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## Inter First Years

Physics Chapter wise Important Questions designed by Srigayatri
VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

1. PHYSICAL WORLD
1. What are the fundamental forces in nature?
Ans. a) Gravitational force b) electromagnetic force
c) Strong Nuclear force d) Weak Nuclear force. These are the fundamental forces in nature.
2. What is the discovery of C.V.Raman?
Ans. C.V. Raman discovered Raman effect which deals with Inelastic scattering of light by
molecules, when they are excited to vibrational energy levels.

## 2. UNITS AND MEASUREMENT

3. Distinguish between accuracy and precision?
Ans. Accuracy: i) The closeness of the measured value to the true value of the quantity is called
accuracy.
ii) Smaller the value of error larger will be the accuracy
precision: i) The limit up to which a quantity can be measured with the given instrument is
called precision.
ii) Smaller the value of least count, larger the value of precision.
4. What are the different types of errors that can occur in a measurement?
Ans. The errors in measurement can be broadly classified as
i) Systematic errors ii) Random errors and iii) Gross errors
5. Distinguish between fundamental units and derived units?
Ans. Fundamental units: The units of fundamental quantities are called fundamental units.
eg: Kg, Meter, Sec etc....
Derived units: The units of derived quantities are called derived units.
eg: m/sec, m/sec2
6. What is dimensional analysis?
Ans. The technique of finding the correctness of the formula is called dimensional analysis.
7. Express unified atomic mass unit in Kg?
th
1
Ans. It is defined as   of mass of 6 C 12 atom. Its value is 1.667 ×10−27 kg .
 12 
8. What are significant figures and what do they represent when reporting the result of a
measurement?
Ans. Significant figures:
The digits of a number representing a measurement that are definitely known (reliable) plus
one more digit (added at the end) that is estimated are called significant figures.
Ex: If the length of an object is reported as 4.57 cm the significant digits are 4, 5 and 7 is uncertain
digit. But all the three are significant figures.

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## 3. MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE

9. The states of motion and rest are relative. Explain?
Ans. A body is said to be at rest if it does not change it’s position with respect to its surroundings with
passage of time.
A body is said to be in motion if it changes it’s position with resptect to its surroundings with
passage of time.
The driver of a moving bus is at rest with respect to a person sitting inside the bus and in
motion with respect to a person outside the bus. Therefore rest and motion are relative.
10. How is average velocity different from Instantaneous velocity?
Ans. Average velocity: The ratio between total displacement to the total time taken is called
Average velocity.
Total displacement x2 − x1 ∆x
A.V. = = =
Time taken t2 − t1 ∆t
Instantaneous Velocity: The velocity of the particle at any instant of time is called Instanta-
neous velocity.
dx ∆x dx
Instantaneous velocity V = (Q Lim
∆t → 0 ∆t
= )
dt dt
11. Give an example where the velocity of an object is zero but its acceleration is not zero?
Ans. At the highest point of a vertically projected body.
12. A vehicle travels half the distance L with speed v1 and the other half with speed v2.
What is the average speed ?
L L
+
total distance 2 2
Ans. < v >= =
total time t1 + t2

L 1 2v v
= = = 1 2
L/2 L/2 1 1 v1 + v2
+ +
v1 v2 2v1 2v2

4. MOTION IN PLANE
13. The vertical component of a vector is equal to its horizontal component. What is the
angle made by the vector with X-axis?
Ans. Vertical component (Ay)=horizontal component (Ax)
A sin θ = A cos θ
sin θ
= 1 ⇒ Tanθ = 1 ∴θ = 450 with x-axis
cos θ
14. A vector ‘V’ makes an angle θ with horizontal. The vector is rotated through an angle
ur
‘ α ’. Does this rotation change the vector V ?
Ans. Yes, it changes the vector (or) When the vector is rotated, components of the vector will
change but its magnitude does not change.

