads
the standard practices of others, professional networks.
altered the course of history in the Teaches others (100%).
field, and knows how to do this
again. Teaches others to be experts
and masters.

Has attained high public standing
with almost mythical status as a
Same as for master with
master and performer. Achieves
Legend emphasis on public appearance
public standing only public figures
could attain. Work has widely
accepted impact.

Note: Percentages are suggestive, not quantitative.

8. Translate into Romanian

Persons living in self-directed style are driven by a quest for growth, autonomy, and
passionate expression of their creativity. They do not accept the notion of a lifelong
commitment or loyalty to a single employer. In fact, they see such a commitment as
an impediment. Instead, they move with their talents and inclinations, organizing their
working lives as a series of projects that call for their passion, develop their capacities
and extend their skills. They are engaged in the project, not the company. They
cultivate personal public identities and receive the recognition they need from
professional communities.

9. Which terms in the box are defined in the sentences below?

Labour Blue-collar workers Manpower Overtime Fringe benefits

Employees White-collar workers Personnel Commission Managers

1. … is one of the factors of production; people are one of the most valuable assets to
every enterprise.

2. People who are hired by others and get paid for their work are referred to as … .
3. Those who work manually or operate machines - … .
4. ... are people who perform various office jobs.
5. … are people working in a certain enterprise.
6. ….. – the number of people working or available to work on a specified industrial
task, or the work done by men without machines.
7. There can be various incentives for working … or on weekends.

8. Sales staff can get a … .
9. White-collar workers and …take their fixed basic salaries plus bonuses if the firm
has good results.
10. Highly qualified workers and top performers can enjoy various … … .

10. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense. Pay attention to the rules of
If Clause!
If we (find) a solution to increase workforce motivation, we (have) better results next
year. Maybe motivation (rise) if we (introduce) higher wages. But if we (manage) to
understand what the staff’s intrinsic motivation is this (help). I think if we (hold) a
presentation of the new management team’s objectives they (see) that we (be) really
interested in their needs and expectations. So, what if you, Charles, (take) care of this?

11. Read the article. Put the paragraphs in the right order. Provide an
appropriate title. Try to explain the underlined words and expressions.
Summarize the article in one paragraph:
The company wants the government to declare a state of crisis, opening the way for
state aid to pay workers 80% of normal wages. The 8,100 job cuts will start in

To tackle the crisis, Fiat has told trade unions that it plans to shed about a fifth of the
total workforce. A factory in Sicily is likely to be worst affected, though job cuts are
expected at most of Fiat's six major Italian plants. Displaced workers will lose their
jobs for at least a year.
Fiat is Italy's biggest manufacturing company. Its car making division is on course to
make a loss of a billion dollars this year, after a big slump in sales in the home Italian
Fiat will also step up the release of new car models and restructure its operations as
part of measures to tackle the crisis. But the company has discouraged speculation
that the American car maker General Motors is ready to take full control. GM already
owns a 20% stake in Fiat's car division, and has an option to buy the rest after January

12. What would you have done in the following situations? Answer on the
model below:
E.g. You are offered the opportunity to work in Alaska.
If I had been offered the opportunity to work in Alaska I would not have taken it
because it’s too cold over there.

1. Your boss insists that all clerical staff wear uniforms.

2. Your family complains that you spend too little time with them.
3. You should be working the night when your favourite football team plays an
important game.
4. The political situation in the country where you have just opened a subsidiary
is critical.
5. You cannot send a shipment to your clients because of bad weather.
6. Your bank has just increased interest rates.
7. You didn’t bring an interpreter, because you thought your prospective
Pakistani partners would speak English.
8. You discovered that a low-level manager had taken bribes.

13. Change the infinitives in brackets to the most suitable tense:

1.The manager (give) us another chance if we had insisted.
2. She (be) with this company for 10 years in August.
3. People (get) ill more easily nowadays because of stress.
4. She just (take) a BSc and she plans to study for an MBA.
5. Our new colleague (prepare) suggestions for the new project all week and he hasn’t
finished yet.
6. If he (arrive) late one more time, he will be fired.
7. While she (drive) to the new client’s house she saw a terrible accident.
8.When the job candidate (arrive), show him in.

9. He (study) in Spain for three years when he had to return home.

14. A. Give the synonyms for the following terms:

a) working extra hours - ……

b) dismissal - ……….
c) jobless - ……….
d) perks - ……….

e) personnel - ……….

