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Question bank – Heat and Mass Transfer

Part B

1. Identify the modes of heat transfer mentioned in the figure.


2. Identify the sequence of heat flow mechanisms from the combustion gases to the
surrounding atmosphere in an I.C. Engine.
3. State the Fourier’s law of heat conduction.
4. Define the term thermal conductivity.
5. Define the term thermal contact resistance.
6. List the factors affecting thermal contact resistance.
7. Identify any four applications of fins in Food processing industries.
8. Differentiate fin efficiency and fin effectiveness
9. State Newton’s law of cooling.
10. Define Reynold’s number and Nusselt number.
11. Distinguish between forced convection and free convection.
12. Illustrate the mechanism of Natural convection with an example.
13. List any four factors affecting the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection.
14. Define hydrodynamic entry length for flow through tubes.
15. Differentiate free convection and forced convection.
16.
17. Distinguish between black body and grey body.
18. State the Kirchoff’s law of radiation.
19. State Steffan Boltzmann law of radiation.
20. State Wein’s displacement law
21. Define the term shape factor.
22. Differentiate diffuse and specular radiation
23. Define the term absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity
24. Define the term emmisivity.
25. Classify the three types of heat exchangers based on the relative direction of fluid
flow.
26. Indicate the temperature distribution graph for condensers & evaporators.
27. State the importance of Number of Transfer Units (NTU).
28. List any four factors affecting the effectiveness of a heat exchanger.
29. State the Fick’s law of diffusion and give its expression.
30. Define the following: a) Mass concentration b) Molar concentration.
31. Define Schmidt number.
32. Recall the phenomena of equimolar counter diffusion.
33. Differentiate between diffusion mass transfer and convective mass transfer.

Part C

1. A wall of 0.6 m thickness having thermal conductivity of 1.2 W/m K is to be


insulated with a material having a thermal conductivity of 0.3 W/mK. The inner
and outer surface temperatures are 1000 °C and 100 °C. If the heat transfer rate is
1400 W/m2, Calculate the thickness of the insulation.
2. A hot steam pipe having an inside surface temperature of 230 °C has an inside
diameter of 8 cm and a wall thickness of 5.5 mm. It is covered with a 9 cm layer
of insulation having k=0.5 W/mK followed by a 4 cm layer of insulation having
k=0.2 W/mK. The outside temperature of insulation is 20 °C. Determine the heat
lost per meter length. Assume the thermal conductivity for pipe as 40 W/mK.
3. A cylinder of 1 m long and 5 cm in diameter is placed in an atmosphere at 45 °C.
It is provided with 10 longitudinal straight fins of material having k = 120 W/mK.
The height of 0.76 mm thick fins is 1.27 cm from the cylinder surface. The heat
transfer coefficient between cylinder and atmospheric air is 17 W/m2K. Calculate
the rate of heat transfer and the temperature at the end of fins if surface
temperature of cylinder is 150 °C.
4. A turbine blade 6 cm long and having a cross sectional area 4.65 cm2 and
perimeter 12 cm is made of stainless steel (k = 23.3 W/mK). The temperature at
the root is 500°C. The blade is exposed to a hot gas at 870 °C. The heat transfer
coefficient between the blade surface and gas is 442 W/m2K. Determine the
temperature distribution and rate of heat flow at the root of the blade. Assume the
tip of the blade is insulated.
5. Illustrate the hydrodynamic boundary layer development in flow over a flat plate
and flow through circular pipes with a sketch.
6. Engine oil at 80 °C flows over a flat surface at 40 °C for cooling purpose, at a
velocity of 2 m/s. The plate is 1m long and 1.5 m wide. Determine the
hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness and thermal boundary layer thickness at a
distance of 0.4 m from the leading edge. Also determine the local and average
values of friction and convection coefficients.
7. Air at 30 °C is flowing across a tube with a velocity of 25 m/s. The tube could be
either a square with a side of 5 cm or a circular cylinder of diameter 5 cm.
Compare the rate of heat transfer in each case if the tube surface temperature is
120 °C
8. A 6-m-long section of an 8-cm-diameter horizontal hot water pipe passes through
a large room whose temperature is 20 °C. If the outer Surface temperature of the
pipe is 70 °C, determine the rate of heat loss from the pipe by natural convection.
9. Water flows in a straight tube of 60 mm diameter at 12 m/s. The tube surface is
maintained at 70 °C and the flowing water is heated from 15 °C to 45 °C.
Calculate the heat transfer coefficient from the tube surface to the water, heat
transfer rate and length of the tube.
10. Find the shape factor F12 for the arrangement shown in
figure.