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15. Two forces of magnitude 3 units and 5 units act at 600 with each other. What is the magni-
tude of their resultant?
 2 2 
Ans. Magnitude of their resultant = 32 + 52 + 2.3.5cos 600 Q R = P + Q + 2 PQ cos θ 
 

1
= 9 + 25 + 2 ×15   = 49 = 7 untis
2
16. A = i + j what is the angle between the vector and X - axis?
Ans. Let ‘ θ ’ be angle made by the vector A with X - axis
Ax 1
⇒ cos θ = = ⇒ θ = 450 with X-axis
A 2
ur r r r ur r r r ur ur
17. If P = 2i + 4 j + 14k and Q = 4i + 4 j + 10k find the magnitude of P + Q
ur ur r r r r r r
Ans. ( ) (
P + Q = 2i + 4 j + 14k + 4i + 4 j + 10k)
ur ur r r r
P + Q = 6i + 8 j + 24k
ur ur
Magnitude of P + Q = 6 2 + 82 + 24 2 = 36 + 64 + 576 = 676 = 26 units.
18. What is the acceleration of a projectile at the top of its trajectory?
Ans. Acceleration due to gravity (g). Which is vertically downwards.
19. Can two vectors of unequal magnitude add up to give the zero vector? Can three
unequal vectors add up to give the zero vector?
Ans. 1) No. Two vectors of unequal magnitude cannot add up to give zero vector.
2) Yes, Three vectors of uequal magnitude can add up to give zero vector.

5. LAWS OF MOTION
20. What is inertia? What gives the measure of inertia?
Ans. The inability of a body to change its state of rest or state of motion by itself is known as
inertia. Mass is a measure of inertia.
21. When a bullet is fired from a gun, the gun gives a kick in the backward direction
explain?
Ans. A bullet fired from a gun in forward direction due to the action, A gun gives a kick back-
ward direction due to reaction.
22. Why does a heavy rifle not recoil as strongly as a light rifle using the same cartridges?
mu
Ans. Recoil of the gun V = ; Due to heavy mass of the rifle, recoil is less.
M
23. If a bomb at rest explodes into two pieces, the pieces must travel in opposite directions.
Explain?
Ans. According to the Law of conservation of momentum
MV = m1v1 + m2 v2

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Initially the bomb is at rest V=0
0 = m1v1 + m2 v2
m1v1 = −m2 v2
24. Define force. What are the basic forces in nature?
Ans. Force: The external agency which changes or tries to change the state of the body is known
as force.
The Basic forces in nature are
1. Gravitational force 2. Electromagnetic force
3. Nuclear force 4. Weak Nuclear force
25. Can the coefficient of friction be greater than one?
Ans. Yes, it can be greater than one. If the surfaces are heavily polished, due to increase in inter
molecular forces of attraction the friction increase and coefficient of friction can be greater
than one.
26. Why does the car with a flattened tyre stop sooner than the one which inflated tyres?
Ans. When a tyre is inflated (filled with air), it becomes hard and area of contact deereases. so
rolling friction decreases and car runs smoothly.
27. A horse has to pull harder during the start of the motion than later explain?
Ans. For starting motion of the cart. the limiting friction is to be over come. Once motion is set
the frictional force reduces there fore, the horse has to pull harder during starting of the cart.
28. What happens to the coefficient of friction if the weight of the body is doubled?
Ans. If the weight of the body is doubled, coefficient of friction does not change because it
depends on nature of surfaces in contact but not on weight.

## 6. WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

29. State the conditions under which a force does no work.
Ans. A force does no work when
(i) The displacement is zero (ii) The force is zero
(iii) The force and displacement are perpendicular.
30. Define Work, Power and Energy. State thier SI units.
Ans. Work: Work is said to be done by a force when a body undergoes displacement parallel to
the line of action of force.
Units: Joule or newton-meter
Power: The rate of doing work is called power.
SI unit of power is watt(w) or joule/sec.
Energy: Energy of a body is its capacity to do work.
SI unit of energy is joule (J)
31. State the relation between the kinetic energy and momentum of a body
p2
Ans. K= is the relation between kinetic energy and linear momentum
2m
Where ‘K’ is the kinetic energy ‘p’ is momentum of the body and ‘m’ is mass of the body.
32. State the sign of work done by a force in the following.
(a) work done by a man in lifting a bucket out of a well by means of rope tied to the
bucket.
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(b) work done by gravitational force in the above case.
Ans. (a) Positive (∴ the angle between lifting force and displacement of bucket is θ 0 )
(b) work done by gravitational force and displacement of the sliding body is < 900)
33. Which physical quantity remains constant
(i) in an elastic collision (ii) in an inelastic collision?
Ans. (i) Both momentum and kinetic energy remains constant.
(ii) Momentum remains constant.
34. A body freely falling from a certain height ‘h’, after striking a smooth floor rebounds
and h rises to a height h/2. What is the coefficient of restitution between the floor and
the body?
h
Ans. h1 = h and h2 =
2