B. Match the adjectives with the nouns:

social salary
local worker
unskilled hours
fixed branch
clerical security
working labour

C. Write a paragraph about the perfect employment structure using at least five
collocations from A and B.

15. PAIR WORK: Explain the following collocations of the term ‘job’. Discuss
with your partner about his/her work using the expressions below:
Job appraisal
Job description
Job interview
Job market
Job opportunity
Job performance
Job requirements
Job wage

16. Fill in the blanks with the following words and expressions referring to pay

a). basic salary b) benefits package/ compensation package (AmE - American


c). bonus d). commission e). fringe benefits

My name is Jean – François and I’m a salesperson in a real estate agency based in
Brest. I get paid a ______(1) every month and a percentage on what I sell, called
______ (2). In our company each employee has to sell a certain amount yearly and if I
manage to sell more than that, I also get a _____ (3). Working as a salesperson, I also
have a ________ (4): a company car, payments for my pension which constitute

17. PAIR WORK. You are at the Public Relations (PR) office and discuss the
following issues. (Student A asks questions and Student B replies). Add at least
two issues of your own:


 whether your covering letter and resume have been received

 about the deadline for application
 about the job selection process
 about the time and venue of the interview
 whether medical records are required
 whether they require letters of recommendation or other references
 about a person who could give you further information
 whether applicants need to have prior field experience

18. a. Four people talk about their jobs. Match the jobs (1-4) with the people (a-
d) and complete the texts with the correct form of the terms in brackets:

1. sales representative
2. Web designer
3. customs officer
4. office manager

a) My job involves ________ (talk) to people who are crossing the border.
Although it is quite _______ (demand) as it implies huge responsibility, I really enjoy
dealing with _______ (secure) issues. The most _______ (challenge) duty is that of
_________ (prevent) smuggling.
b) I love my job. I don’t have to leave for the office in the morning to start
working. In fact, I’m the very image of workaholic as I’m totally ______ (addict) to
my computer. It’s _______ (fascinate) and not at all ______ (bore).
c) I’m always on the run but I’m ______ (extreme) _______ (satisfy) with it
as I get to visit many places and get in touch with ________ (interest) people. I
couldn’t certainly cope with a routine job.
d) In order to run an office ______ (efficient), you need _______(organise)
skills. Sometimes, you have to work under stress but this makes you feel alive.

Briefly, it’s a very ________ (stimulate) job as an important issue is to gain the
respect of your colleagues.

b. Now decide which working schedule listed below would be appropriate for
each of the jobs mentioned above.

 Work in shifts

 Flexitime/flextime (Am. E.) system4

 Teleworking /telecommuting5

 ‘9 to 5’/ clock on and clock off at the same time every day.

A system in which employees can start and finish work at different times, provided that each of them
works a certain number of hours in a week or month.
The term derives from the verb to commute which means ‘to travel regularly by bus, train, car,
between one’s place of work and one’s town/city of residence’. Thus, to telecommute is to travel
virtually to one’s working place by means of a computer.



1. A. Match the following phrases (1-15) with their Romanian equivalents (a-o):
1. to be discharged without notice (neutral)
2. to be fired (informal, AmE)
3. to be given notice of dismissal
4. to be given the ax(e) (USA)
5. to be laid off (AmE)/to be made redundant (Br.E.)
6. to be offered early retirement
7. to be offered severance package/pay
8. to be sacked (informal, BrE)
9. to be terminated (formal)
10. to be unfairly dismissed
11. to call a strike
12. to cut the payroll
13. to go on a token strike
14. to go on strike
15. to resign
a) a declanşa grevă
b) a demisiona
c) a fi concediat fără preaviz
d) a fi concediat pe motive neîntemeiate
e) a fi dat afară (familiar, termen folosit în Marea Britanie)
f) a fi dat afară (familiar, termen folosit în S.U.A.)
g) a fi disponibilizat
h) a fi pensionat anticipat
i) a i se desface contractul de muncă
j) a intra în grevă
k) a intra în grevă de avertisment
l) a primi aviz de concediere
m) a primi plăţi compensatorii
n) a reduce efectivele/personalul
o) a se desfiinţa un post

B. Decide which consequences could apply in each of the situations below.
There are situations in which more than one term could be used. The first one
has been done for you:

Terry Unfort is a very diligent person. He does his job very well and is a good team
member. His only ‘enemy’ is his boss who is never satisfied with Terry’s work.
To be unfairly dismissed
1. Sid Shirker is a lazy person who is frequently late for work when
he does show up. He likes being among his fellow workers as his hobby is to watch
the others work..
2. P.Trimm, O. Sands, K. Crystal and ten other white-collar workers
ere employees of the Public Railways Corporation. The Government requires a
dramatic restructuring on the basis of Last In First Out (LIFO), in order to subsidize
the corporation’s activity.
3. Dale Blackwell has a very difficult time sat his present job. He
feels discriminated both by his boss and colleagues, as he is an African American. He
intends to leave the company.
4. The members of the Trade Union from B&R Plc. Are not satisfied
with the working conditions in the Production Division. In the collective bargaining
they were promised some benefits that they haven’t received.
5. Goldie Oldie, 50, is a secretary at Trirod Ltd. The company
confronts with serious problems and they have to cut the payroll.
6. Samar Razal is a customs officer and the authorities discovered that
he has taken bribe.
7. Dawnie Dew was assigned to hand in some projects but she didn’t
manage to do that on time so that a number of contracts were not concluded. Yet, she
is a capable person and she won’t lose her job.

8. Harry Drunkenson used to be a very appreciated British
salesperson. Lately he has developed a drinking problem that affects his work
9. Garry Longarm is a shop assistant in New York and was caught
stealing money from the till.
10. Hugh Pound works as a teller in a commercial bank. As a result of
the extensive spread of ATMs his job will no longer exist.

5. Read the text below about career styles. In most of the lines there is one extra
word that does not fit. Where this is the case, write that word at the end of
the line. The first example has been written for you.
Whether you practise a self-directed or community-directed career style (1)--------
you must to produce public value to attain your goals. This concern will (2) ---to-
move you over time to the higher levels of competence where you can (3)-------
provide even though more effectively for your commitment. You will, (4)-------
however, need to take charge of your own learning. The some universities (5)-------
are unlikely to help you because as they are not geared for teaching people (6) -------
how to perform at levels beyond entry-level professional. In planning your (7)-------
ongoing learning, nothing is never more important than finding good teachers (8)------

6. You work for the Personnel Department. Your boss asked you to write an
advertisement for the position of Senior Executive. Use the following excerpt
from the employment agreement to highlight the benefits of the position.


A. Holidays. Executive will be entitled to at least 20 paid holidays each calendar year.
Such holidays must be taken during the calendar year and cannot be carried forward
into the next year. Executive is not entitled to any personal holidays during the first
six months of employment.

B. Sick Leave. Executive shall be entitled to sick leave and emergency leave
according to the regular policies and procedures of Company. Additional sick leave or
emergency leave over and above paid leave provided by the Company, if any, shall be

Fringe benefits/perks

C. Medical and Group Life Insurance. Company agrees to include Executive in the
group medical and hospital plan of Company and provide group life insurance for

D. Company car. Company will provide to Executive the use of an automobile of

Executive's choice.

E. Expense Reimbursement. Executive shall be entitled to reimbursement for all

reasonable expenses, including travel and entertainment, incurred by Executive in the
performance of Executive's duties.


Fill in:
1. Department heads within a company’s division are ------ management.
a. supervisory
b. middle
c. top

2. First –line management is another name for---------management.

a. supervisory
b. middle
c. top
d. intermediate

3. Leading is:
a. matching the right people with the right jobs
b. directing, guiding and motivating employees
c. bringing together the physical, financial and human resources needed to achieve
the organization’s objectives
d. the same thing as management

4. It is easier to lead employees who:

a. are educated, trained and experienced
b. have a low need for independence
c. prefer not to accept responsibility
d. are untrained and inexperienced

5 .--------- skills are the least important management skills.

a. human relations
b. technical
c. conceptual
d. administrative

6. Organizations:
a. are made up of people

b. result from attempts to reach common goals, objectives and plans
c. must have order, discipline and control if they want to succeed
d. all of the above

7. The most important part of an organization is:

a. monetary resources
b. buildings and equipment
c. people
d. research and development

8. At the -----level of the organization chart, there is only one person.

a. top
b. middle
c. lower
d. supervisory

9. The lines connecting the individual boxes on an organization chart represent:

a. authority and responsibility
b. chain of command
c. communication channels
d. all of the above