11. Calculate the following for an industrial furnace in the form of black body and
emitting radiation at 2500 °C: (a) Monochromatic emissive power at 1.2 μm (b)
Wavelength at which emission is maximum (c) Maximum emissive power.
12. Calculate the net radiant heat exchange per square meter area between two large
parallel plates at temperatures of 700 K and 300 K. The emissivities of the two
plates are 0.8 and 0.5. If a polished aluminium sheet of emissivity 0.4 is placed
between them, find the percentage reduction in heat transfer.
13. Two parallel plates 0.5 x 1.0 m are spaces 0.5 m apart. One plate is maintained at
1000 °C and the other at 500 °C. The emissivities of the plates are 0.2 and 0.5.
The plates are located in a very large room, the walls which are maintained at 27
°C . The plates exchange heat with each other and with the room, but only the
plate surfaces facing each other are to be considered in the analysis. Find the net
heat transfer to each plate and to the room.
14. A 2-shell passes and 4-tube passes heat exchanger is used to heat glycerin from 20
°C to 50 °C by hot water, which enters the thin-walled 2 cm diameter tubes at
80°C and leaves at 40°C. The total length of the tubes in the heat exchanger is 60
m. The convection heat transfer coefficient is 25 W/m2°C on the glycerin (shell)
side and 160 W/m2°C on the water (tube) side. Determine the rate of heat transfer
in the heat exchanger (i) Before any fouling occurs (ii) After fouling with a
fouling factor of 0.0006 m2°C/W occurs on the outer surfaces of the tubes.
15. In a double pipe counter-flow heat exchanger 10000 kg/h of an oil having a
specific heat of 2095 J/kg K is cooled from 80 ºC to 50 ºC by 8000 kg/h of water
entering 25 ºC. Determine Logarithmic mean temperature difference and Heat
exchanger area for an overall heat transfer coefficient of 300 W/m2K.
16. Water enters a cross flow heat exchanger (both fluids unmixed) at 5 °C and flows
at the rate of 4600 kg/h to cool 4000 kg/h of air that is initially at 40 °C. Assume
the overall heat transfer coefficient to be 150 W/m2K. For an exchanger area of 25
m2, Calculate (i) The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) (ii) Effectiveness of the
heat exchanger (iii) Rate of heat transfer (iv) The outlet temperature of the air and
water.
17. A 1-shell-2 tube pass steam condenser consists of 3000 brass tubes of 20mm
diameter. Cooling water enters the tubes at 20 °C with a mean flow rate of 3000
kg/s. The overall heat transfer coefficient is 6525 W/m2K. If the heat load of the
condenser is 2.3 x 108 W when the steam condenses at 50 °C, determine, The
outlet temperature of the cooling water, Effectiveness of the heat exchanger, The
tube length per pass using NTU method and Rate of condensation of steam if
hfg=2380 kJ/kg
18. The molecular weights of the 2 components A and B of a gas mixture are 24 and
28 respectively. The molecular weight of gas mixture is found to be 30. If the
mass concentration of the mixture is 1.2 kg/m3, determine the following i) density
of component A and B ii) molar fractions iii) mass fractions iv) total pressure if
the temperature of the mixture is 290 K
19. A mixture of O2 and N2 with their partial pressures in the ratio 0.21 to 0.79 in a
container at 30 °C. Calculate i) molar concentration ii) mass density iii) mole
fraction iv) mass fraction of each species for a total pressure of 1 bar
20. CO2 and air experience equimolar counter diffusion in a circular tube whose
length and diameter are 1.2 m and 60mm respectively. The system is at a total
pressure of 1 atm and a temperature of 273 K. The ends of the tube are connected
to large chambers in which the species concentrations are maintained at fixed
values. The partial pressure of CO2 at one end is 200 mm of Hg while at other end
is 90 mm of Hg. Estimate i) mass transfer rate of CO2 ii) mass transfer rate of air.
Take diffusion coefficient for CO2 - air combination is 11.89 x 10-6 m2/s.
21. Ammonia and air are in equimolar counter diffusion in a cylindrical tube of 3 mm
diameter and 15 meter length. The total pressure is 1 atmosphere and temperature
is 25°C. One end of the tube is connected to a large reservoir of ammonia and the
other end of the tube is open to the atmosphere. If the mass diffusivity of the
mixture is 0.25 x 10-4 m2/s, calculate i) mass rate of ammonia in kg/h. ii)mass rate
of air in kg/h.