h2 h/2 1
e= = =
h1 h 2

## 7. SYSTEM OF PARTICLES AND ROTATIONAL MOTION

35. Is it necessary that a mass should be present at the centre of mass of any stem?
Ans. it is not necessary for mass to be there at the centre of mass.
Example: Ring has a centre of a mass at its centre where there is no mass.
36. Why are spokes provided in a bicycle wheel?
Ans. By connecting the rim of wheel to the axle through the spokes the mass of the wheel gets
concentrated at its rim, this increases its moment of inertia. This ensures its uniform speed.
37. We cannot open or close the door by applying force at the hinges. Why?
Ans. When the force is applied at the hinges, the line of action of force passes through the axis of
rotation i.e, r = 0. So, we cannot open or close the door by pushing or pulling it at the
hinges.
38. By spinning eggs on a table top, how will you distinguish a hard boiled egg from a raw
egg?
Ans. A raw egg has some fluid in it and a hard boiled egg is solid from inside. Both eggs are
spinning on a table top, the fluid is thrown outwards. Therefore (Ir > Ib) that means moment
of inertia of raw of egg is greater than boiled egg. As I ω =constant
I r > I b so ωr < ωb that means angular velocity of raw egg is less than angular velocity of
boiled egg.
39. If the polar ice caps of the eartch were to melt, what would the effect of the length of
the day be?
Ans. Earth rotates about its polar axis when ice of polar caps of earth melts, mass concentrated
near the axis of rotation spreads out, Therefore, moment of inertia increases.

As no external torque acts. ∴ L = I ω = I =constant
T
with increase of I, T will increases i.e, length of the day will increase

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## 40. Why is it easier to balance a bicycle in motion?

Ans. When a bicycle is in motion, it is esy to balance because the principal of conservation of angular
momentum is involved.
41. Two rigid bodies have same moment of inertia about their axes of symmetry. Of the two,
which body will have greater kinetic energy?
L2
Ans. E= . The body with greater angular momentum will have greater kinetic energy.
2I
rr r r
42. What is the angle between the vectors if a.b = a × b ?
rr r r
Ans. a.b = ab cos θ a × b = ab sin θ
rr r r
a.b = a × b ⇒ cos θ = sin θ ⇒ θ = 450

1
43. If earth contracts suddenly to of its present radius, what would be the duration of
4
the day on earth?
2
2  2π  2  r  2π
Ans. I1ω1 = I 2ω2 ⇒  mr 2   = m 
5  T  5  4  T1
1
∴ T1 = day=1.5hr
16

8. OSCILLATIONS
44. Give the examples of periodic motion which are not oscillatary.
Ans. (1) Rotation of moon around earth (2) Motion of seconds hand in a watch.
45. The displacement in S.H.M is given by y = a sin ( 20t + 4 ) . What is the displacement

when t is increased by ?
ω

Ans. There is no change in displacement because is time period (T).
ω
46. A girl is swinging seated in a swing. What is the effect on the frequency of oscillation if
she stands?
 1 
Ans. When she stands, the effective length decreases. So the frequency increases  nα 
 l
47. The bob of a simple pendulum is a hollow sphere filled with water. How will the period
of oscillation change, if the water begins to drain out of the hollow sphere?
Ans. When water drains out, the effective length increases and time period increases. When the
bob is completely empty, the effective length decreases and reaches to original value. So
time period comes back to original value T α l ( )
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48. Will a pendulum clock gain or loose time, when taken to the top of a mountain?
Ans. When taken to top of mountain, the acceleration due to gravity decreases so time period increases
 1 
and pendulum clock looses time on mountain  T α 
 g 
49. What fraction of the total energy is K.E when the displacement is one half of a ampli-
tude of a particle executing S.H.M.
1 A
Ans. K.E. = mω 2 ( A2 − Y 2 ) is given Y =
2 2
1
T.E = mω 2 A2
2

1  A2 
mω 2  A2 − 
K .E 2  4  3
= =
T .E 1 4
mω 2 A2
2

9. GRAVITATION
50. State the units and dimensional formula of universal gravitational constant.
Ans. Dimensional formula of universal gravitational constant is M–1L3T–2 and its unit is N-m2/kg2.
51. State vector form of Newton’s law of gravitation.
Ans. The force of attraction of first body of mass ‘m1’ on second body of mass ‘m2’ in the direc-
Gm1m2
tion of position vector r12 in the vector form is F12 = r123
r12