10. A manager who delegates some authority :

a. continues to have overall authority
b. is not responsible for the actions of the person to whom the authority is delegated
c. should avoid delegating authority and responsibility at the same time
d. Lacks the authority to take back the delegated authority

11. The concentration of authority in the hands of higher managers who reserve the
decision-making authority to themselves is:
a. centralization
b. departmentation
c. decentralization
d. delegation

12. Division and sharing of authority in the hands of higher managers at lower levels
in the organization is:
a. centralization
b. departmentation
c. decentralization
d. delegation

13. All business firms are ---------in some type of production.

a. implied
b. involved
c. evolved

14. The production process converts economic inputs into useful---- that customers
need, want and are willing to ------for.
a. products/ sell
b. materials/enjoy
c. outputs/pay

15. Machines can be used to replace people when it is necessary to -----information in

large --------for quick, accurate use.
a. deposit/ wares
b. store/quantities
c. use/quantities
d. store/deposits

16. Determining what goods to produce, what materials and machines to use and
which system to use is called production--------.
a. planning
b. skills
c. –
d. department

17. --------------is ensuring that the product is produced with the highest possible
a. financial control
b. personnel control
c. production management
d. quality control

18. Promoting is moving an employee from a lower-level job to a ------one, usually

with higher-------- and added-------------.
a. higher-level/standards/money
b. different/level/salary
c. higher-level/salary/responsibilities

19. Which of the following is the personnel department generally not responsible for?
a. training and development
b. long-range personnel planning
c. wage and salary administration

20.--------is educating, training, or developing present employees to perform the same

job better.
a. upgrading
b. transferring
c. promoting
d. recruiting

21.---------is moving employees from less desirable or less rewarding jobs in the
company to others that better satisfy their needs.
a. upgrading
b. transferring
c. promoting
d. recruiting

22. Choosing the specific person from among other qualified applicants to fill a
vacant position is:
a. recruiting

b. personnel planning
c. selection
d. orientation

23. The most frequently used step in the selection process is:
a. completing the application form
b. preliminary interview
c. testing
d. physical examination

24. In general, -------------is responsible for providing potential employees with a

general education and--------is responsible for providing job training.
a. the company/ the school system
b. society/the individual
c. society/the company
d. the individual/society

25. Human relations, in general, involves getting ------- managers and others to want
to strive for organizational---------and objectives.
a. too/ goals
b. both/goals
c. all/skills

26. Company------and management communication are -----elements in the Japanese

management systems.
a. fame/two
b. loyalty/the
c. loyalty/key
d. owners/both

27. Unless a manager communicates effectively, good decisions and sound---------

will be doomed to --------.
a. planning/success
b. communication/success
c. planning/failure

28. Body language is conveyed by -----, facial expressions, --------of voice and --------
a. gestures/ tones/ fast
b. eyes/tones/body
c. gestures/pitch/body

29. Flextime is a motivation --------which allows workers to --------their own hours for
starting and stopping work.
a. schedule/conceive
b. scheme/do
c. concept/schedule

30. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a motivation theory -------on the concept of

progression of needs from ------- to more complex.
a. build/simple
b. based/complex
c. built/basic

31. Which of the following statements is not true regarding body language?
a. body language is conveyed by eyes, facial expressions and tones of voice
b. body language can change the meaning of other messages
c. body language does not provide feedback
d. body language conveys a message without formal language

32. Labor relations are ---------by and affect the total physical, -------, social,
technological, legal and political environment in which they occur.
a. made/ psychological
b. affected/ economic
c. affected/economical

33. The different paths that goods pass----- in moving from the producers to the -------
-are the channels of distribution.
a. by/people
b. through/economy
c. by/economy

d. through/customers

34. The present philosophy of international trade is that of------- to the participating
a. mutual benefit
b. mutual justice
c. justified benefit

35. Persons in a newly industrialized nation would be more--------to have a-------

standard of living than those in an industrial nation.
a. like/higher
b. likely/higher
c. entitled/lower
d. likely/lower

36. A multinational corporation is one that operates on a--------scale, with operations

a. national/one country
b. international/one country
c. international/many countries

37. International business relations today can best be described as being:

a. exploitation of undeveloped nations by industrial nations
b. of mutual benefit to the participating countries
c. exploitation of industrial nations by undeveloped nations
d. of declining importance to all involved