52. As we go from one planet to another planet, how will (a) the mass and (b) weight of a
body changes.
Ans. The mass is constant but weight of a body first decreases and it becomes zero and again
increases.
53. Give the equation for the value of ‘g’ at a depth ‘d’ from the surface of the earth. What
is the value of ‘g’ at the centre of the earth?
1  d
Ans. Variation of g at a depth ‘d’ from the surface of earth is g = g 1 −  . The value of ‘g’ at
 R
the centre of the earth is zero since depth d=R
54. What are the factors that make ‘g’ the least at the equator and maximum at the poles?
Ans. Radius of the earth is more at the equator. Hence ‘g’ is less at the equator.
The poles are flattened. The value of ‘g’ is more at poles because of having less radius
1

R2
55. “Hydrogen is in abundance around the sun and less around the earth”. Explain.
Ans. The escape velocity of earth is less and its value is 11.2km/s. This value is less than r.m.s.
velocity of hydrogen gas. But the escape velocity of Sun is 620km/s. This value is highly
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greater than the r.m.s velocity of hydrogen gas. Hence hydrogen is abundance around the sun and
less around the earth.
56. What is the period of revolution of a geo stationary satellite? Does it rotate from west
to east or east to west.
Ans. The time period of geo stationary satellite is 24 hours. It revolves around the earth at a
constant speed once per day over the equator from west to east in a equatorial plane.
57. What are polar satellites?
Ans. The satellite that revolves a polar orbit is called polar satellite. There are low altitude (h =
500 km to 800 km) satellites and go around the poles of the earth in a north to south where
as earth rotates from east to west direction.
The time period of polar satellite is approximately 100 min.

## 10. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS

58. State Hookes Law of elasticity.
Ans. Hookes Law:- Within the elastic limit, stress is directly proportional to the strain.
Stress ∝ Strain
59. State the examples of nearly perfect elastic and plastic bodies.
Ans. Nearly perfect elastic body:- Quartz fibre.
Nearly perfect plastic body:- Putty; paraffin wax.
60. When water flows through a pipe which of the layers move fastest and slowest.
Ans. When water is flowing through a pipe, the layers flowing along the axis of the pipe are
fastest. The layers flowing near the walls of the pipe are slowest.

## 11. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

61. Define average pressure. Mention its units and dimensional formula. It is a scalar or a
vector?
F
Ans. Average pressure (pavg) is defined as the normal force per unit area. Pavg =
A
The S.I unit of pressure is N/m2 or pascal.
The dimensional formula of pressure is ML−1T −2 . Pressure is a scalar.
62. Define viscosity. what are it’s units and dimensions?
Ans. Viscosity is the property of fluids of which a backward drag or opposing force comes into
play. whenever there is a relative motion between different layers of the fluid (or) The
internal resistance of the fluid that obstructs the flow is called viscosity.
Ns dynes
Units of coefficient of viscosity = or
m2 cm 2
Dimensional formula =ML1T–1
63. What is magnus effect?
Ans. Dynamic lift: It is a force that acts on a body due to pressure difference caused by the
motion of the body through the fluid This dynamic lift due to spinning is called magnus
effect.

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64. Why are drops and bubbles spherical?
Ans. For a given volume the surface with least area will have minimum energy. Of all the shapes
sphere has minimum surface area. If gravity and other forces (air resistance) were ineffective, liquid
drops and bubbles would be spherical.
65. Give the expression for excess pressure in an air bubble inside the liquid?
2T
Ans. P= T-surface tension, r = radius of air bubble
r
66. Give the expression for the excess pressure of soap bubble in air.?
4T
Ans. P= T-surface tension, r = radius of air bubble
r
67. What are water proofing agents and water wetting agents? What do they do?
Ans. Water proofing agent is amaterial applied on the surface of solid to increase the angle of
contact with water wetting agent is a agent is a material, mixed with liquid, to decrease the
angle of contact with the given solid.
68. What is angle of contact?
Ans. Angle of contact is the angle between the tangent drawn at the point of contact of liquid
surface and solid surface with the solid surface measured inside the liquid. For pure water
θ = 00 for pure mercury θ = 1400 .