38. Language, customs, sociocultural factors and measuring system differences are---
a. artificial trade
b. natural trade
c. imposed trade
d. tariff

39. The generally accepted international language of business communication is:
a. French
b. German
c. Japanese
d. English

40. A career development strategy should contain--------completion dates and specific

criteria for-----------progress.
a. unrealistic/continuous
b. realistic/measuring
c. good/sound

41. Although future jobs will probably demand a different set of-------, the-----ones,
such as oral communication and working with people will still be important.
a. rules/first
b. skills/last
c. competencies/basic

42. A career strategy ------- consider one’s obligations to other people because they
help to----needs and develop a sense of -------.
a. should/satisfy/identity
b. might/satisfy/progress
c. must/cover/continuity

43.----------- influence the choice of career because the work one does affects the way
one-----about oneself.
a. firms/thinks
b. values/feels
c. transfers/thinks

44. Opportunity for--------, responsibility and opportunities for -------- are factors that
are important to people in ----------their job.
a. work/challenge/doing
b. promotion/working/satisfying

c. advancement/challenge/choosing

45. The abilities to make rational analyses, work with people, communicate orally and
in-----, and systematically---- are basic-------which will continue to be important in the
a. writing/plan/skills
a. English/work/capabilities
b. future/work/abilities

46. A training initiative may be the vehicle to -------bottom-line results,------sales,-----

---a new strategy or introduce----------change.
a. get/increase/introduce/organizational
b. achieve/increase/implement/organizational
c. obtain/grow/sustain/professional

47. One of the best ways to increase credibility in an organization is to produce a/an---
----number of training……….
a. big/strategies
b. important/ideas
c. significant/initiatives

48. Almost all the--------for improving the------success of British companies belongs

to management.
a. techniques/competitive
b. responsibility/growing
c. responsibility/competitive

49. The market-place continues to-----and in many sectors is already-----and the cost
of-------to markets tends to decrease.
a. grow/global/entry
b. decrease/small/entry
c. widen/global/entry

50. All managers have to-------that their own education and-----is sufficient for the
business challenges of both today and tomorrow.
a. think/professional skills

b. make sure/professional skills
c. ensure/training

51. Despite a------home-market and worries about a slowdown in the US in 2003, he

has------Toyota to record profits.
a. decreasing/brought
b. shrinking/steered
c. shrinking/brought

52. While his-------have hunkered down during the tech collapse, Johnson----buying
up companies, including five in 2002 alone, all focused on corporate computer
a. colleagues/stopped
b. competitors/stopped/
c. competitors/has been

53. These are the elements that a MEMO usually contains:

a. whom it is addressed to, whom it is to, subject, date
b. heading, salutation, date, whom it is to, whom it is from
c. heading, whom it is to, whom it is from, subject, date, signature

54. For big multinational-------this is the equivalent of going back to the days of the
individual store owner who knew and greeted each customer-------. The benefits are --
a. producers/every day/important
b. retailers/personally/potentially
c. buyers/now/potentially

55. A Curriculum Vitae should include:

a. name, address, telephone, date of birth, nationality, education, work experience,
qualifications, computer literacy, knowledge of foreign languages, interests,
b. name, address, marital status, date of birth, qualifications, age, training, education,
hobbies, references
c. name, address, marital status, date of birth, age, nationality, work experience,

56. An application/motivation letter
a. is a summary of the contents of the CV
b. contains highlights of the resume/CV, particularly of those aspects of your
background that relate to the specific job you are seeking
c. is a detailed description of your background

57. Choose the correct answer

A. Would you like------over for a meal, next Friday?
B. That’s very -----you, but-----I am busy on Friday.
a. to be/glad of/now
b. to come/nice of/unfortunately

58. We suggest you should buy that washing machine because we feel it is----value
for money.
a. worse
b. better
c. good
d. gooder

59. I am writing to----for the position of Editorial Assistant that you---- in the
Guardian on 8 May 2003, as I -----it offers the career----which I am-------.
a. ask/advertised/believe/challenge/looking for
b. application /advertised/think/challenge/seeking
c. apply/advertised/believe/challenge/seeking
d. apply/advertised/think/place/looking for.