## 12. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER

69. Distinguish between heat and temperature.

Heat Temperature

## 1) Heat is form of energy 1) The degree of hotness (or) coldness

2) Heat is a cause of a body is called temperature
Ans. 3) Units:- joule 2) Temperature is effect
3) Units:- 0C, 0F, K.

70. What are the lower and upper fixing points in celsius and Fahrenheit scales?
Ans. In celsius scale of temperature lower fixed point is 00C and upper fixed is 1000C. In Fahren-
heit scale of temperature lower fixed point is 320F and upper fixed point is 2120F.
71. Do the values of coefficients of expansion differ, when the temperatures are measured
on centigrade scale (or) on Fahrenheit scale?
5
Ans. Yes, because ∆C = ∆F
9
72. Can a substance contract on heating? Give an example.
Ans. Yes, a substance contract on heating.
Example. Cast iron, Rubber, water when heated from 00C to 40C.
73. What is Latent het of fusion?
Ans. The amount of heat required to change 1kg of substance from solid state to liquid state is
called latent heat of fusion.

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74. What is Latent heat of vapourisation?
Ans. The amount of heat required to change 1kg of substance from liquid state to vapour state is
called Latent heat of vapourisation.
75. What is specific gas constant? Is it same for all gases?
Ans. i) Specific gas constant r is gas constant for unit mass which is called gas constant.
ii) NO.
76. Why utensils are coated black? Why the bottom of the utensils are made of copper?
Ans. Black surface is good absorber and good emitter. Copper is a good conductor of heat. So
copper is used at the bottom of cooking utensils.
77. State weins displacement law?
Ans. It states that the wave length ( λm ) corresponding to which energy emitted by a perfectly
black body is maximum is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature (T).
1 b
λm ∝ (or) λm = where b is wein’s constant.
T T
78. Ventilators are provided in rooms just below the roof. Why?
Ans. The air respirated out is hotter and hence lighter. As such it rises up in the room. So it finds
its way out of the room through the ventilators which are just provided just below the roof.
79. What is the thermal resistance of a conductor? On what factors does it depend?
Ans. It is defined as the ratio of the temperature difference between the ends of a conductor to the
heat current through it.
∆t l
Rth = =
H KA
It depends 1) length of the conductor 2) area of substance 3) material of the conductor.
80. Define emissive power and emissivity.
Ans. The energy radiated by the body per second per unit area of the body per unit range of wave
length is called “emisseive power”.
Emissivity: The ratio of a emissive power of a body to the emissive power of a perfectly
black body.
81. What is greenhouse effect? Expalin global warming.
Ans. Greenhouse effect:- When earth receives sun light, it gets heated up and emits infrared
radiation into air. CO2, CH4, N2O, O2 (greenhouse gases) present in the air absorbs the heat
content in infrared radiation and keeps the earth warm. This is called greenhouse effect.
Global warming:- As CO2 content increase, more heat is rerained in the atmosphere and the
temperatures all over the world increases. This is called global warming.
82. Define absorptive power of a body. What is the absorptive power of a perfectly black
body?
Ans. The ratio of amount of heat energy absorbed by the body to the amount of heat energy
incident of perfectly black body is one.
83. State Newton’s law of cooling.
Ans. The rate of cooling of a hot body is directly proportional to the mean excess temperature of
the body above the surroundings.
dθ  θ1 + θ 2 
∝ − θ0 
dt  2 
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84. State the conditions under which Newton’s law of colling is applicable.
Ans. 1) Loss of heat is negligible by conduction and only when it is due to convection.
2) Loss of heat occurs in a streamlined flow of air i.e forced convection.
3) Temperature of every part of the body is same.
85. Why gaps are left between rails on a railway track?
Ans. A gap should be left between two successive rails to allow for linear expansion of the rails
in summer.
86. Does a body radiate heat at 0 K? Does it radiate heat at 00C ?
Ans. i) A body does not radiate heat at 0 K.
ii) A body can radiate heat at 00C.

13. THERMODYNAMICS
87. Define thermal equilibrium?
Ans. Any state of system in which the termodynamic co-ordinates [P.V.T] remain unchanged is
called a state of thermal equilibrium.
zeroth law of thermodynamics:- If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third
system seperately, then they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. It leads to the
concept of temperature.
88. Define calorie. what is the relation between calorie and mechanical equivalent of heat?
Ans. Calorie:- the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of water
through 10C at atmospheric pressure is called calorie.
W = JQ Where J=Mechanical equivalent of heat.
89. What thermodynamic variables can be defined by (a) zeroth law (b) First law?
Ans. (a) zeroth law defines Temperature (b) First law defines internal energy.
90. Define specific heat capacity of the substance? On what factors does it depends?
Ans. Specific yeat capacity:- The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of
a substance through 10e.
1 dQ
∴ Specific heat S = It depends on (1) Nature of the substance (2) Temperature.
m dT
91. Define molar specific heat capacity.
Ans. Specific heat capacity per mole of the substance is called molar specific heat capacity (or)
The amount of heat required to raise the temprature of one mole of a substance is called
molar specific heat.
s 1 dQ
C= =
µ µ dT
92. For a solid, what is the total energy of an oscillator?
Ans. The internal energy of a solid is associated with kinetic energy and potential energyof
vibrating atoms about their mean positions.
93. Why does the brake drum of an automobile get heated up while moving down at
constant speed?
Ans. Because of increasing internal energy and internal pressure.
94. Can a room be cooled by leaving the door of an electrical refrigerator open?
Ans. No. Because it exhausts [gives] more heat into the room than it extracts [take] from room.
Since refrigerator is a heat engine that operates in back ward direction.
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95. A thermos flask containing a liquid is shaken vigorously, what happens to its tempera-
ture?
Ans. Temperature of the liquid increases. Because work is done is shaking the liquid
96. A sound wave is sent into a gas pipe. Does its internal energy change?
Ans. Yes, Propagation of sound wave is a quick process and temperature changes. Hence internal
energy also changes.
97. How much will be the internal energy change in
(i) isothermal process (ii) adiabatic process
Ans. (i) In isothermal exapnsion the internal energy remains constant ie.
dU = cv .dT = cv ( 0 ) = 0 ⇒ U=constant
(ii) In adiabatic expansion the internal energy decreases and is spent in work done.
ie, dQ = dU + dw ⇒ 0 = dU + dw ⇒ dW = − dU

## 14. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

98. Define mean free path.
Ans. The distance travelled by a gas molecule between two successive collisions is known as free
path.
Total distance travelled by a gas molecule between successive collisions
λ=
Total number of collisions
Let λ1 , λ2 , λ3 ....λn be the distance travelled by a gas molecule during n collisions respec-
tively, then the mean free path of a gas molecule is given by
λ1 + λ2 + λ3 + ...λn
λ=
n
99. Name two prominent phenomena which provide conclusive evidence of molecular
motion.
Ans. 1) Diffusion 2) Brownian motion.
are the two prominent phenomena which provide conclusive evidence of molecular motion
100. When does a real gas behave like an ideal gas.
Ans. At low pressure and high temperatures.
101. State Dalton’s law of partial pressure.
Ans. The total pressure exerted by a mixture of non-reacting gases occupying a vessel is equal to
the sum of the individual pressures which each gases exert if it alone occupied the same
volume at a given temperature.
For n gases P=P1+P2+P3+...Pn
where P=Pressure exerted by mixture and P1,P2,P3,...Pn=Partial pressure of component gases.
102. Explain the concept of degrees of freedom for molecules of a gas.
Ans. The total number of independent modes in which a system can possess energy is called the
degree of freedom (f).
1) Monoatomic gas: Molecules of monoatomic gas can move in any direction in space so it
can have three independent motions and hence 3 degrees of freedom (all transalational).
2) Diatomic gas: Molecules of diatomic gas have two rotational motion. Thus a diatomic
molecule has 5 degrees of freedom : 3 transalational and 3 rotational.