60. What is meant by S.W.O.T.? A firm should be aware of its s------ and w----- and
the o-------- and t-------- it faces on the market.
a. strengths/worries/occasions/time
b. success/weaknesses/organization/time
c. success/worries/orientation/targets
d. strengths/weaknesses/opportunities/threats


1- b 29- d
2- a 30- a
3- b 31- d
4- a 32- c
1- d 33- b
2- d 34- b
3- c 35- d
4- a 36- b
5- d 37- c
6- a 38- a
7- a 39- b
8- c 40- c
9- b 41- a
10- c 42- a, b
11- b 43- b, c
12- a 44- c
13- d 45- a, c
14- c 46- b, c
15- b 47- a, b, c
16- a 48- c
17- b 49- a
18- c 50- b
19- a 51- a, b, c
20- c 52- c
21- b 53- a
22- c 54- b
23- d 55- a
24- b 56- b
25- c 57- b
26- c 58- c
27- c 59- a, c
28- b 60- d

Andrei, Luminița, O. Lupu, Simona Mitocaru. Business English Tests. Convorbiri
literare, Iași, 2006.
Andrei, Luminița, O. Lupu, Simona Mitocaru. Episodes in Business English. New
Edition. Sedcom Libris, Iași, 2005.
Ashley, A. Oxford Handbook of Commercial Correspondence. New Edition. Oxford
University Press, 2003.
Ashley, A. Oxford Handbook of Commercial Correspondence. Workbook. New
Edition. Oxford University Press, 2003.
Butzphal, Gerlinde, Maier-Fairclough, Jane. Career Express Business English 2.
Cornelsen Verlag. Berlin, 2010.
Capel, Will et al. Collins Business Vocabulary in Practice. (3rd ed.). Collins, 2012.
Downes, Colm. Cambridge English for Job Hunting. Cambridge University Press,
Emmerson, Paul. Business English Handbook. Advanced. Macmillan, 2007.
Emmerson, Paul. Business Vocabulary Builder. Macmillan, 2009.
Handford, Michael Business Advantage. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Oxford Business Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2008.
Taylor, Shirley. Model Business Letters, E-mails and Other Business Documents.
Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2003.
Walker, Caroline, Harvey, Paul. English for Business Studies in Higher Education.
Garnet Publishing, 2008




125 Palm Street
Rockford, IL 888
March 28, 2013

Mr. Paul Smith

2345 Maple Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94941

Dear Mr. Smith:

When I attended the INFOMATIC Trade Exhibit in New Orleans last month, I was
quite taken with your line of photocopiers.

Please send me a catalog and descriptive literature. I also need to know your prices.

I am looking into similar equipment that is manufactured by other companies and I would
like to make an informed decision. There is no need to send a representative to call on us
until I narrow the field from a comparison study of features and costs.

The information you will provide will be very helpful and highly appreciated.
I look forward to your prompt reply.


John Rogers


BCD Company
28 Broad Street
23 April 2013
Mrs. Jillian Anderson
2345 Maple Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94941

Dear Mrs Anderson,

Thank you for your request for information concerning our small quilting frame.

This quilting frame measures two by three feet and stands at a height that is
convenient to work on as you sit on a sofa or in an easy chair. It comes in easy-to-
assemble parts, together with clear, illustrated directions on assembly and use.
The frame costs $24.50 plus $4.50 handling and shipping charges, or a total of $29.00.
Payment can be made by check or money order, or call us with credit card
information. Since you do not live in Ontario, no state sales tax is required.

After having bought a quilting frame for their own house, hundreds of our frame
customers have recommended our frame to their friends. This kind of word-of-
mouth advertising is very satisfying to us and speaks well of the product.
We know you will be very happy with the increased convenience in quilting that our
frame provides.

We hope to receive your order as soon as possible.

Sincerely yours,

Jonathan Peters
National Service



22 Oxford Street
London 12 NW
Mr Thomas Brown
2345 Maple Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94941

15 May 2013

Dear Mr Brown,

Thank you for your letter of 10 May 2013 with your estimate of £ 5,000 for printing,
packing and delivering 250 copies of the large management manual according to the
specifications outlined in my 17 April letter.

I am pleased to place the order with you. Please use the copy of the manual we sent
to you for estimate purposes as camera-ready copy.

May I remind you that we must have these manuals delivered on or before the 8th of
June 2013.

Thank you for your continued splendid service.

Sincerely yours,

John Smith


SPENCER & SON Company, Inc.