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103. What is the expression between pressure and kinetic energy of gas molecule.
Ans. If P is the pressure and E is the kinetic energy
1 2 1 2
P = ρC 2 = × ρC 2 = E
3 3 2 3
1
where E = ρ C 2 is the mean kinetic energy per unit volume of the gas.
2

## SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS
1. In a system of units, the unit of force is 100N, unit of length is 10m and the unit of time is 100s.
What is the unit of mass in this system?
2. A physical quantity X is related to four measureable quantities a,b,c and d as follows:
X = a2b3c5/2 d–2. The percentage error in the measurements of a,b,c and d are 1%, 2%, 3% and
4% respectively. What is the percentage error in X?
3. The velocity of a body is given by v = At2+Bt+C. If v and t are expressed in SI what are the units
of A,B and C?
MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
4. Can the equations of kinematics be used when the acceleration varies with time ? If not, what form
would these equations take ?
r 0
5. A particle moves in a straight line with uniform 90
ab acceleration. Its velocity at time t = 0 is v1 and at
v1 + v 2
time t = t is v 2 . The average velocity of the particle in this time interval is is this correct,
2
6. Derive kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated method using graphical method.
7. Can the velocity of an object be in a direction other than the direction of acceleration of the
object? If so, give an example.
MOTION IN A PLANE
8. State Parallelogram law of vectors. Derive an expression for the magnitude and direction of the
resultant vector.
9. Show that a boat must move at right angle with respect to river water in order to cross the river in
minimum time.
10. Define unit vector, null vector and position vector.
r r r r
11. If | a + b |=| a - b | prove that the angle between and is .
12. Show that the trajectory of an object thrown at certain angle with the horizontal is a parabola.
13. Explain the terms the average velocity and instantaneous velocity. When are they equal ?

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u 2 sin 2 θ u 2 sin 2θ
14. Show that the maximum height and range of a projectile are and respectively.
2g g
Whose the terms have their regular meanings.
15. Show that the maximum height reached by a projectile launched at an angle of 450 is one quarter
of its range.
LAWS OF MOTION
16. Define the terms momentum and impulse. State and explain the law of conservation of linear
momentum. Given examples ?
17. Why are shock absorbers used in motor cycles and cars ?
18. Explain the terms limiting friction, dynamic friction and rolling friction.
19. Explain advantages and disadvantage of friction.
20. Mention the methods used to decrease friction.
21. Sate the laws of rolling friction.
22. Why is pulling the lawn roller preferred to pushing it.
WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
23. Define scalar product write its properties and examples.

24. What is potential energy? Derive an expression for the gravitational potential energy?

25. Distinguish between conservative and non-conservative forces with one example each.
26. Show that in the case of one dimensional elastic collision, the velocity of approach before collision
is equal to the relative velocity of separation after collision.
27. Show that two equal masses undergo oblique elastic collision will move at right angles after
collision, if the second body initially at rest.
28. Derive an expression for the height attained by a freely falling body after ‘n’ number of rebounds
from the floor.
SYSTEM OF PARTICLES AND ROTATIONAL MOTION
29. Distinguish between centre of mass and centre of gravity.
30. Explain about the centre of earth moon system and its rotation around the sun.
31. Define vector product. Explain the properties of a vector product with two examples.
32. Define angular velocity. Derive v = r ω
33. State and prove parallel axis theorem.
34. State and prove perpendicular axis theorem.
35. State and prove the principle of conservation of angular momentum. Explain with examples.
OSCILLATIONS
36. Define simple harmonic motion? Give two examples.
37. Obtain an equation for the frequency of oscillation of spring of force constant k to which a mass m
is attached.

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38. Derive the expressions for displacement, velocity and acceleration of a particle executes S.H.M.
39. Derive expressions for the kinetic energy and partial energy of a simple harmonic oscillator.
GRAVITATION
40. State Keplers laws of planetary motion.
41. Derive the relation between acceleration due to gravity (g) and Gravitational constant (G).
42. What is orbital velocity? Obtain an expression for it .
43. What is escape velocity? Obtain an expression for it .
44. What is a Geostationary satellite ? state its uses
45. An object projected with a velocity greater than or equal to 11.2 km.s–1 will not return to earth.
Explain the reason.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS
46. Define modulus of elasticity, stress and Poission’s ratio.
47. Define young’s modulus, bulk modulus and shear modulus.
48. Define strain energy and derive the equation for the same.
49. Describe the behavior of a wire under gradually increasing load.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
50. What is venturimeter? Explain how it is used.
51. What is Reynold’s number? What is its significance.
52. Explain dynamic lift with examples.
53. State Pascal’s law and verify it with the help of an experiment.
54. Explain hydraulic list and hydraulic brakes.
55. Explain surface Tension and surface energy.
56. What is Torricelli’s law? Explain how the speed fo efflux is determined with an experiment.
THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
57. Explain Celsius and Fahrenheit scales of temperature. Obtain the relation between them.
58. Two identical rectangular strips one of copper and the other of steel are riveted together to form a
compound bar. What will happen on heating ?
59. Pendulum clocks generally go fast in winter and slow in summer. Why?
60. In what way the anomalous expansion of water is useful to aquatic animals ?
61. Explain conduction, Convection and radiation
62. Explain Stefan-Boltzmann law.
THERMODYNAMICS
63. State and explain first law of thermodynamics.
64. Define two principal specific heats of a gas. Which is greater and why?
65. Derive a relation between the two specific heats of a gas on the basis of First law of
thermodynamics ( CP – CV = R ).
66. Compare isothermal and adiabatic process.
67. Explain qualitatively the working of a heat engine.

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68. Obtain on expression for the work done by an ideal gas during isothermal change.
69. Obtain an expression for the work done by an ideal gas during adiabatic change and explain.
70. Write a short note on Quasi - Static process.
KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
71. Explain the kinetic interpretation of temperature.
72. Explain the concept of absolute Zero of temperature on the basis of kinetic theory.
73. Prove that the average kinetic energy of a mole unit of an ideal gas is directly temperature of a gas.
74. How specific heat capacity of mono atomic, diatomic and poly atomic gases can be explained on
the basis of Law of equaipartition of Energy ?

## LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS

1 a) State Newton’s second law of motion. Hence derive the equation of motion f=ma from it.
b) A body is moving along a circular path such that its speed is always remains constant should
there be a force active on the body.
2. Define angle of friction and angle of repose. Show depth angle of friction equal to angle of repose
for a rough inclined plane. A block of mass 4 kg is resting on a rough horizontally force of 10N
applied on it . Find the total contact force exerted by the plane on the block.
3. Develop the rotation of work and kinetic energy and show that it leads to work energy theorem.
4. Stat and prove law of conservation of energy in case of a−2freely falling body.
g = 10ms
5. State and prove parallel axes theorem. For a thin circular disc, the radius of gyration about a
diameter as axis is k. If the disc is at a diameter AB as shown in two pieces then find the radius of
gyration of each piece AB
6. State and prove perpendicular axes theorem. If a thin circular ring and a thin flat circular disk of
same mass have same moment of inertia about their respective diameters as axes then ratio of their
7. State and prove principal of conservation of Angular momentum. Explain the principal of
conservation of angular momentum with examples.
8. Define S.H.M. Show that the motion projection of a particle performing uniform circular motion on
any diameter is simple harmonic.
9. Show that the motion of a simple pendulum is simple harmonic and hence derive an equation. For
its time period. What is seconds pendulum.
10. Derive an expression for the variation of acceleration due to gravity ( a) above and (b) below the
surface of the earth.
11. State Newton’s universal law of Gravitation, explain how the value of the Gravitational constant
(G) can be determined by Cavendish method.
12. Define gravitational potenatial energy and derive an expression for it associated with two particles
of masses m1 and m2.
13. Define Hooke’s law of elasticity. Describe searles method to determine youngs modulus of the
material of the wire.

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14. State Bernoulli’s principle. From conservation of energy in a fluid flow through a tube, arrive at
Bernoulli’s equation. Give an application of Bernoulli’s theorem.
15. Define coefficient of viscosity. Explain Stoke’s law and explain the condition under which a rain
drop attains terminal velocity vt . Give Coefficient of viscosity.
16. State Boyle’s law and Charlie’s law. Derive ideal gas equation. Which of the two laws Is setter for
the purpose of thermometry why ?
17. Explain thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal conductivity. A copper bar of thermal
conductivity 40 kw/(mk) has one end at C and the other end at 240 C . The length of the bar
is 0.10 m and the cross-sectional area is 1.0 ×10−6 m 2 .(a) what is the rate of heat conduction P,
along the bar ?
18. State and explain Newton’s law of cooling state the conditions under which Newton’s law of
cooling is applicable. A body cools down from 600 c to 500 c 5minutes and to 400 c in another 8
minutes. Find the temp of the surroundings.
19. Explain reversible and irreversible process. Describe the working of carnot’s heat engine . Obtain
an expression for the efficiency.
20. State second law of thermodynamics. How is heat engine different from refrigerator.
21. Derive an expression for the pressure of an ideal gas in a container from Kinetic theory and hence
give kinetic Interpretation of Temperature.
1040

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