22 Oxford Street
London 12 NW
Mr Thomas Brown
2345 Maple Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94941
25 June 2013

Dear Mr Brown

The shipment of 250 large management manuals that we ordered on 15 May 2013,
for delivery on 8 June 2013, did not arrive until 20 June. When they did arrive the
ink on the covers was still not dry, and therefore, the covers smudged when handled.
A sample is enclosed to show the appearance of the manual after a single day’s use
in our seminar.

This job is not at all satisfactory to us.

We request that you reprint the manuals at no cost to us, so we can replace those
That were distributed at the seminar. We expect this new printing to be here by
the end of the month.

Thank you for your cooperation on this matter.

Sincerely yours,

John Smith

876 Peachtree Lane
Manchester GA 3874

8 March 2003
John Brown, President
DARE Company, Inc.
22 Oxford Street
London 12 NW

Dear Mr Brown,

At the INFOMATIC Convention I heard that you are looking for sales representatives
as part of your growing position in the market.

For the past three years I have been the sales representative for HCM Incorporated.
I have tripled the number of accounts during that period and have increased the pound
volume of sales five times since I started in the territory.

Since I know the HCM product line thoroughly, I have often wished I had in my bag
some of the DARE line. With your programs, your support of your programs at the
customer level and your national promotion of your line, I could have more than
doubled the sales growth I did have. Now I hear there is a chance to sell your line
and participate in the growth in the industry’s leading innovator.

I would be pleased to visit your company during the last half of March to discuss this
possibility. I enjoy the company I am working with now and I have a wide range of
contacts here that could be very profitable for DARE. However, I do want you to
know that I am not wedded to working here.

May I call you next week to confirm a date?

I look forward to carrying this conversation on to the next step.

Yours sincerely,




RST Department Store

456 Lake Avenue
2MN Paris, TX

June 23, 2013

John Richardson, President

BROAD Company, Inc.
123 Main Street
London NW

Dear Mr. Richardson:

This is in response to your inquiry about John Smith, who has applied for the post
of comptroller in your company.

Mr. Smith worked for us from 1998 to 2003, rising to the position of head
bookkeeper. He started out as a bookkeeping clerk while he attended MIT part-time.
We found his work to be entirely satisfactory and were sorry to lose him when he
left to take a job in another company that afforded him a better opportunity. He was
quite reliable in fiscal matters. We would be pleased to have Mr. Smith back in
our staff.

Although I cannot comment on Mr. Smith’s capabilities on the larger management

matters you mentioned, since he did not have those responsibilities with us. I
remember him as an intelligent, quick, healthily ambitious person who was studying
to improve himself.

I hope that this will be of some help to you.


Kevin Leeson
Executive Vice President


24 Apple Tree Drive
Liverpool M21 4 PR
Tel: 0141 231 5656

A senior engineer with a wide range of experience in the food industry. Able to
work on own initiative and as part of a team. Proven leadership skills involving
managing, developing and motivating teams to achieve their objectives. First-class
analytical, design and problem –solving skills. Dedicated to maintaining high
quality standards.

2005 – 2008: BSc (Hons) in Biochemistry at the University of Leeds
2001 – 2005: 3A Levels: Maths (C), Biology (B), Chemistry (C).


Excellent French, conversational Spanish and German
Word, Excel, Corel.

Various courses including: Quality Approach, Team Leadership I&II, Time
Management, Report Writing.

2008 – present: Quality Technician at ABC Foods Limited, Liverpool
2006 – 2008 - Research Technician at Bios Products Limited, Liverpool
2005-2006 - Plant Operator at Bios Products Limited, Liverpool

Date of birth 18 March 1987
Marital Status: single
Driving licence: since 2005

Reading, mountain climbing, travelling

Available on requests




To: all staff

From: Personnel Manager
Date: 21 February 2013
Subject: Computer courses

I would like to let you know that the Computer courses will start on the 8th of March
and will last for two weeks, but in two series, in the following way:
1. The first series will be tailored for beginners and will start on the 8-th of March
and end on the 31-st of March, from 8 o’clock to 12 o’clock every day except
Saturdays and Sundays.

2. The second series will be tailored for intermediate –level learners and will start
on the 21-st of March and end on the 4th of April- with the same daily profile.

Please send me the names of all the persons interested in the courses from your
department until the 1st of March; there will be no more than 15 persons per series.

Thank you for your cooperation.